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Question 2) Find the total number of shipments to VA from Bonny including mean average numbers.
Bonny is a port located in the most eastern part of the Gulf of Guinea. It was considered to be a favorable place for transacting slave purchases. It attractiveness included:
The ability to purchase yams for feeding the slaves on the middle passage,
The predictability of slave availability based on the agricultural calendar
The organized slave trade with slaves brought to market from non-coastal areas after harvest
And, the stability of the government, which allow the trades to provide trade goods to the slave merchants prior to receiving the slaves without pawnship as collateral.
Between 1727-1769 X ships arrived in Virginia. Of these, seven ships came from Bonny, carrying 1,453 slaves for a mean average of 208 per ship. Like question one, there are some ambiguities to question two: shipments of what and what…… [Read More]
# of ships
Gambia and Gold Coast
Gambia and Grain Coast
Coast of Guinea
Windward and Gold Coast
Windward and Rice Coast
Windward and Grain Coast
Gambia and Windward Coast
Grain and Gold Coast
Mean average per port
Weighted mean average per ship
Based upon the article "Shipboard Revolts, African Authority, and the Atlantic Slave Trade," by David Richardson and Stephen Behrendt's article "Markets, Transaction Cycles, and Profits: Merchant Decision Making in the British Slave Trade" one could possibly account for the range of slaves per ship and the variations between ports. The slave trade was a business dependent upon the matching of supply and demand in several industries. The ability to secure a vessel, sailors,…… [Read More]
Slave trade of Indians and blacks began with Columbus but the overall slave trade was much worse and lasted later in history in razil
Summary of slave trade in razil
Quick Facts about Slave Trade in razil
Firm connections with slavery in highlands
People involved included Portugese, Luso razilians and the slaves themselves
Like Columbus, killing and enslavement of indigenous peoples was common
Some slaves escaped and hid in mocambos and quilombos
Renegade Indians and escaped slaves created headaches for Portuguese
Major epicenter of razil slave trade was Sao Paulo
Major townships for slavery were Santos and Mogi das Cruzes
Very different townships but slave trade was similar iii. Perosnal connections and friends rather than strangers
Valongo, although not long-lasting, was for slave trading only
Summary of slave trade in United States
a. Differences from razil were easily apparent
Did not start with Americans, but rather Spanish/ritish, etc.
ii. Slave…… [Read More]
The focus of this work has been to answer the questions of: (1) How was the slave trade practiced in Europe and Africa before 1550, in comparison to the slave trade in and between the two regions after 1550?' And (2) 'What were the main differences between the two periods in terms of their origins, motivations and effects on African society?'
These two time periods, before 1550 and after 1550 have been shown in this work to have been quite different quite simply due to the fact that prior to 1550 slaves were sold to the 'Old World' of Europe however, following approximately 1550, the slave trade business was concentrated on selling slaves to the 'New World' or that of the American continent from which arose an accelerated need and increase in the demand for slaves.
Another factor influencing the slave trade business was that African slave traders began…… [Read More]
The author of this report is asked to answer several questions about the trans-Atlantic slave trade. First, there is the question of how important to African society and to the African economy the slave trade was. Second, there is the question of what roles the slaves served in African societies. Lastly, there will be a comparison of slavery in West Africa and the European slavery model that involved coercive labor. While most examples and depictions of slavery nowadays relate to historical events, the effects and lessons of slavery still ring quite loudly to this very day.
When it comes to the difference between the African model of slavery and the European model for the same, there was a stark difference. Indeed, African slaves were looked upon more as dependents rather than property. Put another way, African slaves could eventually "grow" and move beyond their slave state and become…… [Read More]
Atlantic Slave Trade
Racist or economic?
The Atlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic Ocean. It took place during the sixteen to the nineteenth century. The majority of the slaves moved during this incident were the black Africans. These Africans were significantly from the continent. The Europeans bought these slaves from the Africans. They then sent the slaves to North and South America (Muhommad). Different perspectives have been presented below (iencek).
The racist view
Numerous attempts were made to rationalize the slave trade by its proponents. They hence looked to completely alienate and dehumanize the African race that was misused as slaves. These slaves were labeled the "Black cattle." The African race hence was looked down upon. The traces of this perception are found till date.
In the earlier stages there was no discrimination done by colonial settlers. There was no difference in the genre of work done by…… [Read More]
Vikings and the Slave Trade
Vikings were Norse explorers who traveled around the waters of the North Atlantic raiding, trading, pirating, and colonizing lands wherever their boats could travel. They are historically known as a rough group of individuals with raucous personalities and innate brutality. They are credited with having been the first to discover the New orld and to have reached locations which had not seen foreign invaders before the arrival of the Vikings. Between the 8th and 11th centuries AD, Norsemen and their Viking warriors traveled far and wide, forever changing history in Scandinavia and the rest of Europe and North America as well.[footnoteRef:1] One of the commodities the Vikings traded in was people. The Viking slave-traders were prolific in their activities, capturing people when they invaded and then selling them. More than any other commodity, slaves were how the Vikings were able to trade for goods and…… [Read More]
3). The first division consists of men; married women make up the second division; the third division is "young men" and "maidens" are seen in the fourth (Equiano, p. 4). To Europeans who thought all African native cultures were simplistic and barbaric, the dances that Equiano describes certainly must have stirred creative interest because the dances reflected "some interesting scene of real life" such as "some rural sport" and they were accompanied with "many musical instruments" (Equiano, p. 4).
The way in which Equiano employs religious values into his book is also very effective and no doubt made a powerful impression on readers -- not necessarily scholars and intellectuals but also average people with spiritual backgrounds and beliefs -- which, of course, gave some momentum to the antislavery movement. On pages 69-70, after reviewing some of the brutal cruelty visited upon slaves in the est Indies, Equiano wonders why, since…… [Read More]
Rafe Blaufarb and Liz Clarke’s Inhuman Traffick: The International Struggle against the Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Graphic History accomplishes what few authors or historians could do: tell the tale of one of the most perplexing and gruesome issues in history using the medium graphic non-fiction. There are clear reasons why the authors would have wanted to approach their subject in this unique way. One is simply that no other author or historian had done this before, and the transatlantic slave trade does need to be retold and revisited again and again so that modern readers recognize its ramifications and reverberations. In fact, retelling the story of the transatlantic slave trade also inspires social justice activism, as readers will realize that patterns of slavery still exist: from the sex trade to economically expedient human trafficking.
Another reason why The International Struggle against the Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Graphic History is important is…… [Read More]
Atlantic Slave Trade From 1650 Onward
Although slavery had existed throughout human history, the Atlantic slave trade possessed certain unique qualities which gave rise to an equally unique and economically profitable form of slavery from the 17th century onward. The Atlantic slave trade was also called the Triangle Trade: "Ships carried European manufactures to Africa and exchanged them for slaves, who were then taken to the Americas, where they were traded for sugar, molasses, cotton, tobacco, indigo and other goods, which were brought back to Europe."[footnoteRef:1] Although the Portuguese began the trade, it was primarily the economies of the U.S. and Great ritain which generated its development. [footnoteRef:2] [1: William Hardy, "The Rise and Fall of the Slave Trade," Open University, February 25, 2014, http://www.open.edu/openlearn/history-the-arts/history/the-rise-and-fall-the-slave-trade (accessed December 28, 2015)] [2: Ibid.]
The slave trade was fueled by the creation of a 'cash crop' system whereby slaves were used not simply…… [Read More]
When it comes to the slave trade, there are many facets, periods and facts surrounding slavery and how it progressed that can be explored, nitpicked and analyzed. However, that overall subject is rather broad and without focus, one could literally write a book about the subject and not run out of fresh material to look at or use. However, the author of this report would avoid that by focusing on the middle passage, the sugar trade that occurred during the same and why slavery was the common choice to facilitate the sugar trade rather than focus on the use of indentured servants or even paid labor. While the fairly easy answer is that the subjugation and exploitation of blacks allowed for good labor for free other than the movement and control of the slaves.
Even with the fairly obvious reasons why slaves were the tool of the trade…… [Read More]
Describe the Neirsée incident. What upset France? What upset Britain? What was unfair about the capture of the slaves?
Although Britain and France were formally attempting to dismantle the trans-Atlantic slave trade, the global economy had come to depend on it. The Neirsée incident of 1828 reveals the difficulties inherent in dismantling the slave trade due to the interconnectedness of the global economy. For several years prior to this incident, Britain had outlawed the trafficking of slaves, which is why the British Navy decided to intervene and capture the ship. Yet Britain did not have an international mandate to suddenly outlaw slave trafficking altogether. The human cargo on board the Neirsée was worth far too much to the businesspeople involved on both sides of the Atlantic, both in colonial territories and in Africa. In Inhuman Traffick, Blaufarb relies on primary sources from Britain and France to demonstrate what occurred before,…… [Read More]
Resistance and Complicity
It is impossible to understand or write about Africa's history without considering its relationship with continents like Europe and America. It is imperative that a discussion of the subject concentrate on Africans' pivotal shaping of world history (Lindsay, 2007). Europeans (i.e., Englishmen, Dutchmen, the Portuguese, and the French) contributed only superficially to shaping Africa's history during the Atlantic era's first two centuries, engaging in merchandizing and goods transportation between sea coasts. Only after 1640 did the Europeans, in what is known as the 2nd Atlantic Era (1640-1800s), begin demanding slaves and raw materials, commencing their cruel influence on the economic freedom of the continent. They effectively influenced or overpowered particular communities on the continent through several layers of partnerships strategically created with natives, rather than through military strength. African currency's gradual devaluation attained by introducing European currency in the form of copper coins, Gatling guns and repeating…… [Read More]
" And as for this article's information on mortality among slaves in South America, "Death rates among slaves in the Caribbean were one-third higher than in the south...and sometimes Latin American slaves were forced to wear iron masks to keep them from eating dirt or drinking liquor." It was cruel to force slaves in Latin America to produce their own food "in their free time" (Digital History), but that was what was expected of them.
So while slaves were dying in huge numbers due to the difficulties of working in the mines and in the sugar cane plantations in Brazil, many slaves in America were actually working indoors in kitchens, doing domestic work, helping white mothers raise the white children. They received, by all accounts, ample food to eat, and even were treated with some dignity in some instances.
hile there were no doubt numerous instances of brutality on the…… [Read More]
The trans-Atlantic slave trade shackled together persons from disparate cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Forced contact and communion, pervasive physical and psychological abuse, and systematic disenfranchisement became the soil in which a unique subculture would be born. Slave subcultures in the United States were also diverse, depending on geography, the nature of the plantation work, the prevailing political and social landscape of the slave owner culture, and factors like gender and ethnic backgrounds of the slaves. Presence and type of religion in the community also impacted the evolution of slave culture. Common factors that link disparate slave subcultures include religion, music, crafts, food, social norms, and political philosophies. In spite of the tremendous variations in theme and tone of slave cultures, such as those in Maryland, Virginia, Georgia, or the Carolinas, there did emerge some consistencies that draw attention to commonalities. The forced bondage of slavery created the means…… [Read More]
In conclusion, these narratives paint a vivid picture of slave life from the 17th and 18th centuries, and illustrate why slavery was such a vicious and evil institution. Without these narratives, a historical view of slavery would be incomplete, and they illustrate a distressing and immoral element of American history. Slavery differed between the North and the South, but it shared many common characteristics, as slave narratives continue to illustrate.
Abdur-ahman, Aliyyah I. "The Strangest Freaks of Despotism": Queer Sexuality in Antebellum African-American Slave Narratives." African-American eview 40, no. 2 (2006): 223+.
Barrett, Lindon. "African-American Slave Narratives: Literacy, the Body, Authority." American Literary History 7, no. 3 (1995): 415-442.
Bland, Sterling Lecater, ed. African-American Slave Narratives: An Anthology. Vol. 1. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001..
Bland, Sterling Lecater, ed. African-American Slave Narratives: An Anthology. Vol. 3. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.
Clayton, onnie W. Mother Wit: The Ex-Slave Narratives…… [Read More]
Still it is not completely unheard of for a name to be derived from a longer epitaph of Nat, property of man, Mr. Turner. This is how many people's last names resulted in ending with "man."
Nat Turner was born a slave in Virginia in 1800 and grew to become a slave preacher. He did not use tobacco or liquor and maintained a clean, disciplined life. He was very religious man and became passionate about the Scripture. He began preaching to slaves in and around the area of Southampton County, Virginia in 1828. As a result he became well-known and liked in the area. It was at this time he began having visions. It was these visions that inspired him to revolt. hile he waited for further signs, unrest was already evident in on plantations, in the hills and on boats in ports of call (Greenberg, 85). Gradually he built…… [Read More]
One of the major challenges that the Africans faced was speaking in English as it took them time to understand the language since it was the national language, but with the help of the Americans they slowly understood it.
Use for Luxurious Purposes:
The other aspect that helped the slaves in creating their own society and culture is through allowing themselves to be used for luxurious purposes. They were more often used as a means of acquiring wealth and since they adhered to this, they became very close to the Americans, which helped in reducing the issue of slavery. As a result, the Americans no longer practiced racism on the Africans but allowed them to practice their culture. As this practice later pleased the whites, they were soon introduced to the new culture.
Growth of Individualism:
The growth of individualism is another factor that enabled the slaves to create their…… [Read More]
Slave Dancer: How to teach the book, how to teach about slavery, race, and ethics
The Slave Dancer by Paula Fox, viewed from the eyes of a student, is an adventure tale with a young protagonist who can be easily identified with, in the eyes of a young reader. Plot wise, the book tells the story of a young, thirteen-year-old boy in 1840, when the American slave trade was still legal. The boy, Jessie Bollier, has recently lost his father. He makes money for his family by playing his fife on the docks of New Orleans. Suddenly, one day, he finds himself on board a ship called "The Moonlight." The Moonlight is a slave ship bound for the coast of Africa.
An exciting story from the point-of-view of a student, but a potential lesson in history and ethics in the eyes of a teacher, for Jessie, as compelled by the…… [Read More]
A "linguist" would bring the slave broker on board the ship that had traveled upriver, and at that point there were negotiations and the broker (owner of the slaves that he had kidnapped) wanted to know of course what merchandise was being offered, what the commission the captain of the vessel was to receive, and he wanted to know what other offers might be out there on the coast from the other slavers. At the end of the day, if the broker liked the deal, and if the trader liked the slaves that the broker brought to the river (or the coast), the company "surgeon" was called in to check the health of the prisoners, and if that passed muster, a deal was struck. The male slaves were put in irons on the main deck; the children and women (not ironed) were placed on the quarterdeck; and the boys were…… [Read More]
Spread of Islam in Africa and Asia Along Trade Routes
The Islam religion spread in Asia and Africa mainly due to trade of such goods as spices, gold, as also due to slaves. The advantages of proximity with the greatly profitable and powerful traders of the Islam religion triggered the conversions of merchants and rulers' into Muslims. Islam spread slowly; it took centuries, but in most places where the conversion took place, people still hold on to the religion (Debrouse). This paper explores the reasons of spread of Islam religion along Asian and African trade routes, particularly centering on the success of Islam in Middle Asia.
Early Trade Connections
Since the era of Muhammad, it has been believed that trade is closely related to the religion as well as its development. Inmecca, the people of the Qurayshtribe were leaders in business. They extended their connections and influence to Syria and…… [Read More]
Trans-Saharan trade involved the trading across Sahara desert that linked the Mediterranean countries and the sub-Saharan Africa. The type of trade was initiated by omans after the introduction of camels in the regions of North Africa. This gave a room for the residents of central Sahara and the Berbers of North Africa to adopt the use of camels for transportation and as a source of food. Formerly, trading across desert was sporadic, however this became possible when camels were introduced thus making the contact and trading between Mediterranean world as well as, sub-Saharan West Africa to flourish. The commodities which were traded include weapons, textiles, and horses all these came from the Mediterranean while gold, animal products, and slaves came from the West Africa (Wright, 2007). However there were some commodities which came from central Sahara which included salt that was mined from prehistoric lakes that got dried up. The…… [Read More]
The problem with European slaves was mainly that they had recourse to legal action for the protection of their rights and redressing their grievances. Like the Native Americans, European slaves were also unfamiliar with the soils and cash crops of the New World. Furthermore, they tended to use their status as slaves only as a vehicle for traveling to the United States, after which they would claim their freedom on the grounds of their Christianity and their race (Gilbert and Reynolds 154).
On the other hand, the main disadvantage of using Africans as slaves was the expense and danger involved in capturing and transporting them from the continent (Gilbert and Reynolds 155). Their knowledge and familiarity with both the tropical environment and the soils of the area however favored them highly over their European and Native American counterparts. This, along with their skill in extracting ores from American soils, as…… [Read More]
How did the African slaves receive guidance, physical preparedness, and social support ("seasoning") as they were brought from their home continent to the Americas? This paper covers the transition from freedom to slavery, and how Africans were given certain tools to help them handle the raw socialized cruelty from freedom to being put on ships and transported to North America.
hat are the phases of the "Seasoning Process"?
hile no readily available reference cited a specific "five phases" of the seasoning process, there clearly are at least five phases that can be reported. According to Assistant Professor Brenda E. Stevenson, the first phase of seasoning began "before many [slaves] reached Virginia," and she is referencing the "harsh lessons learned during the Middle Passage." Going through the sickness from new surroundings caused many slaves to suffer from pneumonia, malaria, smallpox, sickle cell anemia, typhus, worm infestations, whooping cough, dysentery,…… [Read More]
million Africans were abducted forcibly from West Africa alone and enslaved (Centre for lack & African Arts & Civilisation, 2002, 1). This paper endeavours to explore the "impact of the slave trade on West Africa." The historical injustices of the slave trade have undeniably affected West Africa detrimentally in the political, economic and social arenas. The gravity of such a negative impact is what leaders of nations historically involved in the slave trade are discussing as they determine what reparations can be made to the victims of this inhumane practice.
efore embarking on the political, economic and social fallout of the slave trade on West Africa, it is important to give a brief description of this blight in history. From the middle of the 15th century, the Portuguese initiated the slave trade. They were followed by the Spaniards, and at a lengthier period (1562) by the ritish. Then in rapid…… [Read More]
Once they arrived, they were brought to a slave market and usually auctioned off to the highest bidder just as cattle and horses were auctioned off. he slaves then spent their lives of servitude helping white farm and plantation owners in their agricultural operations. he slaves weren't typically compensated and lived in deplorable conditions. Slavery helped many white land owners become rich, and the southern colonies, which turned into the southern states, remained slave states, while those in the north became know as free states, where slavery was not legal. his dichotomy of cultures, between the northern and southern states, eventually led to further economic and cultural rifts leading up to the Civil War in 1860.
During the Civil War, the northern states allowed blacks to serve in the Union Army. Southern states, eager to fight for their way of life and economic interests, were against the abolition of slavery.…… [Read More]
Trade and imperialism brought all the societies of the Near East into contact with one another during the Axial Age so that networks were established and goods and services flowed from society to the other. These networks also facilitated the dispersal of ideas, both religious and philosophical. By the end of the Axial Age, the foundations of Western thought had been laid by the classical philosophers in Greece: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle—and their ideas rooted in the observance of Transcendentals, or ideals, that individuals pursued through the cultivation of good or virtuous habits in their daily lives, spread to the next dominant empire in the West—the Roman Empire. This paper will discuss the transmission of technology, ideas (religious and philosophical), consumer goods, and germs from the end of the Axial Age to 1500 CE. It will also examine the treatment of indigenous people by expanding empires and conquerors as…… [Read More]
Slave, Not Born a Slave
The Making of Slavery
The sense of proprietorship of slave traders, owners, and other propagators of chattel slavery that was prevalent in the United States until the middle of the 19th century would be absurdly laughable -- were it not steeped in a legacy of perversion, of anguish, of tragedy and of perniciousness. The notion that one had the right to actually own another, the latter of whose sole existence would be to serve the former in any way, shape or method which the "owner" deemed appropriate, has been disproved as largely imaginary, and not something based on any sense of right or morality (no matter how such a historically ambiguous term was defined) numerous times, both during the tenure of slavery in the United States and well afterwards. A casual examination of the wording of the Declaration of Independence confirms this fact (McAulifee, 2010,…… [Read More]
Life of a Slave Girl, Harriet Jacobs relates to the readers her experiences as a slave girl in the Southern part of America. Her story started from her sheltered life as a child to her subordination to her mistress upon her father's death, and her continuing struggle to live a dignified and virtuous life despite being a slave. Her struggle involves her constant degradation from her master; the danger of being sexually exploited by her mistress' husband, Dr. Flint; her broken relationship with a free colored man; her pregnancy to a man named Mr. Sands; and her fight for her and her children's freedom from slavery. All of these experiences helped Linda learn to fight justly for her right to become a free individual, but most of all, to be subordinated to Dr. Flint, the man who wanted so bad to exploit her, yet, was not able to because of…… [Read More]
primary source written by slave have picked ewis Clarke and his book Narrative of the Sufferings of ewis Clark. In my opinion, excerpts from this book give a clear account about the condition of a slave in the South in the first half of the 19th and a revelatory story of a fugitive slave and his experience as he ran for freedom.
ewis Clarke was born in 1812, in Madison County, Kentucky, as the son of a Scottish emigrant and a black mother. As such, he was a slave, owned by William Campbell. Upon his death, ewis Clarke was sold to Betsy Branton and spend his years without his mother, who had been sold at a different plantation, several tens of miles away. Escaped from the plantation in 1841, he lived the remainder of his years, until his death in 1897, in Canada, where he published his book, Narrative of…… [Read More]
nature of U.S.-Mexican trade relations, it is difficult indeed not to think of the statement of Mexican President Porfirio Diaz at the turn of the last century, "Poor Mexico, so far from God, and so close to the United States." For Mexico does continue to seem to occupy a benighted position vis-a-vis its richer and more powerful neighbor to the north, a position that is in no small measure defined and continually recreated by the nature and mechanisms of international trade between the two nations. This paper examines the nature of the trade relations between the United States and Mexico in the light of several classical economics theories and models as well as in respect to recent developments in the wake of the 1992 signing of the NAFTA accord and the last decade's worth of increasing globalization.
Economic Theories and Models
We begin by discussing and summarizing some of the…… [Read More]
Edward Ball chronicles his family's slave-owning history in the compelling historical narrative Slaves in the Family. Ball traces the lineages of his white relatives and their slaves and where possible recreates life as it was on the Ball plantations in South Carolina. Descendents of the Englishman Elias Ball bought and sold enough slaves to populate a city. By no means singular in their treatment of the Africans, the Balls prove nevertheless to be a prime example of a Southern plantation dependent on the blood, sweat, and tears of families and individuals ripped from their homeland and bought and sold as commodity. Cruelty was meted out equally among black males and females, but it is worthwhile to contrast the unique experiences of enslaved women on the Southern plantations. If nothing else, motherhood and childrearing set the women apart. They watched their newborns emerge into a world of shackles, often completely losing…… [Read More]
' (Adams, 1982) Local agencies helped the magistrate, remedied public mores, and also inspected the conduct of the "Hyangni" and served as power base for the local "yangbans. "Yangbans" were dispatched to the province from the capital. Yangbans -- constituted of the class of advantaged / privileged civil and military servicemen. Yangins constituted of middle-level bureaucrats, peasants and merchants, whose children were allowed to sit the exam for governance service. "Chungins" -- were technical personnel and professional specialists composed of the side children of 'Yangbans"
Leonid (2011) points out that 'The literati composed of the dominant social class in Choson Korea. Most of them were the "Yangbans" the members of the two orders of officialdom who served as civil or military officials.' Since it was this yangbans who directed the government, economy and culture of Choson Korea, it may be designated a Yangban society as opposed to the aristocratic society…… [Read More]
Farmers are stated to have become "risk takers, created new markets, developed rural industries and migrated to urban areas. Farmers were no longer slaves to the state..." (1996)
Dorn notes the statement of Jianying Zha (1994:202) in the book "China Pop" that:
The economic reforms has created new opportunities, new dreams, and to some extent, a new atmosphere and mindsets. The old control system has weakened in many areas, especially the spheres of economy and lifestyle. There is a growing sense of increased space for personal freedom."
Dorn states that the optimism of Zha would certain be shared by anyone who has: "...seen the vibrancy of the market, the dynamism of the people, and the rapid growth of urban areas..." (1996) Dorn states: "Commercial life in China is evolving naturally as people flee the countryside for improved living conditions and the chance to strike it rich in the growing nonstate…… [Read More]
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…… [Read More]
Silence, Endo uses the background of persecution to contemplate these knotty questions. ("Silence")
Endo seeks to show within Silence, then, how the missionaries themselves misunderstood which aspects of Christianity to emphasize to Japanese would-be converts, just as he himself had misunderstood the universal appeal that Christianity could potentially have in areas outside the western world, including Japan, until he had visited Palestine. As a missionary religion, as Endo also implies, Christianity must rely on persuasive power in order to truly capture the hearts and minds of people anywhere that it seeks to convert. Japanese feudalism and European trade, on the other hand, rely only on force, coercion, and violence - no match for Christian missionaries in an area like Japan, especially if those missionaries' Christianity is not accepted in Japan in the first place. Religious zeal, then, in order to have any real hope of vanquishing competing economic forces, must…… [Read More]
Colonialism marked the expansion and power of countries like Britain and France. The British and French had substantial influence and power in places like Cameroon, Chad, Congo, and South Africa. After some time passed, these former colonies gained independence and attempted to stabilize their respective economies. However, most gained no ground and remained dependent on things like foreign aid to survive. Such hardship brought in a new form of power dynamics, neocolonialism. Neocolonialism is a stark reminder of the power developed nations have over former colonies; West Africa's cocoa industry demonstrates how poorer nations remain poor through the limited export of raw resources that maintain dependence and diminish innovation.
Neocolonialism is “a situation of infringed national sovereignty and intrusive influence by external elements” (Langan, 2018, p. 1). While countless scholars may feel ‘squeamish’ if someone invokes the term, it rings true for the various situations African countries face…… [Read More]
Harmony to Holocaust
The Portuguese reached the Gold Coast of Africa in 1439. At first, they were impressed with the culture they found. As they worked their way down the coast "[t]hey found people of varying cultures. Some lived in towns ruled by kings with nobility and courtiers very much like the medieval societies they left behind them." (Obadina). Many years later, a visitor from Holland was equally impressed and records his impressions of Benin City in 1600: "As you enter it, the town appears very great. You go into a great broad street, not paved, which seems to be seven or eight times broader than the Warmoes Street in Amsterdam... The houses in this town stand in good order, one close and even with the other, as the houses in Holland stand..." (qtd. In Obadina). Clearly, at this early stage, the Europeans had a fairly positive view of the…… [Read More]
million Africans who were enslaved and transported to Europe and America between 15th and 19th which was part of the Atlantic trade. This trade was motivated by the plantations in America which had a strong demand for labor. The slave trade was eventually integrated into international trading system where North Americans and Europeans were exchanging merchandise for humans along Africa's western as well as the West Atlantic Oceans. There were various events that took place in the African slave trade between 1450 and 1850. This paper will look at these key events and show their importance.
Beginning of slave trade
The commencement of slave trade was seen to be when a ship that was sailing from Portugal came back with 12 Africans who were meant to be solved into slavery. This event marked the beginning of a very dark and brutal trade that would involve Africans being taken to do…… [Read More]
Like many abolitionists, Hannah More built her philosophy on a firm foundation of religion and spiritual thought. Her poems "Sensibility" and "The Slave Trade" present imagery related to spiritual concepts and ideals that she uses to persuade a sensible Christian audience against the slave trade. More crafts her abolitionist poetry around philosophical ideals as well as spiritual ones, and the poet appeals to reason as much as to emotion. In her poem "Sensibility: An Epistle to the Honourable Mrs. Boscawen," More emphatically elevates sensibility above religiosity: "if RELIGION'S bias rule the soul, / Then SENSIBILITY exalts the whole," (353-4). More elaborates on the theme of distorted religion throughout "The Slave Trade," by accusing proponents of slavery of arrogance, "insulted reason," and "natural evils," (141; 156). However, More's argument is rooted in sensibility, that elusive quality that, like God, cannot be defined. More describes sensibility like she would describe…… [Read More]
The manner in which consumer goods can affect human affairs, however, differs. hile demand for certain consumer goods can lead to oppression, the way people demand consumer goods may also destroy oppressive practices. hen Britons demanded sugar with no regard to the way sugar and coffee they enjoyed for the breakfast were produced, slavery flourished. But when the Britons began to demand goods that they believed were not causing slavery, the change of tastes undermined slave trade and contributed to the ending of slavery. hile tobacco and cotton were not as important at the time as sugar, they played a similar function in abolitionist and independence movements that fought against slavery.
The function of consumer goods is also linked to material culture. This was the case in the eighteenth century, as books by Dubois and Carrigus and Hochschild demonstrate. European colonial practices that led to the enslavement of tens of…… [Read More]
Black Africans helped the Portuguese and the Spanish when they were on their exploration of the America. During the 16th century, some of the explorers who were of black origin went ahead to settle within the Valley of Mississippi as well as in areas that came to be known as New Mexico and South Carolina. However, Esteban was the most celebrated black explorer of the, who followed the Southwest route in the 1530s. Blacks in the United State and their uninterrupted history can be traced from 1619; this was after 20 Africans were landed within the English colony of Virginia. Though these blacks were by then not slaves, they served as servants who were bound to an employer for a limited number of years as it was to most of the white settlers. By 1660s bigger numbers of Africans were taken to the English colonies. By 1790, the…… [Read More]
constructing responses titles I listing. In response make show reference entry. (01) Discuss
One of the most powerful movements that transformed European society during the early modern era was the dissemination of information and the propagation of reading material due to Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the printing press around 1450 A.D. The movement that would prove to have the most impact upon society as a whole, however, was the imperialist movement that many credit to have originated with Columbus' journeys to the Americas, the first of which was in 1492. The imperialist movement would allow the appetite for power and conquering to expand beyond Europe and eventually encapsulate the entire globe. This movement is directly responsible for today's globalization, and the previous (and perhaps current) colonization and tyranny of many non-European nations. Another major movement during this time period was the beginning of the Protestant eformation, which began around 1517…… [Read More]
The goods from Asia were shipped to Venice and Genoa from where they were carried over the Alps to France and Germany, or through the strait of Gibraltar to Britain and the Scandinavian countries. The Black Sea port of Caffa, controlled by the Genoese during the 14th century, was an important terminal point on the silk route. Apart from the fur and slaves that it normally imported, Caffa is also reputed to have introduced the dreaded "Black Death" epidemic to Europe through fleas on rats that traveled on Genoese ships to Constantinople. (Ibid)
Genoese Trade with the Ottomans
Until the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 14th century, the Genoese had prospered in trading through their relations with the Byzantines, the Christian principalities of the East, and even their sworn enemies -- the Arabs, while fighting for domination of trade with Venice. Thereafter, most of their trading activities depended…… [Read More]
The ideology of race only came to justify the existence of slavery after all 'equal' men were said to have inherent rights. Until then, virtually all peoples of the world had been enslaved at one point or another, even before the existence of 'races,' and inferiority as a category could be applied to the poor, to despised ethnicities like the Irish, or even to despised members of other tribes in Africa.
Fields, Barbara. "Presentation." Race: The Power of an Illusion. PBS ebsite. 2001. February 9, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-02-02.htm
Africa: A Voyage of Discovery with Basil Davidson. RM Arts, 1984.
Horton, James O. "Origin of race, slavery." Race: The Power of an Illusion. PBS ebsite. 2003.
February 9, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-02-04.htm
Obadina, Tunde. "Role of African Slave Traders." Edofolks. February 9, 2009. http://www.edofolks.com/html/pub157.htm
Smedley, Audrey. "Origin of the idea of race." Anthropology Newsletter. November 1997.
Reprinted 2003 on Race:…… [Read More]
Human Sex Trafficking
Introduction to the Issue
Globalism may be increasing human trafficking
Sex Trafficking is a global issue, developed and developing countries alike
Trade is both overt and covert
Statistics on the trade
easons for the trade (incentive)
Use of trickery and subterfuge to entice young people and parents
Use of drugs and addiction to make "slaves" pliable
The underdeveloped world
Economic issues with larger families
Attitude of girls being "disposable" as cultural tenet
Techniques used to ply trafficking trade (intimidation, drugs, brainwashing)
Difficult to coordinate response and law enforcement because of locations
Those involved in many underdeveloped countries are part of the wealthy or elite -- corruption part of culture
c. U.S. And Interpol working together
d. Nature of legal scrutiny and substance via technology
a. Global Problem and the United Nations
b. Education and techniques for mitigation
c. Future goals and prospects
Human…… [Read More]
However, the population was not self-sustaining and therefore depended on a continual influx of new laborers (p. 2). The result was to dramatically alter the world's demographic features, and not only those of the Americas and Africa. The plantation complex was also an offshoot of feudalism; its structure resembled medieval feudal societies in which a land-owning master exerted authority over his subjects but who was at the same time subject to his own political master. Finally, Curtin shows how the creation of highly specialized goods transformed the global market system, encouraging or even forcing nations from all corners of the globe to participate in a massive network of trading. In the early days of the plantation complex, Europeans used silver mined in South America to purchase goods from India which were in turn used to purchase slaves in Africa; those slaves were imported as property to the plantations in the…… [Read More]
Uncle Tom characters were common in both white and black productions of the time, yet no director before Micheaux had so much as dared to shine a light on the psychology that ravages such characters. By essentially bowing to the two white men, Micheaux implied that Old Ned was less than a man; an individual whittled down to nothing more than yes-man and wholly deprived of self-worth. At this point in the history of black films, with some of the most flagrant sufferings of blacks exposed to the American public, the only logical path forward that African-Americans could take was to begin making cogent demands to improve their collective social situation.
Slowly, black characters in film took on greater and more significant roles in film. Sidney Poitier was one of the most powerful film stars of the mid twentieth century. In roles like the 1950 film by…… [Read More]
Why a]re the dearest friends and relations now... prevented from cheering the gloom of slavery with the small comfort of being together and mingling their sufferings and sorrows? Why are parents to lose their children, brothers their sisters, or husbands their wives? Surely this is a new refinement in cruelty, which, while it has no advantage to atone for it, thus aggravates distress, and adds fresh horrors even to the wretchedness of slavery... I have even known them gratify their brutal passion with females not ten years old; and these abominations some of them practised to such scandalous excess, that one of our captains discharged the mate and others on that account." (Vol. 1 p. 206)
On the other hand, there is a paradoxical problem that probably undermines that hope: awareness of how much worse slaves were treated earlier in their lives could have also allowed some of…… [Read More]
1415 Euopeans began a long pocess of expansion though impeial conquest and colonization. This ealy moden fom of impeialism continued up to the late eighteenth o ealy nineteenth centuy. Explain how and why the vaious Euopean powes expanded beyond thei oiginal bodes and in many instances beyond the continent. Be sue to distinguish between at least thee of the pincipal Euopean impeial powes, among which wee the Potuguese, Spanish, Bitish, Fench, Dutch, and Russians.
Thee wee many factos that caused Euopean powes to expand beyond thei oiginal bodes and, in many instances, beyond the continent.
One of these was simply colonization whee one county battled anothe and claimed its teitoy as its own. Anothe facto was tade whee the tade dealings of specific counties bought them into contact with anothe and, theeby impoted thei influence into foeign soil. The slave tade too was a contibutoy facto whee people fom one…… [Read More]
difficulty, wealthy white American settlers created and dominated a stable plantation society in which slaves, Indians, and poorer whites accepted the justice of their subordination.
There is sound evidence that slavery had spread through America long before 1776. Like a vile cancer, slavery spread throughout with the early settlers. As they arrived from Europe, white settlers began to push inward. As they moved into vast uncharted territories, they brought along their concept and belief in slavery.
When the American Revolution initiated with the signing of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia, slavery was well rooted. Many leaders of the Revolution regarded the elimination of slavery as impossible. The American slaveholders had effectively protected their beloved institution.
Laws were enacted that reinforced slavery as an institution. Legal language included, "That all servants imported and brought in this country, by sea or land, who where not Christians in their native county...shall be…… [Read More]
world's nations and citizens was the Cold ar. Indeed, slave trade was important, and the formation of American colonies in the 17th century has had an enormous impact on the history of the planet. Also the Seven Years' ar and imperialism had enormous implications and impacts. But the years of the Cold ar stand out as more pivotal in terms of the history of the world. This paper will explain why the Cold ar was most important.
Slave Trade: The International Slavery Museum (ISM) explains that European slave traders "forcibly uprooted millions of people" from est African and est Central Africa between the years 1500 to 1900. In particular, the 16th century was a century in which millions of African peoples were forcibly shipped in cruelly over-crowded slave ships to the Americas. These individuals from Africa were "…farmers, merchants, priests, soldiers, goldsmiths and musicians" (ISM). hile crossing the oceans from…… [Read More]
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
The…… [Read More]
It might be said that, had Lincoln not been elected, the war might have been put off by a few years, and then a solution might perhaps have been reached. However, as has been demonstrated, the country was moving inexorably toward war and no other solution would work. If the war had been put off by a few years, the result would more than likely have been even more terrible and bloody than it was. General Grant was of the opinion that the war was inevitable. "The Southern rebellion was largely the outgrowth of the Mexican war," he wrote in his Personal Memoirs, in accord with his belief that the Mexican-American War was the result of the South's attempts to extend slavery into Mexican-controlled Texas, "Nations, like individuals, are punished for their transgressions. We got our punishment in the most sanguinary and expensive war in modern times." Grant would then…… [Read More]
Therefore, the slave woman became emotionally isolated from her husband. This emotional isolation, when combined with the physical isolation that inevitably happened when slaves were sold, led to slave women having a greater affection and affinity for their children than for the men that fathered them (especially when such men included slave masters and slave traders). The result, White explains, is that slave women came to seek and accept the society of one another, and developed a hierarchy as such in which there was an informal set of rankings and prioritization. The Mammy character was generally at the forefront of this hierarchy, which was essentially a coping mechanism to deal with all of the perverted occurrences that chattel slavery in the U.S. inflicted upon all involved, (including slave owners).
White reinforces her contention that this institution was inordinately worse for slave women than for their male counterparts. The final mythological…… [Read More]
Poverty has a particularly strong influence on world affairs today and it is especially difficult for particular individuals to survive as long as they do not get involved in activities that very much resemble the form of slavery that was abolished more than 140 years ago. While some might interpret certain jobs to be no different from others, given that they entail individuals doing things they are not particularly fond of, the reality is that these respective jobs involve people being unable to leave and forced to work.
Many people leave their homes because they are poor and hope that they are going to make it in other locations. However, once they actually get there they realize that they are abused and forced to work for little to no compensation. These people are, by definition, slaves, in spite of the fact that the social order has a tendency to regard…… [Read More]
Patrick Henry's Speech
Slavery had existed for a very long time. It is still existent; however, the form may have changed. Anti-slave laws and abolitionist movement had been there in the past to stop slave trade in Africa. Provisions had been there but there has been no significant impact. This report focuses on Henry's speech in which he has argued how the masters (British) used to control their slaves (American colony). Henry holds the view that British should be thrown away from their executive power and Americans should fight for their freedom. Hence, the Thesis Statement is:
Patrick Henry was imageries, metaphors and analogies to persuade his audience to join the freedom struggle against the British.
Analysis of Henry's speech
Henry stresses in the first paragraph on the need to fight for freedom by saying, "I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery." In Henry's…… [Read More]
Zinn's a People's History of the U.S.
Should the U.S. apologize for slavery and its legacy? ho benefits if the U.S. doesn't apologize?
It is difficult to determine the answer to such a polarizing question. Some argue that slavery has been a form of life since the beginning of mankind and that if the African-American community is apologized to, then the Jewish people who were slaves should get apologies too. They argue that the sins of our ancestors are not our own and that we are not responsible for their actions. Yet, the American form of slavery was especially heinous. According to the text, the American form of slavery was the cruelest. Zinn points to two reason that American slavery was the most horrible: "the frenzy for limitless profit that comes from capitalistic agriculture" and "the reduction of the slave to less than human status by the use of racial…… [Read More]
These newspapers continuously wrote that there is no essential conflict between labor class (referring to wage earners) and the capitalists and that each should not suspect the other in the development of America.
outhern slave society: An essential conflict with free labor social order
There were many distinctions in the Northern and outhern economic and social outlook of America. There were conflicting ideologies being pursued in these regions and the economic progress of Northern region was associated to the free enterprising class known as the middle class. The class thrived in the Northern region by investing in their own businesses, small and large. On the contrary, outhern society was based on slavery system. The Northerners demanded that the slavery of fugitives' slaves shall be abolished and free soil in the west was to be enforced. The essential elements that divided the Northerners and outherners were the matter of slavery. The…… [Read More]
History African Diaspora (Subject)- Fredrick Douglass Ambassor Hatti. (Objectives )-Two primary sources Two secondary sources, Outline, Structure, Thesis, Arugument, Motives, Primaries a Tittle.
Frederick Douglass and the African Diaspora
Africa is presently perceived as a land of origin by millions of people from around the world, as numerous Africans have either willingly or unwillingly left their homes throughout time. Although the term African Diaspora generally refers to a series of Africans who left their home continent from antiquity and until the present day, it is widely used to relate to Africans who descend from individuals who were forcefully brought to the American continent during the Atlantic slave trade. In spite of the fact that they were persecuted and forced to work as slaves in the Americas, some Africans actually rose against their oppressors and are presently remembered as some of the most reputable individuals in all of history.
Africans have…… [Read More]