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Question 2) Find the total number of shipments to VA from Bonny including mean average numbers.

Bonny is a port located in the most eastern part of the Gulf of Guinea. It was considered to be a favorable place for transacting slave purchases. It attractiveness included:

The ability to purchase yams for feeding the slaves on the middle passage,

The predictability of slave availability based on the agricultural calendar

The organized slave trade with slaves brought to market from non-coastal areas after harvest

And, the stability of the government, which allow the trades to provide trade goods to the slave merchants prior to receiving the slaves without pawnship as collateral.

Between 1727-1769 X ships arrived in Virginia. Of these, seven ships came from Bonny, carrying 1,453 slaves for a mean average of 208 per ship. Like question one, there are some ambiguities to question two: shipments of what and what are the geographical boundaries of Bonny.….

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Port

Negros

# of ships

Average/ship

Africa (Calabar)

5

Congo

1

Gambia and Gold Coast

3

Gambia and Grain Coast

2

Angola

14

Gambia

7

Coast of Guinea

1

Windward and Gold Coast

4

Sierra Leone

1

Windward Coast

1

Senegal

2

Windward and Rice Coast

1

Windward and Grain Coast

1

Gambia and Windward Coast

1

Gold Coast

2

Grain and Gold Coast

1

Totals

10506

47

Mean average per port

Weighted mean average per ship

Based upon the article "Shipboard Revolts, African Authority, and the Atlantic Slave Trade," by David Richardson and Stephen Behrendt's article "Markets, Transaction Cycles, and Profits: Merchant Decision Making in the British Slave Trade" one could possibly account for the range of slaves per ship and the variations between ports. The slave trade was a business dependent upon the matching of supply and demand in several industries. The ability to secure a vessel, sailors, carpenters and coopers determined, the timing of a ship's departure, the size of the ship, the number of slaves which could be transported and the amount of goods available to trade.

Slave trading was also dependent upon the agricultural activities in both….

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Slave trade of Indians and blacks began with Columbus but the overall slave trade was much worse and lasted later in history in razil
Summary of slave trade in razil

Firm connections with slavery in highlands

People involved included Portugese, Luso razilians and the slaves themselves

Like Columbus, killing and enslavement of indigenous peoples was common

Some slaves escaped and hid in mocambos and quilombos

Major epicenter of razil slave trade was Sao Paulo

Major townships for slavery were Santos and Mogi das Cruzes

Very different townships but slave trade was similar iii. Perosnal connections and friends rather than strangers

Valongo, although not long-lasting, was for slave trading only

Summary of slave trade in United States

a. Differences from razil were easily apparent

ii. Slave trade continued with Americans post-revolution iii. Slave traders were commonly privateers and strangers

b. ig names….

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Discussion

The focus of this work has been to answer the questions of: (1) How was the slave trade practiced in Europe and Africa before 1550, in comparison to the slave trade in and between the two regions after 1550?' And (2) 'What were the main differences between the two periods in terms of their origins, motivations and effects on African society?'

These two time periods, before 1550 and after 1550 have been shown in this work to have been quite different quite simply due to the fact that prior to 1550 slaves were sold to the 'Old World' of Europe however, following approximately 1550, the slave trade business was concentrated on selling slaves to the 'New World' or that of the American continent from which arose an accelerated need and increase in the demand for slaves.

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The author of this report is asked to answer several questions about the trans-Atlantic slave trade. First, there is the question of how important to African society and to the African economy the slave trade was. Second, there is the question of what roles the slaves served in African societies. Lastly, there will be a comparison of slavery in West Africa and the European slavery model that involved coercive labor. While most examples and depictions of slavery nowadays relate to historical events, the effects and lessons of slavery still ring quite loudly to this very day.

When it comes to the difference between the African model of slavery and the European model for the same, there was a stark difference. Indeed, African slaves were looked upon more as dependents rather than property. Put another way, African slaves could eventually "grow" and move beyond their slave state and become integrated into….

Atlantic Slave Trade Racist or Economic The
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Racist or economic?

The Atlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic Ocean. It took place during the sixteen to the nineteenth century. The majority of the slaves moved during this incident were the black Africans. These Africans were significantly from the continent. The Europeans bought these slaves from the Africans. They then sent the slaves to North and South America (Muhommad). Different perspectives have been presented below (iencek).

The racist view

Numerous attempts were made to rationalize the slave trade by its proponents. They hence looked to completely alienate and dehumanize the African race that was misused as slaves. These slaves were labeled the "Black cattle." The African race hence was looked down upon. The traces of this perception are found till date.

In the earlier stages there was no discrimination done by colonial settlers. There was no difference in the genre of work done by any race be it whites,….

How Did the Vikings Conduct the Slave Trade in the West
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Vikings were Norse explorers who traveled around the waters of the North Atlantic raiding, trading, pirating, and colonizing lands wherever their boats could travel. They are historically known as a rough group of individuals with raucous personalities and innate brutality. They are credited with having been the first to discover the New orld and to have reached locations which had not seen foreign invaders before the arrival of the Vikings. Between the 8th and 11th centuries AD, Norsemen and their Viking warriors traveled far and wide, forever changing history in Scandinavia and the rest of Europe and North America as well.[footnoteRef:1] One of the commodities the Vikings traded in was people. The Viking slave-traders were prolific in their activities, capturing people when they invaded and then selling them. More than any other commodity, slaves were how the Vikings were able to trade for goods and services….

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3). The first division consists of men; married women make up the second division; the third division is "young men" and "maidens" are seen in the fourth (Equiano, p. 4). To Europeans who thought all African native cultures were simplistic and barbaric, the dances that Equiano describes certainly must have stirred creative interest because the dances reflected "some interesting scene of real life" such as "some rural sport" and they were accompanied with "many musical instruments" (Equiano, p. 4).
The way in which Equiano employs religious values into his book is also very effective and no doubt made a powerful impression on readers -- not necessarily scholars and intellectuals but also average people with spiritual backgrounds and beliefs -- which, of course, gave some momentum to the antislavery movement. On pages 69-70, after reviewing some of the brutal cruelty visited upon slaves in the est Indies, Equiano wonders why, since….

Transatlantic Slave Trade Graphic History Book
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Rafe Blaufarb and Liz Clarke’s Inhuman Traffick: The International Struggle against the Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Graphic History accomplishes what few authors or historians could do: tell the tale of one of the most perplexing and gruesome issues in history using the medium graphic non-fiction. There are clear reasons why the authors would have wanted to approach their subject in this unique way. One is simply that no other author or historian had done this before, and the transatlantic slave trade does need to be retold and revisited again and again so that modern readers recognize its ramifications and reverberations. In fact, retelling the story of the transatlantic slave trade also inspires social justice activism, as readers will realize that patterns of slavery still exist: from the sex trade to economically expedient human trafficking. Another reason why The International Struggle against the Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Graphic History is important is that….

The Economics of the Slave Trade
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Atlantic Slave Trade From 1650 Onward
Although slavery had existed throughout human history, the Atlantic slave trade possessed certain unique qualities which gave rise to an equally unique and economically profitable form of slavery from the 17th century onward. The Atlantic slave trade was also called the Triangle Trade: "Ships carried European manufactures to Africa and exchanged them for slaves, who were then taken to the Americas, where they were traded for sugar, molasses, cotton, tobacco, indigo and other goods, which were brought back to Europe."[footnoteRef:1] Although the Portuguese began the trade, it was primarily the economies of the U.S. and Great ritain which generated its development. [footnoteRef:2] [1: William Hardy, "The Rise and Fall of the Slave Trade," Open University, February 25, 2014, http://www.open.edu/openlearn/history-the-arts/history/the-rise-and-fall-the-slave-trade (accessed December 28, 2015)] [2: Ibid.]

The slave trade was fueled by the creation of a 'cash crop' system whereby slaves were used not simply to….

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Sugar
When it comes to the slave trade, there are many facets, periods and facts surrounding slavery and how it progressed that can be explored, nitpicked and analyzed. However, that overall subject is rather broad and without focus, one could literally write a book about the subject and not run out of fresh material to look at or use. However, the author of this report would avoid that by focusing on the middle passage, the sugar trade that occurred during the same and why slavery was the common choice to facilitate the sugar trade rather than focus on the use of indentured servants or even paid labor. While the fairly easy answer is that the subjugation and exploitation of blacks allowed for good labor for free other than the movement and control of the slaves.

Analysis

Even with the fairly obvious reasons why slaves were the tool of the trade used to….

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Describe the Neirsée incident. What upset France? What upset Britain? What was unfair about the capture of the slaves? Although Britain and France were formally attempting to dismantle the trans-Atlantic slave trade, the global economy had come to depend on it. The Neirsée incident of 1828 reveals the difficulties inherent in dismantling the slave trade due to the interconnectedness of the global economy. For several years prior to this incident, Britain had outlawed the trafficking of slaves, which is why the British Navy decided to intervene and capture the ship. Yet Britain did not have an international mandate to suddenly outlaw slave trafficking altogether. The human cargo on board the Neirsée was worth far too much to the businesspeople involved on both sides of the Atlantic, both in colonial territories and in Africa. In Inhuman Traffick, Blaufarb relies on primary sources from Britain and France to demonstrate what occurred before, during,….

Wilberforce Anti'slavery Campaign
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Discussion thread: leadership guided changeAfter reading the Case Study of Wilberforce Anti-slavery Campaign, suggest Christian Strategies for managing change in the public sector. Apply at least 1 biblical passage that speaks to change. Explain why you picked the passage and what it means to you.Although the British Empire abolished the slave trade during the early 1800s, it required another 16 years after the passage of the 1807 Slave Trade Act for the Wilberforce Anti-Slavery Campaign to commence (Colonialism and politics of Empire, 2023). The founder of the campaign, William Wilberforce, is little known today but his efforts to end the slave trade in Britain place him among the ranks of other great leaders who stood up for what was right even when it was unpopular or even dangerous to do so. In this regard, Manning (2007) reports that, An 18th-century man who could join their ranks but of whom people….

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Resistance and Complicity
It is impossible to understand or write about Africa's history without considering its relationship with continents like Europe and America. It is imperative that a discussion of the subject concentrate on Africans' pivotal shaping of world history (Lindsay, 2007). Europeans (i.e., Englishmen, Dutchmen, the Portuguese, and the French) contributed only superficially to shaping Africa's history during the Atlantic era's first two centuries, engaging in merchandizing and goods transportation between sea coasts. Only after 1640 did the Europeans, in what is known as the 2nd Atlantic Era (1640-1800s), begin demanding slaves and raw materials, commencing their cruel influence on the economic freedom of the continent. They effectively influenced or overpowered particular communities on the continent through several layers of partnerships strategically created with natives, rather than through military strength. African currency's gradual devaluation attained by introducing European currency in the form of copper coins, Gatling guns and repeating rifles….

Slave Population in the U S
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" And as for this article's information on mortality among slaves in South America, "Death rates among slaves in the Caribbean were one-third higher than in the south...and sometimes Latin American slaves were forced to wear iron masks to keep them from eating dirt or drinking liquor." It was cruel to force slaves in Latin America to produce their own food "in their free time" (Digital History), but that was what was expected of them.
So while slaves were dying in huge numbers due to the difficulties of working in the mines and in the sugar cane plantations in Brazil, many slaves in America were actually working indoors in kitchens, doing domestic work, helping white mothers raise the white children. They received, by all accounts, ample food to eat, and even were treated with some dignity in some instances.

hile there were no doubt numerous instances of brutality on the part of….

Need assistance developing essay topics related to American Colonies. Can you offer any guidance?
WORDS 454

Certainly! Here are some potential essay topics related to American Colonies:

1. Compare and contrast the motivations for colonization between the Spanish, French, and English settlers in the Americas.
2. Analyze the impact of European diseases on Native American populations during the colonial period.
3. Discuss the role of religion in shaping the development of the American colonies.
4. Explore the economic systems of the American colonies and their impact on the growth of the colonies.
5. Evaluate the impact of the Atlantic slave trade on the development and economy of the American colonies.
6. Examine the relationship between Native American tribes and European colonizers in....

Is it time for schools to remove books containing the n-word from their libraries?
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The N-Word: A Complex History and Modern Dilemma

The n-word, a derogatory and racially charged term historically used against Black people, has sparked a heated debate in recent years over its presence in school libraries. While some argue that removing books containing the word is an act of censorship and historical erasure, others contend that such books perpetuate harmful stereotypes and should be eliminated from educational settings. This complex issue erfordert a nuanced understanding of the word's history, its impact on individuals and society, and the educational goals of schools.

Historical Context: Racism and the N-Word

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