Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
In this case, the attitude towards the packaging confers a resonating attitude to the product itself -- packaging is also crucial for purchase decisions.
A study by Wakefield, Germain, and Durkin (2008), this time on the perception of smokers on the perception of cigarette brands, showed how the importance of packaging reiterates itself again by product quality perceptions -- plainly packaged cigarettes were seen as having lower tobacco and having a decreased level of satisfaction. he level of change was such that the number of brand elements removed from the pack is correlated with the decrease in perceived valuation of the respondents.
Hoyer and MacInnis (2008) corroborates the data with the more recent studies with the idea that the psychological core of the consumer does indeed reflect their particular hedonic perceptions based on what is just sensed on the onset. It can even be said that the influence of packaging…
Tadros, T. (2005). Applied Surfactants: Principles and Applications. Vancouver, CN: Wiley Publishing.
Underhill, P. (2008). Why We Buy: The Science of Shopping. NY: Simon & Schuster.
Wakefield, M., Germain, D., & Durkin, S.J. (2008). How does increasingly painer cigarette packaging influence adult smokers' perceptions about brand image? An experimental study. Tobacco Control, 17(6), 416-421.
skin care treatment from a qualified trained oncology esthetician?
The skin of an oncology patient is usually compromised by the intensive oncology treatments administered. This leaves the skin of detoxification from both external toxins and medication residuals on and in the body. Restoration of the skin through gentle detoxifying ingredients and massage techniques is best applied by a board certified esthetician who specializes in oncology esthetic. Normally skin treatments for oncology patients occur before they are officially in remission, leaving their skin at its most vulnerable. The skin usually becomes compromised with lack of moisture, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and deficiency in skin barrier function.
If a patient is undergoing Chemotherapy, Targeted Therapy, Radiation Therapy or Hormone Therapy acute skin reactions might occur at the site of treatment. These reactions or symptoms are: dryness, dehydration, redness, hyperkeratinization and lack of oil or water. Oncology skin care therapy protocols are compiled to prevent…
Healthcare workers are exposed to a number of chemical irritants that can cause acute dermatitis and other skincare problems. The irritants in the institutional environment include everything from soaps and solvents to irritation from operating medical equipment. In fact, some of the best health and safety practices have unwanted consequences that can cause non-compliance with hand washing, which compounds hygiene problems. For example, too much hand washing and frequent glove use can cause adverse side effects like cracked and bleeding hands (McCormick, Buchanan & Maki, 2000). Exposure to solvents and cleansers can also cause cellular damage and remove the surface lipids from hands, causing cracking, bleeding, and sores (Nettis, Colanardi, Coccio, et al., 2002). Cracked and bleeding hands obviously open the healthcare worker to infections, and also allow that healthcare worker to spread infections in the workplace. Promoting skin care among healthcare workers is therefore critical evidence-based practice.
Hilburn, J., Hammond, B.S., Fendler, E.J., et al. (2003). Use of alcohol hand sanitizer as an infection control strategy in an acute care facility. American Journal of Infection Control 31(2): 109-116.
McCormick, R.D., Buchman, T.L. & Maki, D.G. (2000). Double-blind, randomized trial of scheduled use of a novel barrier cream and an oil-containing lotion for protecting the hands of health care workers. American Journal of Infection Control 28(4): 302-310.
Naikoba, S. & Hayward, A. (2001). The effectiveness of interventions aimed at increasing handwashing in healthcare workers - a systematic review. Journal of Hospital Infection 47(3): 173-180.
Nettis, E., Colanardi, M.C., Soccio, A.L., et al. (2002). Occupational irritant and allergic contact dermatitis among healthcare workers. Contact Dermatitis 46(2): 2002, pp. 101-107.
The picture to the left depicts the various elements that are responsible for thermoregulation in human skin. The illustrations shows the various layers of skin along with the veins, arteries and capillaries of the circulatory system that assist in insuring that the thermoregulatory system works properly. The sweat glands are responsible for selectively removing materials from the blood the sweat glands then concentrates or alters these toxins, and secretes them for elimination from the body. The perspiration or sweat is then removed through the sweat pore. This has a twofold purpose: to remove toxins and thermoregulation (in this case cooling the body).
Thermoregulation involving perspiration is brought about by both internal and environmental heat and exercise. As it relates to the latter, there have been many studies related to exercise and thermoregulation. According to Marino (2004)
"thermoregulatory effector responses of humans and concluded that temperature regulation during exercise is dissimilar…
Caterina MJ, Schumacher MA, Tominaga M, Rosen TA, Levine JD, Julius D. The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature. 1997;389:816-824.
Dugan SA, Powell LH, Kravitz HM, Everson Rose SA, Karavolos K, Luborsky J (2006)
Musculoskeletal pain and menopausal tatus. Clin J. Pain 22: 325 -- 331
Deecher, D.C.K. Dorries (2007)Understanding the pathophysiology of vasomotor symptoms
Kangaroo Care and Premature Babies
Kangaroo care entails holding a full term infant or premature so that there is a skin-to-skin contact between the newborn and the individual holding it. Individuals practice kangaroo care for premature infants for approximately two to three hours every day over a certain period. This takes place during early infancy, and the parent holds the baby against her bare chest. Medically stable babies can receive kangaroo care for up to any period since there is no maximum duration for them (Feldman et al., 2002).
Most parents may keep their babies in their arms for hours each day. According to research carried out, kangaroo care is essential as close bodily contact between the infant and the mother helps to stabilize the heartbeat, breathing and temperature of the premature infant. This is crucial as premature babies always have problems in harmonizing their heart and breathing rate. Mothers…
Aucott, S., Donohue, K., Atkins, E., & Marilee, C (2002). Neurodevelopmental Care In The
Nicu, 8, 298 -- 308.
Dodd, L. (2003). Effects of kangaroo care in preterm infants,
Feldman, R., Weller, A., Sirota, L., & Eidelman, A. (2002). Skin-to-Skin Contact (Kangaroo Care) Promotes Self-Regulation in Premature Infants: Sleep -- Wake Cyclicity, Arousal Modulation, and Sustained Exploration, Vol. 38 (2), 194 -- 207.
The problems relating to skin pigment are associated with symptoms of the skin appearing faded or deeper than the usual or often spotted and blemished. (Skin pigmentation disorders) The unusual skin development and unusual pigmentation of the skin is seen to present at the time of birth or develop at the later stages. (Benign Skin Growths and Pigmentation Disorders) The skin pigmentation disorders seem to arise over a large number of races and conditions. (Nacinamide Helps to Lighten Skin) Some problems like albinism are considered exceptional phenomenon about a single case arises in every 17000 people. Other cases like age spots are very common. (Skin pigmentation disorders) Irrespective of the fact that it is quite harmless in its effects in most of the cases, however, the growth and pigmentation disorders warrant thorough watching for any other variations that may mark a development of cancerous skin cells. There are several…
References and Annotations Comments on Differential Diagnosis of the Skin Discoloration of Argyria. Retrieved from http://www.jeghers.com/annts/ARGYRIA1976.html Accessed on 8 December, 2004
Benign Skin Growths and Pigmentation Disorders. Retrieved from http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/uvahealth/peds_derm/bengnhub.cfm Accessed on 8 December, 2004
Gray, John. The World of Skin Care. P& G. Skin Care Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pg.com/science/skincare/Skin_tws_16.htm Accessed on 8 December, 2004
Nacinamide Helps to Lighten Skin. Retrieved from http://www.vitamins-nutrition.org/vitamins-research/vitamin-b3/nacinamide-lighten-skin.html Accessed on 8 December, 2004
Pigmentation change after skin resurfacing. Retrieved from http://www.phudson.com/SKIN/FAQ/pigment.html Accessed on 8 December, 2004
Care of Cancer:
In the past few years, cancer has developed to become one of the major leading causes of deaths across the globe. The disease can be described as the uncontrolled growth or development of abnormal cells in the body even as cancerous cells are also known as malignant cells. Since cells are the building blocks of humans and other living things, cancer develops out of the normal cells within the body. Generally, the normal cells multiply when needed by the body and die when the body does not need them. When the growth of the cells in the body is out of control and cells divide too quickly, cancer appears to occur. Nonetheless, cancer also appears to happen when cells in the body forget how to die.
Causes of Cancer:
There are various kinds of cancer because the disease can develop in nearly every tissue or organ like…
Barraclough, J. (2002). Integrated Cancer Care. Retrieved from Royal College of Psychiatrists
"Cancer Complications." (n.d.). Info.com. Retrieved August 31, 2012, from http://topics.info.com/Cancer-Complications_3416
"Cancer Staging." (2010, September 22). National Cancer Institute Factsheet. Retrieved from National Cancer Institute website: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/staging
Care of Cancer
In many cases the sooner cancer is diagnosed and treatment begins the better the chances of a person recovering fully. If one develops cancer they can improve the chance of early detection if they have regular medical checkups and do some self-exams. Doctors often find early cancer during a physical exam or when carrying out routine tests even when there were no symptoms presented.
There are several methods that are used to diagnose cancer .with technological advancement these methods are now better as they help in a better understanding of cancer .there are now many diagnostic tools that can be used in cancer detection. Once cancer I suspected a diagnosis is made by pathologists and oncopathologists and imaging radiologists. The common diagnostic methods are;
This test involves a small tissue sample being taken from the area where cancer is suspected using a fine tipped…
Mandal, A.(2010). Cancer Diagnosis.Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://www.news-medical.net/health/Cancer-Diagnosis.aspx
American Society of Clinical Oncolog.(2013). Stages of Cancer. Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://www.cancer.net/all-about-cancer/treating-cancer/stages-cancer
Armstrong, B.(2012).What are the different stages of cancer and what do they mean? Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://www.cancerinstitute.org.au/patient-support/what-i-need-to-know/about-cancer/what-are-the-different-stages-of-cancer
Info.com.(2013).Cancer complications. Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://topics.info.com/Cancer-Complications_3416
Furthermore, one of the pillars of collaborative care that will need to be firmly established is the fostering of clear dialogue and a means for strong communication within the care management planning. For instance, there needs to be a clear decision and communication of all tests ordered and when the test results will be available. One of the most important aspects of this collaborative care will be the nursing interventions which can have significant impact on the patient's health and stabilization (Allen, 2010). In fact, strategic nursing care can even minimize readmission rates of Margaret and other patients with comparable conditions (Chen et al., 2012).
Prioritize the Nursing Care Needs of Margaret
The prioritization of nursing interventions is essential, and the way in which a nurse determines this priority is going to be something unique and distinct. "Trials reviewed demonstrated a beneficial impact of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in…
Adler, H.M. (n.d.). Toward a biopsychosocial understanding of the patient -- physician relationship: An emerging dialogue. (2007). J Gen Intern Med,22(2), 280 -- 285.
Afilala, J. (n.d.). Frailty in patients with cardiovascular disease: Why, when, and how to measure. (2011). Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep, 5(5), 467 -- 472.
Allen, J.K. (2010). Randomized trials of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure: Systematic review.
Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing,25(3), 207-220.
Care Coverage and Inequalities in the Education System
Traditional Care Coverage vs. Managed Care Coverage
Traditional care coverage is also known as Fee-for-service (FFS). Under this model, the patient pays for services that are itemized in the Invoice. The physicians gain an incentive to offer more treatments as payment depends on the quantity of care and not the quality of care. In the health insurance and healthcare sectors, traditional care coverage happens when physicians and other caregivers get a fee for each service like laboratory tests, office visit, procedure and other healthcare services. After providing services, the patient makes payments retrospectively. Traditional health coverage enables the patients to choose a healthcare provider, including a favorite hospital or doctor. The services rendered are paid for by the patient and then submits the bill to the insurance firm for reimbursement of the percentage it agreed to the insurer for the patient (Kongstvedt,…
Conchas, G. & Gottfried, M. (2015). Inequality, Power and School Success: Case Studies on Racial Disparity and Opportunity in Education. New York: Routledge
Duncan, G. J. & Murnane, R. J. (2014). Restoring Opportunity: The Crisis of Inequality and the Challenge for American Education. Boston, MA: Harvard Education Press
Healthcare Economics Evaluation
This report is about a proposed healthcare economics investigation. Some early research has been done and will be described based on what was found and how it was found. The report will conclude with a proposed plan for further economic evaluation on that same topic with a great deal the expected and proper form and function of that research to be described in that section. A conclusion will wrap up the report.
Critical Appraisal of the Evidence
The author of this report has chosen how to make health care affordable and have the most amount of people possible covered in the United States as this is one of the more omnipresent issues and matters in American society in the modern time. Health care being at the forefront of the American news cycle is nothing new as it is has been a huge part of the…
Berkowitz, E. (2008). Medicare and Medicaid: The Past as Prologue. Health Care Financing Review, 29(3), 80-93.
Bovbjerg, R.R., & Schoenbaum, S.C. (2004). Malpractice Reform Must Include Steps To Prevent Medical Injury. Annals Of Internal Medicine, 140(1), 51-54.
Budget problems, Medicaid expansion main topics at SAMHSA meeting. (2012). Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly, 24(32), 1-3.
CDC. (2013, March 19). CDC Online Newsroom - Press Release: October 17, 2011. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved March 19, 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2011/p1017_alcohol_consumption.html
com). A certain amount of errors is to be expected, but there should not be so many that it demonstrates a certain level of skewedness about the model in its entirety. Thus, if the NHI model is the one which is selected, then it needs to be tested against a range of different scenarios. The following demonstrate some truly relevant what-ifs: what if the doctors only move half the projected volume; what if medicare slashes rates; what if competitors open a comparable program (dgapartners.com).
There are a range of factors which can change or adjust once a healthcare facility opens their doors for business. And as much as this facility is attempting to engage in a solid humanitarian effort, at the end of the day, it's still a business and people need to get paid. Thus, before engaging in further developmental activities, one needs to determine in what ways the…
Brakatu Ofori-Adjei, a. (2007). Microfinance: An Alternative Means of Healthcare Financing for the Poor. Ghana Medical Journal, 193-194.
Burnstein, L., Harris, R., & Love, L. (2012, August 30). Top Four Legal Issues to Consider When Opening an Urgent Care Center. Retrieved from Mondaq.com: http://www.mondaq.com/unitedstates/x/194082/Healthcare/Estate+planning+is+important+step
Burnstein, M., Harris, R.L., & Love, L. (2012, August 20). Top Four Legal Issues to Consider When Opening an Urgent Care Center. Retrieved from Mondaq.com:
Lee is only the first step in the process of building a team that is able to cover all aspects of Mrs. Lee's care. The team approach involving a social worker, nurse, physician, pharmacist, and physical therapist affords Mrs. Lee a full range of professionals attending to her various needs.
Although Mrs. Lee has a number of problems that need to be addressed the one problem that must be addressed immediately is her elevated blood pressure. Hypertension is an important risk factor for the development and worsening of many complications of diabetes and an elevated blood pressure is like walking around with a detonated bomb. Within moments, and with little warning, a diabetic patient can suffer a stroke or heart attack as a result of an elevated blood pressure. Well over fifty percent of diabetics suffer from hypertension and proper treatment of hypertension can minimize most of the tangential problems…
Calle-Pascual, A.L. (2002). A preventive foot care programme for people with diabetes with different stages of neuropathy. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 111-117.
Caminal, J. And Barbara Starfield, et. al.(2004). The role of primary care in preventing ambulatory care sensitive conditions. European Journal of Public Health, 246-251.
Deichmann, R.E. (1999). Improvements in Diabetic Care as Measured by HbA1c After a Physician Education Project. Diabetes Care, 1612-1616.
Epstein, M. (1997). Diabetes and hypertension: the bad companions. Journal of Hypertension, 55-62.
Hispanic Culture & Healthcare
The Hispanic culture has barriers to receiving adequate healthcare (Swanson, 2012). Language has been a huge barrier in respects to the practitioner's ability to speak Spanish that has created communication barriers. Long wait times, staff taking adequate time in a caring manner, and the physical environment, whether friendly and facilitates interactions, can develop perceptions of the lack of caring. Some Hispanics believe they receive poor quality of care because of financial limitations, race or ethnicity, or the accent in the way they communicate in English (Livingston, 2008).
The Hispanic culture is community oriented with a high value placed on family input (Swanson, 2012). The family encounters provide a huge amount of support for the Hispanic patient. Members who speak Spanish and English are heavily relied on for support in healthcare decision making. Gender roles are especially appreciated as women do caregiving, even in hospital, and men…
Marketing in Healthcare
Catholic Healthcare West
Catholic Healthcare West (CHW) is a not-for-profit healthcare organization serving parts of Arizona, Nevada and the majority of California. With 42 hospitals it is the largest Catholic hospital system in this part of the United States. The organization focuses its services upon the poor, who cannot afford private hospital services. Regardless, the aim is also to provide high-quality healthcare to those in need. The target market is thus the poor in the western areas of the United States.
Taking into account the size of Catholic Healthcare West, it should not be a problem to implement new services without a loss of either mission or customers. New services should however be implemented with the proper care to ensure that the focus remains as originally intended.
The service management strategy of CHW has always been collaborative. y collaborating with other groups who share the vision and…
Allen, G. "New Product Development." 1999
Catholic Healthcare West. 2003. http://www.chwhealth.com/
Rice, T., B. Biles, E.R. Brown, F. Diderichsen & H. Kuehn. "Reconsidering the role of competition in health care markets." Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law. Durham, Oct 2000
While it may not be just to hold an organization liable, absolutely, for every instance of employee negligence, there is a rationale for imposing such liability in many cases. For example, many types of industries entail potential danger to others that are inherent to the industry.
Individual workers are not likely to be capable of compensating victims of their negligence, but the employer benefits and profits financially by engaging in the particular industry. Therefore, the employer should not necessarily escape liability for compensating all harm caused by their activities, regardless of fault in particular instances.
10.A nurse is responsible for making an inquiry if there is uncertainty about the accuracy of a physician's medication order in a patient's record. Explain the process a nurse should use to evaluate whether or not to make an inquiry into the accuracy of the physician's medication order.
Like other highly trained professionals, experienced nurses…
Abrams, N., Buckner, M.D. (1989) Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professionals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Caplan, a.L., Engelhardt, H.T., McCartney, J.J. Eds. (1981) Concepts of Health and Disease: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Starr, P. (1984) the Social Transformation of American Medicine.
New York: Basic Books
Healthcare Case Study Schuylkill County, PA
County Overview - Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania is located in the heart of the anthracite Coal region of Pennsylvania where the Schuylkill iver originates. Pottsville is the county seat, and the county showed a population of just under 150,000 as of 2010 with a density of 190 persons per square mile. The total area of the county is 782 square miles, almost all land, less than 1/2 a per cent water. The county's history, likely due to large coal deposits, focused on the railroad and industrialization (Schuylkill Chamber of Commerce, 2011).
The county experienced the high point of its population during the 1920s and 1930s, and has been losing people ever since, most between 1950 and 1970, with about a 1-2% population loss since the turn of the century. This is likely due to the lack of appropriate jobs and opportunities within the county. Schuylkill…
County Health Statistics - Healthcare 2010. (2009, March). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of Health: http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt-in_hi_groupoperator_1=or&in_hi_req_objtype=18&in_hi_req_objtype=17&in_hi_req_objtype=512&in_hi_req_objtype=514&in_hi_req_objtype=43&in_hi_req_objtype=1&in_hi_req_apps=7&in_hi_req_page=10&in_ra_topoperator=or&
Comprehensive Plan. (2010, March). Retrieved from City of Pottsville, PA: http://www.city.pottsville.pa.us/html/cp1.htm
Election Statistics. (2010, June). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of State: http://www.dos.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/running_for_office/12704
Schuylkill County. (2010, June). Retrieved from Sperling's Best Places USA: http://www.bestplaces.net/economy/county/pennsylvania/schuylkill
Africans had poor health care in the 1950s
There is much that still remains swept under the proverbial carpet about America's treatment to its African immigrants. One of the chapters, little known and often left untold has only recently started to emerge and concerns American health care system and its using Blacks as guinea pigs.
Attorney and author Vernellia . Tandall tells the story in her book 'Dying While Black' showing how America's health care system was built on the bodies of African-American individuals from the 19th century continuing to present days. Some f the information is unbelievable at best shocking at worst such as her allegations that AIDS was created by a government-sanctioned health care for the purposes of medical advancement.
Countless stories from Black residents of both North and South tell about how they were unwillingly and unknowingly abducted and exploited for medical experiments. There were the 'night…
Brooking Institute (2008) "Meeting the Dilemma of Health Care Access" (PDF). Opportunity 08: A Project of the Brookings Institution. Retrieved on 2/19/2011
Orlando Sentinel. (Dec., 04. 1993). Clinic On Wheels To Take Health Care To Elderly Poor . retreived 11/7/2011 from http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/1993-12-04/news/9312040190_1_clinic-project-care-seniors
Skloot, H. (2010) The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks NY. Random House.
Web Health Care
Located in Wichita, Kansas, Via Christi Health is the agency that serves the eponymous region through the site via-christi.org. Via Christi provides care through hospitals, outpatient centers, senior communities, and in-home care for individuals in Kansas. The services the agency provides a VCMA directory, which encompasses a search for physicians through Via Christi Medical Associates and the Via Christi Clinic, along with the Via Christi Hospitals. Via Christi Medical Associates is a group of fifty family practitioners, while Via Christi Clinics offer family care and immediate care. The thirteen clinics have been in place since 1948, 160 hired physicians, and encompassed 40 specialties. Via Christi agency offers a directory and location of special centers, which includes burn center, cancer care, cardiac care, and cystic fibrosis. As well, there's epileptology, neurosciences, obstetrics and gynecology, and occupational health services. Moreover, individuals are able to look up care for pediatric…
Via Christi Hospitals: VCFM Residency. (n.d.). VCFM Residency. Retrieved December 3, 2011, from http://www.vcfm.net/details/via-christi/
HMR Clinic Program Weight Loss Surgery Weight Loss Class Corporate Wellness HMR at Home Meal Replacements ~ Via Christi Weight Management Wichita Kansas. (n.d.). HMR Clinic Program Weight Loss Surgery Weight Loss Class Corporate Wellness HMR at Home Meal Replacements ~ Via Christi Weight Management Wichita Kansas. Retrieved December 3, 2011, from http://www.viachristiweightmanagement.com/
Via Christi Clinic - Multi-practice medical care in Wichita, KS . (n.d.). Via Christi Clinic - Multi-practice medical care in Wichita, KS . Retrieved December 3, 2011, from http://www.viachristiclinic.com/
Via Christi to open cancer center | Wichita Eagle. (n.d.). Local and breaking news for Wichita and Kansas | The Wichita Eagle and kansas.com. Retrieved December 3, 2011, from http://www.kansas.com/2011/06/24/1906153/via-christi-to-open-cancer-center.html
Methicillin-esistant Staphylococci (MSA), most common Healthcare Associated Infections
The PICOT question to be discussed is: For adult patients using catheters, does the use of sterilization practices reduce the future risk of health associated infections like MSA compared with standard procedure in one week?
The answer is yes.
The support given to answer the question will be based on peer-reviewed journals and scientific literature. A summary of the evidence will be availed in a chart plus a conclusion that summarizes evidence used will also be given.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSA) bacteria is resistant to several antibiotics. A significant proportion of MSA infections in the community are on the skin. It results in alarming infections of the bloodstream, surgical site infections and pneumonia in health facilities. Studies have revealed that one person in every three individuals have staph in the nose - most of the time they don't show any illnesses (General…
General Information About MRSA in the Community. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/mrsa/community/index.html
Sydnor, E., & Perl, T. (2011). Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control in Acute-Care Settings. Clinical Microbiology Reviews,24(1), 141-173. Retrieved February 21, 2015, from http://cmr.asm.org/content/24/1/141.full
Health Care Drugs
There are many ethical and moral decisions to be made with drugs are available in health care facility. As department manager, a set of procedures and protocols regarding the handling, storing and monitoring of drugs is necessary to ensure the safety of the patients and employees. Within this set of procedures, generic drugs, controlled drugs, and all charting is necessary so that all drugs can be documented in order to keep track of everything and to keep all employees honest (Pamela Anderson, 2010). This is because no medicine is without side effects and some are worse than others."In any situation where care-workers are responsible for the looking after and giving of medicines to other people, be they young or old, healthy or sick, it is important to follow a set of general principles to ensure that this is done safely. In some ways this is similar to…
About the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program. (2010). Retrieved May 12, 2012, from http://drugcontrol.flgov.com/pdmp/about.html
Pamela Anderson. (2010). Medication Errors: Don't let them happen to you. Retrieved May 12, 2012, from American Nurse Today: http://www.americannursetoday.com/article.aspx?id=6356&fid=6276
The Handling of Medicine in Social Care. (n.d.). Retrieved May 12, 2012, from http://www.rpharms.com/support-pdfs/handlingmedsocialcare.pdf
Management Project in the Health Care Organization Setting
This study describes the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system. The syndromic surveillance system collects and analyzes prediagnostic and nonclinical disease indicators, drawing on preexisting electronic data that can be found in systems such as electronic health records, school absenteeism records and pharmacy systems. The systems are utilized to identify specific symptoms within a population that may indicate a public health event or emergency such as signaling an outbreak of an infectious disease. school absenteeism records and pharmacy systems. The systems are utilized to identify specific symptoms within a population that may indicate a public health event or emergency such as signaling an outbreak of an infectious disease.
Informatics Management Project In The Health Care Organization Setting
Part One - Introduction
The objective of this study is to describe the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system. Syndromic surveillance systems collect and analyze…
Buckeridge, DL, et al. (2005) An Evaluation Model for Syndromic Surveillance: Assessing the Performance of Temporal Algorithm. Vol. 54 MMWR Supplement.
Chen, H, Zeng, D, Ping, Y and Ping Y (2010) Infectious Disease Informatics; Syndromic Surveillance for Public Health and Biodefense. Springer Medical 2010. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=5BdCfSxtNJMC&dq=syndromic+surveillance+system:+state+of+the+art&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Hurt-Mullen, K and Coberly, J. (2005) Syndromic Surveillance on the Epidemiologist's Desktop: Making Sense of Much Data. MMWR Supplement 26 Aug 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/MMWR/preview/mmwrhtml/su5401a22.htm
Public Meaningful Use (2013) Arkansas Department of Public Health. Retrieved from: http://www.healthy.arkansas.gov/programsServices/MeaningfulUse/Pages/default.aspx
Healthcare Administration: Culture, Accounting, And Ethical Issues
The causes of prejudice
Prejudice is described as the generalization of a group of people, based on negative attitudes that stem from stereotypes and non-factual beliefs. Although the reasons for prejudice may vary, Samovar, Porter and McDaniel (2009) explain three major motivations: societal pressures, social identities and scapegoating. Societal sources refer to rules and regulations that may be put in place in a given society to maintain one group's dominance over others. Social identities, on the other hand, are people's connection to their cultures and beliefs. Any groups that are deemed a threat to this connection are treated as enemies and are often at the receiving end of prejudice. Sometimes, different groups, such as gays and African-Americans are used as scapegoats to express anger and discontentment over various issues in society (Samovar, Porter and McDaniel, 2009). This allows one group to…
Kazmier, J.L. (2008). Introduction to Healthcare Law. Clifton Park, New York: Cengage Learning
Samovar, L.A., Porter, R.E. & McDaniel, E.R. (2009). Communication between Cultures (7th Ed.). South-Western: Cengage Learning
Warren, C.S., Reeve, J.M. & Duchac, J.E. (2013). Financial Accounting (13th Ed.) South- Western: Cengage Learning
Global Health Care and Culture
Traditional Health Care Concepts
Modern Health Care in China and its Affordability
The public health system in China has been able to make progress in many aspects owing to the economic growth of the country. Problems like child mortality and life expectancy have shown considerable improvements over the last 20 years in conjunction with the rising economy. With significantly more hospital beds in the country compared to about 10 years ago, China has made all efforts to embrace the modern medical system and formulated policies to make modern health care affordable to every Chinese citizen (Mehlhorn, Wu & Ye, n.d.).
However give the above context, it is still a fact that Chinese system of health care is still governed and guided by the cultural values and traditions of ancient Chinese health care. This is in conformation to the ways the Chinese value their centuries old…
Cheung, K., & Chen, H. (2010). Semantic Web for data harmonization in Chinese medicine. Chinese Medicine, 5(1), 2. doi:10.1186/1749-8546-5-2
Mehlhorn, H., Wu, Z., & Ye, B. Treatment of human parasitosis in traditional Chinese medicine.
PARKER, M. (2011). OVERSTATING VALUES: MEDICAL FACTS, DIVERSE VALUES, BIOETHICS AND VALUES-BASED MEDICINE. Bioethics, 27(2), 97-104. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2011.01902.x
Social Values and Ethics for Communicating the Corporate Identity. (2012). Chinese Business Review, 11(07). doi:10.17265/1537-1506/2012.07.006
In the U.S healthcare environment, the clinical practice guidelines are the effective healthcare protocol to enhance patient’s safety as well as achieving evidence-based practice. The clinical guidelines provide recommendations to the best available practice to assist clinicians and other healthcare professionals to deliver best and quality care. More importantly, the clinical practice guidelines are designed to optimize patients’ care using the systematic assessment and evidence based review to assess pros and cons of the alternative care options. The guidelines serve as the strongest resources to assist the healthcare professionals to make clinical decisions as well as incorporating evidence gained through practice and scientific investigations into patient practice. Healthcare organizations develop the guidelines in form and policies, which are endorsed across the organization to create a platform that employees will follow and holding employees accountable to achieve a standard of care.
Clabsi Hospital is one of the best healthcare organizations…
The condition was shown to be the second-most common cause of older adults being institutionalized because of the inordinately demanding nature of caring for them that is typically beyond the ability of many spouses or other family members. In the final analysis, the chances of older adults suffering from urinary incontinence are fairly high given that the population will increasingly include older adults, many of whom will be among the very old.
Beling, J. (2004). Impact of service learning on physical therapist students' knowledge of and attitudes toward older adults and on their critical thinking ability. Journal of Physical
Therapy Education, 18(1), 13-14.
Burke, M. & Laramie, J.A. (2000). Primary care of the older adult: A multidisciplinary approach. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1999). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response.
St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Fantl, J.A., Newman, D.K., Colling, J. et al. (1996).…
Beling, J. (2004). Impact of service learning on physical therapist students' knowledge of and attitudes toward older adults and on their critical thinking ability. Journal of Physical
Therapy Education, 18(1), 13-14.
Burke, M. & Laramie, J.A. (2000). Primary care of the older adult: A multidisciplinary approach. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1999). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response.
Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160
Huget P, van Dam P,
Vermeulen P. (2002), 'Plasma fibrin D-dimer levels correlate with tumor volume, progression rate and survival in patients with metastatic reast Cancer', ritish Journal of Cancer, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11875705
John a Heit, (Sep 2005), "Cancer and Venous Thromboembolism: Scope of the Problem', Cancer Control, Vol! 2, Supplement 1.
Diana M. eck, (Oct 2006), 'Venous Thromboembolism: Prophylaxis: Implications for Medical Surgical Nurses,"
MEDSURG Nursing -- October 2006 -- Vol. 15/No. 5, Available online at, http://www.medsurgnursing.net/ceonline/2008/article10282288.pdf
Race, Tara Kay SN, RN, CCRN; Collier, Paul E. MD, (July-Sep 2007), 'The Hidden Risk of Deep Vein Thrombosis -- the Need for Risk Factor Assessment: Case Reviews.', Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 30(3):245-254
Susan egelman MD, 'Venous Thromboembolism',…
MF Scully (2005), 'Clinical Guide Cancer and Thrombosis', retrieved Feb 28th 2008, at http://www.tigc.org/pdf/cancervte05.pdf
Alexander G. Turpie, (2002) 'ABC of Antithrombotic Therapy', British Medical Journal, available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/325/7369/887
Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMBOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160
Anxiety, poor school performance and suicidal conduct have been among the frequent signs of sexual abuse. Excessive masturbation and other unusual sexual activities are also associated with sexual abuse. Symptoms of emotional abuse, on the other hand, are loss of self-esteem, sleep disturbances, headaches or stomach aches, refusal to go to school and running away from home. Neglect can be more visibly detected when the child's normal physical, social, emotional and mental development is hampered. Symptoms can be underweight, slower acquisition of language skills and emotional neediness. Child abuse inflicts lifelong consequences (aker 1999). These include poor school work, emotional problems, the formation of an antisocial personality, promiscuity, drug or alcohol abuse and suicide attempt. Abused children often find difficulty in establishing intimate relationships as adults (aker).
The economic, cultural, and social revolution 50 years ago changed the scenario for everyone. Young women joined the workforce even when they became…
Baker, H. (1999). Child abuse. 3 pages. Encyclopedia of Medicine: Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine.
Bower, B. (1996). Mom-child relations withstand day-care attachment behavior in infants. 3
Pages. Science News: Science News Service, Inc.
Grooms, a. (2007). Quality child care expensive. 2 pages. La Crosse Tribune: ProQuest
Nurse-Care Analysis of Sheepshead Bay
The area is 4,074 square miles. Its population is 123,178. The people density of people who live in Sheepshead Bay compared to general inhabitants of Brooklyn of people per square mile is 30,233 to 34,917 (City-data.com; web).
On my visits there, I was astounded by the mass of people rubbing shoulders one with the other. The streets seemed dense and crowded with a great number of apartment buildings, more than those in the more laid back areas such as Flatbush and Queens, and also more than those in the vicinity of Coney Island. There were also a lot of immigrant offices and lawyers specializing in immigration services that was telling of the area.
In fact, involvement with immigrants who had been seeking service with bureaucracy involved with obtaining a Green card revealed that many of them, although living in other parts of Brooklyn (sometimes far…
Berke, N. (2009). Crime Prevention and Safety Workshop. Sheepshead Bites. Retrieved on 3/6/2011 from: http://www.sheepsheadbites.com/2009/06/crime-prevention-and-safety-workshop/#
Chan, S. (2006). Fatal Construction Accidents in the City Rise Sharply Over 12 Months New York Times. p. C13.
Chiswick, Barry R., (1991). Speaking, Reading and Earnings among Low-Skilled Immigrants, Journal of Labor Economics, 9, 149-170.
City-data.com. Sheepshead Bay. Retrieved on 3/6/2011 from: http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Sheepshead-Bay-Brooklyn-NY.html )
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation is a procedure that allows for the oxygenation of a patient through the use of an external machine. Oxygen is required in order to keep a body healthy and alive. The definition of oxygenation is the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream of a patient. If the oxygen level drops below 90% a condition called hypoxemia occurs. Hypoxemia can be very serious and if not addressed within a short period of time can be fatal. Hypoxemia is diagnosed through cyanosis (the skin turning blue). Patients being treated with the EMCO procedure are usually longer-term patients (3-10 days) as compared to the short-term patients who receive a standard cadriopulmonary bypass which is a support that usually only lasts for a number of hours (not days).
According to odriguez-Cruz et al. The purpose of the ECMO is "to allow time for intrinsic recovery of the lungs and…
Adhikari, N.K.; Burns, K.E.; Friedrich, J.O.; Granton, J.O.; Cook, D.J.; Meade, M.O.; (2007). Effect of nitric oxide on oxygenation and mortality in acute lung injury: systemic review and meta analysis, BMJ; Vol. 334, pp. 779.
Bastin, A.J. & Firmin, R.; (2011) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe acute respiratory for failure in adults: NICE guideance, Heart, Vol. 97, Issue 20, pp. 1701-1703
Berryman, S.; (2010) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a Scottish intensive care unit, Nursing in Critical Care, Vol. 15, Issue 5, pp 262 -- 268
Brower, R.G. & Krishnan, J.A.; (2000) High frequency ventilation for acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome, Chest; Vol. 118, pp. 795 -- 807.
Mex Am / Hispanic Am. Hlth Care
Sub- cultural Scholarly Paper: Hispanic-American Health
Due to the rising cost of health care and lack of communication and cultural attitudes towards health many Hispanics are faced with poor health, obesity, and in most cases serious illness. This paper provides insight into health concerns, dilemmas of the subculture, and the specifics revealed in the interview process as relates to the individual, the family and ultimately, the community and the culture's collective society.
Subcultural Scholarly Paper: Hispanic-American Health
The theoretical framework used to evaluate this subculture is Purnell's Model. This is a subculture study of Hispanic-Americans in relation to their lack of knowledge concerning their personal healthcare.
Description of Subculture:
One way to address the challenges of providing health care to differing cultures is through advances in the development of competence among cultural providers in the healthcare field as per the minority which…
Basiotis, P.P., Carlson, A., Gerrior, S.A., Juan, W., and Lino, M. (2004). "The Healthy Eating Index, 1999-2000: Charting Dietary Patterns of Americans." Family Economics and Nutrition Review, Vol. 16, Number 1, p. 39.
"Healthy People 2010: Objectives Draft for Public Comment." National Alliance for Hispanic Health. Available: http://www.hispanichealth.org/pdf/hp2010.pdf Accessed November 27, 2004.
'Hispanic Health Data." (n.a.) National Council of La Raza. Available: http://www.nclr.org/content/programs/detail/25670 . Accessed November 27, 2004.
National Alliance for Hispanic Health. Available: www.hispanichealth.org. Accessed November
Pain, 56(1), 95-101.
Andrews, K., & Fitzgerald, M. (1999). Cutaneous flexion reflex in human neonates: a quantitative study of threshold and stimulus-response characteristics after single and repeated stimuli. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 41(10), 696-703.
Breau, L.M., McGrath, P.J., Stevens, B., Beyene, J., Camfield, C., Finley, G.A., Franck, K., Gibbins, S., Howlett, A., McKeever, P., O'Brien, K., & Ohlsson, A. (2006). Judgments of pain in the neonatal intensive care setting: a survey of direct care staffs' perceptions of pain in infants at risk for neurological impairment. he Clinical Journal of Pain, 22(2), 122-129.
Bruce, E., & Franck, L. (2005). Using the worldwide web to improve children's pain care. International Nursing Review, 52(3), 204-209.
Carbajal, R., Gall, O., & Annequin, D. (2004). Pain management in neonates. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 4(3), 491-505.
Chow, S.C., & Liu, J.P. (1998). Design and analysis of clinical trials: concept and methodologies. New York: John Wiley…
Taddio, A., Katz, J., Ilersich, A.L., & Koren, G. (1997). Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination. Lancet, 349(9052), 599-603.
Taddio, A., Goldbach, M., Ipp, M., Stevens, B., & Koren, G. (1995). Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain responses during vaccination in boys. Lancet, 345(8945), 291-292.
Weaver, S.A., Diorio, J., & Meaney, M.J. (2007). Maternal separation leads to persistent reduction in pain sensitivity in female rats. The Journal of Pain, 8(12), 962-969.
From: Skin & Hair Care SBU -- Team B
Recommendation for Project D
Project D. Application of Portfolio Process AKEEL
Our team wishes to propose a strategy for introducing Project D -- the Neutrogena® New Mineral Interchangeable Compact -- into Johnson & Johnson's existing Skin & Hair Care portfolio, alongside the three currently committed product lines, for the remaining three quarters of this fiscal year.
The Neutrogena® New Mineral Interchangeable Compact includes six shades of mineral foundation powder and applicators for use as eye shadow. The mineral shades are designed to highlight eyes while smoothing away wrinkles and blemishes. The foundations include vitamins, silk, and soy for skin protection. They come in a light, portable compact. The target market for Project D. is women aged 25 to 50 in the U.S., Europe and Asia.
In short, we propose allocating $5.5M total for Project D. over the remaining three…
Ruth E. Mathias and a.E. Benjamin (2003) report that social workers are becoming increasingly concerned about elder abuse in long-term care settings (p. 174). A study conducted by these social scientists/authors, reveals that Medicaid related agency care demonstrates no harmful or increase in the abuse suffered by elderly people receiving care through private agencies, but that there is little social worker oversight, and because of that, reports and information supporting that fact can be misleading at this point in time (p. 174). Mathias and Benjamin reported, too, that direct care provided by family members was proven to be less abusive to the elderly than services rendered by state and private providers (p. 174).
The most concentrated areas of consumer complaints reported was the difficulty in scheduling services, language barriers, and high care-giver/assistant turnover (p. 174). These are areas of concern, because the elderly are often suffering levels of dementia that…
Litwin, H., & Zoabi, S. (2004). A Multivariate Examination of Explanations for the Occurrence of Elder Abuse. Social Work Research, 28(3), 133+. Retrieved July 31, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007316778
Matthias, R.E., & Benjamin, a. (2003). Abuse and Neglect of Clients in Agency-Based and Consumer-Directed Home Care. Health and Social Work, 28(3), 174+. Retrieved July 31, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001999500
Thorslund, M., & Parker, M.G. (1994). Elder Care in the Priorities Discussion. The Hastings Center Report, 24(5), 29+. Retrieved July 31, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002212664
cultural diversity issues and its impact on nursing professionals' practice. It assesses a client hailing from a different culture, and employs information derived from the assessment determining and reflecting on health practices and beliefs of the client's culture. Lastly, nurses' role in the care of patients hailing from diverse backgrounds care is analyzed, and a conclusion is drawn.
Client Interview Data
Client's health beliefs in relation to cultural diversity
The client comes from a family-focused background, in which she plays the role of chief household organizer and attends to her family and their needs. She believes one ought to lead a life of a good and virtuous individual, and support one's family, particularly in times of need. In her opinion, sickness must be tended to, for preserving life. She believes in healthcare professionals and services they offer, for leading a healthy life. She is comfortable having healthcare professionals take care…
American Nurses Association. (1998). Discrimination and Racism in Health Care. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.
Anderson, L. (2012, October 10). Cultural Competence in the Nursing Practice. Retrieved from Nurse Together: http://www.nursetogether.com/cultural-competence-nursing-practice
Coe, S. (2013, January 15). Cultural Competency in the Nursing Profession. Retrieved from Nurse Together: http://www.nursetogether.com/cultural-competency-nursing-profession
Graue, M., Dunning, T., Hausken, M. F., & Rokne, B. (2013). Challenges in managing elderly people with diabetes in primary care settings in Norway. Scand J Prim Health Care, 31(4), 241-247.
U.S. Healthcare System: An Analysis
Healthcare System: An Analysis
The United States healthcare system is far more than simply a health insurance system with multiple contributors, neither is the government solely responsible for funding the system -- thus it is a hybrid health insurance system. The funding pattern depicts the system aptly, in the year 2010, 12% of funding came from local and state coffers, 38% from the federal government and 50% from private funds. egardless of the source of funding, most people seek care from private health facilities (Dorning, 2014).
Individuals seek primary care for almost all the health concerns they encounter, for instance, one may look for primary care even for common afflictions such as viral fever, bacterial infection or influenza. Individuals also look for primary care if they think they have broken a bone; have skin rash or a sore muscle. Primary care providers (PCPs)…
Baldwin, D. M. (2003). Disparities in Health and Health Care: Focusing Efforts to Eliminate Unequal Burdens. The Online Journal of Issues in Healthcare, 8(1).
CDC. (2014, March 13). Healthy People 2020. Retrieved from National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/hp2020.htm
Dorning, J. (2014, June). The U.S. Health Care System: An International Perspective. Retrieved from Department for Professional Employees: http://dpeaflcio.org/programs-publications/issue-fact-sheets/the-u-s-health-care-system-an-international-perspective/
Squires, D., & Anderson, C. (2015, October 8). U.S.Health Care from a Global Perspective: Spending, Use of Services, Prices, and Health in 13 Countries. Retrieved from The Commonwealth Fund: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-briefs/2015/oct/us-health-care-from-a-global-perspective
Measuring Outcomes, Assessment and Research
hen it comes to evaluating the effectiveness, efficiency, performance, efficacy and quality of a healthcare outcome, there are important components to focus on. There are several levels of "value," including business value, the value of an employee (whether it be a nurse, orderly, doctor, and other medical specialists), the value attached to the ability to learn new procedures and technologies in the healthcare field, and certainly the value of the customer.
Assessment and Measuring Tools vis-a-vis Healthcare Outcomes
However, there are other considerations to take into account when performing tasks related to evaluation (effectiveness, performance, et. al.). For example, in the Journal of Advanced Nursing the authors present data from the National Prevalence Measurement of Care Problems (LPZ is the acronym in Dutch), which is a study that looks into the " ... prevalence, prevention, treatment and quality indicators" of six basic care issues (Halfens,…
Halfens, R.J.G., Meesterberends, E., Nie-Visser, N.C., Lohrmann, C., Schonherr, S., Meijers,
J.M.M., Hahn, S., Vangelooven, C., and Schols, J.M.G.A. (2013). LPZ Report: Results /
International Prevalence measurement of care problems: results. Journal of Advanced
Nursing, 69(9), e5-e17.
As standard procedure warranted in this case, her obstetrician injected her with varicella zoster specific immunoglobulin. The injection did occur too late, but this is a special case warranting attention and was a prophylactic to protect the baby. A few days later the N developed chickenpox anyway. The reasons why the vaccine did not take could have been the fact that the N had already been exposed, and the situation is referred to as "breakthrough varicella," (National Centre for Immunisation, 2009, p. 3). Breakthrough varicella is a mild form of the infection, and yet is still contagious. Varicella vaccine should not be given to the baby until it is twelve months of age, but it may not be necessary at all due to the potential in vitro exposure to the varicella zoster virus. Infants "should receive no specific treatment or vaccination after exposure to Varicella zoster virus (VZV) but…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Preventing varicella in health care settings. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/chickenpox/hcp/healthcare-setting.html
Cheprasov, A. (2014). The spread of disease. Retrieved online: http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/the-spread-of-disease-endemic-epidemic-pandemic.html#lesson
Children, Youth, and Women's Health Service (n.d.). Chickenpox. Retrieved online: http://www.health.wa.gov.au/docreg/Education/Diseases/Communicable/Virus/HP8873_chickenpox.pdf
"Descriptive Epidemiology," (2014). Retrieved online: http://www.med.uottawa.ca/SIM/data/Epidemiology_rates_e.htm
IV. HOME-GENERATED SHARPS CONSOLIDATION POINT COMPLIANCE home-generated sharps consolidation point must comply with the requirements stated as follows:
1) All sharps waste shall be placed in sharps containers;
2) Sharps containers ready for disposal shall not be held more than seven (7) days without the written approval of the enforcement agency." (State of California Division of Drinking Water and Environmental Management, 2007)
V. RESPONSE of the SHARP'S CORPORATION
According to the representative for the Sharps Corporation:
We believe this to be a break-through event for the Company as the legislative process now mandates the proper disposal of used syringes, needles and lancets outside of the traditional healthcare setting in California. We believe that the California legislation could prove to be the model for legislation throughout the country. This legislation has the potential to not only positively impact our residential community business but also sales opportunities in all markets we serve…
OSHA eTools and Electronic Products for Compliance Assistance Teen Worker Safety in Restaurants, 2007 Cleanup/Cuts. Online available at: www.osha.gov/SLTC/youth/restaurant/cleanup_cuts.htm
Sharps Compliance Corp. Announces Passage of California Legislation; California Senate Bill 1305 Requires Proper Disposal of Home-Generated Sharps." Business Wire. July 17, 2006. FindArticles.com. 28 Feb. 2007. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2006_July_17/ai_n16535433
Senate Bill No. 1305 Passed the Senate May 11, 2006, Passed the Assembly June 26, 2006. Online available at http://info.sen.ca.gov/pub/05-06/bill/sen/sb_1301-1350/sb_1305_bill_20060628_enrolled.pdf.
Promote Foster Improve Workplace Opportunity California Department of Industrial Relations (2000-2001 Biennial Report) State of California OPS 02 69225.
Organ transplant recipients are more susceptible to cancer due to oncogenic viral infections and immunosuppression. What is the overall pattern of cancer following an organ transplantation?
Cancer is a major adverse outcome of solid organ transplantation.2 Previous studies have demonstrated an overall 2- to 4-fold elevated risk of cancer.3- 11 Excess risk is largely due to immunosuppression, with a spectrum of cancer resembling that seen with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, another immunosuppressing condition.11 isks are especially high for malignancies caused by viral infections, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma (both due to Epstein-Barr virus [EBV]), Kaposi sarcoma (human herpesvirus 8), anogenital cancers (human papillomavirus), and liver cancer (hepatitis C and B viruses). Certain other malignancies such as cancers of the lung, kidney, skin, and thyroid also are increased in transplant recipients. Linkage of population-based transplant and cancer registries from the same geographic region can allow for systematic ascertainment of…
Engels, E.A., Pfeiffer, R.M., Fraumeni, J.F., Kasiske, B.L., Israni, A.K., & Snyder, J.J. (2011). Spectrum of Cancer Risk among U.S. Solid Organ Transplant Recipients. JAMA, 306(17), 1891-1901. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1592
Saaristo, T., Moilanen, L., Korpi-Hyovalti, E., Vanhala, M., Saltevo, J., Niskanen, L. . . . Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S. (2010). Lifestyle intervention for prevention of type 2 diabetes in primary health care: one-year follow-up of the Finnish national diabetes prevention program (FIND2D). Diabetes Care, 33(10), 2146-2151. Doi:10.2337/dc10-0410
Sperling, R.A., Aisen, P.S., Beckett, L.A., Bennett, D.A., Craft, S., Fagan, A.M., . . . Phelps, C.H. (2011). Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia,7(3), 280 -- 292. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.03.003
Incidence rates of obesity are rising globally, with tremendous impacts to the cost and nature of healthcare intervention. As measured as body mass index (BMI) of 25 or over, being overweight affects as many as 67% of all American adults, while up to 40% can be classified as obese with a BMI of 30 or more. About 5% of Americans are classified as morbidly obese with a BMI of 40 or more. Obesity affects persons from all demographic groups, and has been on the rise in all demographic groups, even though some groups have higher rates of obesity than others. As many as 10% of all children worldwide are either obese or overweight. Being overweight and being obese are associated with a number of health conditions including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Moreover, obesity may cause psychological and social issues ranging from depression and anxiety to stigma and prejudice, with…
Camden, S.G. (2009). Obesity: An emerging concern for patients and nurses. OJIN 14(1).
Joggers attired brightly colored skin tight spandex and loose fitting grey cotton sweats pass the wooden bench at regular intervals. Some breeze by largely unaffected by the gravitational effects of the Earth, while others sucked air like there was a shortage. A large lake, with rental rowboats available only to the affluent zigzagging across the otherwise placid surface, was in front of the bench beyond the concrete. Occasionally bicyclists whisk by weaving through the pedestrians like mosquitoes. This was my favorite park and my favorite place in the park. I remember picnicking here as a child with my father and mother.
As I sat on the bench a slight breeze skipped through the leaves of the eclectic variety of deciduous trees planted that seemed to be planted ad hoc throughout the park by an unsupervised group of druggy's the1960s. The effect in the fall is as mind blowing…
Health Organization Case Study
The mission of Banner Healthcare is to make a difference in the lives of people through excellent patient care. They achieve this by providing leadership for excellence in patient safety and clinical care. Traditionally, healthcare institutions focused on analyzing aggregate performance, questioning causation, monitoring scorecards and identifying gaps. Planning and managing stages at integral to the process of achieving Banner Healthcare's vision. Planning entails the development of standards, rules, and work teams necessary for the work. Concurrent management involves patient-oriented care and coordinated health care. Across the various work teams, care management efforts and the number of people are involved in making clinical improvements across the organization have been gradually increasing.
This occurs regardless of whether they are work groups, system wide teams, strategic initiatives, and special projects. The work is organized under functional teams. Besides the functional teams, initiative work groups and clinical consensus groups…
Wickramasinghe, N. & Sharma, S.K. (2010). Creating knowledge-based healthcare organizations. Hershey Penns: Idea Group Pub.
Nursing Case Study
Managing a possible Case of Gastroenteritis: A Nursing Case Study
The effective delivery of optimal nursing care requires a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses both the patient's symptoms and the security of the immediate environment. This report presents a case study of appropriate evidence-based nursing practices in treating an elderly female patient presenting with abdominal discomfort in a residential care setting.
The client presents with new onset faecal incontinence, diarrhoea and increasing abdominal discomfort and cramps. These symptoms suggest a possible gastrointestinal disturbance (Crisp & Taylor, 2009) and present a number of possible diagnoses. While the client's nursing care plan indicates that she is normally continent, her confidential disclosure to the nurse suggests that her symptoms may be more prolonged. Another relevant client characteristic is her advanced age of 85 years.
The client's proximity to the dirty utility room in the aged care facility and the report…
1. Crisp J, Taylor C. (2010). Potter & Perry's fundaments of nursing (3rd ed.). Chatswood, N.S.W.: Elsevier, Australia.
2. Kirk MD, Hall GV, Veitch MGK, Becker N. (2010). Assessing the ?incidence of gastroenteritis among elderly people living in long-term care facilities. Journal of Hospital Infection, 76, 12.
3. Australian Government: Department of Health and Ageing. (2007). Retrieved from- http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/icg-guidelinesindex.htm .
4. Andrew E, Simor MVD. (2010). Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Review. The-Americans Geriatric Societ, 58(8), 1557-1593.
I think that proper networking and research on who is making quality products, and finding a vendor with a good track record of customer satisfaction would be crucial in getting a positive consumer reaction.
Networking is invaluable when you do not miss opportunities that are available just from people talking about your product. Some of the smaller stores are involved in fairs and events where products can be introduced to the public without the burden of larger brand name competition.
Additionally, my variety of personal strengths will help me succeed when I launch my new business. I am not intimidated by the possibility that my business might fail. I know that I will work very hard to make my business successful, and if the business is not successful, I will know that I would have done everything possible to make the business succeed.
I am not afraid or intimidated…
The Body Shop. (2004) Where we come from. Retrieved October 2, 2004, from: http://bodyshopinternational.com/web/tbsgl/about_where.jsp
Bath & Body Works, Inc. (nd). Retrieved October 2, 2004, from: http://www.hoovers.com/bath-&-body-works/--ID__104462 -- /free-co- factsheet.xhtml
Biesada, a. (2004) Hoovers Online. The Body Shop International PLC.
As with many pharmaceutical products manufacturers, the extent of supply chain and quality performance has a direct effect on distribution, profitability and services performance as well (tevenson, 2012).
Beginning with supply chain management, J&J has an intensively level of supplier audits they expect each supplier to pass and also randomly be able to manage as they provide materials, components and subassemblies to the company (Wechsler, 2011). upplier audits form the interlinking process to Quality Management, another strategic operations management initiative in the comp[any as well. J&J also uses these supplier audits to ensure alignment to the Collaborative, Planning, Forecasting & Replenishment (CPFR) processes which are critical to their success in anticipating global demand for products by business unit (Weill, Ross, 2005). upply chain management is the unifying operations management strategy that keeping the entire value chain and quality levels of J&J aligned to corporate objectives and standards (Weill, Ross, 2005)…
Sources: (Connolly, 2007) (Hook, 2010) (SAP Practice on Life Sciences Supply Chains) (J&J Investor Relations, 2012)
J&J has a strong focus on operations management strategies, techniques and frameworks as the company is heavily reliant on them to continually meet federal and international compliance requirements for their products (Wechsler, 2011). The focus on supply chain integration to quality management is critical for any business' supply chain to execute the many processes and transactions necessary to grow a business (Stevenson, 2012). For J&J the highly regulated nature of the product quality levels for their products make the integration of these two areas essential for their continued profitability and growth.
Christine Connolly. (2007). Sensor trends in processing and packaging of foods and pharmaceuticals. Sensor Review, 27(2), 103.
Management Theory vs. Organizational Functions
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is useful for raising awareness of the contribution between job challenge and responsibility in motivating employees toward higher productivity and employee retention. It has also been useful in identifying and assessing customer satisfaction characteristics. Fishbein's Reasoned Action Theory is useful for explaining why particular behaviors are happening and the underlying causes of the behavior. Both theories are useful for identifying problem areas and planning actions for improvement in organizational behaviors.
According to (Bolm, 2012), the Two-factor Theory claims individual perception of satisfaction or dissatisfaction relates to discrete intrinsic and extrinsic variables where a variable can uniquely influence satisfaction or dissatisfaction, but not both. Motivator (intrinsic) factors include achievement, recognition, and responsibility where hygiene (extrinsic) factors include policy, status, and security. Motivator factors, when present, increase job motivation and satisfaction, but, when not present, show no effect. Hygiene factors, when present, show no…
Bolm, J. (2012). Two-factor theory-at the intersection of health care management and patient satisfaction. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res., vol 4, 277-285 Retrieved from http:/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3468274.
Dartey-Baah, K. & . (2011). Application of Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory in assessing and understanding employee motivation at work: A Ghanian Perspective. European Journal of Business and Management 3(9).
Peters, R.M. (2010). Theory of Planned Behavior, Self-Care Motivation, and Blood Pressure Self-Care. Res Theory Nurs Pract, 24(3), 172-186 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm, nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728772.
Sukato, N. & . (2009). A Model of Male Consumer Behavior in Buying Skin Care Products in Thailand. ABAC Journal, 29(1), 39-52 Retrieved from http://www.abacjournal.au.edu/2009/jan09/article03_JanApr2009.pdf .
With problem-free skin throughout her teens and 20s, Trish has been especially anxious about her problem and wants to develop a face care regiment that prevents and treats her blemishes. I also advised Trish to watch her diet, drink a lot of water, and to take a multivitamin. Additionally, I asked Trish to find out whether her problem might be related to hormonal imbalances because some birth control pills help women deal with adult acne.
Trish's facial is a full facial but after examining her skin I noticed some of her acne is cystic. Therefore, we will treat Trish as if she also has highly sensitive skin, which she might. Trish first receives an oil-free cleanser followed by a toner. Both products are tailored for oily skin, and after using them we also use a gentle exfoliator. Next, we use steam to open Trish's pores and spend some…
Apply a Facial Mask for a Snappy Makeover." Retrieved Feb 18, 2008 at http://beautytalk-mix.blogspot.com/2008/02/apply-facial-mask-for-snappy-makeover.html
Dry Skin." Holistic Online.com Retrieved Feb 18, 2008 at http://www.1stholistic.com/Beauty/skin/skin_dry.htm
Many recommend use of minimally invasive techniques including SEPS to treat and address problems related to chronic venous insufficiency (Kalra & Glovisczki, 2002). Multiple studies confirm the safety and efficacy of SEPS when used early, especially resulting from its low complication rates compared with other procedures including the formerly popular Linton procedures (Kalra & Gloiscki, 2002; Lee, et al. 2003; Tenbrook, et al., 2004; Bianchi, et al. 2003).
More randomized clinical trials are necessary however to answer additional questions related to the efficacy of new procedures including SEPS, though this procedures remains important for patients with advanced CVI secondary to PVI or with patients who do not demonstrate other complications including DVT (Kalra & Gloiscki, 2002; Bianchi, et al. 2003).
Wagner-Cox (2005) also notes that it is important for nurses to be considerate, knowledgeable and compassionate toward patients with acute and chronic illnesses, especially when caring for…
Baranoski, S. & Thimsen, K. (2003, Aug). "Oasis Skin and Wound Integumentary
Assessment Items: Applying the WOCN Guidance Document." Home Healthcare Nurse, 21(8): Supplement 3-13.
Baron, H.C., Wayne, M.G., Santiago, C.A. & Grossi, R. (2004, Sep-Oct). Vasc
Endovascular Surg. 38(5): 439-42.
Marketing Plan for Clinique
Marketing Plan Clinique
Clinique -- Introduction:
Clinique is one of the world's leading brands in skincare, fragrances, cosmetics, and toiletries products. It was introduced by Estee Lauder Corporation in 1968. Clinique is a business unit that represents all the beauty and cosmetics products which Estee Lauder Corporation owns and operates. The company is headquartered in New York, United States of America and sells its Clinique products in more than 80 countries of the world. Clinique is recognized as a premium quality brand which offers extensive range of cosmetics products manufactured according to individual needs of customers from all age groups (Clinique). The following sections present a marketing plan for Clinique brand which may be helpful in analyzing the selling, marketing, and promotional activities of the company and the business environment in which it operates.
A) Current Market Situation:
The beauty and cosmetics industry of…
Barnes, Cindy; Blake, Helen; & Pinder, David. Creating & Delivering your Value Proposition: Managing Customer Experience for Profit, 1st Edition. Philadelphia: Kogan Page, 2009. E-Book.
Clinique. 3 Step System. 2012. Web. 25 July, 2012.
Henry, Anthony. Understanding Strategic Management, 1st Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print
Lamb, Charles; Hair, Joseph; & McDaniel, Carl. Essentials of Marketing, 7th Edition. Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2012. Print
The internal measures refer to improving the quality of the human resource management, hiring specialized workforce and developing and implementing marketing strategies, such as advertising, logistics and promotional strategies. Measures related to the Japanese market environment refer to Gaillie's compliance with the import laws and acts and getting passed the cultural barriers.
A useful recommendation regards the particular features of the Asian market. As such, the American exporters have to conduct extensive studies in order to identify, understand and relate to the forces that drive the Japanese market and the demand for American cosmetic products.
Carr, J., the Japanese Market: Information Sources for Overseas Companies, Warwick Statistics Service, 1984
Gummesson, E., Total Relationship Marketing..., utterworth-Heinemann, May 1999
Kotaro, T., the Japanese Market Economy System: Its Strengths and Weaknesses, Kodansha Ltd. Publishers, 1994
Vogel, D., Consumer Protection and Protectionism in Japan, Journal of Japanese Studies, Volume 18, Number 1, 1992…
Carr, J., the Japanese Market: Information Sources for Overseas Companies, Warwick Statistics Service, 1984
Gummesson, E., Total Relationship Marketing..., Butterworth-Heinemann, May 1999
Kotaro, T., the Japanese Market Economy System: Its Strengths and Weaknesses, Kodansha Ltd. Publishers, 1994
Vogel, D., Consumer Protection and Protectionism in Japan, Journal of Japanese Studies, Volume 18, Number 1, 1992
Olay Advertisement Analysis
It is without a doubt that the people of the United States and much of the rest of the modernized and industrialized world are extremely focused on beauty, attractiveness and the perceptions of others. This focus and analysis is often pointed inward and towards the self but it also projected and stated outward in many ways as well. Advertisers know this full well and beauty product marketers in particular use that fact and detail as a wedge to sell beauty products. Olay is certainly among the companies that does this and this is easy to see when looking at the way in which they market their creams, lotions and other health/beauty products. While making good faith and provable claims about their products would be fair game, there are some claims and statements they make that are clearly puffery and perhaps bordering on unethical.
So as to…
What's Gone Wrong?
CVI is generally an indication of blood stasis or venous reflux, most commonly valvular incompetence in the low-pressure superficial venous system. The inability of blood to return to the heart from the legs causes it to pool and clot. CVI generally occurs within the deep veins (Deep Vein Thrombosis), may also be related to varicose twisting, valve malformations or pelvic tumors.
Obesity, inactivity, pregnancy, smoking and extended periods of standing or sitting tend to be the activity factors of most importance. Women often present varicose veins; men DVT but this may be associated with delayed reporting. Type II Diabetes may also suggest different gender propensities. People over 50 predominately display indicators.
CVI results from damage caused to the veins, though clotting itself can precipitate vascular dilation. Varicose veins are often hereditary as may be valve defections which can result in venous reflux. Other…
Collins, L.M. (2012). Taking blood pressure in both arms may find silent heart disease. Viewable: http://www.deseretnews.com/article/700220373/Taking-blood-pressue-in-both-arms-may-find-silent-heart-disease.html
Weiss, R. (2012). Venus Insufficiency. Medscape Reference. Viewable at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1085412-overview .
Companies such as XYZ Widget Corporation are well situated to take advantage of burgeoning markets in developing nations, particularly in Asia and Africa.
2. XYZ can grow its business by expanding its operations to certain developing nations in ways that profit the company as well as the impoverished regions that are involved, particularly when marketing efforts are coordinated with nongovernmental organizations operating in the region.
3. Several constraints and challenges must be overcome in order to succeed in selling to impoverished regions of the world.
4. Time is of the essence. First movers will enjoy distinct competitive advantages over their counterparts who adopt a "wait-and-see" approach to targeting the poor in developing nations as potential markets.
The world's population has never been larger, and there are more poor people today than ever before in history. Current trends provide some mixed messages concerning the direction that poverty is taking in…
Alserhan, B.A. & Brannick, T. (2002). Information technology in Ireland: the myth and the reality? Irish Journal of Management, 23(1), 1-2.
Black, R. & White, H. (2003). Targeting development: Critical perspectives on the millennium development goals. New York: Routledge.
Blair, A. & Hitchcock, D. (2001). Environment and business. London: Routledge.
Blank, S. (2007). A corporate solution to global poverty: How multinationals can help the poor and invigorate their own legitimacy. Journal of Economic Issues, 41(4), 1186-1187.
Entrepreneurial Titans - Mary Kay Ash and Anita oddick
From time immemorial, entrepreneurship has undeniably been a crucial part of human life. Entrepreneurship entails identifying and starting a business as well as organizing and sourcing the required resources to start the business venture. It also entails taking risks and rewards associated with some business ventures. Entrepreneurship may revitalize mature organizations or result in new firms in response to perceived business opportunity. This report will attempt to compare two entrepreneurial titans- Anita oddick and Mary Kay Ash as leaders and managers. Secondly, it will attempt to explain the achievements of both women. It will also evaluate various quotes made by the two women about their business ventures. I will then provide recommendations to both entrepreneurial titans concerning various business matters (igby, 2011).
First, oddick was an international businessperson, environmental campaigner and a human rights activist born in Britain. She was…
Boyett, J.H., & Boyett, J.T. (2000). The guru guide to entrepreneurship a concise guide to the best ideas from the world's top entrepreneurs. New York: John Wiley.
Crossan, M.M., Gandz, J., Seijts, G.H., & Stephenson, C. (2010). Cross-enterprise leadership business leadership for the twenty-first century. Mississauga, Ont.: Jossey-Bass.
Miller, J. (2012). The new heart at work: stories and strategies for building self-esteem and reawakening the soul at work. U.S.: Trafford Publishing.
Rigby, R. (2011). 28 business thinkers who changed the world the management gurus and mavericks who changed the way we think about business. London: Kogan Page.
Nonetheless, despite Alex's impersonal and intimidating style of management, she has proven to be an effective motivator throughout all aspects of her role in the company, successfully spearheading the rebranding campaigns of two major skin care products while earning promotions along the way. In the 9:00PM section of the case study timeline, the reader is privy to a conversation between Alex's boss Sam Glass and his senior counterpart in the company, and their glowing appraisal of her managerial presence bodes well for her potential for future career success at Landon Care Products, Inc. When Sam Glass says "Alex makes waves, but that's the price you pay for having such a star," he is showing that executive management prioritizes performance and productivity over the personal feelings of low-level workers. By dismissing the concerns voiced by many of Alex's coworkers simply the waves made by star management material, Sam Glass shows that…
Business Manager 0668
Tools for customers
E-commerce payment solutions
Search Engine Optimization
Strategies for improvement
Search Engine Optimization and webpage rankings
Global business diversity
Customer elationship Management
Website integration of tools
Discuss how you will facilitate customer payment using e-commerce solutions (e.g., how the transaction will take place, including the tools customers will use).
The customer transactions and payments are one of the important elements of e-commerce strategy. The businesses are required to offer a secure and trust worthy system for their client to manage the financial transactions. There are different transactions handling methods used by the e-commerce-based organizations. These payment methods should be aligned with the overall business transaction handling process as well as appropriate selection of tools and e-payment solutions.
The transactions of products produced under the label of Sunny Day salon are mainly related…
Buttle, F. (2012). Customer relationship management.USA: Routledge.
Kent, P. (2012). Search engine optimization for dummies. USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Kim, C., Tao, W., Shin, N., & Kim, K.S. (2010). An empirical study of customers' perceptions of security and trust in e-payment systems. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 9(1), 84-95.
Ojeda-Zapata, J. (2011). iPad Means Business: How Apple's Tablet Computer is Changing the Work World. USA: Happy About.
L'Oreal Nederland B.V.
Identification of Alternative Solutions
Recommendation and Implementation
Exhibit 1. Alternatives Analysis
The managers of the Dutch subsidiary of the L'Oreal Group wrestled with a decision about whether to introduce additional products into the Netherlands market. L'Oreal, headquartered in Paris, was the largest cosmetics manufacturer in the world. With a heavy corporate investment in research and development, Paris expected each of the 100 country subsidiaries to distribute the new products; but the country managers were required to take the decision on whether to introduce each product based on the particular situation in their country. The French labs made unilateral decisions about all new product developments and the country managers had no input into the R&D process. Any new product line introduction had to be financed by the current operations of each subsidiary.
Some years earlier, L'Oreal had acquired a rival French company called Laboratoires…
As Nivea is going afte a highly diffeentiation, high value maket position with NIVEA VISAGE Young, the picing incease is an excellent stategy to suppot positioning and incease pofits as well.
A thid vey stong facto is the use of high steet etailes in the selling stategy, by offeing samples though these locations. Visiting a high steet etaile can be a sensoy-filled expeience with all the smells and sounds of the high-end beauty countes thee. Having NIVEO VISAGE Young in that setting futhe stengthens the aspiational selling and positioning message the poduct is attempting to convey. Futhe, the high steet distibution also adds to the pestige of the poduct line as well.
In summay, the poduct changes the company makes communicate they ae seious about thei commitment to being who they say they ae in all othe channels. In addition, the focus on eco-fiendly and sustainability messaging with poduct fomula…
references and needs of the young women in the NIVEA VISAGE Young segment. The modifications to the product were more than just to move away from a medication-based positioning it would have had with the alcohol content in the formula; it was necessary to redefine the formula to substantiate the claims made in the promotional strategies and support the premium price as well. Product, as a result, is a very strong catalyst in the overall marketing mix. The changes made to the product made the entire positioning at the high end of the market and the aspirational messaging to younger women effective.
A secondary marketing mix factor is the pricing. Instead of dropping the price and attempting to gain market penetration by undercutting competitors, the company has chosen to pursue a high-end product position by increasing price. This is a very effective strategy for communicating the price/quality relationship inherent in the new product positioning, in addition to providing gross margins to pay for the high street distribution critical to the company's success. The pricing position also defies price elasticity concerns as well, namely choosing to increase prices in an inelastic market. Price increases are more successful in inelastic markets where the differentiators are not entirely based on commoditization. As Nivea is going after a highly differentiation, high value market position with NIVEA VISAGE Young, the pricing increase is an excellent strategy to support positioning and increase profits as well.
A third very strong factor is the use of high street retailers in the selling strategy, by offering samples through these locations. Visiting a high street retailer can be a sensory-filled experience with all the smells and sounds of the high-end beauty counters there. Having NIVEO VISAGE Young in that setting further strengthens the aspirational selling and positioning message the product is attempting to convey. Further, the high street distribution also adds to the prestige of the product line as well.
In summary, the product changes the company makes communicate they are serious about their commitment to being who they say they are in all other channels. In addition, the focus on eco-friendly and sustainability messaging with product formula changes, along with the use of social networks to connect with young women create a strong execution consistency across the product line. All of these factors come together in high street stores where the experience of sampling the facial products becomes very aspirational for a young woman between 13 and 19 years old.
Flo retaliated by acquiring Harry Johnson and 11 other employees who then worked for Helena. When Helena opened a salon in New York, Arden opened a counterpart elsewhere. Parallelisms appeared to occur between them in that they both entered the men's skin care industry at roughly the same time. They also both married exiled princes after their first marriages ended in divorce.
Flo or Arden also lost half a million dollars in sales in the first two years since her divorce with Tommy, but being inherently innovative, she managed the crisis, recovered and proceeded to lead the industry. Records bear these out. While many businesses flopped during the Great Depression, Elizabeth Arden not only stayed and spent. It also bought an office building and a penthouse in New York during the stock market crash of 1929 and opened several other salons in the 30s.
Elizabeth Arden demonstrated an unwavering commitment…
Colbert, C. (2004). Elizabeth Arden, Inc. Hoover's Online: Hoover's, Inc. http://www.hoovers.com/free/co/factsheet.xhtl?COID=47820
Consumer Relations. (2000).Elizabeth Arden, Inc. http://www.ffi.cc/corporate_locations.asp
DPA Fragrance Wholesale. (2004). Some History and Background on Elizabeth Arden. CFL Inc. http://www.fragrancewholesale.com/somhisandback11.html
Kent, J. (2004). Entrepreneur for the Young and Beautiful. Business Builder in Cosmetics: Oliver Press, Inc.