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Wallace says, "If we consider the number of perspective problems attendant to painting on the curved and irregular surfaces of the vault, it is reasonable that Michelangelo entrusted some of the architectural painting to Aristotile, thereby fostering what became one of the latter's foremost talents" (327). Wallace also provides additional arguments regarding other assistants who stayed to help Michelangelo, as well.
Since there is presently no way to go back in history to actually see who did the work on the ceiling or what it actually looked like when completed, these questions about color and help from assistants will remain indefinitely. The questions that the critics raise, however, should be faced when considering restoration of other work in the future. Is it better to leave well enough alone, although with time the artwork will eventually wear away? Or is it better to restore the artwork with the fear that it…
Beck, James. The Final Layer: 'L'ultima mano' on Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling. Art Bulletin, LXX, 1988, 503.
Beck, James Art Restoration: The Culture, the Business, and the Scandal. New York W.W. Norton & Company, 1993
Harris, Judith. Debating a Vatican Cover Up. Art News (2010) 109.1, 1572-85
Hoeniger, Catherine. The controversy surrounding the cleaning and conservation of Michelangelo's frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. The Cambridge Companion to Raphael (Marcia Hall, Ed.), Philadelphia: Temple University, 1994.
Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel
This work has been and truly is a beacon of our art, and it has brought such benefit and enlightenment to the art of painting that it was sufficient to illuminate a world which for so many hundreds of years had remained in the state of darkness. And, to tell the truth, anyone who is a painter no longer needs to concern himself about seeing innovations and inventions, new ways of painting poses, clothing on figures, and various awe-inspiring details, for Michelangelo gave to this work all the perfection that can be given to such details. (Web Gallery of Art, 2012)
The Sistine Chapel is one of the most well-known works of art in the world. It was painted by Michelangelo Buonarroti. In Italian, its name is Cappella Sistina and in Latin its name is Sacellum Sixtinum. The paper will focus upon the chapel, but more specifically…
Art and the Bible. The Sistine Chapel. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.artbible.info/art/sistine-chapel.html . 2012 October 07.
Katz, Jamie. The Measure of Genius: Michelangelo's Sistene Chapel at 500. 2009, Smithsonian, Web, Available from: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/The-Measure-of-Genius-Michelangelos-Sistine-Chapel-at-500.html . 2012 October 07.
Michelangelo.com. The Sistine Chapel Ceiling. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.michelangelo.com/buon/bio-index2.html . 2012 October 07.
New World Encyclopedia. Sistine Chapel. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Sistine_Chapel . 2012 October 07.
Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel was a work of truly epic proportions that really defined the artist as an auteur. Today, a filmmaker for example is often described as an auteur (French for "author") if he is given or wields total control over the film from the visionary stages through to planning, production, shooting and editing: the work is considered the total product of his or her vision. Such recognized auteurs are rare and are considered not just as "authors" but also as authorities (the short list includes filmmakers like Terrence Malick, Paul Thomas Anderson, Christopher Nolan et al.). Their works are sprawling, complex, inventive, and original. Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel (both the ceiling and the Last Judgment painted on the altar wall) was truly one of the greatest works of epic proportions ever painted by a Renaissance artist ("Sistine Chapel Ceiling") -- a work that essentially set the bar for what it…
"Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel." Khan Academy. Web. 11 Feb 2017.
"Michelangelo's Painting of the Sistine Chapel Ceiling." Italian Renaissance. Web. 11
Feb 2017. http://www.italianrenaissance.org/a-closer-look-michelangelos-painting-of-the-sistine-chapel-ceiling/
Michelangelo and the Sistine Chapel
The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel was painted by Michelangelo between the years of 1508 and 1512. The chapel -- built in the 1470s for Pope Sixtus IV (the chapel's namesake) -- includes the works of many different Renaissance artists -- but it is Michelangelo's work on the ceiling that stands out above all the rest. Commissioned by Pope Julius II, Michelangelo's ceiling tells the story of the Old Testament -- the laying of the foundations of the world and the coming of Christ. The nine central panel scenes describe, for example, God separating the light from the darkness, the creation of Adam, and the exile from the Garden of Eden. The centrals are framed by a painted architectural framework that adds dimension onto dimension, and the images therein are of Old Testament prophets and pagan sibyls -- both of whom, according to the Roman…
Michelangelo’s Creation of Adam
The Creation of Adam (1512) as conceived and depicted by Michelangelo represents a significant moment in art history because it brings a humanistic style of expression and sense of realism to the art world that had not existed prior. The work is focused almost exclusively on the Body as a subject. The two figures—God the Father and Adam—represent the majesty of the human anatomy in its ideal form: muscular, flexible, unique, authentic, poised, admirable, beautiful and proportional. In the painting, God is mostly draped with a thin cloth; Adam is completely nude and his position (reclined with one knee propped up while he stretches backwards and reaches forward languidly) suggests one of royalty being wakened after a long slumber. Indeed, the idea that Adam is like royalty is one that Michelangelo infuses into the scene giving the painting its high-minded rapturous quality, which is much in…
Da Vinci and Michaelangelo
During the Renaissance, artists evolved many of the techniques which are now employed in creating works of art. There are many great artists who came out of this historical time period and while they have somewhat similar techniques and similar subject matters, they all have unique attributes as well. In this time, one of the biggest differences between artists of the Renaissance and ones that came before is the interest that artists had in the human body and the human form. Before this time, people were painted in a flat way, but Renaissance painters tried to make the people seem more realistic, which many were very successful in accomplishing this. Two of the artists in the Renaissance who are considered to be the best are Leonardo da Vinci and Michaelangelo. When looking at their most famous works, "The Mona Lisa" and "The Sistine Chapel Ceiling" respectively,…
The environment, has been a scientific argument since the Victorian Era. The nature vs. nurture and stability vs. change arguments remain quite controversial. In essence, it concerns the importance of an individual's innate qualities (their nature) versus the way they were raised, the interactions they have had, and their personal experiences (nurture). One asks, would we have had a Stalin had he remained in seminary, or not been part of a prison system that spurred ideas of communism, would Van Gogh or Tchaikovsky produced such masterpieces of art had they not had clinical depression and perhaps a host of psychological disorders - or, does history (a general term here for civilization and humanity), produce those individuals that are products of their time and environment, thus perpetuating the idea of change? (Ridley). Likely not, but the basis for their behavior is likely still part of their psyche. However, just because the…
Shortly after taking charge of the project, Michelangelo viewed Sangallo's wooden model of the planned basilica. He was accompanied by Sangallo's followers who, according to Vasari,
Putting the best face on the matter, came forward and said how glad they were that the work had been given to him and that the model was a meadow that would always afford inexhaustible pasture, to which Michelangelo replied that they spoke truly, meaning, as he afterwards told a friend, that it would serve for sheep and oxen who know nothing of art.
In fact, a good part of Michelangelo's work on St. Peter's consisted of removing what work had been accomplished by Sangallo. Sangallo's hemicycle was demolished, and Michelangelo shored up some of Bramante's rather high-speed construction, until -- again in the opinion of Vasari -- "the columns, bases, capitals, doors and windows, cornices and projections, were perfect in every detail."
Elam, Caroline. "Che Ultima Mano!": Tiberio Calcagni's Marginal Annotations to Condivi's 'Life of Michelangelo." Renaissance Quarterly 51.2 (1998): 475+.
Fischel, Oskar. Raphael. Trans. Bernard Rackham. Vol. 1. London: Kegan Paul, 1948.
Hibbard, Howard. Michelangelo. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harper & Row, 1985.
Januszczak, Waldemar. Sayonara, Michelangelo: The Sistine Chapel Restored and Repackaged. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1990.
The beauty of the human body is bought into derision by its wearing socks and the loss of hope for the earth is represented by the gas mask. Adam is no longer necked, his wardrobe consists of a mask and socks. An imaginary character is bringing him to life, while two cans of spray lay beside him. The central character in the episode of creation does not life too seriously since it did not even take the socks out. Adam's whole attitude is the very expression of carelessness and a certain degree of laziness. He leaves himself in the hands of a cartoon character to save him from destruction.
Five centuries later, the Creation episode of the istine Chapel becomes a motif for a pop artist who wants to present the world with the results of its foolishness and lack of better judgment. The capital of "western Christendom" was presented…
Sources, Critical Essays W.W. Norton & Company, 1995
Mickey Mouse and Disney Land. Retrieved: 27 May, 2009. Available at: http://madeinatlantis.com/popular_culture/features/mickeymouse.htm
Over&Out. Collapse and Closure. The Cautese National Stamp Reserve. Available at: http://www.cnpdonline.com/archive/CollapseAndClosure/19.html
Art Diminish in an Age of Mechanical eproduction?
Walter Benjamin believes that the aura of an original work of art diminishes in an age of mechanical reproduction because the work of art is decontextualized from its original context as a result of mass production. At first blush, Benjamin's argument seems very compelling. After all, few could argue that seeing a work of art in a majestic setting, like the Louvre, in and of itself a work of art provides an entire experience that simply cannot be captured in a reproduction tea-towel. However, what Benjamin's argument ignores is that people have rarely, if ever, been able to appreciate the context of an original work of art, anyway. Museums do not provide the context that the artist had when creating the artwork. Artists do not work in museums or art galleries. They work in locations, in studios, on the street. Furthermore, artists…
da Vinci, L., 1509. Mona Lisa. [Painting] (Louvre, Paris).
Michelangelo, 1508-1512. Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. [Painting] (Sistine Chapel, Vatican
Van Gogh, V., 1889. Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear. [Painting] (Courtauld Institute Galleries,
aphael is one of the most renowned artists in modern human history. He is so famous that he is one of a small number of artists that they are only known by one name. His full name is affaello Sanzio da Urbino. His precise birthdate is contended, but it is agreed that he was born sometime in the spring during 1483, as the 15th century, as well as the enaissance era, concluded. His life did not spans four decades, yet his body of work persists around the world nearly five centuries later. aphael, like other enaissance artists and professionals of the period, had proficiency in several skills; he is primarily known as a painter and architect. His life spanned the final stage of the enaissance, known as High enaissance. He came from an artistically inclined family, and suffered the deaths of both of his parents before…
Italian Renaissance Art.com. Raphael Biography. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.italian-renaissance-art.com/Raphael-Biography.html . 2012 October 12.
Raphael Sanzio.org. Raphael Biography. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.raphaelsanzio.org/ . 2012 October 12.
Totally History. Raphael Sanzio. 2012, Web, Available from: http://totallyhistory.com/raphael-sanzio/ . 2012 October 12.
Visual Arts Cork. Raphael. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/old-masters/raphael.htm . 2012 October 12.
" Initially, the painters were given the assignment to create sample frescoes which were to be evaluated. On the basis of the evaluation, they were to be employed or not. However, their talent was rapidly acknowledged and they were commissioned to continue the work without any other testing. The individual scenes constitute a whole because they comprise typological references to one another. They present Moses as prefiguring Christ. We must mention, however, that, only after Michelangelo's later work (1508-1512) did the Chapel become famous.
After the Medici's expulsion from Florence, otticelli felt the influence of a Dominican monk called Girolamo Savonarola. In Savonarola's point-of-view, everything that wasn't useful in the life of humans didn't deserve any attention. Therefore, he destroyed many works of art, in his "bonfire of vanities." ecause of this man, Sandro was deeply affected and his interior feelings were also reflected in his work.
As a review,…
Botticelli- Renaissance Master Artist, http://www.myrrhine.net/botticelli/biography.html
Sandro Botticelli, http://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/botticelli.html
Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance
Christian Artist: Michelangelo
Michelangelo’s David (1501-1504) is an example of a work of sculpture by an artist who confessed Christianity and in fact took great pleasure in reading Scripture as well as other religious writings, such as those of Savonarola, a famous reformer in Italy (Vasari, 1998). Michelangelo sculpted, painted and designed architectural works during the Renaissance in Europe. He was commissioned by the Pope to paint the Sistine Chapel Ceiling as well as the sanctuary wall of the chapel where The Last Judgment can be seen. Michelangelo also sculpted the Pieta—but in this paper, his David will be discussed. By analyzing Michelangelo’s David, which is considered one of the artist’s greatest masterpieces (Johnson, 2003), this paper will show how it reflects a Christian worldview considering the era in which it was created.
While Luther did not nail his 95 Theses to the church doors until 1517, some dozen years…
High enaissance Movement and Its Most Celebrated Artists
The enaissance is referred to as a period of time where there was a great cultural movement that began in Italy during the early 1300's. It spread into other countries such as England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain. This era continued into the late 1400's and ended during the 1600's. The enaissance times were a period of rebirth and during this time many artists studied the art of ancient Greece and ome. Their desire was to recapture the spirit of the Greek and oman cultures in their own artistic, literary, and philosophic works. The cultures of ancient Greece and ome are often called classical antiquity. The enaissance thus represented a rebirth of these cultures and is therefore also known as the revival of antiquity or the revival of learning.
The artists' works include many aspects of the medieval times and incorporated…
Leonardo da Vinci." Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 40. Gale Group, 2001. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2004. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC
Michelangelo Buonarroti." Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 43. Gale Group, 2002. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2004.
The painting is shocking because of its dramatic perspective. First and foremost the table is not situated in the centre of the painting, nor is Jesus. In a symbolical manner this transmits the idea that God is no longer in the centre of man's world and this accounts for the chaos that seems to be omnipresent. The lower side of the painting is dominated by human figures and an atmosphere of panic and confusion seems to be dominating. The upper side of the painting is filled with angels. There is a clear separation lien between the scared world of the divine and the one of the people. The dark colours, as well as the composition succeeded into transmitting the desired message, managing to appeal to the viewer's emotions.
As opposed to the simplicity that the Protestants supported, a new style emerges, that is the aroque. This new artistic…
Feast in the house of Levi. http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/martin/art_law/feast_in_the_house_of_levi.htm (Accessed November 19, 2008)
Friedlaender, Walter, the anti-mannerist style. http://witcombe.sbc.edu/art-theory-baroque-Fall-2008/style3.html (Accessed November 18, 2008)
Mannerism. Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mannerism (Accessed November 19, 2008)
Nosotro, Rit. Art of the reformation and the counter reformation. Hyperhistory. http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp/cw20reformationart.htm (Accessed November 19, 2008)
Art During Renaissance
The Evolution of Art During the Renaissance
The Renaissance period is defined as a cultural movement that spanned approximately from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe (rotton 2006, p. 6). This period in the history of art included the painting, decorative arts and sculpture of the period and for many was considered a reawakening or rebirth of historic and ancient traditions based on the classical antiquity and the inclusion of more recent developments by applications of contemporary scientific knowledge.
The Renaissance was seen as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the modern era. The period also marked a cognitive shift from religious perspectives to a more intellectual and social focus. Classical texts previously lost to European scholars became readily available and included science, drama, poetry, prose, philosophy, and new considerations…
Acidini, Luchinat Cristina. The Medici, Michelangelo, & the Art of Late Renaissance Florence. New Haven: Yale UP in Association with the Detroit Institute of Arts, 2002. Print.
Adams, Laurie. Italian Renaissance Art. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2001. Print.
Barter, James. Artists of the Renaissance. San Diego, CA: Lucent, 1999. Print.
Bartlett, Kenneth. The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance. Toronto D.C.
Beginning with the major arch of the Stanze that frames the entire piece, there recedes a series of concentric circles that focus down to the archway that frames the two central figures. This can be seen as a nearly literal rippling effect of the wisdom of these two great thinkers off into space, and into the mind of the viewer. Working from largest to smallest, we can see that the pattern is ultimately infinite since it ends with the focal point discussed in the previous paragraph. This seems to reflect the philosophy that the more focused a philosophy comes, and the finite the topics, the closer it gets to circling back again into the infinite.
The integration of a dialectic of ideas is achieved through an intricate working of visual lines. The strong diagonals of the heads of the two statues and the heads of the two major figures creates…
Many people today still have trouble interpreting and understanding some of his works, thus proving that his thinking was way ahead of his time. Da Vinci's works are probably among the most parodied ideas that have ever existed, as a series of individuals reproduced them and introduced diverse concepts in an attempt to put across certain messages.
Michelangelo Buonarroti is yet another Florentine who changed the world as a result of his brilliance. Although people tend to consider that da Vinci was much more impressive because of his lavishness and because his works are more extravagant, Michelangelo is actually comparable to him when considered the wide range of fields in which he excelled. In contrast to other artists contemporary to him, he experienced much suffering and he was forced to perform many of works without actually having time to appreciate life to the fullest. Even with this, he focused on…
Renaissance was beginning to influence Italian painters in adapting their style in order for it to fit the needs of a more advanced world. Fra Angelico is recognized as one of the great early Italian painters from the Renaissance. In his work of decorating the Dominican Monastery of San Marco, he mastered a painting style that was reported to have been partly inspired from Masaccio, with his paintings expressing motion and being filled with linear perspective meant to suggest depth of space.
It had been a common thing for the wealthy and most important families of Florence to hire talented painters to paint for them. Sandro Botticelli had been just one of the many Renaissance painters to paint for the Medici family. Even if Botticelli had spent a large part of his time working for great families, he still found time to perform additional paintings such as the one in…
1. Cole, Bruce. (1987). "Italian Art, 1250-1550: The Relation of Renaissance Art to Life and Society." Harper & Row.
2. Sohm, Philip. "Gendered Style in Italian Art Criticism from Michelangelo to Malvasia." Renaissance Quarterly, Vol. 48, 1995.
Sohm, Philip. "Gendered Style in Italian Art Criticism from Michelangelo to Malvasia." Renaissance Quarterly, Vol. 48, 1995.
He is one of the few artists that were recognized for his work while he was still living.
One of Michelangelo's most exquisite pieces is Pieta. In this sculpture, we can see how Michelangelo was moving away from the traditional form of sculpting. Creighton Gilbert notes that how Mary and Jesus are depicted in the statue is not typical of Michelangelo's day. Mary is seated with the dead Jesus in her lap and this image "first emerged as an abbreviation of the scene of Christ mourned" (160). Harold Keller maintains that the piece is filled with contrasts, horizontally and vertically. e also have the opposites of the clothed and the naked. The position of Jesus' body is different from most pietas of the day in that it is horizontal, producing a "step-like composition based on the sharp right able between the corpse and the upper body of the Madonna towering…
Barzun, Jacques. From Dawn to Decadence. New York: Harper Collins Publications. 2000.
Gilbert, Creighton. History of Renaissance Art. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1973.
Keller, Harold. The High Renaissance in Italy. NY: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. Publishers. 1969.
Lace, William. Michelangelo. San Diego: Lucent Books. 1993.
Echo finally died of old age, and the raw emotion from the park rangers and zoologists just brought tears. Similarly, he thinks that now that he is older he can sift through the "B.S. In advertising and media hype," and enjoys such cynical, but rather realistic, portrays of modern society in Mad Men, Weeds, and Breaking Bad.
As far as personality development, Tom believes that children get a pretty good grounding from their parents and early school experiences. Concepts like empathy, morality, situational ethics, and reliability are built when one is young. However, that being said, Tom does not see himself as a rule follower like his parents. Both believed that if something said x in the rules, then x it was. They both also believed that a person should get a job and stay with that job until retirement. Tom has already had two careers, and estimates he will…
"41 Questions -- 1 Personality." (2010). 41q.com Cited in:
Capraro, RAM 2002, 'Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability', Educational
And Pyschological Measurement, vol 62, no. 3, pp. 560-302.
The morning meal will be included in this fare, with $100 being spent on the necessary six other meals of the three day stay. $175, 3,542.89 MXN, is allocated to transportation, sightseeing fares, souvenirs (compulsory sombrero) and the exploration of the night life; $100 is saved (all the money saved in one location is used to pay the counter value of the larger expenses, such as a cruise to Africa).
(*) Three days in Brazil -- a budget of $525 (925.755 Brazil reais, at an exchange rate of 1 USD = 1.76 BL); $300, or 529.01 BL will be spent on boarding within a three start hotel; $50 will be saved and $125 will be spent on bus transportation, sightseeing fares and food.
(*) Estimated cost of the trip from Brazil to Nigeria - $400
(*) Three days in Nigeria -- $180 per hotel room (26,865 Nigerian naira, at an…
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Italy Tourist Attractions, Vacation Idea, 2009, http://www.vacationidea.com/articles/italy_tourist_attractions.html last accessed on December 10, 2009
Brunelleschi has been one of the early fathers of the Renaissance, and, the first architect to build a building with reference to classical antiquity. The architect succeeded in proving his value through various building which came in disagreement with the laws that architects had had until the time.
One of the greatest sculptors of all times, Michelangelo, became famous at the time that the public reviewed his first works of art. Despite of the fact that he had been certain that he was best fit for being a sculptor, Michelangelo accepted to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Even with his hesitation, the painting on the ceiling still stands as one of his greatest works and one of the greatest master pieces that the Renaissance period has given birth to.
The Marriage of the Virgin is a painting appreciated worldwide for its perception of depth and for its great…
1. Prager, Frank D. Scaglia, Gustina. (2004). "Brunelleschi." Courier Dover Publications. (2005).
2. "Niccolo Machiavelli." Retrieved July 07, 2009, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Web site: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/machiavelli/
3. "MICHELANGELO Buonarroti." Retrieved July 07, 2009, from the Web Gallery of Art Web site: http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/bio/m/michelan/biograph.html
4. "Renaissance: (1400-1600)." Retrieved July 7, 2009, from the World Wide Arts Resources Web site: http://wwar.com/masters/movements/renaissance.html .
He was one of the few people to speak out early on against Medici corruption and the Medici's subversion of democratic institutions like the Great Council. When the ruling Medicis fell from power, Savonarola actually led the movement to empower the parliament, called the Great Council, which led the city under the oversight of the emerging Florentine middle-class for almost twenty years until the restoration of the monarchy. "Savonarola's followers often referred to the new hall of the Great Council as 'the Hall of Christ' (sala di Cristo), and they occasionally spoke of 'holy liberty' even when serving in office" (Martines 141).
Martines stresses that, for all of his flaws, the friar was more interested in enforcing what he saw as the truth, rather than gaining power for his own use. In this age, republicanism and religious fundamentalism were not at odds, as they are often seen in the contemporary…
We all have fear inside us, but we have to look inside ourselves and know that we are stronger and bigger than our fears, and we can conquer them to make ourselves happier and more successful.
Another important message from the book is that even Michelangelo had to begin somewhere and allow his passion to grow and flourish. He did not create the Sistine Chapel as his first work, he had to grow to it and become a master of his craft. This is true in the business world as well. All companies do not begin as Microsoft, and do not have Bill Gates at the helm, and even Bill Gates had to start somewhere. We all have gifts and passions that we need to allow to nurture and grow, and we all have strengths that will come out over time. We cannot start out by expecting to be perfect;…
Widener, Chris. The Angel Inside: Michelangelo's Secrets for Following Your Passion and Finding the Work You Love. New York: Random House, 2007.
Even in Catholic France, the Protestant sentiment that God's grace alone can save His fallen, human creation was evident in the humanist king, Francis I's sister, Margaret, Queen of Navarre's novel when she wrote: "We must humble ourselves, for God does not bestow his graces on men because they are noble or rich; but, according as it pleases his goodness, which regards not the appearance of persons, he chooses whom he will."
Shakespeare's Hamlet is haunted by the ghost of his father from Purgatory. Purgatory was a Catholic concept. But rather than trusting the vision of the divine on earth, Hamlet is suspicious about the ability of fallen human beings to enact justice. Rather than finding good in the face of women, Hamlet sees only evil. "In considering the cultural conditions that allow tragedy to revive, we may also want to consider that the plays occurred in Christian Northern Europe;…
Michelangelo most probably wanted viewers to understand the connection between Jesus and Mary. Also, he did not want his sculpture to look unnatural, especially considering that a woman holding an adult male in her arms appeared to be abnormal. One might also be inclined to consider that the artist wanted people to acknowledge the fact that Jesus' death made it possible for them to see that he was vulnerable. In addition to depicting Jesus as a teenager, Michelangelo made Mary look as if she were still in her early twenties, this being an attempt to highlight the fact that she was pure and incorruptible.
Michelangelo was typically accustomed to leaving his works unsigned, but he made an exception for the Pieta. According to a story, Michelangelo overheard people saying that it was the work of another artist and could not stand knowing that another individual was appreciated for his artwork,…
Condivi, Ascanio. "Vita di Michelangelo Buonarroti," Rizzoli, 1964.
Vasari, Giorgio. "The lives of the most excellent painters, sculptors, and architects," Modern Library, 1896.
"Michelangelo's Pieta," Retrieved September 4, 2011, from the Rome.info Website: http://www.rome.info/michelangelo/pieta/
A good example of this can be seen with Sistine Chapel in the Last Supper. In this piece, he is using color and his imagination to understand what is happening. The use of bright and dark colors added to the sense of realism by giving the appearance as if these events were happening at the moment. In the future, this technique would be utilized by artists to create a sense of appreciation and underscore the emotions of the work itself.
Furthermore, the article that was written by Oremaland (1980), is discussing how pieta has often been used throughout many different building projects in the world (with the original at St. Peter's Cathedral). Since that time, various churches have used this dome like structure to create designs that mirror those of Michael Angelo. These different elements are important, because they are showing how this technique was continually embraced by various contractors…
Eknoyan, Garabed. "Michael Angelo," Kidney International, no. 57 (2000): 1190 -- 1201.
Lavoy, Michael. "The Digital Michael Angelo Project," Modern Art, no. 10 (1999): 2 -11.
Oremaland, Jerome. "Mourning and its Effect on Michael Angelo," Annual of Psychoanalysis, no. 8 (1980): 317 -- 351.
Chicago Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01/
enaissance and Baroque
An Analysis of Two Davids
The humanism, nobility, and power of the enaissance are reflected in Michelangelo's David (1504). The emphasis on drama, movement, and action is demonstrated in Bernini's David (1624). Both emphasize the heroic and favorite themes of the High enaissance, but it is Vasari who gives the greatest compliment to Michelangelo's David, calling it more excellent than all sculpture of ancient Greece and ome and even contemporary works (Vasari, 1998, p. 424). This paper will analyze the two works and the eras of art that produced them.
Differences between enaissance and Baroque
The most important thing to remember about the difference between the enaissance and the Baroque is that the former rose to glory prior to the feverish pitch of Protestantism, which to some extent put out its flame; the latter was a kind of rejuvenation of the themes posed by the enaissance --…
Bernini's David. (n.d.). Smart History. Retrieved from http://smarthistory.org/Bernini-David.html
Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins.
Palmisano, B. (n.d.). The Baroque Period of Art. Retrieved from http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Arts/scultpurePlastic/SculptureHistory/BaroqueSculpture/BaroquePeriodArt/BaroquePeriodArt.htm
Vasari, G. (1998). The Lives of the Artists. UK: Oxford University Press.
The maximum number of Cardinal Electors allowed at any one time is 120. This is made sure by the fact that the Pope cannot elevate any more than 120 men under 80 to the Cardinalate at any one time. At the time of this writing, there are, there are 117 Cardinals eligible to vote in Conclave.
The basic process goes something like this; when the Pope dies, the Cardinal Camerlengo (or the chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church, currently Eduardo Cardinal Martinez Somalo) must verify the death, traditionally by calling the Pope three times by his name without response. The Cardinal Camerlengo must then authorize a death certificate and make the event public by notifying the Cardinal Vicar for the Diocese of Rome. The Camerlengo then seals the Pope's private apartments. He would also arrange for the "ring of the fisherman" and the papal seal to be broken. He then…
The Wikipedia web site defines "art" as a "generic term for any product of the creative impulse," while Encarta Encyclopedia considered this concept as "the product of human creativity in which materials are shaped or selected to convey an idea, emotion, or visually interesting form." These definitions are related in the study of eight web sites, all of which center on the subject of (various forms of) art:
The Hubbard Street Dance Chicago (HSDC) web site (http://www.hubbardstreetdance.com/home.asp) centers on and provides an overview about street dancing through providing information about different institutions and centers that offer street dancing tutorials, competitions, other street dance-related events.
The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. (http://www.warholfoundation.org) showcases the not only the works of Andy Warhol, but also functions as a venue for artists to take advantage of grants and art projects that would be beneficial for their development/improvement as visual artists.…
Miller and Eliot on Beauty
Comparing and Contrasting "Beauty" in Miller and Eliot
Arthur Miller and T.S. Eliot are two 20th century American playwrights. hile the latter is more commonly noted for expatriating to Britain and writing some of the most memorable poetry of the early 20th century, the former is noted for his famous depiction of the common man's struggle to find meaning and fulfillment in Death of a Salesman. As distinct as the two writers may seem, they both conceive of and treat the theme of beauty -- Miller analyzing its absence in Salesman, and Eliot analyzing its abandonment in several poems like "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" and "The asteland." This paper will compare and contrast both writers and show how they deal with the theme of beauty in their works.
The Absence of Beauty in Salesman and "Prufrock"
Beauty is missing from illy Loman's…
Aristotle. "Poetics." Internet Classics Archive. Web. 12 Oct 2011.
Barstow, Marjorie. "Oedipus Rex as the Ideal Tragic Hero of Aristotle." The Classical
Weekly 6.1 (1912): 2-4. Print.
Blasing, Mutlu Konuk. American Poetry: The Rhetoric of Its Forms. New Haven: Yale
Caravaggio's Calling of St. Matthew
Caravaggio's The Calling of St. Matthew dates from 1599-1600, in an extremely late phase of the Italian Renaissance. With the glories of Raphael and Michelangelo already belonging to a generation that had passed on, Caravaggio's style emerged out of the final trend of the Italian Renaissance in the sixteenth century, generally known (often derogatorily) as Mannerism. Mannerist art tends to emphasize the artifice of the painting itself, whether through trompe l'oeil or "fool the eye" style visual trickery or distortion of form in human figure in deliberately anti-classical ways in order to emphasize visual expressiveness and novelty. Caravaggio stands as a transitional figure between the Mannerist phase of the Renaissance, and the post-Renaissance movement of the Baroque: to a certain degree, he may be regarded as a late Renaissance school of painting unto himself. We may note, though, that despite Caravaggio's novelty of form, his…
I would like to explore Jungian theories about personality (as might be found in Meyer-Briggs instrumentation) and consciousness with respect to recall while writing memoir and the phenomenon Jung (2006) referred to as collective consciousness.
This little slice of memoir was interesting because in the writing, I experienced recollection. I had not thought about these events in my childhood for sometime. In fact, the last time I remember trying to recall the details of these happenings was during a visit with my brother. My older brother has digitized many slides that our father took during the period of time when we were growing up. He is fond of getting out his binder of enlarged slides, now in print format, and encouraging the development of our mutual memories about our halcyon days of our childhood in a small town.
Cohen, and Cohen, (Producers and Directors) (1996). Fargo. [Film]. Los Angeles:…
Cohen, and Cohen, (Producers and Directors) (1996). Fargo. [Film]. Los Angeles: Polygram Filmed Entertainment, Working Title Films. Retreived http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0116282/
Cobb-Clark, D.A. And Schurer, S. (2012). The stability of big-five personality traits. Economics Letters, 115, 11-15. Retrieved http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1922015
Jung, C. (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library, 23. ISBN 0-451-21860-4
Ephron, N. (1980). Wallflower at the orgy. New York, NY: Bantam Books.
aphael: Artist of the enaissance
aphael was the son of Giovanni Santi, an educated man that was able to provide his young son with a remarkable life exposed to much art, many artistic geniuses, and the remarkable culture of the Umbrian court. aphael was blessed during his childhood in terms of wealth and culture and would never have to know the life of a struggling artist nor the sense of begging for handouts or working in squalor. However, aphael did suffer great tragedy: his mother died when he was eight years old and his father died three years later when aphael was eleven years old. Thus, as a tender child, aphael was no stranger to tragedy, something that no doubt instilled his life, making an imprint on him as an artist. One thing that aphael's father did before his death that had a profound influence on the child and how…
Fineartarchives.org. (2014). The Triumph of Galatea . Retrieved from fineartarchives.org: http://fineartarchives.com/raphael-the-triumph-of-galatea/
Finnan, V. (2014). Raphael Biography. Retrieved from italian-renaissance-art.com: http://www.italian-renaissance-art.com/Raphael-Tapestries.html
Nationalgallery.org.uk. (2014). The Ansidei Madonna. Retrieved from nationalgallery.org.uk: http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/raphael-the-ansidei-madonna uffizi.org. (2014). Madonna of the Goldfinch by Raphael. Retrieved from Uffizi.org: http://www.uffizi.org/artworks/madonna-of-the-goldfinch-by-raphael/
Vam.ac.uk. (2014). The Raphael Cartoons: What is a Cartoon? Retrieved from vam.ac.uk: http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/t/raphael-cartoons-what-is-a-cartoon/
religion-focused works from literature, theatre, music, or art (such as painting and sculpture). How do they call a religion into question?
eligion is a common theme in literature, art, and music. For example, the book The Da Vinci Code is about the Catholic Church. Although the book does not discuss serious theological issues, the author Dan Brown does talk about the political hierarchies in the Church. Therefore, Brown calls into question the legitimacy of the Church due to its being a highly secretive and powerful organization that potentially uses its power as a means of social control. The book also explores the possibility that there are other narratives that can be equally as valid as the dominant narratives people have been taught.
eligion in one way or another has inspired most art throughout history and in cultures around the world. In some cultures, art is inseparable from religion, as with…
Carver, R. (1981). Cathedral.
O'Connor, F. (1954). A good man is hard to find. Retrieved online: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~drbr/goodman.html
Goya and Redon
Francisco Goya was an 18th-19th century Spanish painter and printmaker. Odilon Redon was a 19th-20th century painter and printmaker. The two artists, though separated by a century, share a similar style and perspective. Goya lived through the Romantic-Enlightenment era and saw the unraveling of society on the Continent as the Old World values were swept away be Enlightenment philosophy and Romantic dreams. Redon lived to reflect the aftermath of that era: his symbolist paintings show a world that is half-mad, yet totally focused on itself and its grandiose ideas. Together, Goya and Redon cover three centuries of thought and activity in Europe. Goya’s Saturn Devouring His Son (1819-1823) and Redon’s The Smiling Spider (1887) both show strangeness in the extreme and depict a frightening aspect of the world that is at once nightmarish and bizarrely humorous. This paper will provide an analysis of Goya’s and Redon’s respective…
He also asserts that government participation in the arts beyond its role as a consumer can pose significant hindrances to the artistic processes. He claims that politics tends to "seek stability, compromise, and consensus," and as a result avoids supporting art that may "offend majority opinion or go over its head" (38). The market, on the other hand, has "liberated artists…from the potential tyranny of mainstream market taste" (23).
Is Government Funding Necessary or Appropriate?
There are many who disagree with Cowen, claiming that public funding for the arts is crucial to maintaining a vibrant, diverse, and forward-thinking creative community. These arguments are generally characterized by the theory that, while art as a market commodity is a healthy and valuable part of the artistic culture, there must also be a forum for art as a public good. This forum cannot be trusted to the market, which may or may not…
Becker, Howard. 1982. Art Worlds. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Cowen, Tyler. 1998. In Praise of Commercial Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jenkins, Henry. 2006. Convergence Culture: Where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press.
McChesney, Robert. 2004. The Problem of the Media. New York" Monthly Review Press.
Within each of these are discriminatory and generalized patterns of learning; and can be incorporated into learning models.
My own learning style is a combination of listening (learning from others) and then doing. It depends on the material; for any tactile operation, I find it easier to understand by touching and manipulating than simply reading in a manual how to perform the task. I believe I make clear use of discrimination in learning; responding to different stimuli with different responses. When the learning task is more scholarly in nature, I tend to combine visual and aural methods with kinesthetic and write down, or outline material.
Burton, N. (March 15, 2012). Hide and Seek: Understanding Self-Deception, Self-Sabotage
nd More. Psychology Today. Retrieved from:
Burton's article is a combination of the psychodynamic and behavioral models of psychological investigation. The major point of the article is that humans are not always rational,…
And More. Psychology Today. Retrieved from:
Burton's article is a combination of the psychodynamic and behavioral models of psychological investigation. The major point of the article is that humans are not always rational, but are rationalizing. For instance, the trauma of 9/11, even for those not directly affected, caused a number of people to commit suicide. Moreover, if someone is the victim of beatings as a child, they tend to repress those memories, internalize some of the actions, and possibly have problems forming attachments. This, according to Dr. Burton, is the mind's way of defending and coping with stress. It becomes part of the unconscious, but often resurfaces in odd forms. The healthy individual can get on a path to deal with these issues; talk through them, analyze, and find coping mechanisms.