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United States Survive with Half Slave-States and Half Free?
The history of slavery in the United States was a long one and subject to many twists and turns. Ultimately, the issue that was so controversial in the formation of the United States government subsequent to the end of American Revolution became one of the reasons for the fighting of the Civil War. As a result of that war slavery was abolished in the United States but for over seventy-five years politicians, judges and social activists struggled to keep slavery from tearing apart the great American experiment.
Although it has not been publicized extensively slavery existed in all the colonies prior to the American Revolution. By the time that the Revolution ended most northern states had abolished slavery within its borders and it was only the southern states that continued this practice. At the time that the United States government was…
Slaves No More
The issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation did not immediately end the institution of slavery in America, it took the enforcement of that proclamation by Union troops. The period of time at the end of the Civil War, when freedom from bondage was being imposed by the advancing Union armies, was a tenuous time for the former slaves. Many White Southerners refused to accept the freedom of their former "property," and took actions to re-impose their authority. But after the official surrender of the South, many were forced to begrudgingly accept the freedom of their former slaves. Leon Litwack's article entitled "Slaves No More" examines this period of time and how the presence of Union soldiers was often the determining factor in how free the former slaves were allowed to be.
Most Americans learn that slavery ended in the United States when Abraham Lincoln issued the "Emancipation Proclamation"…
Slave Community. In the development of southern architecture slaves constructed both slave quarters as well as larger plantation homes. Choose 3 examples of these types of structures and discuss why they were used, they overall design (using terminology) and also the origins of the design ideas and why these design elements were incorporated into the buildings.
The plantation architecture in the South developed over centuries, reflected not only the evolution of the slave communities, but also their interaction with the owners, their cultural background and their integration in the economic structure of the South. Many of the phases in this development, including creolization, brought forth new elements in architecture, as well as in the anthropological and cultural evolution of these communities. The aim of this paper is to discuss Southern architecture with distinct examples from plantation houses and slave communities, with an additional perspective on creaolization and its impact.
1. Plantation Architecture in Alabama. 2011. Encyclopedia of Alabama. On the Internet at http://encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1671 . Last retrieved on February 14, 2012
2. Buisseret, David. 2000. Creolization in the Americas. Texas A&M University Press
3. Edwards, Jay; Kariouk, Nicolas. 2004. A Creole lexicon. LSU Press.
4. Vlach, John Michael. 1993. Back of the big house. UNC Press Books
Mary also remembers the days of the war, when they heard stories about being set free and prayed for their freedom. Then one day all the slaves were asked to come to the Grand House. Here they were told by the master and his wife that they were no longer slaves. They were now free. "The Yankees will soon be here." The two of them then brought their chairs to the front of the house on the porch and waited. In about an hour, the Yankees arrived and repeated: "You are now free." The slaves and Yankees ate and drank together in celebration, while the owners continued to "humbly" sit on the porch and watch. This story by Mary was indeed very different from the movies, such as "Gone with the Wind" with the fires and mayhem. It is actually as if the master and his wife were glad --…
Jacobs, Harriett. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. 26 November 2008. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/jacobs/hjhome.htm
Yetman, Norman. Voices from Slavery. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1970
They are at a point in their life where decisions in their life affect their future and sitting in front of a computer unless it is your field of study is not getting them anywhere. The factors of this addiction are the lack of socializing, entertaining the user, and the rising of technology.
However, again we have to ask ourselves if it is a disorder, then what does it do to the human brain? In Scientific American, a study was published that indicates that brain scans hint that excessive time online is tied to stark and lethal physical changes in the brain. The work suggests that self-assessed Internet addiction, primarily through online multiplayer games, rewires structures deep in the brain. Even more telling, surface-level brain matter appears to shrink in step with the duration of online addiction. Loosely defined, addiction is a disease of the brain that compels someone to…
Matyszczyk, Chris. "America's First Internet Addiction Detox Program." Cnet.com. Cnet.com, 20 Aug.
2009. Web. 20 Apr 2012. .
Mosher, James. "High Wired: Does Addictive Internet Use Restructure the Brain?." Scientific
American. Scientific American, 17 June 2011. Web. 20 Apr 2012.
" And as for this article's information on mortality among slaves in South America, "Death rates among slaves in the Caribbean were one-third higher than in the south...and sometimes Latin American slaves were forced to wear iron masks to keep them from eating dirt or drinking liquor." It was cruel to force slaves in Latin America to produce their own food "in their free time" (Digital History), but that was what was expected of them.
So while slaves were dying in huge numbers due to the difficulties of working in the mines and in the sugar cane plantations in Brazil, many slaves in America were actually working indoors in kitchens, doing domestic work, helping white mothers raise the white children. They received, by all accounts, ample food to eat, and even were treated with some dignity in some instances.
hile there were no doubt numerous instances of brutality on the…
Cooper, Joseph. The Lost Continent: Slavery and the Slave-Trade in Africa in 1875. London:
Frank Cass & Co. LTD, 1968.
Digital History. "African-American Voices: American Slavery in Comparative Perspective."
2006). Retrieved Dec. 2, 2007, at http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/wahl.slavery.us.
The trans-Atlantic slave trade shackled together persons from disparate cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Forced contact and communion, pervasive physical and psychological abuse, and systematic disenfranchisement became the soil in which a unique subculture would be born. Slave subcultures in the United States were also diverse, depending on geography, the nature of the plantation work, the prevailing political and social landscape of the slave owner culture, and factors like gender and ethnic backgrounds of the slaves. Presence and type of religion in the community also impacted the evolution of slave culture. Common factors that link disparate slave subcultures include religion, music, crafts, food, social norms, and political philosophies. In spite of the tremendous variations in theme and tone of slave cultures, such as those in Maryland, Virginia, Georgia, or the Carolinas, there did emerge some consistencies that draw attention to commonalities. The forced bondage of slavery created the means…
"African Diaspora," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www2.coloradocollege.edu/Dept/HY/HY243Ruiz/Research/diaspora.html
Chen, A. & Kermeliotis, T. (2012). African slave traditions live on in U.S. CNN World. Dec 10, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.cnn.com/2012/12/07/world/africa/gullah-geechee-africa-slavery-america/
Sambol-Tosco, K. (2004). Education, arts, and culture. Slavery and the Making of America: Historical Overview. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/experience/education/history.html
"Slave Culture," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtid=2&psid=3043
McLaurin states in the beginning of his book, "The life of Celia demonstrates how slavery placed individuals, black and white, in specific situations that forced them to make and to act upon personal decisions of a fundamentally moral nature" (McLaurin 1991, xi). The American policy at the time supported slavery, and even allowed slave and non-slave states to join the Union in equal numbers. Most Northerners did not support slavery, but most Southerners did, and the American government managed to stay neutral by allowing states to join the Union in equal numbers, until the Civil War broke out. Of course, the Civil War freed the slaves, but they were certainly not free and equal in the South. The American policy, even after the war, did not allow the same freedoms, and even if it did, the Southerners created their own policies with the Jim Crow laws that affected blacks.
McLauren, M.A. Celia, a Slave: A True Story of Violence and Retribution in Antebellum Missouri. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press, 1991.
New states lying north of said parallel would be admitted as non-slave while those lying south would be slave.
The importance of the Missouri Compromise cannot be over-stated. It impacted the boundaries of several other states other than Missouri and led to some of the most hotly contested political debates in United States history.
Interestingly, the boundary established through the Missouri Compromise, that is, the 36?30' parallel, had actually been in use as a boundary line since early colonial days and the Missouri Compromise served to continue its use. The boundary between original thirteen colony members, Virginia and North Carolina, is the 36?30' parallel and the boundary between two of the earlier states admitted to the Union, Kentucky and Tennessee is also the 36?30' parallel.
Map depicting 36?30' parallel
The admission of Texas as a statehood was affected by the Missouri Compromise. Unlike any other state, Texas enjoyed status as…
Dixon, Archibald. The True History of the Missouri Compromise and its Repeal. BiblioBazaar, 2009.
Eastern Michigan University. Bleeding Kansas. http://edit.emich.edu/index.php?title=Bleeding_Kansas (accessed December 4, 2010).
Marshall, Peter C. Envisioning America: English Plan for the Colonization of North America, 1580-1640. Bedford / St. Martin's, 1995.
Mcgreevy, Patrick. Stairway to Empire: Lockport, the Erie Canal, and the Shaping of America. State University of New York Press, 2009.
CONFEDEATION & CONSTITUION
Confederation & Constitution
The author of this report is charged with answering several questions relating to the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. The original Constitution was hard enough to pull off but the Articles of Confederation were also a challenge and were in response to the economic challenges of that day. Different issues and weaknesses that came up were the Western problem, the slave vs. slave states, eastern vs. western states, Sherman's Plan, the Great Compromise and so forth. The debates that raged with the Federalists and the anti-Federalists will be covered as well as how the Bill of ights debate developed. Finally, the relative success of the Bill of ights will be summarized. While no single constitutional document is going to placate all sources and address all problems that could come to pass, the compromises and debates that raged about these two major parts of…
Archive.gov. (2014, August 1). Constitution of the United States - Official. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved August 1, 2014, from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution.html
Archives.gov. (2014, August 2). Bill of Rights. National Archives and Records
Administration. Retrieved August 2, 2014, from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights.html
Library of Congress. (2014, July 31). Primary Documents in American History. The Articles of Confederation: Primary Documents of American History (Virtual
Celia, a Slave
The book Celia, A Slave, was written by Melton A. McLaurin, and published in 1993 by HarperCollins, a various locations around the world, as well as in digital form. There is no single location for publishing in this era. HarperCollins has its corporate headquarters in New York City. The story covers the time period of Celia's life from the time she was purchased by obert Newsome at a slave market in 1850. Celia was fourteen years old at the time of the purchase. She was raped by Newsome, and give birth to two of his children. She began a relationship with another slave in 1855, and became pregnant. She was afraid of Newsome and afraid for her unborn child. Unable to secure protection from him from his family, she killed Newsome when he visited her cabin on June 23, 1855. She beat Newsome to death with a…
Mclaurin, Melton A. (1993). Celia, A Slave. HarperCollins.
JRank.org (2016). Slave State of Missouri v. Celia, a Slave
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
U.S. President James Buchanan
James Buchanan, fifteenth President of the United States (James Buchanan, n.d.), was born on April 23, 1791 in Cove Gap, Pennsylvania (BUCHANAN, James, (1791-1868), n.d.). He moved when he was five to Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. He was born into an affluent merchant family. He went to school at the Old Stone Academy prior to going to Dickinson College in 1807. He then learned law and was admitted to the bar in 1812. He began his career as a lawyer prior to combination the military to fight in the ar of 1812. He was then selected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives and then to the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1832, he was chosen by Andrew Jackson to be the Minister to Russia. He came back home to be a U.S. Senator in from 1834-35. In 1845, he was selected Secretary of State under President James K.…
"BUCHANAN, James, (1791-1868)." Bio Guide Congress, n.d. Web. 3 May 2011.
"James Buchanan." Answers, 2011. Web. 29 April 2011.
"James Buchanan." Tulane, n.d. Web. 3 May 2011.
Kelly, Martin. About.com, 2011. "James Buchanan - Fifteenth President of the United States."
Once they arrived, they were brought to a slave market and usually auctioned off to the highest bidder just as cattle and horses were auctioned off. he slaves then spent their lives of servitude helping white farm and plantation owners in their agricultural operations. he slaves weren't typically compensated and lived in deplorable conditions. Slavery helped many white land owners become rich, and the southern colonies, which turned into the southern states, remained slave states, while those in the north became know as free states, where slavery was not legal. his dichotomy of cultures, between the northern and southern states, eventually led to further economic and cultural rifts leading up to the Civil War in 1860.
During the Civil War, the northern states allowed blacks to serve in the Union Army. Southern states, eager to fight for their way of life and economic interests, were against the abolition of slavery.…
The English Colonies were set up as resource providers for the English Monarchy and economy in Europe. Products like cotton, tobacco, and other crops were planted and harvested in the rich soils of the colonies. The land and plantation owners were eager to cut costs, and with the African slave trade to places like the Caribbean and southern Spanish colonies booming, black slaves were an abundant and relatively cheap labor resource, especially for the farms and plantations in the southern colonies. Unlike the southern colonies, the northern colonies' economies began to differentiate themselves as producers of manufactured goods as well as services. In this way, even though slavery was legal in all of the English Colonies, the northern colonies had less of a demand for black slaves than the southern ones.
Operationally, slaves were brought in primarily from West African locales to work in agriculture-related servitude. Many of the slaves were separated from their families and many died during the long voyage via slave ship to the English Colonies. Once they arrived, they were brought to a slave market and usually auctioned off to the highest bidder just as cattle and horses were auctioned off. The slaves then spent their lives of servitude helping white farm and plantation owners in their agricultural operations. The slaves weren't typically compensated and lived in deplorable conditions. Slavery helped many white land owners become rich, and the southern colonies, which turned into the southern states, remained slave states, while those in the north became know as free states, where slavery was not legal. This dichotomy of cultures, between the northern and southern states, eventually led to further economic and cultural rifts leading up to the Civil War in 1860.
During the Civil War, the northern states allowed blacks to serve in the Union Army. Southern states, eager to fight for their way of life and economic interests, were against the abolition of slavery. This is not to say that the Civil War was fought on the question of whether black slavery should be legitimized, but slavery, as an economic mechanism, had much to do with the build up to war that had been occurring for nearly a century previous. After the Civil War, slavery was abolished. But though the institution of slavery was outlawed, the cultural and social norms were still left intact. Across the country, Jim Crow laws were left on the books that held blacks as second-class citizens with fewer rights than whites. Even after the reconstruction period, blacks had a hard time assimilating into mainstream American culture, and were economically and socially disadvantaged because of their history.
John rown's Raid And The Secession Crisis
The American Civil War is considered as an event that was the culmination of several confrontations regarding the institution of slavery. The series of confrontations involved several people including John rown and Abraham Lincoln. John rown was an abolitionist who led a group of 21 men to capture the federal armory of Harpers Ferry (which is currently known as West Virginia). Together with these men, rown's ultimate plan was to provoke an uprising against slavery across the nation. During the planning stage, rown and his group disguised themselves as farmers and collected weapons. The group of 21 men comprised fugitive slaves, factory workers, farmers, and rown's family members or relatives.
Even though rown and his men ultimately seized the guard on the bridge to this town, the event was relatively unsuccessful. This is largely because the raid didn't last long as several raiders…
Elder, Angela Esco. "The Civil War." The American Yawp, accessed May 19, 2016.
Horwitz, Tony. "The Harpers Ferry 'Rising' That Hastened Civil War." National Police Radio,
last modified October 22, 2011. http://www.npr.org/2011/10/22/141564113/the-harpers-ferry-rising-that-hastened-civil-war
Still it is not completely unheard of for a name to be derived from a longer epitaph of Nat, property of man, Mr. Turner. This is how many people's last names resulted in ending with "man."
Nat Turner was born a slave in Virginia in 1800 and grew to become a slave preacher. He did not use tobacco or liquor and maintained a clean, disciplined life. He was very religious man and became passionate about the Scripture. He began preaching to slaves in and around the area of Southampton County, Virginia in 1828. As a result he became well-known and liked in the area. It was at this time he began having visions. It was these visions that inspired him to revolt. hile he waited for further signs, unrest was already evident in on plantations, in the hills and on boats in ports of call (Greenberg, 85). Gradually he built…
Short History of Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. Bahia-Online. Retrieved December
10, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.bahia-online.net/history-bahia.htm .
Gates, H.L., & Appiah, K.A. (Eds.). (1994). Toni Morrison: Critical Perspectives Past and Present. New York: Amistad Press, Inc.
Goldman, S. (2003). Nat Turner Revolt of 1831. HistoryBuff.com. Retrieved December
The women are especially vulnerable because their children can be sent away from them, they can be the brunt of a cruel master's sexual encounters, and they often have to serve the master's family, which can make them targets of abuse.
Most of the southern women in the book are portrayed as kinder than their husbands. He writes of the wife of Mr. Epp "She had been well educated at some institution this side the Mississippi; was beautiful, accomplished, and usually good-humored. She was kind to all of us but Patsey -- frequently, in the absence of her husband, sending out to us some little dainty from her own table" (Northup 198-199). They are sometimes jealous of the slave women, as Mrs. Epp is, but for the most part, they are the gentler part of the slave experience, and they are not as cruel or vindictive as their husbands are.…
Northup, Soloman. Twelve Years a Slave. 1997. University of North Carolina. 15 Nov. 2010.
Roark, James L. Johnson, Michael P. And Cohen, Patricia Cline. Reading the American Past.
In conclusion, these narratives paint a vivid picture of slave life from the 17th and 18th centuries, and illustrate why slavery was such a vicious and evil institution. Without these narratives, a historical view of slavery would be incomplete, and they illustrate a distressing and immoral element of American history. Slavery differed between the North and the South, but it shared many common characteristics, as slave narratives continue to illustrate.
Abdur-ahman, Aliyyah I. "The Strangest Freaks of Despotism": Queer Sexuality in Antebellum African-American Slave Narratives." African-American eview 40, no. 2 (2006): 223+.
Barrett, Lindon. "African-American Slave Narratives: Literacy, the Body, Authority." American Literary History 7, no. 3 (1995): 415-442.
Bland, Sterling Lecater, ed. African-American Slave Narratives: An Anthology. Vol. 1. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001..
Bland, Sterling Lecater, ed. African-American Slave Narratives: An Anthology. Vol. 3. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.
Clayton, onnie W. Mother Wit: The Ex-Slave Narratives…
Abdur-Rahman, Aliyyah I. "The Strangest Freaks of Despotism": Queer Sexuality in Antebellum African-American Slave Narratives." African-American Review 40, no. 2 (2006): 223+.
Barrett, Lindon. "African-American Slave Narratives: Literacy, the Body, Authority." American Literary History 7, no. 3 (1995): 415-442.
Bland, Sterling Lecater, ed. African-American Slave Narratives: An Anthology. Vol. 1. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001..
Bland, Sterling Lecater, ed. African-American Slave Narratives: An Anthology. Vol. 3. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.
I like to lead the other slaves in singing Negro Spirituals. One of my favorites was "Wade in the Water," because the melody allowed voices to reach out to Jesus Christ and God through music. I am religious because I believe there is a heaven and a hell and that Christ really did come to earth to save humanity from sins. Slavery is a sin, an awful sin and someday the South will pay for their sins. I don't know how, but they will, because I have faith in what God wants people to do.
My family has been separated since we were brought to America on a horrible ship. I was sold to a large plantation owner and I don't know where my sisters went. My mother and father are both dead; my mother was raped and killed back in Africa when she tried to resist being captured. I…
Slave and Citizen: The Life of Frederick Douglass by Nathan Irvin Huggins. Specifically, it will answer some specific questions about the book concerning rights, slavery, and major reform movements of the time. Frederick Douglass, an escaped slave and natural orator, was a large part of the abolitionist movement before and during the Civil War. He did not single-handedly assure the ultimate freedom of black slaves in the United States, but his compelling voice and writings helped millions of Americans understand the plight of the black man, and ultimately change it for the better. However, Douglass did not stop at abolitionism. He was a voice for temperance, free land for the people, and especially women's rights. He was a crusader who believed in his causes, and had the skill to bring them quite vividly to the people. Frederick Douglass was a citizen heavily involved in his country and his beliefs --…
Huggins, Nathan Irvin. Slave and Citizen: The Life of Frederick Douglass. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1980.
One of the major challenges that the Africans faced was speaking in English as it took them time to understand the language since it was the national language, but with the help of the Americans they slowly understood it.
Use for Luxurious Purposes:
The other aspect that helped the slaves in creating their own society and culture is through allowing themselves to be used for luxurious purposes. They were more often used as a means of acquiring wealth and since they adhered to this, they became very close to the Americans, which helped in reducing the issue of slavery. As a result, the Americans no longer practiced racism on the Africans but allowed them to practice their culture. As this practice later pleased the whites, they were soon introduced to the new culture.
Growth of Individualism:
The growth of individualism is another factor that enabled the slaves to create their…
Pearson Education . "Chapter Four -- Slavery and Empire." Pearson Education, n.d.
http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/170/174992/IM_Chapter04.pdf (accessed December 7, 2012).
Slavery as Capitalism -- the Shape of American Slavery. "The Shape of American Slavery."
The Unjust Media, n.d. http://theunjustmedia.com/Banking%20&%20Federal%20Reserve/Capitalism/Slavery%20as%20Capitalism%20The%20Shape%20of%20American%20Slavery.htm (accessed December 7, 2012)
Jefferson declared to the world, that we are inferior to the whites, both in the endowments of our bodies and our minds?" (alker, 1829)
In contrast to alker's defiance, although his oration gathers in passionate momentum, Douglass begins his speech modestly before his audience. "Should I seem at ease, my appearance would much misrepresent me. The little experience I have had in addressing public meetings, in country school houses, avails me nothing on the present occasion." (Douglass, 1852) He also ends his speech with hope, "Allow me to say, in conclusion, notwithstanding the dark picture I have this day presented of the state of the nation, I do not despair of this country." (Douglass, 1852) In contrast, alker makes a historical overview of slavery of the past, from Greece, to Rome, to ancient Israel and points out that of all forms of slavery, America's remains the worst, and the most…
Douglass, Frederick. "What to a Slave is the 4th of July?" Chicken bones: Online Journal. 1852. http://www.nathanielturner.com/fourthofjulyspeech.htm.[4 Feb 2005]
Walker, David. David Walker's Appeal, In Four Articles: Together With A Preamble To The Colored Citizens Of The World, But In Particular, And Very Expressly, To Those Of The United States Of America. Revised Edition with an Introduction by Sean Wilentz. Hill and Wang, New York, 1995. Full text from PBS Website. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2931t.html .[4 Feb 2005]
He was not just some compassionate liberal advocating freedom for the oppressed, he was an actual victim of the system who had risen above it. This strengthened his leadership abilities even further because he was able to use his personal experiences to relate the horrors of slavery to those who had only read about it.
When he tells about the cruelty of the slave overseer Mr. Gore, stating "His savage barbarity was equaled only by the consummate coolness with which he committed the grossest and most savage deeds upon the slaves under his charge" (p. 356), one cannot helped but be moved and outraged. There is no denying that his experiences were as horrendous as Harriet's. But there is also no denying that the male and female experiences of slavery were different. The fact is, the male and female experiences in just about any walk of life are different, no…
The American government was directly complicit in slavery and passed a number of laws that supported the institution. One of the most severe and notorious of those laws was the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. The Fugitive Slave Law highlighted the vast gulf between the slaveholding and free states of the union, leading eventually to the Civil War. However, the law also impacted the lives of countless people who attempted to escape slavery or those facilitated their passage. In her memoirs, Harriet Jacobs writes about the Fugitive Slave Law. The author calls those who enforced the law "cruel human bloodhounds" who were no better than slave owners themselves (Jacobs 68). To properly understand slavery, it becomes essential to comprehend the entirety of the system that supported it.
In Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Jacobs does not spare the North from its participation in the subjugation of…
Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. Child, Lydia Marie (Ed.). 1802-1880. Electronic edition accessed
Nature.... General Will
The ideas to create just and liberal society go all the way back to ancient times. The first examples of civil society were proposed by Plato and Aristotle, who saw the ideal state to be a republic ruled by the wise men and aristocrats as "first among equal." They didn't go in depth to explain its structure, functions of government in details, etc. These were the first discourses about the state where the harmony and equality established by the laws of nature will be preserved and developed. But the history shows that Greek republic failed under the pressure of power-gaining ome and Greek democracy was forgotten for centuries, but some of its principles preserved and where later developed by the philosophers of Enlightenment.
Enlightenment or renaissance of political thought and birth of civil political teachings was represented by a new idea of state, where the power was…
1. Locke, John, The Second Treatise on Government, ed by Thomas P. Peardon, Indianapolis, In.; The Library of Liberal Arts, 1952
2. Lavine, T.Z From Socrates to Sartre Bantam; Reissue edition, 1985
3. Camus, Albert The Stranger Vintage; Reissue edition, 1989
4. Marx, Karl Communist Manifesto Signet Classics; Reprint edition, 1998
Human ights in the Arab World
As stated by the "Universal Declaration of Human ights" in the United Nations, Human rights has almost become one of the most important factors that decided the development of a country. To be able to promote economic growth and prosperity it is essential that a country controls its power of creativity and enterprise of its citizens, which would aid it to move into the global market in terms of trade, communication and investment systems.
It has been noticed that the most talented members of the society are usually not granted their human rights and hence the political, social, and cultural developments of the society are being not in order due to human rights being violated. This gets us to realize that we need to follow human rights development not only to protect a single individual but the entire society on the whole.2 Wrong use…
Arzt, Donna E. "Religious Human Rights in Muslim States of the Middle East and North Africa" Retrieved from http://www.law.emory.edu/EILR/volumes/spring96/arzt.html Accessed on 03/04/3004
Bard, Mitchell G. "Myths & Facts Online: Human Rights in Arab Countries." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved from http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/myths/mf16.html Accessed on 03/04/3004
Gordon, Dick. "Human Rights in the Middle East." Retrieved from http://www.theconnection.org/shows/2002/04/20020424_a_main.asp Accessed on 03/04/3004
'Human Rights and Modern Arab States." Thinking Clearly. Retrieved from http://www.habtoor.com/thinkingclearly/html/issue42.htm Issue 42 / September 2001 Accessed on 03/04/3004
Jefferson Davis Views on State ights and Secession
Jefferson Finis Davis or more popularly known as "Jeff" Davis was born on June 3rd 1808 to the Kentucky couple Samuel and Jane Cook Davis. He passed away on December 6th, 1889 but not before he served as an American statesman and leader from the Confederacy throughout the American Civil War entire duration of the Civil War as well as the history that was made in that era. In his early life, he attended and graduated from the Transylvania University, and West Point which he followed up by fighting in the Mexican -- American War. He served as the colonel of one of the many volunteer forces fighting the war at the time. He followed that by serving the United States as the Secretary of War. He completed this tenure under the democratic governmental structure of President Franklin Pierce. He continued to…
Collins, Donald E. (2005). The Death and Resurrection of Jefferson Davis. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Cooper, William J. (2000). Jefferson Davis, American. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Cooper, William J. (2008). Jefferson Davis and the Civil War Era. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
Peterson, Merrill D., ed. Thomas Jefferson: Writings. New York: The Library of America, 1984.
Sacred orld of Slaves
Based upon the reading of Sacred orld of Slaves explain 3 ways in which slaves used artistic expression (music, dance, narratives) to cope with being enslaved and move them in a direction of Liberation.
From slavery times, far more records about black spirituals have survived than for secular music, and the most common religious themes always involved freedom, an escape from bondage and Moses leading the children of Israel out of Egypt. Black slaves may have had the evangelical Protestant religion of their masters imposed on them for purposes on control, but they also appropriated it and made this religion their own -- and the black church was one of the very few institutions that they did control before recent times. In essence, black theology was always a version of liberation theology, compared to emphasis that white evangelicals placed on individual sin and personal salvation, and…
Charnas, Dan. "White America Discovers Rhythm and Blues."
Levine, Lawrence W. Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Thought from Slavery to Freedom. Oxford, 2007.
Mill and U.S. Constitution
None of the issues being raised today by the Occupy all Street (OS) movement are new, but rather they date back to the very beginning of the United States. At the time the Constitution was written in 1787, human rights and civil liberties were far more constrained than they are in the 21st Century. Only white men with property had voting rights for example, while most states still had slavery and women and children were still the property of fathers and husbands. Only very gradually was the Constitution amended to grant equal citizenship and voting rights to all, and even the original Bill of Rights was added only because the Antifederalists threatened to block ratification. In comparison, the libertarianism of John Stuart Mill in his famous book On Liberty was very radical indeed, even in 1859 much less 1789. He insisted that individuals should be left…
Dahl, Robert Alan. How Democratic is the American Constitution? Yale University Press, 2003.
Kaplan, Lawrence. S. Alexander Hamilton: Ambivalent Anglophile. Scholarly Resources, Inc., 2002.
Main, Jackson Turner. The Antifederalists: Critics of the Constitution, 1781-1788. University of North Carolina Press, 1989, 2004.
Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. London, 1859.
However, the opposite was true in the south. As the slave trade continued, the two halves of the continent grew in very different ways, setting up the ultimate confrontation of the Civil War.
The result of the Civil War and the outlawing of slavery resulted in the crashing of the Southern economy, thus leading to a further divide, this time economically, between the North and the South. Since the southern economy depended on slaves, when this factor was removed the economy collapsed while the north's continued to grow. The effects of this are still felt today.
Garraty, J.A. And M.C. Carnes. (2001): A Short History of the American Nation. (8th ed.). oston: Longman.
Howe, Daniel Walker. (2007): What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kolchin, Peter and Fritz Metsch. (2003): American Slavery, 1619-1877. New York: Hill and Wang.
Williams, a.A. (1999): The…
Garraty, J.A. And M.C. Carnes. (2001): A Short History of the American Nation. (8th ed.). Boston: Longman.
Howe, Daniel Walker. (2007): What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kolchin, Peter and Fritz Metsch. (2003): American Slavery, 1619-1877. New York: Hill and Wang.
Williams, a.A. (1999): The South in the History of the Nation: A Reader, Volume One: Through Reconstruction. New York: St. Martin's.
His accomplishments included simplifying government jobs, and helping create the Democratic Party. He is most remembered as a great general and for defying Congress. Martin Van Buren served from 1837 to 1841. He was married to Hannah, and he died in 1862. His vice-president was ichard Johnson, and his nickname was the "Little Magician." His accomplishments included regulating banks and federal funds, and creating an independent treasury. He is most remembered for the Panic of 1837, and for being opposed to slavery. William Henry Harrison served in 1841 and died after only one month in office. He was married to Anna. His vice-president was John Tyler. He is most remembered for being the first president to die in office. John Tyler served from 1841 to 1845. He was married to Letitia and then Julia and he died in 1862. His nickname was "Old Tippecanoe." His accomplishments included annexing Texas and…
Editors. "Biographies." Vice-Presidents.com. 2006. 22. Sept. 2006. http://www.vicepresidents.com/Biography%202006.htm
Editors. "The Presidents of the United States." WhiteHouse.gov. 2006. 22 Sept. 2006. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/index2.html
United States, at te beginning of 1855, seemed to be te strongest it ad ever been wit Western expansion, a flourising economic outlook, and tousands of new immigrants bringing teir ard work to America's newest factories and fields. However, te tension was mounting politically, tension tat would lead to an inevitable, long-suffering war tat killed tousands of Americans, and canged te landscape of our nation forever. Te climax came wen Abraam Lincoln was elected President in 1860, and te Civil War became unavoidable from tat moment on.
Before te election of 1860, many tumultuous appenings caused panic, depression, and conflicts between Americans. For example, 1855 saw wat was later pegged te "Bleeding at Kansas," during wic pro- and anti-slavery citizens clased (p. 428). Te figt tat ensued over Kansas in Congress as well as territorially brougt fort te notion tat slavery tensions would not be easily controlled.
1857 saw an…
http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter13/13.4.battle.html. American Passages Website.
The News of Lincoln's Election," The Charleston Mercury, November 8, 1860. Online Version:
http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter13/13.4.mercury.html. American Passages Website.
Federal and State Government
An Analysis of Powers in Federal and State Government
The debate over having a strong central government or strong state government in the early days of the epublic seemed to fall on the side of the states. But as the years have proven, the Constitution, which extended very specific powers to the U.S. government, has come to be interpreted in ways that would extend even more power to the central government than at first seemed possible or even permissible. This paper will show what powers are actually extended to the federal government (according to the Constitution), what powers are extended to the state governments, the power limitations of both, and the powers that overlap.
As Ellis Katz (1996) states, "The Constitution, as written and ratified, creates a system of dual federalism in which both the national government and the states are sovereign in their respective spheres…
Katz, E. (1996). United States of America. Retrieved from http://www.federalism.ch/files/categories/IntensivkursII/USAg2.pdf
McClellan, J. (2000). Liberty, Order, and Justice. IN: Liberty Fund.
U.S. Constitution. Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_transcript.html
Slave Dancer: How to teach the book, how to teach about slavery, race, and ethics
The Slave Dancer by Paula Fox, viewed from the eyes of a student, is an adventure tale with a young protagonist who can be easily identified with, in the eyes of a young reader. Plot wise, the book tells the story of a young, thirteen-year-old boy in 1840, when the American slave trade was still legal. The boy, Jessie Bollier, has recently lost his father. He makes money for his family by playing his fife on the docks of New Orleans. Suddenly, one day, he finds himself on board a ship called "The Moonlight." The Moonlight is a slave ship bound for the coast of Africa.
An exciting story from the point-of-view of a student, but a potential lesson in history and ethics in the eyes of a teacher, for Jessie, as compelled by the…
Fox, Paula. The Slave Dancer. New York: Random House, 1974.
Wassynger, Jane. The Slave Dancer: Teacher Support Site. Retrieved 9 Dec 2004 at. http://www.randomhouse.com/teachers/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=0440404029& ; view=tg
Slave, Not Born a Slave
The Making of Slavery
The sense of proprietorship of slave traders, owners, and other propagators of chattel slavery that was prevalent in the United States until the middle of the 19th century would be absurdly laughable -- were it not steeped in a legacy of perversion, of anguish, of tragedy and of perniciousness. The notion that one had the right to actually own another, the latter of whose sole existence would be to serve the former in any way, shape or method which the "owner" deemed appropriate, has been disproved as largely imaginary, and not something based on any sense of right or morality (no matter how such a historically ambiguous term was defined) numerous times, both during the tenure of slavery in the United States and well afterwards. A casual examination of the wording of the Declaration of Independence confirms this fact (McAulifee, 2010,…
Bland, Sterling. (2001). African-American Salve Narratives: An Anthology, Volume 1. Westport: Greenwood.
Chesnutt, C. (1889). "The Sherriff's Children." The Independent. 41: 30-32.
Davis, A.Y. (1981). "Reflections on the Black Woman's Role in the Community of Slaves." Black Scholar. 12 (6) 2-15.
Douglass, F. (1845). Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. Retrieved from http://www.ibiblio.org/ebooks/Douglass/Narrative/Douglass_Narrative.pdf
Douglass did not have those options and he had to locate ways to become free that involved saving money and escaping. In the end they both used similar methods to escape but the initial decisions were gender based.
The final similarity in the lives of the two was what they chose to do with their lives following their escape. They both worked to help free slaves who had not been able to get away and they both worked to help those who had been freed to set up their lives.
hile Jacobs and Douglass started out as slaves they worked hard to escape and then used their abilities to help others who had been enslaved. Instead of turning bitter and inward they both penned their experiences to help the world understand the true ramifications of slavery.
Harriet Jacobs (accessed 10-26-06) (http://xroads.virginia.edu/~Hyper/JACOBS/hj-site-index.htm)
Harriet Jacobs (accessed 10-26-06)
Harriet Jacobs (accessed 10-26-06) ( http://xroads.virginia.edu/~Hyper/JACOBS/hj-site-index.htm )
Harriet Jacobs (accessed 10-26-06)
Hariet Jacobs, Incidents in the life of a slave girl" from the book, " the Norton Anthology of African-American Literature" by Gates and Mckay, Norton Anthology of African-American Literature, Vol. 2 by Jr. Gates (Editor), Henry Louis Gates, Henry Louis Gates, Henry Louis Gates (Editor), Nellie Y. McKay (Editor)
Edward Ball chronicles his family's slave-owning history in the compelling historical narrative Slaves in the Family. Ball traces the lineages of his white relatives and their slaves and where possible recreates life as it was on the Ball plantations in South Carolina. Descendents of the Englishman Elias Ball bought and sold enough slaves to populate a city. By no means singular in their treatment of the Africans, the Balls prove nevertheless to be a prime example of a Southern plantation dependent on the blood, sweat, and tears of families and individuals ripped from their homeland and bought and sold as commodity. Cruelty was meted out equally among black males and females, but it is worthwhile to contrast the unique experiences of enslaved women on the Southern plantations. If nothing else, motherhood and childrearing set the women apart. They watched their newborns emerge into a world of shackles, often completely losing…
Unlike most of today's women, Celia could not take charge of her own life. Because she was a slave, she served others and lived at their mercy. Her relationships with the family as a whole were based on that fact that she was a slave, so it was her race that led her to that predicament. However, even George had some control over what happened in his life. He had control over Celia to a degree; at least that he could influence her. That is more than Celia had. Because of her gender and race, she was powerless, and had to submit to the will of others. She even confronted Newsom because she feared losing her relationship with George. The text notes, "While it is possible that Celia may have taken action against Newsom of her own accord, the evidence strongly suggests that she confronted Newsom only when forced to…
McLauren, M.A. (1991). Celia, a slave: A true story of violence and retribution in antebellum Missouri. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.
She thought that these women deserved more than what they were receiving.
As I stated before, appearances seem to be something very important in this excerpt. Everyone appeared to be one thing, while secretly being another in order to cover their tracks. Slave owners fathered children left and right with the slaves and some didn't even claim the children, even though it was so apparent and obvious. The slave girl refused to be just one more of these female slaves who gave in to her Master's desires. Even though the Doctor promised her everything and said that she would be living like a queen, she stood her ground and refused to give in. In times of slavery, that was something that was practically unheard of. Whatever the master told her to do was supposed to be done. The slave girl was actually pretty lucky that more severe consequences weren't taken…
Life of a Slave Girl, Harriet Jacobs relates to the readers her experiences as a slave girl in the Southern part of America. Her story started from her sheltered life as a child to her subordination to her mistress upon her father's death, and her continuing struggle to live a dignified and virtuous life despite being a slave. Her struggle involves her constant degradation from her master; the danger of being sexually exploited by her mistress' husband, Dr. Flint; her broken relationship with a free colored man; her pregnancy to a man named Mr. Sands; and her fight for her and her children's freedom from slavery. All of these experiences helped Linda learn to fight justly for her right to become a free individual, but most of all, to be subordinated to Dr. Flint, the man who wanted so bad to exploit her, yet, was not able to because of…
life of slaves in Harriet Jacobs' Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl and the lives of the mentally ill in Victor LaValle's Devil in Silver
The theme of freedom and escape was common in antebellum literature written by former slaves -- and is also common in narratives of the lives of the mentally ill today. Both Harriet Jacobs' Incidents in the Life of Slave Girl and Victor LaValle's Devil in Silver chronicle unjust imprisonments: in Jacob's case, the narrator's life as a slave; in LaValle's novel, the horrors perpetrated upon the mentally ill. These texts indicate that those who are marginalized in our society are selected in an arbitrary fashion based upon categories such as race or class rather than have intrinsic properties that make them uniquely different. Over the course of the narrative, both protagonists overcome the societies of fear and tyranny that are created by their…
Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. UNC Chapel Hill, 2003. 30 Apr 2014.
LaValle, Victor. Devil in Silver. Spiegel & Grau, 2012.
Letter From an Escaped Slave to his Former Master" by Jackson Whitney. Specifically, it will explain, analyze, and critique the document, while explaining the historical context in which it exists and the point-of-view it creates which gives us insight into the events of that time.
Jackson Whitney's impassioned letter to his former master is a microcosm of history. Not only does it emphatically indicate what was in his mind and heart, it illustrates the great stresses slave families were put under by their unfeeling and unsympathetic owners. Families were torn apart, usually forever. Jackson's letter shows his bitterness at being removed from his family, and it gives a deep insight into slave families of the time, and what they faced. Not only that, it indicates the steps slaves would undertake to free themselves. Jackson went all the way to Canada where he could not be sent back to his master.…
Whitney, Jackson. "A Letter From an Escaped Slave to his Former Master." Slave Testimony: Two centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews, and Autobiographies. John W. Blassing, ed., (1977).
primary source written by slave have picked ewis Clarke and his book Narrative of the Sufferings of ewis Clark. In my opinion, excerpts from this book give a clear account about the condition of a slave in the South in the first half of the 19th and a revelatory story of a fugitive slave and his experience as he ran for freedom.
ewis Clarke was born in 1812, in Madison County, Kentucky, as the son of a Scottish emigrant and a black mother. As such, he was a slave, owned by William Campbell. Upon his death, ewis Clarke was sold to Betsy Branton and spend his years without his mother, who had been sold at a different plantation, several tens of miles away. Escaped from the plantation in 1841, he lived the remainder of his years, until his death in 1897, in Canada, where he published his book, Narrative of…
Lewis Clarke's biography gives us a good idea about the life and condition of many of the household slave in the South in the first half of the 19th century. His account are expressed with the feelings of a man who had lived the pain he is telling us about and for who the trip to freedom and freedom itself is indeed a trip to Heaven, a transformation, a process of evolvement to a superior level.
However, many parts of his book are naive, both in style and in the way they are told. For example, the fact that a black person could escape from his household, ride a pony for tens of miles through the country, peacefully eat in the saloon without anybody getting an idea that he might be a runaway slave and alerting the authorities may seem rather far-fetched. This leads us to believe that, not necessarily on purpose, some of the parts of his story are omitted. We cannot help, however, to see in his work a biographical accomplishment.
All quotations are from Lewis Clark's book, Narrative of the Sufferings of Lewis Clark. Excerpts from the book and a short account on Clark's life can be found on the Internet at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASclark.htm
Resistance and Complicity
It is impossible to understand or write about Africa's history without considering its relationship with continents like Europe and America. It is imperative that a discussion of the subject concentrate on Africans' pivotal shaping of world history (Lindsay, 2007). Europeans (i.e., Englishmen, Dutchmen, the Portuguese, and the French) contributed only superficially to shaping Africa's history during the Atlantic era's first two centuries, engaging in merchandizing and goods transportation between sea coasts. Only after 1640 did the Europeans, in what is known as the 2nd Atlantic Era (1640-1800s), begin demanding slaves and raw materials, commencing their cruel influence on the economic freedom of the continent. They effectively influenced or overpowered particular communities on the continent through several layers of partnerships strategically created with natives, rather than through military strength. African currency's gradual devaluation attained by introducing European currency in the form of copper coins, Gatling guns and repeating…
Equiano demonstrated that the use of the human narrative can awaken the sympathy of others, and he used his personal narrative to impress his views of abolition upon the British. Similarly, Prince Hall within Chapter two also carried the cause of abolition. Hall also advocated the continuing fight for abolition by providing hope to the African-Americans and slaves alike. Although he could only use words to motivate those in peril, the strength of his statements rests primarily in his ability to teach foundational skills to his brethren that could help them become skilled workers rather than limited by their education. Maria Stewart was another advocate of abolition; she not only fought for the doctrine of freedom for slaves, but also for the women's rights movement. All of these advocates used nonviolent means to attempt to sway the general public to turn against slavery as well as provide hope for slaves…
Celia, a Slave
The historian uses both primary source material, such as the papers of Jefferson Davis, and secondary source material, such as other books and histories written on the time and place under discussion in the book. Thus, there is a good combination of the two that gives the story an overall accurate feel to it. For example, the author is able to convincingly recreate the world of the South before the Civil War and what it was like to be a slave in that territory. Even when missing pieces of the puzzle for lack of documentary evidence, the author does not invent "facts" to plug the holes but simply acknowledges that some portions of the narrative are unknown. This does not in any way diminish the story or its believability, though it may leave the reader wondering at some points.
Nonetheless, the sources are used well to explain…
What choice did they have? That was an entirely different time, and people were very strong and resourceful (Burrows & Wallace, 1972). They did not have all of the help and resources that they would have had today, and women had to learn how to do things for themselves even though it was not something that they were taught or that society had encouraged them to entertain (Brinkley, 2010). Because women boycotted so many British goods, they rekindled their cloth-making and weaving skills. In addition, legal divorces were granted to women if they were patriots but their husbands continued to support their King (Brinkley, 2010). That was, quite likely, the most significant issue that took place for women during the evolutionary War.
Brinkley, D. (2010). The sparck of rebellion. American Heritage Magazine, 59 (4).
Burrows, E.G. & Wallace, M. (1972). The American evolution: The Ideology and Psychology of National…
Brinkley, D. (2010). The sparck of rebellion. American Heritage Magazine, 59 (4).
Burrows, E.G. & Wallace, M. (1972). The American Revolution: The Ideology and Psychology of National Liberation. Perspectives in American History, 6: 167 -- 305.
Cohen, B.R. (2009). Modern environmental history of Virginia. Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Modern_Environmental_History_of_Virginia
Kerber, L.K. (1990). "I have don…much to carrey on the warr." Women and the shaping of Republican ideology after the American Revolution. Journal of Women's History, 1(3): 231-243.
The goods from Asia were shipped to Venice and Genoa from where they were carried over the Alps to France and Germany, or through the strait of Gibraltar to Britain and the Scandinavian countries. The Black Sea port of Caffa, controlled by the Genoese during the 14th century, was an important terminal point on the silk route. Apart from the fur and slaves that it normally imported, Caffa is also reputed to have introduced the dreaded "Black Death" epidemic to Europe through fleas on rats that traveled on Genoese ships to Constantinople. (Ibid)
Genoese Trade with the Ottomans
Until the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 14th century, the Genoese had prospered in trading through their relations with the Byzantines, the Christian principalities of the East, and even their sworn enemies -- the Arabs, while fighting for domination of trade with Venice. Thereafter, most of their trading activities depended…
Carden, Robert W. The City of Genoa. London: Methuen, 1908.
Epstein, Steven A. Genoa & the Genoese, 958-1528. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Fleet, Kate. European and Islamic Trade in the Early Ottoman State: The Merchants of Genoa and Turkey. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Genoese Trade Route." Roman Art Lover Website. N.d. September 1, 2005. http://members.tripod.com/romeartlover/Galata.html
Fresia's contention that the United States failed to live up to its revolutionary democratic promise and instead was captured by the powerful plutocratic elite has appeal, it oversimplifies the process by which the elite take and retain control over resources and governmental power. In reality, at the time of the American evolution, there was little dispute that the outcome of the evolution would be to give greater power and freedom to those leading the evolution; the founding fathers. While the promise of democracy was offered to common men, it was members of the ruling elite of the colonial Americas that made the decisions to declare America independent from England and drafted both the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution. Therefore, it is unsurprising that the Constitution does not engage in the type of re-distribution of wealth that Fresia appears to believe is necessary in order to establish a…
Fresia, Jerry. 1988. Toward an American Revolution: Exposing the Constitution and other
Illusions. Boston: South End Press.
From this point-of-view, the role of the constitution was to provide equal conditions for everybody. The community was meant to be made of free people. The rules were supposed to follow the principle of justice, punishing those who would try to behave in an unjust manner (Aristotle's Political Theory, 2002)..
In addition, he believed that the constitution was meant to serve the best interest of everybody and not just the rulers. This is an important strong point of the city-state concept since it puts the basis for a democratic approach.
A point which may be on the other hand considered weak refers to the conception according to which people living within the community would be willing to act in manner which would bring mutual benefits. In the philosophers' view, the fact of living within the community acted strongly upon the nature of man (Introduction to Aristotle).Reality has showed that the…
Aristotle, Benjamin Jowett. 2009. Politics by Aristotle. IndoEuropean Publishing.com
Aristotle's Political Theory. 2002. Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 30, 2009 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-politics/
Introduction to Aristotle, University of Washington, Retrieved November 30, 2009 from http://faculty.washington.edu/smcohen/433/arintro.htm
Presuppositions of Aristotle's Politics. Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 30, 2009 from
12 Years a Slave
Relevance of Northup's Beating in 12 Years a Slave
The scene in Chapter 3 when Northup is beaten by Radburn and Burch for daring to argue with him that he was a free man is one that seems particularly relevant to the white readers of the tale. It is important that they hear of this cruelty because until they are in the shoes of the man who is beaten they cannot really sympathize or empathize. So Northup recounts what that experience was like and it makes the reader feel terrible for Northup and feel outraged towards the men who kidnapped him.
I see Northup writing for readers so as to inform them. The implications for us reading now are really no different because what has really changed in the century and a half that has passed? Slavery has been abolished in name but in spirit it…
Role of Cotton in Shaping United States History: 1793-1865
Extensive cotton production in the United States began in the spring of 1793 with the invention of Eli Whitney's cotton gin (i.e. A machine which separates cotton fibre from cotton seeds) (Current 1998). Almost immediately after this invention cotton production rose dramatically. As the production and transportation methods of cotton improved and the demand for fibre increased, the push for greater profits grew as well. Thus, a large number of slaves were brought into South Carolina and Georgia to provide the needed labour for cotton picking. As a result, slave labour became a valuable market throughout the South.
To become part of the Southern aristocracy, which slavery created, one needed to own land and slaves (Current 1998). The way to do this was to grow cotton as it provided the cash and credit to make both of these purchases. Ironically, slavery…
Current, Richard. MacMillan Information Now Encyclopaedias: The Confederacy. New York:
Jefferson asked Lewis to fully explain to the Indians that the white explorers were interested in trade, not in seizing their lands (Ambrose 154). This showed that Jefferson used a steady hand and smart policies regarding the estern frontier and that he understood diplomacy with the Native Americans, whom he respected very much.
The Civil ar: The fact is, most Americans probably believe that the only issue that precipitated the Civil ar was slavery, and though slavery was at the center of the north-south feud, it was not alone as a spotlighted issue. The bottom line issue that tore the country apart was state's rights; in other words, did states have a right to go against the will of the national government? Could a Southern state continue to keep slaves in bondage because their cotton crops (hence, their economic power to survive) depended on slave labor? The answer of course…
Ambrose, Stephen E. (1996). Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson,
and the Opening of the American West. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Jones, Robert Francis. (2002). George Washington: ordinary man, extraordinary leader.
Bronx, NY: Fordham University Press.
17th century, a book inspired by Sir Walter Raleigh and written by Richard Hakluyt, entitled "Western Planting," built up great interest in American colonization. Focus of commercial explorations was possible trade with the East India Company for the West. The King of England formed and granted a royal charter to the London Company and the Plymouth Company (Interesting.com) to found a colony. In December 1606, the London Company, led by Captain Christopher Newport, reached a town and named it Jamestown, after the King of England. It was the first permanent settlement in North America, the whole of which was then Virginia. The first settlers in this new land consisted of 12 laborers, a few carpenters, a blacksmith, a mason, a barber and a tailor and 50 other men.
When Captain Newport returned England for a while and left the colony to the inefficient leadership of Governor Wingfield, trouble and misery…
1. Folk, Stephney. Virginia's Founding Fathers. (accessed 28:03:03). http://www.lineone.net/~fight/Stephney/virginia.htm
2. Garman, Gene. Founding Principles Rejected: Colonial Virginia. 1998 accessed 28:03:03). http://www.sunnetworks.com/~ggarman/princip.html
3. Interesting.com. Colonial Virginia. (accessed 28:03:03). http://www.interesting.com
4. Jeff. The Founding of Jamestown. The Montague Millennium, 2002.
When Catherine states, "It will degrade me to marry Heathcliff," she exposes her prejudices and concerns about social status. She has yet to develop a mature level of self-awareness. Moreover, Catherine indicates a predisposition toward melodrama when she continues, "so he shall never know how I love him." Bronte achieves something clever with this passage, in that she withholds from Catherine her own self-awareness while indicating to the reader that the character is as shallow as anyone else in her milieu. Not being aware of her own shallowness becomes an ironic means by which Catherine can grow. Moreover, it is ironic that the reader is permitted to overhear Catherine's entire conversation on this matter but Heathcliff only hears the first sentence. He does not hear the part about "he shall never know how I love him," and Bronte deliberately structures the conversation in this way, so that the reader…
Even European immigrants experienced discrimination in the 19th century. As Vellos (1997) points out, "American society did not accept the Irish Catholics and Germans, and movements to limit immigration began to form." The Chinese Exclusion Act established anti-Asian sentiments and was not repealed until as late as 1943. For the first time in American history, immigration was "seen as a threat to the United States economy, and Congress began expanding the list of 'undesirable classes' hoping to upgrade the quality of immigrants and to limit overall entry," (Vellos 1997).
In spite of having to live in squalid inner city tenement buildings, new waves of immigrants relished the idea of the American Dream. The American Dream provides the ideological and psychological incentive for new immigrants to a pursue a path of upward social mobility. Upward social mobility was most likely unavailable in the home country, whereas the United States has been…
"A Historical Look at U.S. Immigration Policy." (1995). Retrieved online: http://web.missouri.edu/~brente/immigr.htm
Center for Immigration Studies (n.d.). Immigration history. Retrieved online: http://www.cis.org/ImmigrationHistory
Colorado Alliance for Immigration Reform (2010). U.S. Population and Immigration Data, Projections and Graphs. Retrieved online: http://www.cairco.org/data/data_us.html
Diner, H. (2008). Immigration and U.S. History. America.gov. Retrieved online: http://www.america.gov/st/peopleplace-english/2008/February/20080307112004ebyessedo0.1716272.html
The state of Georgia has a long history of southern heritage and pride in the United States. The movie Madea's Family Reunion depicts the subculture of the state of Georgia showing its strong ties to marriage/family, food, religion, guidance, culture and traditions. The movie depicts a strong black grandmother Madea, who is the matriarch of the family helping her family deal with pressing issues. She does all this while at the same time planning for a huge family reunion. The movie, which was filmed in Atlanta, Georgia deals with many traits and issues one would see among regular families in Georgia, some of which depicting times during the slavery revolution. Love, acceptance, friendship and family are all qualities shown in this movie and in the community of Georgia.
Georgians are known for their strong ties to family and the sanctity of marriage. The hardships the black community has had…
Perry, Tyler. (2006). Madea's Family Reunion. Atlanta, Georgia. LionsGate.
Domectic Violence in the United States
Domestic Violence in the United States: A esearch Proposal
Domestic Violence in the United States:
Domestic violence is not a new phenomenon associated with modern times. It has been a common occurrence throughout history. From a social/cultural point-of-view, the woman was considered the property of the man and his duty was to discipline her and the children (and slaves/servants) with thorough beatings. Consistent with eighteenth-century English common law, the only concerns about this related to the thickness of the stick that the law allowed for the beatings. Although there were some earlier unenforced laws against spousal abuse, it was only as recently as the 1970s that the U.S. justice system began to view the problem with any seriousness and consideration of domestic violence as a crime. Until that time, social services for the victims of domestic violence were almost nonexistent (Bronfman, et al., 2005).…
Bronfman, Lois Martin, David Butzer, and Brian Stipak. (2005). The role of police in combating domestic violence in the United States: A case study of the Domestic Violence Reduction Unit, Portland police bureau.
Ellison, Louise. (2002). Prosecuting domestic violence without victim participation, Modern Law Review 65 834-858.
Karmen, Andrew. (2010) Crime victims: An introduction to Victimology. Pacific Grove, CA: Brook/Cole Publishing Co.
Rennison, Callie M. (2003) Intimate Partner Violence, 2000-2003. U.S. Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice. NCJ 197838.
In the 1960s and 1970s, New Left historians in the Federal Republic of Germany reexamined the Third Reich in ways that created major controversies, especially because they found continuity between the Nazi era and attitudes and institutions that existed both before and afterwards. This meant "purging society" of its racist, authoritarian and paternalistic tendencies, and preventing revived Nazi movements like the National Democratic Party (NDP) from gaining a foothold in political life again (Gassert and Steinweiss 1). Fritz Fischer had helped initiate this historical controversy in Griff Nach der eltmacht (Germany's Drive for orld Power) in which he asserted that Germany had been the aggressor in orld ar I and that Hitler and the Nazis borrowed their ideas about Lebensraum and an empire in the East from their Second Reich predecessors. Indeed, the historical record demonstrates that during the Third Reich, the German people, the old conservative elites,…
Aly, Gotz and Jefferson Chase. Hitler's Beneficiaries: Plunder, Racial War, and the Nazi Welfare State. Holt Paperbacks, 2005.
Caplan, Jane and Nikolaus Waschmann (eds). Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany: The New Histories. Routledge, 2010.
Collier, Martin and Philip Pedley (eds). Hitler and the Nazi State. Heinemann Educational Publishers, 2005.
Gassert, Philipp and Alan F. Steinweiss. Coping with the Nazi Past: West German Debates on Nazism and Generational Conflict, 1955-1975. Berghahn Books, 2006.
Separation Church State
Study by NORC which was held at the University of Chicago reveals that although abruptly divided, people's attitudes towards homosexuals are changing swiftly, young generation leads the way. Hence there is greater acceptance and positivity. Majority of public is not just in favor of same-sex relationships and marriages but they do also support elementary civil liberties and independence of expression of homosexuals overwhelmingly. This fact goes totally in contrast to strident division on these concerns in the 1970s (Harms, 2011). However, author of the NORC report named "Public Attitudes toward Homosexuality" and director of the GSS at NORC, Tom . smith concluded from studies that there is a growing trend of greater tolerance towards homosexuality. The supporting level for same-sex marriages rose dramatically over the last 20 years. Percentage went from 11% positive in 1988 to 46% in 2010 after surveying more than 2000 people (Harms, 2011).…
Harms, William. UChicago News. 28 September 2011. 01 September 2014. Retrieved from: http://news.uchicago.edu/article/2011/09/28/americans-move-dramatically-toward-acceptance-homosexuality-survey-finds
Human Rights Campaign. 2012. 01 September 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.hrc.org/resources/entry/stances-of-faiths-on-lgbt-issues-american-baptist-church-usa
Johann, Hari. The hidden history of homosexuality in the U.S. 22 June 2011. The Independent. 01 September 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/johann-hari-the-hidden-history-of-homosexuality-in-the-us-2300636.html
Mohr, Richard D. A More Perfect Union. Boston, 1994