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Slavery in America
The Beginning of Slavery
The first year that African slaves were brought to Colonial America was reported to be 1619 (Vox, 2012). The ship that docked at Point Comfort, in Jamestown Virginia, was owned by the Dutch. The Dutch crew was said to be starving and they wanted to make a trade with the colonists -- slaves for food, Vox explains in The New York Times-owned publications About.com. There were a reported twenty slaves on board, and this was verified by a letter from Dutch crewmember John Rolfe to the treasurer of the Virginia Company, Edwin Sandys.
It is possible that African slaves actually arrived prior to 1619 -- perhaps in the northern colonies -- but Vox explains that the only "hard evidence" available as to the presence of slaves came from Rolfe's letter. The British were involved in the slave trade at that time but Vox…
Boddy-Evans, Alistair. 2008. The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. About.com African History.
Retrieved November 27, 2012, from http://africanhistory.about.com .
Field, Elizabeth B. 2001. The Relative Efficiency of Slavery Revisited: A Translog
Production Function Approach. The American Economic Review. 78 543-550.
The emancipation of slaves did not lead to the dismantling of the underlying structures of slavery. Its most formidable social, economic, and political institutions persisted in spite of federal legislation following the end of the Civil War. Limp federal legislation enabled the racist social and political climate in the American South to fester, depriving all Americans of the opportunity to experience a "more perfect union." The PBS documentary Slavery by Another Name examines the perpetuation of slavery under the guise of the peonage system. The peonage system represents one of the great failures of econstruction. PBS bases its Slavery by Another Name documentary on the Pulitzer Prize-winning book by the same name. The documentary adds a visual dimension to the harrowing imagery Douglas A. Blackmon writes about in his book. Slavery by Another Name raises some difficult, important, and often embarrassing questions about the failure of the United States…
"Becker," (n.d.). FSU Criminology. Retrieved online: http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/becker.htm
Chesnutt, C.W. (1904). Peonage, or the new slavery. In Voice of the Negro, 1 (Sept. 1904): 394-97
Cutler, J. (2012). PBS doc shines light on shameful period in American history. Zaptoit. Retrieved online: http://www.zap2it.com/news/zap-slavery-name-story,0,7916225.story
Slavery by Another Name. [Documentary Film]. PBS. 2012.
Slavery in the Caribbean: Effects on Culture, ace and Labour
Origins of slavery
The Caribbean slavery began in the 16th and 17th century during the emergence of piracy. The basis for the modern Caribbean dates back to the slave trade and slavery. During the 16th century, outsiders settled in the Caribbean. This was a period characterised the European powers struggling for trade supremacy and the utilization of newly found resources. During the end of this century, sugar export emerged as a highly profitable trade as the cultivation of sugar developed into the main industry. The earnings from this trade were essential as they assisted in funding the Britain's and other European country's industrial revolution. Growing and producing sugar was not an easy task (Dowling, 2005).
This is since the plantations were large and needed to use the combination of agriculture and the sugar cane's mechanised processing. This meant that the…
Graff, Gilda. "The Name Of The Game Is Shame: The Effects Of Slavery And Its
Aftermath." Journal Of Psychohistory 39.2 (2011): 133-144.
Carter Jr., William M. "Panel IV: Contemporary Implications." Columbia Law Review 112.7
Slavery in the New World
Characters who are always in need of discrediting the United State and to oppose its role as pre-eminent and most powerful force for goodness, human dignity and freedom focus on bloody past of America as a slave holding nation. Apart from mistreatment and displacing native Americans, they enslaved millions of Africans, which is one of the worst mistake which has ever happens in the history of America. When this republic was found, slavery had already taken other forms in most section of the World, and was an accepted aspect of human history as from the start of the societies. It is believed that human being moved to an important leap towards civilization almost 10,000 years ago, in form of submission, domestication as well as training some of the important animals, and at this time they also started ownership and domestication of fellow human being that…
Christine Bolt & Seymour Drescher. "Anti-Slavery, Religion and Reform."
Herbert S. Klein. "Slavery in the Americas." Chicago (1963)
James Pope-Hennessy. "Sins of The Fathers." New York (1968).
Virginia's code lagged far behind South Carolina's of 1696 and the earlier British island codes" (Vaughn 306).
These early slave codes also served to further differentiate the appropriate legal rights that were afforded white indentured servants compared to their enslaved African counterparts. In this regard, Leon Higgenbotham adds that "at the same time the codes were emphatic in denying slaves any of the privileges or rights that had accrued to white indentured servants in this same period" (Higgenbotham 38). In reality, though, there had been some earlier attempts to formalize the legal status of the growing slave population. Although other colonies would follow Virginia's lead in the early 18th Century, they also seized on these early efforts to codify slavery into law as well. In this regard, Davies reports that in 1662, "Virginia elaborated on the statute, making slavery a condition passed on to children from their mothers. Five years…
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1991.
Billings, Warren M. Sir William Berkeley and the Forging of Colonial Virginia.
Louisiana State University Press, 2004.
Breen, T.H. And S. Innes. Myne Owne Ground: Race and Freedom on Virginia's
Masters began to look at their slaves as inferior to them, more like animals than humans. While the conditions of slavery in the United States during the colonial period were not as harsh as they were under the second-generation masters, the character of the slave trade during these second-generation masters included harsh beatings for discipline ("Slavery in the United States," 2009). Indeed, the entire institution of slavery was wrought with human rights abuses that many soon began to see as contrary to the Declaration of Independence and Spirit of America ("Slavery in the United States," 2009). Certainly, from a millennial viewpoint, it makes sense that forcing a person to work in harsh, deplorable conditions, have no control over their lives, and face the possibility of the sale of him or herself and his or her family members without notice is the polar opposite of freedom.
As Americans began to realize…
Robinson, B.A. (2007). Slavery in the Bible. Retrieved July 8, 2009, from http://www.religioustolerance.org/sla_bibl.htm
"Slavery in the United States," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2009
http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2009 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
During this life, contemplation about life and the journey was also part of the plan toward the best life. Contemplation, for this type of philosophy, is an activity that refines and discovers virtue which, carried out continuously throughout one's life, allows one to reach a clear goal of self-actualization, and thus the potential within.
And it this is true of the body, how much more just that a similar distinction should exist in the soul? But the beauty of the body is seen, whereas the beauty of the soul is not seen. It is clear, then, that some men are by nature free, and others slaves, and that for these latter slavery is both expedient and right (V). In this humans have character, and what that character should be. Some are born to become and remain leaders -- the idea of the philosopher king or the people who can see…
Aristotle. Politics. Electronic. 2007. Electronic. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com / books?id=sqpBmQzQnqwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=aristotle+politics&source=bl&ots=D98_xavIUk&sig=bawwWa4U2SrMdAdR8KFn6pRM4nI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ccuFUNa_EajyigKd_IDICQ&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=slavery&f=false
Plato. The Republic in Translation. (2004). Electronic. Retrieved from: http://ablemedia.com / ctcweb/consortium/gormanteachingplato.html
Westerman, W. Ancient Slavery. In E.R. Seligman, ed. Encyclopedia of the Social
Sciences. 2004. Electronic. Retrieved from: http://www.ditext.com/moral/slavery.html
The remnant of slavery in America has caused a great deal of stigma and represents a lasting stain on our nation's history. The issue slavery is a difficult one to explore because of the sensitivities involved and the shame associated with the practice of slavery. There are many issues that can be discussed when delving into this particular topic. Although the institution of slavery was prevalent in many states a great deal of the research that exists concerning slavery concentrates on just a few of the states. The purpose of this discussion is to focus on slavery in the Republic of Texas. More specifically the research will focus on slavery in Austin, Texas in the decade between 1836 and 1846. The research will focus on Public opinion on Slavery, the relationship between slaves and their masters, the economic value of a slave in this region,
History of Slavery in…
Abernethy, F.E. (1996) Juneteenth Texas: essays in African-American folklore. University of North Texas Press
Barker E.C. (1924) The Influence of Slavery in the Colonization of Texas. The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. Vol. 11(1), 3-36
Bugbee L.r G. (1898)Slavery in Early Texas. Political Science Quarterly, 13 (3), pp. 389-412
Butte, G.C. (1917) Early Development of Law and Equity in Texas. The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 26( 8), 699-709.
" (McPherson, 13)
This is to illustrate that the abolition of slavery did not just
threaten to dismantle the institution retaining blacks in bondage.
Moreover, the modes of capitalism promised to dismantle the southern
agrarian way of life which depended upon slavery. This was not simply
because slavery was perceived as something which had to be abolished.
Moreover, this was because the nature of the southern economy no longer
corresponded with economic patterns defining the United States. The value
of the McPherson text is particularly found in these descriptions which
suggest that moral questions relating to slavery would never truly be
addressed because economic imperatives would instead define the course of
events ending the institution.
It is to this extent that while Elkins does a better job of
characterizing antebellum American slavery, McPherson is more successful at
describing its implications with accuracy. Elkins uses a bevy of primary
Elkins, S. (1976). Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and
Intellectual Life. University of Chicago Press.
McPherson, J. (2000). Ordeal By Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction.
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages.
" Yun's work focuses most of the attention upon Chinese workers in Cuba. She bases her writing on the primary source of testimonies, petitions and depositions by Chinese workers in Cuba, highlighting many aspects of this group's suffering that have been either ignored or unknown to date.
One aspect of Chinese and Indian slavery is for example the internal diversity within the Coolie culture, mainly, according to the author, as a result of the diversity of situations to which these slaves were subjected
. Yun also speaks about the power relations between Chinese slaves and their owners. This takes a particularly distinctive form for the Chinese, who were removed from their families and their homes with little hope of returning. This lack of hope was the basis of power for the Chinese Coolie slaves. They had little respect for their individual lives, but worked collectively when revolting against their masters.…
Brown, Vincent. The Reaper's Garden: death and power in the world of Atlantic slavery. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.
Burnard, Trevor G. Mastery, Tyranny, and Desire: Thomas Thistlewood and His Slaves in the Anglo-Jamaican World. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Moitt, Bernard. Women and Slavery in the French Antilles, 1635-1848. Blacks in the Diaspora. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.
Sandiford, Keith Albert. The Cultural Politics of Sugar: Caribbean Slavery and Narratives of Colonialism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Du Bois also points out that the so-called "slave codes" like the Black Codes of the econstruction period after the Civil War were written to enforce the notion that slaves "were not considered as men. They had no right to petition. They were devisable like any other chattel. They could own nothing. They could not legally marry, nor could they control their children. They could be imprisoned by their owners" without a trial or any type of legal defense (1992, p. 10). In reality, African-American slaves "were purely and absolutely property to be bought and sold... As a tract of land, a horse or an ox" (Du Bois, 1992, 11). With this in mind, it becomes rather clear that slavery in the United States, although not a "deliberately cruel and oppressive system... with systematic starvation and murder" (Kolchin, 2003, p. 134) was nonetheless a great and grave mistake, one…
Channing, William Ellery. (1843). Slavery. Internet. Retrieved April 21, 2008 at http://www.prism.net/user/fcarpenter/slavery.html .
Du Bois, W.E.B. (1992). Black Reconstruction in America: 1860-1880.
New York: The Free Press.
2005). The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Bantam Classics, Inc.
This information is important, because it shows how Northerners did not fully understand the way that they indirectly supported slavery. Where, the various raw material produced by slaves, would be used to help benefit the citizens in these areas and the country as whole (by increasing trade).Those who are claiming that slavery should be abolished, are showing their lack of understanding surrounding the various issues of economics. As a result, one could argue that this hypocritical nature is why the Southern states should be their own country. Where, they would be treated by their counterparts in the North, on an equal basis as businessmen vs. oppressors that must stopped.
5. Garber, Mark. "From Constitutional Law to Constitution Politics." Dred Scott and the Problem of Constitutional Evil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 86. Print.
The source from Garber, discusses the legal impact of slavery from the beginning. Where, it talks about how…
Abolition of Slavery Notes. Wide Open West, n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2010
Axelrod, Alan. "A Nation in Chains." The Complete Idiots Guide to American History. Indianapolis, IN: Alpha Books. 140 -- 141. Print.
Garber, Mark. "From Constitutional Law to Constitution Politics." Dred Scott and the Problem of Constitutional Evil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 86. Print.
Kommers, Don. "The Judicial Power." American Constitutional Law. Lanham: Rowen and Littlefield. 87 -- 89. Print.
The relevant portion of the Article specified that "epresentatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States" by adding free Persons to three fifths of "all other Persons" (meaning slaves). The immediate effect of compromise increased the seats of the Southern states from 38% in the Continental Congress to 45% in the first U.S. Congress; it also helped to elect slave-owning presidents in 12 of the first 16 presidential elections.
Importation of Slaves: Another dispute on slavery arose during the drafting of the Constitution. While a majority of states were opposed to further import of slaves, three states -- Georgia, North and South Carolina, threatened to leave the Union if such a ban was placed. As a result, Section 9 Article I was incorporated in the Constitution, allowing the import of new slaves into the U.S. until 1808. Extending the slave trade past 1800 brought many more slaves…
Boyd, S.L. (1995). "A Look Into the Constitutional Understanding of Slavery." Ashbrook Center. Retrieved on December 12, 2007 at http://www.ashbrook.org/publicat/respub/v6n1/boyd.html
The Constitution of the United States: A Transcription." (n.d.) the National Archives Experience. Retrieved on December 12, 2007 at http://www.archives.gov/national-archives-experience/charters/constitution_transcript.html
The Constitution and Slavery: Ratification Debate on the U.S. Constitution." (n.d.) Constitutional Rights Foundation. Retrieved on December 12, 2007 at http://www.crf-usa.org/lessons/slavery_const.htm
Horton, J.O. (2007). "Race and the American Constitution: A Struggle towards National Ideals." History Now. September 2007. Retrieved on December 12, 2007 at http://www.historynow.org/09_2007/historian3.html
Kennedy. The American Spirit. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
English orking Classes Cheer." (1863) Bailey, Thomas Andrew & David M. Kennedy. The American Spirit. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
Slave is taken to Barbados," (1750). Bailey, Thomas Andrew & David M. Kennedy. The American Spirit. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
South Carolina Threatens Secession (1832) Bailey, Thomas Andrew & David M. Kennedy. The American Spirit. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
Stowe, Harriet Beecher. "Tom defines Simon Legree." Excerpt from Uncle Tom's Cabin taken from Bailey, Thomas Andrew & David M. Kennedy. The American Spirit. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
Thomas Andrew Bailey & David M. Kennedy, The American Spirit, (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997) 390
Thomas Andrew Bailey & David M. Kennedy, The American Spirit, (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997) 17
Thomas Andrew Bailey & David M. Kennedy, The American Spirit, (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997) 264
Thomas Andrew Bailey…
Blessings of Slavery." Bailey, Thomas Andrew & David M. Kennedy. The American Spirit. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
English Working Classes Cheer." (1863) Bailey, Thomas Andrew & David M. Kennedy. The American Spirit. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
Slave is taken to Barbados," (1750). Bailey, Thomas Andrew & David M. Kennedy. The American Spirit. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
South Carolina Threatens Secession (1832) Bailey, Thomas Andrew & David M. Kennedy. The American Spirit. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
The ethically repugnant institution of slavery in pre-Civil ar America manifested itself in the cruel conditions of daily life for thousands of African-Americans. Nothing can quite capture the actual suffering endured by the thousands of slaves that toiled on American plantations before the Civil ar. Daily life consisted of up to eighteen hours of work with only monotonous gruel for sustenance, sporadic and often deadly floggings, whippings, and beatings, and restless sleep in tiny multi-family dirt floor dwellings. On Southern plantations, slaves were routinely and unexpectedly beaten, torn from their families, and kept deliberately illiterate out of the fear that learning to read would instigate rebellions and running away. hen blacks did begin to study the Christian bible, those teachings did indeed lead to mass movements of attempted liberation. These failed miserably and ended in systematic killings. To make up for their losses, slave owners bred human babies as…
Antebellum Slavery: Health." Plantation Slave Life. http://cghs.dade.k12.fl.us/slavery/antebellum_slavery/plantation_slave_life/health.htm.
Burton, Annie. Excerpt from Memories of Childhood's Slavery Days. 1909. Cited at "Slave Marriages." Encyclopaedia of Slavery. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASmarriage.htm.
Douglass, Frederick. Excerpt from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. 1845. Cited at "Slave Songs." Encyclopaedia of Slavery. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASsongs.htm.
Excerpt from an article printed in the St. Louis Republican. 15 Sept 1844. Cited at "The Whipping of Slaves." Encyclopaedia of Slavery. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASwhipping.htm.
S. after the slavery period. In spite of the gravity that his statements have, the author insists that the U.S. is always going to be guilty for having destroyed black people through convincing them that they had been inferior.
In contrast to Elkins, McPherson does not wish to condemn an entire nation for the atrocities committed by a number of people during a time when circumstances had led them in acting accordingly. McPherson considers that capitalism and laissez faire theories had actually brought benefits to the way that people had behaved until the time. Such concepts had brought the faults of the slavery system into public attention, and, as a result, more and more Americans began to consider slavery as being corrupt.
hile Elkins attempts to sustain his arguments through presumptions and unconfirmed statements, McPherson brings solid proof to back up his book. Elkins almost seems to be more catholic…
1. Elkins, Stanley. (1976). "Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life." University of Chicago Press.
2. McPherson, James M. (2000). "Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction." McGraw-Hill College.
It is better to be dominated by unknown but useful signs than to interpret them in a useless way and so thrust one's neck, rescued from the yoke slavery, into the toils of error" (St. Augustine, 32). Therefore, the issue of slavery in Augustine's interpretation is overall related to the idea of interpretation and to spiritual oppression of the soul if subject to a system of values he interprets of adopts in a wrongful manner.
By comparison to Augustine's point-of-view and approach, there is the traditional sense of the term slavery, as a degrading institution for the oman Empire at the time of its greatest expansion. Especially during the oman domination of Palestine, the Israelites were considered to be an enslaved people; however, the perspective was more physical related, rather than spiritual. In this sense, Gregory of Nyssa draws the attention on the human inequality created by slavery, when human…
Garnsey, Peter. Ideas on slavery from Aristotle to Augustine. London: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Saint Augustine. On Christian Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
At the same time, he concluded that Africans were selected because they were more adept to warmer climates and to prevent Arabs from gaining a foothold on the continent. This is because, Arab slave traders were common and increasing their use of slaves from Africa to build their own empires (i.e. The Ottoman Turks). Evidence of this can be seen with him saying, "Islam did more to expand slavery, than reverse it. The demand for slaves in the Islamic heartland remained high throughout the course of history. As the Spanish and Portuguese explored the new world, they needed a way to produce and deliver natural resources. The problem was that there were competing interests from Islamic society who were extending their reach into parts of Africa. If the Europeans could control of these regions, they could mitigate the effects of Islam and have access to a cheap form of labor."…
Harlan, Antonio. From Slavery to Salvation. Bloomington: Author House, 2002. Print.
Inkori, Joseph. The Atlantic Slave Trade. Durham: Duke University Library, 1998. Print.
Manning, Patrick. Slavery and African Life. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Print.
Patterson, Orlando. Rituals of Blood. New York: Basic Books, 1998, Print.
Slavery in America -- Three Compromises, All Compromised rong -- the Three-Fifths Compromise, the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and the Compromise of 1850
"e hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men were created equal" -- except for Black American men, of course, who are only 3/5ths equal, according to the Constitution of the United States. The ringing words about equality, penned by Jefferson, a guilty-minded slaveholder sound far less inspiring when wording from the actual text of the Constitution of the framers is incorporated into the text of the Declaration of Independence that he authored in 1776.
The 3/5ths compromise sounds bizarre simply on its surface -- it stated that enslaved human beings would count, for taxation and population counts for the Electoral College, as 3/5ths of a person. The conflict reflects one of the central problems of the Constitutional Convention. The convention was torn between the desire…
"Bushong, Mary. "Compromises of 1820 and 1850." ED Helper Website. 7 Dec 2004.
'Slavery Compromises." 2004. 7 Slavery: A History of America Website, maintained by the University of Louisiana. Dec 2004.
No one debates that slavery in the Southern United States was a terrible and inhumane practice. It was clearly unconscionable and horrible and we, undoubtedly, continue to feel the effects of this terrible and horrible institution in multiple ways even up to this very day. The effects of the American Civil War, however, were certainly just as terrible and every bit as pronounced. More Americans died in the American Civil War than in any American war before or after ("American War Deaths"), and it terrible effects rocked the nation and brought it to the very brink of collapse. The terrible possibility to consider, then, is what if all of these lives could have been sparred? American slavery was an economic institution that, like any other one, was based on the laws of supply and demand. Southern American plantations were agricultural centers that could only turn a profit through intense…
American War Deaths." Apr. 16, 2003. http://www.germantown.k12.il.us/html/deaths.html
The Great Migration." PBS Web Site. Apr. 16, 2003. http://afroamhistory.about.com /gi / dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2F www.pbs.org%2Fwnet%2Faaworld%2Freference%2Farticles%2Fgreat_migration.html
Schultz, Stanley K. "The Great Migration: Blacks in White America." American History
102. Apr. 16, 2003. http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture09.html
The enslavement of people by their fellow humans is a practice known to humanity for several millennia. Yet, the fact that it dwelled and flourished until it took continental proportions in the modern world is still one of the black spots on the conscience of the former colonial powers.
The discovery and exploration of the new world was soon followed by the exploitation of its sources. The Americas were offering the Portuguese and Spanish explorers huge opportunities to start new businesses, but it also demanded a tremendous amount of labor. The Europeans were already accustomed to the practice of slavery in their conquered territories in Africa. The vast lands in the Caribbean and in South America, soon after Columbus' discovery of the New World, became a huge source of wealth for those who could afford to hire servants and work the land. The big companies interested in investing in…
Horton, J.O, Horton, L.E. Slavery and the Making of America. Oxford University Press U.S., 2005
Eltis, D. The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas. Cambridge University Press, 2000
Standage T. A History of the World in Six Glasses. Walker & Company New York. 2006
Alexis de Tocqueville's analysis is especially important because even in the 19th century he warned that America could not forget the problems caused by slavery and eradicate them from its borders. Creating a new nation like Liberia in which one could ship 'Negros' away is no longer seriously suggested, but some Americans do seriously suggest that because there is no more Jim Crow, because Barak Obama can run for president, racism is no longer present within American ideology and culture. This is trying to ignore, to sweep away the 'problem' of racism as well.
Every time someone looks away and says 'he is not one of us,' every time a job is denied, a hand is withdrawn from a shake of friendship, or an individual is criticized for something that would go unnoticed were he or she white, America's true and complex history of 'colors' are revealed that go beyond…
I was five years old when Mary died. I heard her screams from my bedroom window. It was a hot summer's day, one of those breezeless ones when the air felt thick filled with mosquitoes. The window was open so her cries found their way easily to my little ears. My sweat made the bed sheets damp but I didn't care about that. I was too young to care about little things like that. Mary's screams woke me up in the night. They infiltrated my dreams. In my dreams Mary was a cow being led to the slaughter. When I woke up I expected the screams to go away like most of my dreams disappeared. But this was no dream. Her screams filled the already heavy air and lingered there like a fly on the bedpost. For five minutes I lay there in bed, on my damp sheets, alone,…
Q1. Briefly define the concept of Black Nationalism. What are some of the critical factors according to Allen that helped shaped the movements for Black Nationalism List and explain at-least three? (20 points)
At its essence, according to Allan’s essay on “Black Nationalism,” Black Nationalism is a response to the exclusion of Black Americans from the opportunities offered to white Americans. It draws connections between the colonization of nonwhite people abroad with the oppression of Black people within the United States, despite the ostensible claim that America is a society based upon freedom. First was the Dred Scott decision, a U.S. Supreme Court decision which effectively disenfranchised all Black Americans, regardless of what state of the union in which they dwelt (slave or free). Even after the Emancipation Proclamation, after African-Americans had gained some brief political parity in state legislatures, this was destroyed with the rise of the white terrorist…
Allan, “Black Nationalism,” 89-121.
Ogletree, “Addressing the Racial Divide,” 274-293.
The Lack of Freedoms and Limited Opportunities for American Women and Slaves from 1492 to 1867
Today, citizens in the United States enjoy universal suffrage and equality under the law pursuant to the 14th Amendment to the Bill of Rights, but things have not always been so rosy for marginalized populations such as women and blacks. Indeed, despite claims to the contrary, most residents and observers’ of the United States would argue that many women and African-Americans remain disenfranchised from mainstream political thought today. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical and systematic discussion concerning the profound lack of freedoms and limited opportunities that were available to women and enslaved Africans during the period from 1492 through 1867 and how these opportunities slowly expanded over the years. Finally, a summary of the research and key findings concerning these two groups of Americans are presented in the conclusion.…
Abbott, E. et al. (2018). Religion and reform. Emily Conroy-Krutz, ed., in The American Yawp, eds. J. Locke & B. Wright. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2018. Retrieved from: http://www.americanyawp.com/text/10-religion-and-reform/
Adams, A. (1776, March 31). A Day in History. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/abigail-adams-urges-husband-to-remember-the-ladies.
A new world. (2018). European Discovery. Retrieved from http://highered.mheducation.com/ sites/dl/free/0809222299/45391/USHistory.html.
Bailey, R. (2008, April). The new age of reason: Is the Fourth Great Awakening finally coming to a close? Reason, 39(11), 32-35.
Drescher, Seymour (2009). Abolition: A history of slavery and antislavery. Cambridge University Press. 2009. Accessed as E-book from Excelsior Online Library.
Jacobs, E. (2006, July 1). The role of women in the British anti-slavery campaigns. The Journal of Caribbean History, 40(2), 293-297.
Loewen, J. W. (1995). Lies my teacher told me. New York: The New Press.
Mallett, K. (2007). Colonial women’s rights movement. History of American Women. Retrieved from http://www.womenhistoryblog.com/2007/12/colonial-womens-rights-movement.html.
According to the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, a slave is a 'person who is the legal property of another or others and is bound to absolute obedience' (Blackburn 262).
To be very concise, slavery is the opposite of freedom. A 'liberated' individual possesses all the freedom to enjoy basic human rights of citizenship, profession choice and lifestyle. Not only this, he has all the rights of security of self and property. On the contrary, the slave is a hereditary chattel who can be legally punished, sold or transferred, controlled and separated from the loved ones. Both his productive and reproductive capacities are exploited by the master. Thus, a slave doesn't have any right that a 'free' individual holds. Slaves belong to a different economic group; totally separated with the 'independent' working class (Campbell viii).
Slavery can be described as an institution that is founded on a relationship of control…
Blackburn, Robin. "Eighteen Defining Slavery -- its Special Features and Social Role."Slavery and Other Forms of Unfree Labour. Ed. LEonie J. Archer. London: Routledge, 1988. 262-276. Questia. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.
Campbell, Gwyn, ed. The Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia. London: Frank Cass, 2004. Questia. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.
"Historic Timeline of Slavery and the Underground Railroad." National Underground Railroad Freedom Center. U.S. Department of Education Underground Railroad Educational and Cultural (URR) Program, n.d. Web. 6 Dec 2011. .
"History of Man from the Start Is Blighted by Slavery." South Wales Echo (Cardiff, Wales) 18 Sept. 2006: 10. Questia. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.
The slaveholder was the "father" who needed to take care of his slaves spiritual and material needs, and to protect him or her.
Early in the nineteenth century, slaveholders began to view their slaves as property that needed protecting. Conditions improved slightly and slaves were given better food, clothing and housing. This was not done out of kindness, but because of a need to protect their property. Eventually laws were passed in southern states that limited the physical punishment that slaveholders could inflict upon slaves, and set the age at which slaves could be separated from their mothers.
Slavery needed to be protected from capitalism and democracy because these forces were inherently in opposition to slavery. Democracy declared all men equal before the law, but Paternalism provided the basis for a justification by saying these were not men, but some inferior being that needed to be ruled by whites. Slavery…
White northerners of all classes were opposed to slavery, but were overwhelmingly not abolitionists. Only about one percent of the white population would have called for an end to slavery by 1850. In the 1840s, the term anti-slavery came to mean opposition to expansion of slavery, but not abolition in states where it already existed.
White northern workers viewed slaves as a threat. How could they sell their services for wages when slaves worked for free? Equating them with slaves also diminished their social standing. White capitalists were opposed to slavery because they saw that the capital resources devoted to slavery could be better used elsewhere. Northerners of all classes wanted the western states to be Free because they needed the support of the west in expanding the power of the federal government, something that would not happen if the western states became Slave states.
Most northerners realized that the South would never give up slavery willingly. They knew that unless the South would accept an arrangement to pay for slaves (which would have been very costly), it would take armed conflict to remove slavery, and they were unwilling to resort to that. They just did not want to pay the costs necessary to end slavery. The North also had a vested interest in continuing slavery in the South. The cotton plantations provided ample amounts of cheap cotton for northern mills. Without slavery, this might not have been available, and northern industrialists would have had to look elsewhere for more costly alternatives. Northern wage earners also feared that the end of slavery in the South would mean a large influx of southern blacks to northern cities (which did eventually happen), providing competition for jobs and lowering wages. Farmers also were opposed to ending slavery. They did not want to compete with blacks for free land. So, while northerners did not want to see slavery expanded any further, they also did not want it to go away.
Slavery, The Civil ar and the Preservation of the Union
In the face of oppression and harsh treatment, slaves formed communities as a coping mechanism and to resist the belief that they were simply property. Members of these slave communities came together often to sing, talk, and even plan covert plots to runaway or sabotage the system in which they were living. Slaves married, had children and worked to keep their families together. Families were often broken up as members were sold off to different masters, but when a family was kept together, nuclear families of two parents and their children working for the same master were common. It was in these communities that countless elements of African-American slave culture were passed on for generations, including skills such as medical care, hunting, and fishing as well as how to act in front of whites, hiding their feelings and escaping punishment.…
Buchanan, James." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/B/BuchannJ1.asp .
Lincoln, Abraham," Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/L/LincolnA1.asp .
Missouri Compromise." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/m/missrc1omp.asp .
The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America. PBS Online. 14 December 2002. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/title.html .
Slavery pattern in North America took a funny trend since initially the blacks had some social positions and had a voice in the running of the community. his however later changed and the North also started to own slaves at a higher rate. here are several factors that led to this change in events in the north that made it to fancy slavery just as much as the South was with its plantations.
It is worth noting the background of the slavery trend in order to fully comprehend the drastic shift in slavery from the class servitude to racial slavery which was predominantly in the late 17th century and early 18th century. he black laborers and white laborers from the working class used to work on the same level and the Europeans used to be allowed to have slaves from the non-Christians population regardless of the color. he class determined…
The Emancipation Proclamation was a categorical document that sought to spell out the status of the U.S.A. As concerns slavery. It was to declare the people who had hitherto been held as slaves, free and forever would remain free and be protected by the executive and the military and the naval authority of the U.S.A., as well as being granted the freedom and not suppressed just like any other American who was not a slave there before. It however had the exemption states in the south where the slaves were not immediately emancipated but the proclamation was a beginning to the quest for the freedom of the slaves.
The South and their leaders believed that each state had a right just like the nation to manage its domestic affairs without external influence and one of these is the issue of slavery, that each state must be given the chance to decide whether slavery is good for their state or not, actually he advocated for the autonomy of each state to decide their internal matters independently without external influences, (National Park Service, (2007).
4. From the early colonial period to the Civil War, enslaved people -- who were descended from many African nationalities and ethnicities -- managed to construct a broadly common culture and ethnic identity of their own. Explain how they did this, what cultural resources they drew on, and what the main forms of this culture were. Evaluate the importance of the emergence of African-American culture under slavery to the history of African-Americans and to the U.S.
By 1861 the political and economic disagreement concerning the issue of slavery came to a head and the civil war began. During the civil war slaves fought in both the confederate and union armies.
In 1862 and 1863 respectively President Lincoln issued executive orders referred to as the emancipation proclamation. These proclamations basically set slaves in the southern states free.
By 1865 the civil war came to an end and by July of 1865 most slaves were freed.
As it relates to economics, it is important to understand that the establishment and perpetuation of slavery was always about monetary benefit. Slaves provided land owners with access to abundant and free labor. Not having to pay people for labor results in increased profitability. During the 1600's colonist first began to understand the economic benefits associated with slavery and slaves became more valuable than indentured servants (Boskin). The value of slaves increased…
Boskin J. Into Slavery: Racial Decisions in the Virginia Colony J.B. Lippincott Company Philadelphia: 1976.
Reconstruction and its Aftermath. 9 Dec. 2007. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart5.html
Slavery was an essential element of the society of Ancient Greece. Social life, in numerous ways -- family, commerce, politics, was heavily dependent on a class of people who fulfilled tasks their masters saw as degrading. Although, the concept of slavery represented a fundamental aspect of the practical construction of democracy, it is not the only factor that has lead to the development of this complex political institution which is currently the basis of modern constitutional systems. Other issues that need to be considered are the developments in philosophy, the urbanization of Greece and the extremely large interest that the population manifested towards politics. (After all, the Greeks were as interested in philosophy and politics as much as the omans were interested in law). Each of this factors was essentially predetermined by slavery, which as a firm establishment, made possible the development of all political systems in ancient Greece, and…
1. Ancient Greek Slavery and its Relationship to Democracy www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A471467
2. Charles A. Ellwood, Aristotle As A Sociologist.
Annals of the American Academy of Political Science, volume 19 (1902)
3. ClassicNote on Aristotle's Politics www.classicnote.com
The kind of work a slave did depended on where he/she ended up. In the Chesapeake region, for instance, Africans cut and burned brush, split rails, and built fences with axes and hatchets. They cut down trees and squared logs. They were wheelwrights, carpenters, shingle cutters, boat builders, cabinetmakers, and barrel makers. They built wagons, worked as blacksmiths, made saddles and harnesses. In South Carolina they built dugout canoes and boats that carried rice to Charleston. A law there required all slaves to work as ditch diggers when the growing season was over. Slaves built roads and dug waterways. In North Carolina slaves made tar and pitch from pinecones for use on English boats. In Georgia, black slaves wove fishing nets and were shrimpers. In Africa they had killed and eaten crocodiles, so they knew how to deal with alligators in the South. The women worked in the fields and…
Slavery in the Cotton Kingdom
During the American evolution and the civil war, the North and the South experienced development of different socio-political and cultural environmental conditions. The North became an industrial and manufacturing powerhouse as a result of rise of movements like abolitionism and women's right while the South became a cotton kingdom whose labor was sourced from slavery (Spark notes, 2011).
The distinct feature of cotton kingdom is that her activities were empowered by slave labor. The cotton kingdom thus means a cotton producing region of the United States until the period of civil war.
The reason why slavery spread into the cotton kingdom after revolution is because the tobacco income plummeted as white setters from Virginia and Carolinas forcing the original Native Americans inhabitants farther and farther west where they established plantations. The wide spread use of the cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney in 1793,…
Cliff notes, (2011). Slave Society and Culture. Retrieved on October 12, 2011 from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Slave-Society-and-Culture.topicArticleId-25073,articleId-25051.html
Eric Foner,(2008). The Master and the Mistress. Retrieved on October 12, 2011 from http://kathmanduk2.wordpress.com/2008/10/08/thomas-jefferson-and-sally-hemings-the-master-and-the-enslaved-black-woman/
John Wiley, (2011). Slavery, the Economy, and Society. Retrieved October 12, 2011 from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Slavery-the-Economy-and-Society.topicArticleId-25073,articleId-25050.html
Spark notes, (2011). The North and South Diverge. Retrieved on October 12, 2011 from http://www.sparknotes.com/testprep/books/sat2/history/chapter9section3.rhtml
Slavery vs. The New Deal
Slavery vs. New Deal
Two influential events that occurred over the course of American history were slavery and the New Deal. In both situations, they were result of some kind of changes that were taking place and created tremendous amounts of debate about the legality / effectiveness of these ideas. To fully understand their impact on the nation requires comparing the two with one another. Together, these elements will offer specific insights which are highlighting how both shaped economics, politics and the basic freedoms everyone enjoys to this day. (Freidman) (Powel) (Zinn)
Slavery was considered to be a vital part of the Southern states economy. This is because a tradition had been established where large plantations were developed with this being used as a form of cheap labor. Politically, many people were divided about if this practice was considered to be legal, its morality and…
Freidman, Lawrence. American Law and Constitutional Order. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988.
Powel, Jim. Greatest Emancipations. New York: McMillan, 2008. Print.
Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
However, the opposite was true in the south. As the slave trade continued, the two halves of the continent grew in very different ways, setting up the ultimate confrontation of the Civil War.
The result of the Civil War and the outlawing of slavery resulted in the crashing of the Southern economy, thus leading to a further divide, this time economically, between the North and the South. Since the southern economy depended on slaves, when this factor was removed the economy collapsed while the north's continued to grow. The effects of this are still felt today.
Garraty, J.A. And M.C. Carnes. (2001): A Short History of the American Nation. (8th ed.). oston: Longman.
Howe, Daniel Walker. (2007): What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kolchin, Peter and Fritz Metsch. (2003): American Slavery, 1619-1877. New York: Hill and Wang.
Williams, a.A. (1999): The…
Garraty, J.A. And M.C. Carnes. (2001): A Short History of the American Nation. (8th ed.). Boston: Longman.
Howe, Daniel Walker. (2007): What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kolchin, Peter and Fritz Metsch. (2003): American Slavery, 1619-1877. New York: Hill and Wang.
Williams, a.A. (1999): The South in the History of the Nation: A Reader, Volume One: Through Reconstruction. New York: St. Martin's.
The first Great Awakening in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries became a harbinger of the later, more vocal and radical abolitionist movements. The Maryland Abolition Society was another early abolitionist group. Some abolitionist movements espoused violent means to obtain full freedom for slaves, and John Brown is one of the most notorious advocates of radical means.
In 1817, a group of wealthy white males founded the American Colonization Society (ACS). The ACS had an abolitionist platform but a fundamentally racist agenda. hile the main objective of the ACS was to eventually free the slaves, members also wanted to deport all blacks to an African colony. Called Liberia after the Latin word for "free," the colony was created by the ACS for the express purpose of creating a second exodus of freed slaves, many of whom were born on American soil. Some members of the ACS might have been…
Alvarez, Carlos. "Antislavery Movement: American Colonization Society." Online at http://cghs.dade.k12.fl.us/slavery/anti-slavery_movement/acs.htm.
Becker, Eddie. "Chronology on the History of Slavery and Racism." 1999. Online at http://innercity.org/holt/chron_1790_1829.html .
Free Blacks in the Antebellum Period." African-American Odyssey. Online at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart2.html .
History of Slavery in the United States." Wikipedia.com. Online at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery_in_the_United_States .
The so-called peculiar institution of slavery would come to define America in the 19th century, and set the stage for effects that until the current day. It was a critical, destructive error to leave the issue of slavery unresolved at the time of American independence.
Attempts to econcile the Slavery Issue
What was the 3/5 Compromise?
elevance of the 3/5 Compromise
Significance of the 3/5 Compromise for the issue of slavery
Missouri Compromise of 1820
Define (MO as slave state, ME as free state)
Significance of the 1820 compromise
3.Compromise of 1850
Define the compromise of 1850
Significance of this compromise iii. Fugitive Slave Act and DC
Shift in power dynamic on the issue
Define the Nebraska-Kansas Act
Describe the bleeding of Kansas iii. Show how the violence was a precursor to the Civil War
What was the Dred Scott case?…
Foner, E. (1974). The causes of the American Civil War: recent interpretations and new directions. Civil War History. Vol. 20 (3) 197-214.
Laws.com (2015). What was the three-fifths compromise? Laws.com. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from http://constitution.laws.com/three-fifths-compromise
Library of Congress (2015). Primary documents in American history. Library of Congress. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Missouri.html
Library of Congress (2015, 2). Kansas-Nebraska Act. Library of Congress. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/kansas.html
Many see slavery as the cause of the Civil ar but like with many other wars, it simply is not that simple. ars are never simple and rarely are they clear-cut. Slavery is a black eye on the history of the United States but within that turmoil, there is much to glean about a nation and a people. hile slavery is not unique to America, it is connected to the Civil ar. The struggle up until that time demonstrates how society and culture influence behavior and beliefs. Slavery was painful and freedom was not a perfect answer for those who suddenly found themselves free with nowhere to go. The pain of the Civil ar lead to the birth of Civil Rights and from such pain, individuals find release through perseverance. Unfortunately, slavery is a part of the history of man and while we read the pages of history, it is…
Bailey, Thomas and Kennedy, David. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1994.
Bailey, Ronald. The Bloodiest Day. Alexandria: Time Life Books. 1984.
Davis, Pohanka, Troini. Civil War Journal: The Battles. Nashville: Rutledge Hill Press. 1998.
Norton, Mary Beth, ed. A People and a Nation: Third Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Slavery in Texas
andolph Campbell, in his book "An Empire for Slavery: The Peculiar Institution in Texas," said that "protecting slavery was not he primary cause of the Texas evolution, but it certainly was a major result." (Campbell, 1989, pp. 48-49) The role slavery played in Texas, and the decision by the Anglos to rebel against the Mexican government has long been a tale that is not well-known in American history. Slavery was an institution that many who had emigrated from the United States to Texas either opposed, or were willing to restrict, but what many in Texas were not willing to accept was the high-handedness by which restrictions on slavery were imposed. Over time, many have viewed the Mexican government's interference in the economic foundations of Texan life the cause of the Texas evolution, but what really caused the revolution was the attempt to restrict, and then outlaw, the…
Campbell, Randolph. (1989). An Empire for Slavery: The Peculiar Institution in Texas.
United States: Louisiana State UP.
Slavery, and its negative (and positive) effects on society, is not nearly as pervasive in today's modern world as it has been in previous centuries. One expert writes "early Christians repeatedly conceived of sin and salvation in terms of slavery and freedom" (DeWet, 2010, p. 27) and that "in fact, slavery had become so embedded in the ancient conceptual reality that it played an integral part in the cosmologies and theories of politics of even the most prominent of thinkers" (p. 27). A society such as the one described by the prominent thinkers of those days was a society that was far more advanced than most people like to imagine, and much of the overall growth of the society was a direct result of the slavery environment. A vast majority of the citizens owned slaves (while the remaining individuals were likely to be slaves).
Slaves could be bought and sold,…
De Wet, C.L.; (2010) Sin as slavery and/or slavery as sin? On the relationship between slavery and Christian hamartiology in late ancient Christianity, Religion & Theology, Vol. 17, Issue 1/2, pp. 26-39
Martin, B.; (201) Slavery's invisible engine: Mortgaging human property, Journal of Southern History, Vol.76, No. 4, pp. 817 -- 866
Rush, D.; (2011) In remembrance of slavery, African Arts, Vol. 44, Issue 1, pp. 40-51
Traylor, R.D.; (2011) Liberty and slavery: The peculiar institution in Liberty (and Chambers) County, Texas, East Texas Historical Journal, Vol. 49, Issue 1, pp. 109-134
Robert, Calvin, Martha, and illiam Scott and Mila ended up in the Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco because its owner, Rev. illiam Anderson Scott, was the minister at Calvary Presbyterian Church there in 1853-61. He was originally from the South and because of his sympathy for the Confederate cause in the Civil ar, including offering public prayers for Jefferson Davis, he "had to leave the city for his safety and that of his family" (Smylie 89-90). His son Robert, depicted on the far left of the painting, became a Union Army officer in 1862, although Rev. Scott regretted that he was "on the wrong side" (Acker 79). Mila was a gift to his wife Ann from her father in 1830, and was in charge of caring for the four children. In the painting, the Scott's wished to be depicted as "relatively well-heeled members of Sothern society" even…
Acker, Emma. "Black, White and Shades of Gray: Picturing Identity in Robert, Calvin, Martha and William Scoot and Mila." Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, 2010.
Manigault Plantation Journal. Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina
Smylie, James Hutchinson. A Brief History of the Presbyterians. Geneva Press, 1996.
Slavery in the Bible
In modern estern countries, many Christians and Jews may wish to portray God as the comfortable deity of a middle-class consumer society like the United States, but the Bible demonstrates that nothing could be further from the truth. In the Bible, the God of history from the story of Cain and Abel, through Abraham, Joseph, Moses and the Prophets and of course the ministry of Jesus Christ in the New Testament. Repeatedly, God intervenes on the side of the poor, the weak, the lowly and the outcast, and against the rich and powerful. He has mercy on Joseph when his brothers sell him into slavery in Egypt and elevates him about all others. God takes the side of a young shepherd boy David against the thuggish giant Goliath and then against the evil and corrupt King Saul. ith Jesus, the constant messages is that God shows…
Anderson, Bernard W. The Unfolding Drama of the Bible, 4th Edition. Augsburg Fortress Publishing, 2006.
Cahill, Thomas. The Gifts of the Jews: How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the Way Everyone Thinks and Feels. Anchor Books, 1998.
Slavery is perhaps the cruelest form of treatment that one human being can inflict upon another.
Despite horrible conditions, slaves exhibited great strength and hope for their own race. Because of their hardships, slaves recognized the power of human dignity and the power of hop. hile most slaves resented their masters for their cruel treatment, they did not let this rob them self-respect or their hope for freedom. Through songs, poetry, and literature, slaves expressed their angst, sorrow, and hope.
Botkin's records several slave stories that reveal how slaves dealt with their cruel masters. In the account, "Hog-Killing Time," one slave remembers how the starving slaves would trick their master into thinking some of the hogs were infected with "malitis" in order to have enough meat for themselves. The malitis was caused by striking a hog between the eyes with a mallet and was the only way the slaves could…
Boyer, Paul, et al. The Enduring Vision. Vol. I: To 1877. 5th ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin. 2000.
Regardless, slaves worked hard, often beginning with small tasks as children, and took on large responsibilities within their community. Women were charged with more tasks in addition to the fieldwork they had to do; they were also charged with cooking, cleaning, and child rearing. Slaves adapted to their lives through the development of their own culture. By the early 19th century, most African-Americans were Christians, with some converting to Christianity voluntarily and others being coerced. Though autonomous black churches were banned blacks throughout the South developed their own version of Christianity that was often considered more emotional than its white counterpart and influenced by African customs, traditions, and practices.
The development of the abolition movement arose from the revivalist movement in the North and the desire to create a perfect society in Christ's image and thereby perfect themselves. The abolitionists faced many obstacles including politics and unexpected racism in the…
Both religion and the law purport to advocate human rights, freedoms, and liberties. Yet neither religion nor the law can offer any justification for the dichotomy of slavery. No logic can sustain the argument that slavery is humane or just, and the brilliance of Jacobs' and Douglass' lsave narratives is their mutual ability to expose the fallacies in both religion and the law. The optimism with which the authors express their views does not negate their overt critiques. For instance, Jacobs and Douglass are both deeply religious. They do not criticize Christianity but only the way Christian doctrine is distorted to support slavery. Neither author criticizes the United States but only the way American law and values are distorted to support slavery. Their incredible ability to overcome a lack of formal education to write their stories bears witness to the power of the individual to transform defunct social norms and…
S. Supreme Court. As to religion, slaves were allowed to worship in segregated sections of white churches, but with the advent of Reconstruction around 1867, freed slaves left the white churches and formed their own aptist and Methodist congregations.
The governments which were set up by the North during the Reconstruction period often mandated that segregation remain in place which affected the ability of freed slaves to attend and seek assistance in many local and state-level social institutions, such as colleges, hospitals and welfare facilities. For example, in the state of Georgia, there was no existing system for the care of disenfranchised former slaves and those who suffered from diseases and many physical ailments until the early 1880's. Also during this time, former slaves were forced to live in very inadequate housing, especially in southern cities like Atlanta, Richmond and Charleston. efore the Civil War, black American slaves had it…
Du Bois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. Intro. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. New York: Bantam Classics, 1989.
Finally, the two works have different purposes, so it is difficult to rate them to the same standards. McPherson has more on his mind than the institution of slavery; he is discussing an entire war and its aftermath, while Elkins is solely concerned with slavery in America and why it occurred. While the authors do share many similar views, many simply do not apply to each other.
In conclusion, both of these books play a vital role in understanding the complexities of the Civil War and race relations during and after the Civil War. One takes a more scholarly approach, while the other takes a more storytelling approach. Both use intensive research and knowledge of the Civil War period to make their cases, and both belong on the bookshelf of any serious Civil War historian. McPherson's work is a bit easier to read, simply because he gears it to a…
Elkins, S.M. (1976). Slavery: A problem in American institutional and intellectual life. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
McPherson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Roberts, K. African-Virginian extended kin: The prevalence of West African family forms among slaves in Virginia, 1740-1870. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2008 from the Virginia Tech Web site: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-/unrestricted/etd.pdf .
Slavery [...] true picture of the relationship between slavery and Americans of both regions, including the impact of racism on the thinking of all white Americans of this era. While slavery was dominant in the South, and less dominant in the North and West, slavery was not entirely a regional issue. Beliefs and ideals differed in the North and South, and not all residents of either area exhibited only one view of slavery.
While it is common to believe that the South and all southerners supported slavery, and the North and all northerners were abolitionists, this is not the case. Throughout the North, there were many slave owners, and throughout the South, there were many people who did not believe in slavery. In addition, it is clear from the racial inequities that continued after the Civil War, that there was an overwhelming belief in the country that blacks, free or…
Davis, John. "Eastman Johnson's 'Negro Life at the South' and Urban Slavery in Washington, D.C." The Art Bulletin 80.1 (1998): 67+.
Riccards, Michael P. "Economics, Culture Behind North-South Split." The Washington Times 4 Sept. 1999: 3.
Rousey, Dennis C. "Friends and Foes of Slavery: Foreigners and Northerners in the Old South." Journal of Social History 35.2 (2001): 373+.
The limitation of slave movement, was an action in response to the growing threat related to fugitive slaves (Selected records relating to slavery in early Virginia, n.d.). The conditions at the time and the harsh regulations concerning black slaves made them go in search for a different life, especially in Northern states (Petition to Governor, Council, and House of epresentatives of Massachusetts, 1773). Therefore, the Southerners were reluctant to offer any liberty that would somehow enable black people to gather and possibly plan insurrections or escape attempts. In addition, the tensions between the slaver states and the free ones were constantly growing because Free states were accusing slave ones of trying to use the slave population to increase its influence in the federal legislative body. In this sense, Northern states were somewhat ready to assist runaway slaves from South states.
Yet another reason, which influenced the way in which slaves…
Africans in America. (n.d.) "From Indentured Servitude to Racial Slavery." The Terrible Transformation. Available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1narr3.html
Galenson, David W. (1984). "The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis." The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 44, No. 1. pp. 1-26.
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Selected records relating to slavery in early Virginia. N.d. Available at http://www.fiu.edu/~woodk/vadocs.html
Hitler is an easy enemy; Saddam was an apt nemesis. Drawing attention away from slavery allows Americans to feel smugly superior. Nothing like that could happen in the land of the free, home of the brave. Americans are deluded into thinking that nothing evil has happened on our time. A slavery museum will force Americans to take responsibility for a slave trade it perpetuated and for a plantation economy it profited from. Remembering slavery is therefore a frightening and controversial prospect for many Americans. It is easier to point the fingers where others went wrong than it is to face the darkness within our own past.
The memory museum reminds visitors that slavery was not limited to the plantation; it was a way of thinking that in many ways persists till this day. For instance, exploiting human beings for economic expediency appears to be a capitalistic norm in our country.…
However, because it was so uncommon, it was a big deal. heatley was accused of "acting white'" (Gates), according to Gates, and this accusation was along the same vein as "getting straight A's, or even visiting the Smithsonian" (Gates), Gates reports. The irony is palpable and Gates puts it succinctly when he says, "we have moved from a situation where Phillis heatley's acts of literacy could be used to demonstrate our people's inherent humanity and their inalienable right to freedom, to a situation where acts of literacy are stigmatized somehow as acts of racial betrayal" (Gates). He is correct. Somehow publishing heatley's experiences with and her opinions of slavery create a tension that is strange. In a moment when pride is all that one should feel, the argument is turned on itself. heatley "would weep" (Gates,) writes Gates. The one thing a community does not want to do is back…
Adeeko, Adeleke. "Writing Africa under the shadow of slavery: Quaque, Wheatley, and Crowther." Research in African Literatures 40.4 (2009): 1+. Literature Resource Center.
Web. Site Accessed March 21, 2010.
Gates, Henry Louis. "Mister Jefferson and The Trials of Phillis Wheatley" National Endowments
for the Humanities. Web. Site Accessed March 21, 2010.
The South had not industrialized or, if it had done so, it was on a very limited manner. With that in mind, the economic interests of the states in the North, as compared to the states in the South, were different. The North aimed to make its industrial product more competitive on the international markets, the South relied on free labor and had an agrarian economy. With slavery as the base of that, it was difficult to mediate between these differences.
From a social perspective, slavery was also a major cause of the Civil War. The people who lived in the North were free, a large proportion of the people living in the South or not. From a social point-of-view, this created an enormous social differentiation, including in terms of social norms and social perspectives. The people who were free in the South lived from the exploitation of their slaves…
slavery in the eighteenth century as illustrated in the autobiography "The interesting narrative of the life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa the African."
Olaudah Equiano was an eminent writer from the colonial period. Equiano was actually born in Nigeria, who became the first black slave in America to write an autobiography. The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa the African was first published in 1789. The book is an autobiography where Equiano tells us about the country he was captured from and also about the horrors and cruelties he had to bear because of his enslavement in the West Indies. Equiano, had converted to Christianity, but he was treated by fellow Christians in a very cruel "un-Christian" fashion.
From his famous autobiography, written in 1789,we learn that Olaudah Equiano was born in 1745 in Nigeria. He was kidnapped and sold into slavery…
Olaudah Equiano, The interesting narrative of the life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa the African. 1979
They were no longer slaves, but they were not treated as though they were equal, either, and this made them second-class citizens in the way that they were treated by others. Unhappiness with this treatment began to build and become more significant as African-Americans battled problems with housing, health care, education, poverty, and juvenile difficulties. These issues were all very significant to those that fought against a lack of equality during that time period, and the authors of the book make it clear that they are not holding anything back as they chronicle both the triumphs and the tragedies that African-Americans have faced throughout history.
Anyone who is interested in what African-Americans have had to go through would likely find this book very interesting. It is very thorough regarding the problems that African-Americans faced and the triumphs that they achieved as well. Not everyone will like the book, of course,…
Franklin, John Hope & Moss, Alfred a., Jr. (2000). From slavery to freedom - a history of African-Americans. New York: Knopf.
Civil War and Reconstruction Question 2: What does the Civil War show that failed in the United States in this period?
The Civil War and its aftermath showed that the United States failed to create a cohesive national character and ethical identity. The nation was truly divided, symbolized by the fact that Abraham Lincoln received not a single Southern electoral vote, and less than half of the popular vote, but still became President (Slide 5). The majority of Southerners allied themselves with the Southern Democrat platform, and failed to align their outdated beliefs about race and economic exploitation with the more progressive norms evident in the North.
Yet slavery was only one of the meaningful points of divergence between different geographic and cultural segments of the nation. The economies of North and South were completely different from one another, with the North cornering the market on manufactured goods and the…
John Thornton's description of how inhumane and cruel slavery was is rudimentary at best since the emphasis seems to be on constructing a cohesive historical narrative. This in turn however is devoid of the particularly human question as to how and why the slaves suffered as they did. From the article, we can ascertain several posts along the journey of an African slave, each filled with its horrors. For an African who was to be enslaved to even reach the coast was a miracle. Most were enslaved after large scale wars the Portuguese waged on the African groups that dissented. Africans would be chained together like cattle, each sometimes forced to carry items of trade. After marching for weeks, they would reach the coast where they would either be taken to forts or to water for sale.
John Thornton describes the forts in some detail. At these forts, the…
33). Slavery was an institution, and as such, it had become outmoded in modern society of the time. Elkins feels slavery could have been viewed less emotionally and more realistically as an institution, rather than an ethical or moral dilemma, and this is one of the most important arguments in his book, which sets the stage for the rest of his writing.
In his arguments for his theses, Elkins continues, "To the Northern reformer, every other concrete fact concerning slavery was dwarfed by its character as a moral evil - as an obscenity condemned of God and universally offensive to humanity" (Elkins, 1959, p. 36). Slavery was a moral evil, and it is still seen as such. Elkins indicates society was becoming disillusioned with it at the time (at least Northern society), and that the institution needed to change or disappear.
Another of the important points Elkins attempts to make…
Elkins, S.M. (1959). Slavery: A problem in American institutional and intellectual life. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Raboteau, a.B. (1978). Slave religion: The 'invisible institution' in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
Globalization and Social/Human Injustices
Human slavery/sex trafficking
The menace of slavery and trafficking for purpose of sexual exploitation is a menace that greatly neglected or not talked about by the high and mighty yet it is a problem that ravages families on a daily basis. Across the globe, there are people who benefit from the modern day slavery and there are countries that act as source, most of them being the underdeveloped nations where poverty is high and unemployment is also significantly high. These two factors when combined, often push affected families to willingly or otherwise let go of their daughters into the forced labor or sex slavery in more developed nations. The women and children are the most affected groups in the slavery business since they are the most vulnerable in the society. Against the common belief that slavery is obsolete, the opening up of more borders and easy…
Buchholz T.G., (2007). New Ideas from Dead Economists. An Introduction't Modern Economic Thought. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from http://www.docdroid.net/miuc/newideas-deadeconomists.pdf.html
French H.W., (2013). The Not-So-Great Professor: Jeffrey Sachs' Incredible Failure to Eradicate Poverty in Africa. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from http://www.psmag.com/navigation/books-and-culture/smart-guy-jeffrey-sachs-nina-munk-idealist-poverty-failure-africa-65348/
Gates Foundation, (2012). Theo Sowa: We Need the Voices of African Women-TEDxChange. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GfIQgPb7pQs
ForaTv, (2008). Muhammad Yunus: The Social Business Model. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0C3XQ3BTd4o
Foner suggests that the juxtaposition between abject slavery and its counterpart of physical, social, and political freedom is what made liberty an impassioned appeal for Southerners. In other words, liberty was a sign of social status in the South more so than it was elsewhere in the colonies. Because of the way Southern whites encountered their freedom in relation to their chattel, southern whites championed American independence with particular strength.
Furthermore, slavery became an eerily ironic sign of liberty for the white colonists. Foner notes that Americans worshipped liberty "while profiting from slavery" (p. 31). Slaves were what gave the Americans the ability to be self-sufficient and to reasonably separate from the motherland. Similarly, the imagined "freedom to enslave others" was a Christian myth but one that perpetuated the peculiar institution (p. 31). Interestingly, European observers of pre-Revolutionary America were aware and critical of the hypocrisy inherent in proclaiming "liberty…
Athenian Democracy & Slavery
as slavery essential to the development of Athenian democracy? The simple fact is that Athens in the fifth century BCE was, in fact, a slave-owning society. Therefore to debate over whether this fact was essential to the social and political system that developed in Athens is like splitting hairs over whether the men who built the Parthenon were happier than the men who built Pharaoh's great Pyramid: if neither was actually a free man, then we are debating the question of the treatment of slaves, not whether slavery plays an important role in a country's political system. The only reason this question seems worth consideration at all is because Athenian democracy itself would prove to be such an influential form of social organization, while being almost unique in the ancient world. The implication of the question would appear to be whether the existence of slavery in…
Patterson, Orlando. "The Greek Origins of Freedom." In Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in the History of Western Civilization. Ed. Joseph Mitchell and Helen Buss Mitchell. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. Print.