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We have over 131 essays for "Smallpox"

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Mercantilism This Term Refers to

Words: 1506 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82041233

In its most basic sense, this treaty abolished the age-old practice of electing a king of the Romans, a reference to the Holy Roman Empire; it gave France the geographical areas of Verdun, Alsace, Metz and a portion of Strasburg; Sweden was given West Pomerania, Stettin, Wismar and Bremen, known as bishoprics but now part of northern Germany; Bavaria retained the Upper Palatinate and all electoral titles, and Saxony retained Lusatia. Also, Spain was forced to fully recognize the United Provinces as a sovereign nation-state. Overall, the Treaty of Westphalia turned Europe into a conglomerate of separate political and economic nation-states that were only partially dependent on each other; the treaty also made it possible for mercantilism to spread throughout Europe, thus creating the foundation for many more years of conflict and war. In addition, this treaty also brought an end to the Eighty Years War between Spain and the…… [Read More]

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Health of Native Americans the

Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94179257



As to the availability of safe and clean water supplies, and safe waste disposal facilities, Native Peoples are again on the short end of the stick. About twelve percent of Native People do not have adequate supplies of fresh drinking water and dependable waste facilities while only one percent of the general American population do not have those needed facilities (Indian Health Services).

The U.S. Commission on Civil rights reports that the rates Native Americans are dying resulting from diabetes, alcoholism, suicide, unintentional injuries and other health conditions is "shocking" (www.USCCR.gov). Going back to the arrival of the Europeans on the North American Continent, many diseases were brought to the Native Peoples which were "far more lethal than any weapon in the European arsenal" so anyone even preliminarily examining the health care history of Native Peoples can clearly see that this dilemma has been a plague for Indians (www.USCCR.gov). The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population. Retrieved April 14, 2009, from  http://www.cdc.gov /nchs/faststats/indfacts.htm.

Indian Health Services. (2006). Facts on Indian Health Disparities. Retrieved April 14,

2009, from http://www.americanindianhealth.nim.nih.gov.

United States Commission on Civil Rights. (2004). Broken Promises: Evaluating the Native American Health Care System. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from  http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/nahealth/nabroken.pdf .
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Chemical and Biological Terrorism

Words: 3146 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22730564

Chemical and Biological Terroism

Biological and Chemical Terrorism Prevention

The United States Government has identified the potential of chemical, biological, radiological and/or nuclear (termed CBN) terrorism, especially after the September 11 attacks. They have been concerned ever since Sarin was used in a Tokyo subway (Aum Shinrikyo in 1995) and the anthrax case (in November 2001). The chances of terrorists resorting to these agents in warfare are pretty high considering their advantages over conventional methods. Most organizations fighting terrorism are not equipped well enough to detect such chemicals. A closed container can help most of them escape discovery. The low cost involved in their production increases the dangers manifold. Since most of the above agents affect the human body directly, they are essentially more efficient than conventional warfare.

Chemical weapons have four major classifications. Choking agents are aimed at being fatal and are easily accessible. Phosgene is one such industrial…… [Read More]

References

Khan, A. Levitt, A. Sage, M. (2000). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Biological and Chemical Terrorism: Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response. 7-19. Retrieved From  http://www.southernnevadahealthdistrict.org/download/epi/mmwr-plan.pdf 

Ashraf H. European dioxin-contaminated food crisis grows and grows [news]. Lancet

1999;353:2049.

Khan, A. Swerdlow, D. Juranek, D. (2001) Precautions Against Biological and Chemical Terrorism directed at Food and Water Supplies. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1497290/pdf/11571403.pdf
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Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next

Words: 5067 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10464176

Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack

Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New

York:

Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).

Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
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Rand Report Critique as Discussed

Words: 2581 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 27729493

26 Yet public health continued to mean, even more than in the Clinton administration, a technological approach to national defense. In the Bush administration, pharmaceutical protection became the centerpiece of biodefense policy. On December 13, 2002, convinced of the Dark Winter-type threat of smallpox, President Bush announced his nationwide smallpox inoculation program. Publicity about Iraq's potential biological arsenal, especially in the lead-up to the 2003 invasion, and the threat of bioterrorism had convinced many in the public to participate. The states and the CDC were ready to handle the logistics. In addition, civilian participation was voluntary, which reduced legal liability for those who administered the vaccine and for the government.

As might have been predicted, this smallpox vaccination campaign found it difficult to circumvent the well-known fears of vaccination as a source of bodily pollution and the mistrust engendered when vaccines appear a worse health risk than the forecast epidemic.…… [Read More]

References

Fauci, Anthony S.M.D., Bioterrorism Preparedness: NIH Smallpox Research Efforts, available at  http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t011102b.htm  Accessed on October 22, 2011.

Frist, William. The Political Perspective of the Bioterrorism Threat, in Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities, 29 (Stacy L. Knobler & Adel A.F. Mahmoud & Leslie A. Pray eds., National Academy Press 2002).

Neergaard, Lauran. Postmaster: Anthrax Threatens Mail, The Washington Post, Oct. 24, 2001, available at  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/aponline/20011024  / aponline090115_002.html Accessed on October 21, 2011.

Tanielian, Terri. Ricci, Karen. Stoto, Michael A. David Dausey, J. Lois M. Davis, Myers, Sarah. Olmsted, Stuart. Willis, Henry H. (2005) Exemplary Practices in Public Health Preparedness. RAND Corporation.  http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR239.pdf  Accessed on October 21, 2011.
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Biological Weapons How Real Is

Words: 4788 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67241031

Having known the mounting dangers, many public health and bio-terrorism experts, members of Congress and some well-positioned ush administration officials convey increasing discomfort about what they think are flaws in the country's bio-defenses. Over the earlier years, awareness steps have been made, mainly in the large cities. ut most of necessary equipments are not available.

The federal government's standard answer to the anthrax assaults of 2001 and the warning of upcoming bio-terror attacks has been to accumulate huge amounts of drugs and vaccines to take care of or vaccinate sufferers or possible sufferers. However, these medicines are ineffective if there is no dependable system in place to quickly distribute and give out them to the disturbed populations early enough for the drugs to be successful. Regrettably, as of now, we do not have this strong, competent system in position in the United States. At the close of 2003, only two…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Analysis: U.S. Unprepared for Bio-Attack. NewsMax Wires. Retrieved from:  http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/11/10/114328.shtml . Accessed on 28 November, 2004

Biological Threat to U.S. Homeland is Very Real. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.aviationnow.com/content/ncof/view_19.htm. Accessed on 28 November, 2004

Biological Weapons and Threat Detection. Osborn Scientific Group BADD white paper. April, 2002. Retrieved at http://osborn-scientific.com/PDF/osg_wp_bw_041802.pdf. Accessed on 28 November, 2004

Brennan, Phil. Bio-terrorism Threat to U.S. is Real & Deadly. October 4, 2001. Retrieved at  http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/10/3/142304.shtml . Accessed on 28 November, 2004
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Native Societies and Disease Numerous Reports From

Words: 2339 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7428035

Native Societies and Disease

Numerous reports from European traders, missionaries, soldiers and explorers in the 16th and 17th Centuries reveal the same information about the devastating effect smallpox and other epidemic diseases had on the aboriginal populations of the Americas. Europeans were colonizing Africa and Asia at the same time, but "on no other continent in historic times has a combined disease and Construct phenomenon led to the collapse of an entire indigenous population."[footnoteRef:1] In 1492, Native Americans were one-fifth to one-sixth of the global population, but their numbers never came close to equaling that again after all the great epidemics that struck them in waves. Unlike China and India, where smallpox, plague, typhus, measles and influenza already existed, and therefore the local populations had more immunity and greatly outnumbered the European colonizers, aboriginal American societies routinely suffered mortality rates of 80 or 90%. Some forms of smallpox, such as…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hackett, Paul. "A Very Remarkable Sickness": Epidemics in the Petit Nord, 1670 to 1846. (University of Manitoba Press, 2002).

Trigger, Bruce G. Natives and Newcomers: Canada's "Heroic Age" Revisited (McGill-Queen's University Press, 1985).

Warrick, Garry A., "European Infections, Disease and Depopulation of the Wendat-Tionotate (Huron-Petun)" in Jordan F. Kerber (ed) Archaeology of the Iroquois: Selected Readings and Research Sources (Syracuse University Press, 2007), pp. 269-86.

Watts, Sheldon. Epidemics and History: Disease, Power and Imperialism (Yale University Press, 1997).
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Chemical and Biological Cb Agents

Words: 1396 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35819702

egardless, highly possible plans can be devised could result in huge numbers of deaths that range into the thousands for chemical agents and the hundreds of thousands, or maybe millions, with biological ones6. Bioterrorists have successfully utilized agents ranging from the ones that rapidly cause death, such as nerve agents and cyanide, to those that impact hours after exposure, such as mustard gas and pulmonary agents.

John Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies compared potential biological agents to determine which maximum credible event would offer the greatest risk for a public health response. In this case, the "maximum credible event" is defined as an occurrence that could cause significant loss of life, as well as disruption, panic, and a total overwhelming of the civilian health-care resources. 7

To fit this definition of a maximum credible event, the CB must include some of the following properties: be highly lethal, easily produced…… [Read More]

References

Henderson, Donald a "Smallpox as a biological weapon." Journal of the American Medical Association, 283 (1999), 2127-2137

Kortepeter Mark G. And Gerald W. Parker, "Potential Biological Weapons Threats." Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal. 5 (1999): 523-525

Report No. 2000/02: Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Terrorism." Perspectives. http://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/en/publications/perspectives/200002.asp. Accessed 2 July 2007

Sidell, Frederick R. And David R. Franz. Introduction to chemical and biological agents. Medical aspects of chemical and biological warfare. Washington, D.C.: Borden Institute, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 1997
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Columbian Exchange Is a Term

Words: 1730 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16537686



ibliography

Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

eezley, ill. "The Global Market from and to the Americas." University of Arizona (November 23, 2004), http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:uKRvc_4yeu4J:las.arizona.edu/outreach/complete_curriculum_units/taste_of_LA/Taste%2520of%2520LA%2520Handouts.pdf+%22columbian+exchange%22+food&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us.

Hodge, F. "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population Requiring Special Considerations." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 13 (1988), 83-104.

Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990.

Stannard, David E. American Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Viola, Herman J. And Carolyn Margolis. Seeds of Change. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.

David E. Stannard, American Holocaust (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 53.

Kirkpatrick Sale, the Conquest of Paradise (New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990), 34.

Herman J. Viola and Carolyn Margolis, Seeds of Change (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991), 79.

Alfred W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 197.

Viola and Margolis, 192.

F. Hodge, "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Beezley, Bill. "The Global Market from and to the Americas." University of Arizona (November 23, 2004), http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:uKRvc_4yeu4J:las.arizona.edu/outreach/complete_curriculum_units/taste_of_LA/Taste%2520of%2520LA%2520Handouts.pdf+%22columbian+exchange%22+food&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us.

Hodge, F. "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population Requiring Special Considerations." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 13 (1988), 83-104.

Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990.
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People From History That Impacted the World

Words: 1087 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92264298

People From History That Impacted the World in a Positive Way

Three People from History

Three People from History who impacted the World in a Positive Way

Ross Granville Harrison (1807 -- 1959)

Ross Granville Harrison was an American zoologist. He is known for his discovery of a method of growing cells outside of the body. In his famous experiment carried out in 1906 he placed a piece of a frog's embryonic nerve tissue into a drop of frog lymphatic fluid, and saw that the nerve tissue did not die, but rather continued to grow. (Ross Granville Harrison) The method that Harrison developed from this experiment was to form the foundation of the tissue culture technique used in modern medicine and in medical research. This technique has become an extremely important part of contemporary medical research as it allows for "…the study of isolated living cells in a controlled environment."…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alexander Fleming (1881-1955). Web. 18 Nov. 2010.



Beale, Norman, and Elaine Beale. "Evidence-based Medicine in the Eighteenth Century: the Ingen Housz-jenner Correspondence Revisited." Medical History 49.1 (2005): 79+. Questia. Web. 18 Nov. 2010.

Edward Jenner (1749-1823). Web. 18 Nov. 2010.
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History of Quarantine in the

Words: 3672 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17203367

She is said to have refused to stop being a cook and this led to infection of people in a New York maternity hospital consequently she was re-arrested by the health officers and taken back to quarantine in 1915 till her death in 1938. This sparked a lot of human rights issues concerning quarantine as never before.

The typhoid pandemic in New York went hand in hand with the poliomyelitis pandemic that began in 1916. The health officers began to separate parents from their children in chagrin of many. This saw the wealthier families provide isolation rooms and treatment for their children right at home. However, in November of the same year when the pandemic subsided, it was after well above 2,300 lives claimed by the pandemic, a vast majority being the young.

It was not long until the world war brought with it another challenge of prostitution and consequent…… [Read More]

References

Barroni & Lemer, (1993). Temporarily Detained: Tuberculous Alcoholics in Seattle: 1949

through 1960. Public Health then and now. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 86 No. 2.  http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/86/2/257.pdf 

Elizabeth & Daniel M., (1988). AIDS: The Burdens of History. PP 151-152. London: University

of California Press Ltd. retrieved on May 17, 2010 from  http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=z6NTN5uYOEAC&pg=PA151&lpg=PA151&dq=the+most+concerted+attack+on+civil+liberties+in+the+name+of+public+health+in+American+history.%22&source=bl&ots=ex3b2rbZNW&sig=A0oWLrxni6iipuMdeUwT5jiCzEI&hl=en&ei=jvXyS6jkJZGnsAazg8HrCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=the%20most%20concerted%20attack%20on%20civil%20liberties%20in%20the%20name%20of%20public%20health%20in%20American%20history.%22&f=false
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Role of Communication in Crises

Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 25157259

Role of Communication in Crises

"In crisis management, the threat is the potential damage a crisis can inflict on an organization, its stakeholders, and an industry. A crisis can create three related threats: a) public safety; b) financial loss; and c) reputation loss" (Coombs, 2007).

Good quality communication is among the most vital components of any good organization -- at any moment, in good or bad times. But during a crisis, good communication becomes even more pivotal to helping solve urgent problems. ithout a well-thought-out, professional understanding of the media and how its coverage of the crisis will unfold, the company is at the mercy of a potentially harmful and very negative image. This paper delves into the importance of good communication management in times of crisis and offers an analysis that any company should pay attention to well before any crisis happens.

The Literature on Communication in Times of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coombs, Timothy W. (2004). Impact of Past Crises on Current Crisis Communication: Insights

From Situational Crisis Communication Theory. Journal of Business Communication, 41(3),

265-289.

Coombs, Timothy W. (2007). Crisis Management and Communications. Institute for Public
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Biological Warfare -- Past and

Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 15918262



Native Americans in the 18th century contracted smallpox thanks to the U.S. soldiers in Fort Pitt giving them "some blankets and handkerchiefs" that were taken from patents in the infirmary with smallpox (heelis). It was a deliberate "attack" and wiped out many Indians. Also, during the American Revolutionary ar, England were known to have inoculated smallpox on civilians with the intention of spreading it to the Continental Army. In orld ar I (1915 through 1918) the Germans waged "an ambitious campaign of covert biological attack" by injecting horses and mules being sent to the Allies with glanders and anthrax (heelis).

The Japanese used B (8, 9, 10) in China during II; heelis writes that the Japanese "poisoned wells with microbial cultures, sprayed the ground with cultures" and left contaminated food for the Chinese army to eat and become ill. The Soviets are accused of having used biological weapons (tularemia) against…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Center for Biosecurity. (2008). BioAgents and Epidemic Diseases Background

Information. Categorization and Ongoing Assessment of Biological Agents.

Retrieved June 23, 2009, from  http://www.upmc-biosecurity.org .

Ready America. (2009). Biological Threat. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from  http://www.ready.gov/america/beinformed/biological.html .
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Native American Nations and European

Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22735319

The politics were simple. The Government and the settlers had all the power, ultimately the Natives did not, and so, the settlers and the government subjugated the Natives and forced them into treaties that only served the European settlers. Another writer notes, "In 1983 ichard White argued in the oots of Dependency that Euro-Indian relations in various parts of North America had in common the 'attempt... By whites to bring Indian resources, land, and labor into the market.'"

Of course, they brought them into that "market" on their own terms most often, rather than that of the Natives.

Joseph Brant - Mohawk leader - British Army officer - Studied at "Moor's Indian Charity School - Translator for Department of Indian Affairs - esponsible for restoring lands to the Mohawk people.

Wampum belt - Fashioned from seashells - Used as money or for trade - Given during times of peace making…… [Read More]

References

Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), ( http://www.tfo.org/television/emissions/rendezvousvoyageur/en/world/context/firstnations.html ) 9 Feb. 2009.

Hatfield, April Lee. "Colonial Southeastern Indian History." Journal of Southern History 73, no. 3 (2007): 567+.

Konkle, Maureen. Writing Indian Nations: Native Intellectuals and the Politics of Historiography, 1827-1863. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), (
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Vaccinations Making an Informed Choice

Words: 1741 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 16917452



Self-Learning Handout

List any topics on which this lecture / web site expanded your knowledge:

Briefly describe the way in which the lecture / web site expanded your knowledge:

This information will impact my decision to vaccinate because:

This information will not impact my decision to vaccinate because:

Please list below any questions about the information contained in this lecture/web site"

eferences

DeStefano, Frank, Mullooly, John, Okoro, Catherine, Chen, obert T., Marcy, S.

Michael, Ward, Joel I. et a. (2001). Childhood Vaccinations, Vaccination Timing, and isk of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Pediatrics 108 (6), 112.

Life-Cycle of an Immunization Program. (April 20, 2007). etrieved August 14, 2008, from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/life-cycle.htm

Madsen, Meldgaard, Haviid, Anders, Vestergaard, Morgens, Schendel, Diana, Wohlfahrt,

Jan, Thorsen, Poul, et al. A Population-Based Study of Measles, Mumps, and ubella. The New England Journal of Medicine. 347 (19).

Vaccination and…… [Read More]

References

DeStefano, Frank, Mullooly, John, Okoro, Catherine, Chen, Robert T., Marcy, S.

Michael, Ward, Joel I. et a. (2001). Childhood Vaccinations, Vaccination Timing, and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Pediatrics 108 (6), 112.

Life-Cycle of an Immunization Program. (April 20, 2007). Retrieved August 14, 2008, from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention Web Site:  http://www.cdc.gov /vaccines/vac-gen/life-cycle.htm

Madsen, Meldgaard, Haviid, Anders, Vestergaard, Morgens, Schendel, Diana, Wohlfahrt,
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Ponca Indians the History of

Words: 3207 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35567463

The precariousness of their relationship with the Dakota was evidenced in 1843, when "the Omaha and the Ponca were considering a union, 'to live together as one people' [….] no doubt as a defensive strategy against the Dakota" (Wishart 1994, 85). However, this ultimately never came about, "and the Ponca again joined the Dakota to raid the Omaha," because "in the chaotic years of the 1840s when starvation confronted all the Indians, warfare became the primary means of the spreading the subsistence base," and allying with the Dakota, who were one of the most powerful tribes in the region, made the most sense (Wishart 1994, 85).

Despite the Ponca's alliances with the Dakota, the latter group became increasingly hostile, resulting in the Ponca gradually returning to their ancestral base near the mouth of the Niobara river, "likely [because] the Dakota had cut them off from the bison range and forced…… [Read More]

References

Wishart, David. An Unspeakable Sadness: The Dispossession of the Nebraska Indians. Lincoln:

University of Nebraska Press, 1994.

Treaty with the Ponca 1825. Accessed November 23, 2011.

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/pon0225.htm.
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Biological Warfare Dramatic Technological Advances

Words: 2144 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 60918020

These efforts include: expansion of international efforts to prevent terrorist acquisition of biological agents, initiated Bioatch program to detect initial releases of biological weapons within the environment, launched food programs to carefully inspect foods for potential bioagents (with greater focus on foreign foods), expanded bioterrorism research (including Project Bioshield, a program to develop medical ripostes to biological agents), and increased medical stockpiles and training for dealing with bioterrorism attacks (Cordesman; Lindler, Lebeda, & Korch; Petsko; Fidler & Gostin). These efforts will help to both prevent the initial release of any biological agents within the general populace or environment, as well as effectively treat afflicted individuals and slow spread through appropriate treatments.

Once biological agents are released into the general population, the extent of disease spread and number of individuals afflicted will be significantly affected by the role and effectiveness of the government through quarantine and treatment (Cordesman; Lindler, Lebeda, &…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cole, Leonard A. The Eleventh Plague. Macmillan, 2002. Print.

Cordesman, Anthony H. The challenge of biological terrorism. CSIS, 2005. Print.

Fidler, David P., and Lawrence O. Gostin. Biosecurity in the global age. Stanford University Press, 2008. Print.

Kortepeter, MG, and GW Parker. "Potential biological weapons threats." Emerging Infectious Diseases 5.4 (1999): 523-527. Print.
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Biological Weapons Bioweapons Are Weaponry

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 9318820

" Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 22 Apr. 2009 .

Goldman, D. "The Generals and the Germs." Journal of Military History 73(2). Apr 2009: p. 531-569. Academic Search Complete. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Guillemin, J. "Germ arfare Under the Microscope." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 31. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Kelle, A. "Strengthening the Effectiveness of the BT Control Regime -- Feasibility and Options." Contemporary Security Policy 24(2) Aug 2003: p. 95-132. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Kellman, B. "Bioviolence: A Growing Threat." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 25-30. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Littlewood, J. "Biological eapons: Much Ado and Little Action." Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning & Policy 45(2) Apr 2007: p. 191-203. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Biological Weapon." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 22 Apr. 2009 .

Goldman, D. "The Generals and the Germs." Journal of Military History 73(2). Apr 2009: p. 531-569. Academic Search Complete. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Guillemin, J. "Germ Warfare Under the Microscope." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 31. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Kelle, A. "Strengthening the Effectiveness of the BTW Control Regime -- Feasibility and Options." Contemporary Security Policy 24(2) Aug 2003: p. 95-132. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
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Colonial Latin America

Words: 1345 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9507162

Born to Die

hy did the native populations, such as the Incas and the Aztecs, appear to be, not equals to be met with military and diplomatic force, but as victims born to die in the eyes of the invading European powers? hy were they not feared, despite the extensive technological capacities of their civilizations, and the detailed political and religious theology these civilizations created? Simply put, the invading Europeans came to regard them as sick and ailing bodies of a sick and ailing body politic, born to die because of their lack of immunity to European diseases, even more than European firearms.

The book Born to Die thus presents the provoking thesis that disease was the major cause of the European power's seemingly never-ending successes of colonial successes and conquests in Latin America, rather than these nation's prowess in military conquest. In some cases, the nations had already been…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cook, David Noble. Born to Die. Cambridge University Press, 1998.

"Kurds." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Edition. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001 -- 04. www.bartleby.com/65/. 8 November 2003.

Lim, Louisa. "Analysis: Disease as a Weapon." BBC News. 2003.

 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/2634753.stm . 8 November 2004.
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Chemical and Biological Terrorism Types

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36380372

Perhaps the public has become somewhat desensitized by nuclear war, but the idea of unseen agents loosed in the water supply, or used to burn without fire, causes panic to a greater degree (Tucker, 2008, 112-15).

An interesting paradigm regarding the fear factor involved in chemical and biological terrorism may surround the psychological issues that have surrounded the possibility of nuclear fear for decades, almost desensitizing people to it -- and the thought that they would either be instantly vaporized, or at least face a quick death. With biologics and chemicals, though, the fear is more of slowly dying, sick, bleeding, etc. such as shown in the films Outbreak or the Andromeda Strain (Smithson, 2004).

hemical Weapons -- hemical warfare and weaponry is nothing new to the scene of terrorism and war, especially after the advances made during World War I. The destructive effects of chemical weapons are their toxic…… [Read More]

Chemical terrorism is terroristic warfare that uses weapons that are chemically based, such as gas, burning agents, or other liquid or gaseous compounds. Unlike the chemical warfare that so terrorized the soldiers in World War I, in which trenched troops shot poisonous shells into each other's trench cities, or gassed whole planes of battle, is it more systematic and targeted. It differs, too, from a military use of such agents against a human population, for example the use of poisons by Sadaam Hussein against his own minority populations. Chemical terrorism is similar in many ways to biological terrorism, but the agents and toxins used operate in a different manner -- chemically induced carnage from the outside of the body as opposed to bioligically induced destruction from the inside of the body moving outward (Taylor, 2001; Falkenrath, et.al., 1998).

Biological Weapons - a bioterrorism attack uses biological weapons (viruses, bacteria, or germs) that are released in a manner that will negatively impact either humans, flora or fauna in a given environment. The particular agents involved must be deliberately set upon a population and may be natural forms or genetically manipulated agents that are more virulent than naturally found in nature, or resistant to current treatment or detection. These deadly agents may be airborne, ingested in drinking water, or become part of the food chain. This is the crux of their popularity -- they are often difficult to isolate and detect and often are latent for hours or days prior to symptoms, allowing the terrorist to be far away from the specified population when it becomes clear a biological was used. Some of the most power (smallpox, etc.) can be spread from person to person, some (Ebola) are so virulent they often kill their host prior to recontamination and others (anthrax, for example) must be touched or ingested by the individual for the effect to occur ("Bioterrorism Overview," CDC, 2007).

Every society has suffered more from disease than warfare, even though one might argue that the first case of biological warfare was unleashed upon the Aztec and Maya by the Spanish Conquistadores. In fact, many experts believe that without the outbreaks of smallpox, measles, and venereal disease, there would not have been a Spanish victory (Diamond, 2005).
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Role Relevance and Future Potential

Words: 3295 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13863186



For a country such as Uganda to possess sufficient health care is tremendously important to the people of the republic of Uganda. Even triumphant medical treatment for malaria can involve pain through injections of drugs and in the entire period of recuperating after the administration of the drugs. Furthermore, nervousness may crop up, threat and unavoidably a lot of money. The final thing a parent of a sick child suffering from malaria in a hospital needs to believe about is how he or she is actually going to pay out for all the costs encountered or the billing. In an ideal world, as a substitute of distressing about money, a patient or a mother or a father of a kid who is suffering from malaria should be focused on getting well or consoling the sick child respectively. Nonetheless, the entire subject of health cover can be puzzling (Trisha, 2007, p.…… [Read More]

References

Akhtar, R (ed.) 1991, Planning and Implementing Community Participation in health Programs,

in Healthcare Patterns and Planning in Developing Countries, Greenwood Press,

New York, pp. 6.

Baum, F & Sanders, D 1995, 'Can Health Promotion and Primary Health Care Achieve Health
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Weapons of Mass Destruction Wmds

Words: 3700 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85661565

By continuing with a "business as usual" attitude, the terrorists would not have a long-term psychological impact on American society, culture and economic development.

hile the long-term psychological impact appears to be the most prominent value that a weapon of mass destruction has for a terrorist, it seems reasonable to argue that these weapons also serve as a means for terrorist groups to have their political voices heard. Terrorist attacks bring to light the activities, beliefs and values of a specific terrorist group. Although many in the U.S. were familiar with Osama bin Laden before 9/11, his implication in the terrorist attacks made him and Al-Qaeda household names. In this context, bin Laden was able to bring to light the organization's hatred of the United States and the organization's political agenda for the entire international community. The publicity gained from terrorist events clearly has value for terrorist groups.

4. Given…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The dynamic terrorist threat." RAND Corporation. [2005]. Accessed October 31, 2007 at  http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/2005/MR1782.pdf .

Thornburgh, Dick. "Balancing civil liberties and homeland security." Albany Law Review, 68(4), (2005): 801-813.

Weapons of mass destruction." Global Focus. [2006]. Accessed October 31, 2007 at http://globalfocus.org/GF-WMDs.htm.
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Renaissance the Trend in Medicine

Words: 2914 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48408487



It is of extreme importance in medicine to know accurately the anatomical changes that take place in a certain disease for diagnosis and treatment. The man who created this science was Morgagni who taught us to think anatomically in our approach of a disease. Morgagni studied at Bologna under Valsalva and Albertini, who are notable persons themselves in the history of medicine. Morgagni did this in the form of letters to an unknown friend who inquired about Morgagni's thoughts and observations in the diseases he had seen. These included affections of the pericardium, diseases of the valves, ulceration, rupture, dilation and hypertrophy of the aorta which were detailedly described clinically and anatomically. Of all his entires, the section on aneurysm of the aorta is one of the best he had written. A good example of his letter was about angina pectoris.

The aorta was considerably dilated at its curvature; and,…… [Read More]

References

1. Evolution of Medicine.Online. Available from Internet, http:://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/tech/medicine/theEvolutionofmodernmedicin/legalese.html, Accessed May 12, 2007.

History of Anatomy. Online. Available from Internet,  http://www.wikipedia.com  Accessed May 12, 3007

Mayeaux, E.J. Jr. 1989. A History of Western Medicine and Surgery. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.lsumc.edu.com, Accessed May 12, 2007

Medieval Medicine. Online. Available from Internet,
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Weapons of Mass Destruction Before

Words: 2438 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41998215

(ebehn M.) Another example from the 1700's of the use of bacterial agent in war was in the conflict between ussia and Sweden in 1710. There are reports that the ussians used the bodies of plague victim to create an epidemic among the enemy. (HISTOY of BIOLOGICAL WAFAE)

There is also the infamous incident in American history of the intentional infection of the native Indians with smallpox. "An English general, Sir Jeffery Amherst, surreptitiously provided the Indians loyal to the French with blankets infected with smallpox virus. The resulting epidemic decimated the Indians." (HISTOY of BIOLOGICAL WAFAE)

2.3. The modern technological era and weapons of mass destruction.

With the advent of the modern industrial age there was a rapid development of technology. This was also to lead to the equally rapid growth in the development of even more and more destructive and indiscriminate weapons of destruction. The most well-known and…… [Read More]

References

HISTORY of BIOLOGICAL WARFARE. Retrieved 17 February, 2007, at  http://www.gulfwarvets.com/biowar.htm 

History of Epidemics and Plagues (2001) Retrieved 17 February, 2007, at  http://uhavax.hartford.edu/bugl/histepi.htm 

Johnson T.J. A History of Biological Warfare from 300 B.C.E. To the Present.

Retrieved 17 February, 2007, at  http://www.aarc.org/resources/biological/history.asp
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Women in American History

Words: 2642 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19581890

omen in American History

The contribution woman have made to the United States over the years is profoundly important, and probably not recognized to the degree that it should be recognized. This paper reviews and critiques the contributions of women from five periods in history: from 1865 to 1876; from 1877 to 1920; from 1921 to 1945; from 1946 to 1976; and from 1976 to the present day.

omen in America -- 1865 to 1876 -- Sojourner Truth

One of the brightest lights in the movement to free the slaves was Sojourner Truth, likely the best-known person in the abolitionist movement. She was actually very active in the movement to free the slaves before and during the Civil ar, and she helped organize and lead the Underground Railroad movement. The Underground Railroad shepherded runaway slaves away from Southern slave states and up into New York State, Pennsylvania, isconsin, Minnesota and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker, Sara Josephine. (2007). Sara Josephine Baker: Physician and Public Health Worker.

Harvard Square Library / Notable American Unitarians. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from  http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/baker.html .

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2006). Hull House. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/275272/Hull-House .

Jewish Virtual Library. (2006). Golda Meir. Retrieved June 13, 2011, from  http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/meir.html .
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Black Robe Dramatizes the First

Words: 807 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Movie Review Paper #: 43941952

The Huron convert out of fear and self-interest, and ultimately the French mission is destroyed after the entire tribe is massacred by the Iroquois.

Black Robe is intensely realistic in its portrayal of disease, inter-tribe conflict, and the worldview of the Jesuit priest. It is also realistic by showing how relationships between white men and native women were common, even though the Europeans would often disparage the native population as inferior. It refuses to show one side as 'good' or 'bad,' given the moral complexities posed by warfare. The Jesuits, unlike later colonizers, do not seem to be self-interested in an economic fashion, and Father Laforgue risks everything in his attempt to reach the Huron. The Indians are not pure, and are just as fractious as the Europeans in their tribal rivalries. However, the incursion of European influence clearly has long-term negative fallout, as symbolized in the death of Chomina,…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Black Robe. Directed by Bruce Beresford. 1991.

"The Huron and the Jesuits." Native American Nations.

[21 Nov 2011]  http://www.nanations.com/jesuits/huron_jesuits.htm
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Evolution of Horses

Words: 1292 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9433519

Horses have been an important and influential part of North American and European history. In his book, Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, Alfred W. Crosby argues that horses helped to bring about European's successful colonization of a number of temperate regions such as North America, Australia, New Zealand, and some parts of South America. He argues that the profound success of horses in these regions resulted from the filling of an empty biological niche, and that the arrival of horses on the plains in North America resulted in profound changes in the lives of North American Indians. In his article, The ise and Fall of Plains Indian Horse Cultures, Pekka Hamalainen argues that the common view that horses brought success to Native Americans is fundamentally oversimplified. He suggests that the common focus on only the successful incorporation of horses by the Lakota people has distorted modern understanding of…… [Read More]

References

Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900

(Canto). Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Hamalainen, Pekka. The Rise and Fall of Plains Indian Horse Cultures." Journal of American

History, 90 (Dec. 2003): 833-62.
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Counterterrorism Training Program

Words: 2611 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35777431

Counterterrorism Training Program

Terrorism is a fact of modern life. On one level, it cannot be understood; it is difficult to empathize with those who have no empathy of their own and cause enormous suffering in the name of their own beliefs. On another level, however, there are components of terrorism that can be understood -- their tactics and methods, their choice of targets and more. Because terrorism is aimed at entire societies, and is carried out in a guerrilla fashion, it is necessary to develop tactics for deterring terrorism that address terrorism's wide and deep sources, tactics and effects.

Terrorism has been a fact of life for 200 years, since the French evolution. At that time, Cottam et al. (2004) suggest that the rise of the nation-state made it more possible than ever before for individuals to want to maintain identities that were very like those of their community;…… [Read More]

References

Alibek, K., and S. Handelman. (1999). Biohazard. New York: Random House.

Almog, D. (2004) Cumulative Deterrence and the War on Terrorism. Parameters, 34(4), p. 4+.

Block, S.M. (2001, January) The Growing Threat of Biological Weapons. American Scientist, 889(1), p. 28.

Bush, G.W. (2003, February) National Strategy for Combating Terrorism (Washington: The White House, February 2003), p. 15,
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Motivations for and Effects of

Words: 1802 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1846399

In the 21st century, American, European, and Asian trans-national corporations (e.g., General Motors; Toyota; Coca Cola; IBM; Nestle, etc., build plants in Mexico and Latin America, where indigenous labor is cheaper than American labor. Meanwhile, tens of thousands of poor Mexican citizens living in poverty struggle to sneak across the borders of the United States, into California, Arizona, Texas, or New Mexico, in hope of finding better lives by working for American dollars, instead of Mexican pesos.

All in all, European colonialism, an outgrowth and direct result of acquisitive worldwide European exploration and expansion, from the time of the Spanish conquistadores through the Enlightenment Period; through the Industrial Revolution and beyond, has done more harm than good within both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. For the most part, within these regions, colonialism (and/or its long-lasting after-effects) brought disease; poverty, and much cultural coercion to those areas. Natural resources were stolen;…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bradshaw, Michael et al. Contemporary World Regional Geography: Global

Connections, Local Voices. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton, 1999.
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Chemical & Biological Warfare the

Words: 3953 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65855836

The larger the region covered by the chemical agent, the more likely it will be to cause the widespread destruction for which the person or group is looking (Brophy & Fisher, 1959). Toxicity matters, of course, but the earliest uses were not about the level of toxicity the chemical agent possessed. They were more focused on how the toxic was absorbed. If the chemical agent could be absorbed through the clothing and skin, a gas mask would be useless against it and it would be more likely to work on a larger number of people (Burck & Flowerree, 1991).

July of 1917 saw the use of mustard gas begin (Brophy & Fisher, 1959). The Germans, once again, were the first to use this chemical. It easily passes through fabric and leather, and causes very painful burns to appear on the skin. There are two categories into which chemical agents like…… [Read More]

References

Alibek, K. And S. Handelman. (2000). Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World -- Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran it. Delta.

Appel, J.M. (2009). Is all fair in biological warfare? The controversy over genetically engineered biological weapons, Journal of Medical Ethics, Volume 35, pp. 429 -- 432.

Brophy, L.P. & George J.B. Fisher (1959). The Chemical Warfare Service: Organizing for War Office of the Chief of Military History.

Burck, Gordon M. And Charles C. Flowerree. (1991). International Handbook on Chemical Weapons Proliferation.
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New World & Black Robe Both Terrence

Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5199317

New World" & "Black Robe"

Both Terrence Malick's "The New World" and Bruce Beresford's "Black Robe" deal with themes of Native American encounters with European settlers and how it impacted both parties. There are subtle differences in each movie, but the main themes of cultures clashing and the inevitable conflict that will occur as a result permeate both films. Both films are notable for their attention to detail and their respective quests for historical accuracy, though "The New World" deals with the far more mythologized and recognized story of Pocahontas. These two films together represent a shift in the telling of Native American tales in the cinema, no longer satisfied to project the image of "Noble Savage" that had previously dominated these types of movies.

In Malick's "The New World," Pocahontas is portrayed as a woman torn between two cultures: the one she has known for the whole of her…… [Read More]

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Social Significance of 1763 in America an

Words: 1083 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88961375

Social Significance of 1763 in America

An Inevitable First American Revolution

In 1763, France and Spain ceded much of eastern North America to the British as part of the peace deal that took place in Paris on February 10 (Galloway 8). This brought to an end the Seven Years ar, otherwise known as the French and Indian ar. The amount of land that Britain won with its victory was massive, extending east from the Mississippi River, north to the Hudson Bay, and south to Florida. Concessions were also made in an effort to appease France and Spain. The British monarchy returned Havana, Cuba to Spain, a critical way point for ships entering and leaving the Gulf of Mexico and ports south. France retained the northern most sections of Canada around Hudson Bay and several Caribbean Islands, including the sugar-producing economic dynamo Guadalupe.

On the surface, it seemed that all three…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Galloway, Colin G. The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.
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Biodefense in America

Words: 2368 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85179413

Bioagent Attacks

Biodefense in America

Bioterrorism specifically refers to the use of biological agents such as bacteria, germs, or viruses to cause sickness or death in a population. A bioterrorist can contaminate the food, air, or water supply with infectious agents designed to cause illness. Bioterrorism presents difficulties in tracing the source of the terrorist act because symptoms may not appear for days. It is difficult to know when, where, and how a person was infected. Anyone can be at risk for bioterrorism at any time. Bioterrorism does not only affect combatants or enemy military personnel, it affects innocent people in the general population. Biodefense refers to measures taken to help eliminate or reduce the possibility of a bioterrorist attack on the population. Biodefense in the United States became an important issue in the public eye after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Towers. This research will…… [Read More]

References

Dennis, T., Wang, K., & Suppes, L. (n.d.) "A History of Bioterrorism." Retrieved from  http://people.uwec.edu/piercech/Bio/Examples.htm 

Valdes, J. (2005). "Biological Agents: Threat. Preparedness, and Myths." Security Studies

Program Seminar. December 7, 2005. Retrieved from  http://web.mit.edu/ssp/seminars/wed_archives05fall/valdes.htm 

Wyatt-Lorenz. (2009). "Bioterrorism Defense and Immediate Warning System." Wyatt-Lorenz,
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Aztecs and Incas

Words: 1458 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 17150431

Aztecs and Incas

In the 15th century various kinds of communities were hosted in the western part of the world. These communities had various activities such as hunting people as well as gathering, agricultural village societies along with chiefdoms and two major state-based agrarian evolutions. Around this time a better fraction of America's population was intense in some two societies known as Aztec as well as Inca. Being that any of the two societies had a far-reaching bookish folklore, those who seek to get acquainted to their past as well as way of life relayed mostly on the 16th Century records along with observations of the Spanish as they are the ones who conquered them. This then brought up a bigger question on how an individual from a conqueror community and with a totally dissimilar way of life be in a position to perfectly illustrate the life style of the…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Fray Diego Duran. (1994) The History of the indies of New Spain, translated by Doris Heyden (Norman; University of Oklahoma press).

Fray Diego Duran. (1971) Book of the Gods and Rites and the Ancient Calendar, translated by Fernando Horcasitas and Doris Heyden (Norman; University of Oklahoma press).

Pedro de Cieza de Leon, (1959) The Incas of Pedro de Cieza de Leon, translated by Harriet de Onis (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press)

Aztecs and Incas Page 1
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Bad Experience With a Priest Comparison of

Words: 8554 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8779256

Bad Experience ith a Priest:

comparison of the Catholicism aspects in Scott's Ivanhoe and Twain's a Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court

In reading Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, one cannot deny that the blame for the collapse of Hank's new civilization falls on the Church. Throughout the novel, Twain paints a negative image of the Church and its priests. This negative image can also be found in Sir alter Scott's Ivanhoe. Scott gives us characters such as the confused Templar and the misaligned Prior. Both writers have poor views of religion and this is evident in their unflattering portraits of the corrupt medieval church.

Scott's portrait of the Prior is not a very pleasant one. Nothing about him seems to be spiritual. hen we first meet him, his costume is basically appropriate for a priest, but it is said to be "composed of materials much…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boston Literary World. 15 February 1890. University of Virginia. 10 March 2003.  http://etext.virginia.edu/railton/yankee/cyboslw.html .

Chandler, Alice. "A Dream of Order." Lincoln: University of Nebraska press.

Church. 2003. Twainquotes. 10 March 2003.  http://www.twainquotes.com/Church.html .

Clemens, Samuel Langhorne. "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court." New York W.W. Norton & Company. (1982).
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Biological Weapons

Words: 1443 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52032389

iological Weapons: The 'Living' and Pervasive Weapons of Mass Destruction

The 'art' and methods of war have indeed gone a long way; from subsisting to crude metals and guns, human society has learned to manipulate Nature by using as one of its weapons of mass destruction organisms that create balance within the planet's ecosystem. Nuclear warheads, guns, and other artilleries and weaponry are no longer feasible arsenals of war, mainly because they are not energy- and economically-efficient, as biological weapons are. iological weapons, is identified as a destructive medium which "consist of living, infectious microorganisms that are disseminated as aerosols through the atmosphere... are generally invisible, odorless, and tasteless" (Falkenrath, 1998). These characteristics of biological weapons make it a feasible medium for destruction, especially between warring nations/societies.

This paper traces the origins and history of biological weapons, especially in the United States. In knowing its history, this research also looks…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Augerson, W. (2000). A Review of the Scientific Literature As It Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses, Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. Washington, D.C.: Random House.

Falkenrath, R. (1998). "Unconventional Arms: The Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc.

Forsberg, R. (1995). Nonproliferation Primer: Preventing the Spread of Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Weapons. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Lederberg, J. (1999). Biological Weapons: Limiting the Threat. Cambridge: MIT Press.
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Keeping Cigarettes Away From Young People Through Media Campaigns

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 5135629

Public Health Achievements

hat factors accounted for the control of tobacco in the U.S. Currently, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about 42.1 million Americans smoke cigarettes, which is about 18.1% of all adults (18 or over). About 20.5% of men smoke cigarettes and 15.8% of women smoke cigarettes (Liss, 2013).

the information environment -- mass media and counter-advertising. There is no doubt that media campaigns have a positive impact when it comes to anti-smoking campaigns. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that the first year of the federal government's national advertising campaign called "Tips from Former Smokers" "exceeded expectations; an estimated 1.6 million cigarette smokers attempted to stop smoking. Of those, about 100,000 actually succeeded in quitting, and that information came from a study published by the medical journal, The Lancet. Moreover, the campaign run by the CDC reportedly "inspired millions of nonsmokers to encourage…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control. (2011). Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from  http://www.cdc.gov .

Liss, S.M. (2013). CDC's Anti-Smoking Ad Campaign Spurred Over 100,000 Smokers to Quit;

Media Campaigns Must be Expanded Nationally and in the States. Center for Disease

Controls. Retrieved April 12, 2014, from  http://www.tobaccofreekids.org .
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MMR Vaccine and Autistic-Spectrum Disorders

Words: 6800 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 49586616

Controversy with vaccines, adverse reactions of the MM vaccine and the negative publicity surrounding it

SHAPE

Measles, Mumps and ubella Vaccine:

Absence of Evidence for Link

to Autistic-Spectrum Disorders

Henry K. Nguyen, MD Candidate

Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.

Correspondence to:

Mentor:

Dr. Anshu Kacker

5650 including Abstracts

Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.

Methods and materials: A literature search was performed using key phrases, including the search-requisite abbreviation 'MM' (measles, mumps, rubella), such as: 'autism mmr vaccine', 'colitis mmr vaccine', 'controversy mmr', 'mmr adverse results', 'vaccines autism-spectrum disorders', 'vaccine effects…… [Read More]

References

Anderberg, D. (2009). Anatomy of a Health Scare: Education, Income and the MMR Controversy in the UK. Wrong source cited -- found article ===> Journal of Health Economics 03/2011; 30(3):515-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.01.009

Andrews, N.,Miller, E., Taylor, B., Lingam, R., Simmons, A., Stowe, J., Waight, P. (2002). Recall bias, MMR, and autism. Arch Dis Child, 87, 493-4.

ADDED

Autism Watch (2015)  http://www.autism-watch.org/news/lancet.shtml
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Ethical Case Study Regarding Randomised Medical Trials in a Developing Country

Words: 1290 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36304730

Global Healthcare Ethics and the andomised HIV Trial

Healthcare professional face a range of ethical issues in the pursuance of their vocation. In the context of HIV research and the conducting of research among vulnerable population, such as poor expectant mothers in developing countries, the compete of global health ethics should provide a foundation for the assessment of ethical practices, both in planning, undertaking, and reviewing the work (WHO, 2014; Stapleton et al., 2013). Global health ethics is an interdisciplinary field, which covers not only health research, but also issues such as the provision of healthcare, and development of health policy, with the aim of understanding the moral values which should be implemented at a global level, undertaken utilising a predominantly geographic approach to macro level health issues (Stapleton et al., 2013). In this context, global health ethics is primarily concerned with issues such as pandemics, the effects of natural…… [Read More]

References

Kass. N.E., (2000), An Ethics Framework for Public Health, American Journal of public health, 91, 1776-1782

Pinto, A D; Upshur,, (2009), Global health Ethics for Students, Developing World Bioethics, 9(1), 1-10

Stapleton, G; Schroder-Back, P; Laaser, U; Meershoek, A; Popa, D, (2013), Global health ethics: an introduction to prominent theories and relevant topics, Global Health Action, 7, 235-69

World Health Organization, (WHO), (2014), Global Health Ethics, retrieved 19th December 2015 from  http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/164576/1/9789240694033_eng.pdf
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Columbian Expedition to Be Marginalized

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94671350

Yet, according to historians of the era, the exposition also defined American culture -- presenting lectures and discussions by leading activists about religion, science, women's rights, and racial equality. Even Historian Frederick Jackson Turner gave a paper on the significance of the American Frontier. All, despite the tragedy of a smallpox epidemic, attempted to portray to the world that America was on the verge of becoming the predominant country of enlightenment.

In contrast, ethnic historian and Professor of History at Columbia University Mae Ngai, in Transnationalism and the Transformation of the "Other": esponse to the Presidential Address, shows that it is the very idea of transnational representation that continues to define the basis of American culture. Using Shelley Fisher Fishkin to show that "figures who have been marginalized precisely because they crosses so many borders that they are hard to categorize," Ngai asks that the contemporary historians and sociologists utilize…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ngai, Mae. (2005). "Transnationalism and the Transformation of the "Other." American

Quarterly. 57 (1): 59-65.

Rydell, R. (1978). "The World's Columbian Exposition of 1893." Journal of American Culture.

1 (2): 253-75.
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Children Putting to a Test

Words: 2877 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92746564

Partial vaccination was not effective on children 6-23 months. This meant that full vaccination is necessary to optimally protect children of this age group from Influenza (Shueler et al.).

The results are consistent with those of other evaluative studies on children through randomized, controlled trials for efficacy and observational studies for effectiveness (Shueler et al., 2007). Vaccine effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the study population, specificity of the outcome, and the Influenza season. It was dissimilar to the findings of Ritzwoller and his team in that Shueler and team's subjects had more exposure to Influenza. The more specific outcome of laboratory-confirmed Influenza made the detection possible. And Shueler and his team's findings were similar to Ritzwoller and his team's in that the findings of both teams offered assurance that vaccination of young children would be beneficial, even in a year with sub-optimal match (Shueler et al.).

Vaccination Efficacy not…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ambrose, C.S., et al. (2008). Current status of live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Influenza Respiratory Viruses:

Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved on April 26, 2010 from  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/588302 

Eisenberg K.W., et al. (2004). Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed

Influenza on children 6 to 59 months of age during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005
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Indian-American Technology Stasis It Is

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53132194

he introduction of various kinds of technology for the railroad, cattle ranching and mining of gold and silver, and ecological disturbance resulting from agrarianism were among the major factors in the near-extinction of the buffalo. Permanent railroad tracks, the depletion of trees for railroad ties and bridges and the decrease in wild animal population marked the lasting foreign presence in the Native West. Recent estimates revealed that there were 15-60 million buffaloes before the Europeans settled in 1500s. he animal population was severely depleted by the construction of the transcontinental railroad to the Western homeland of Plain Indian tribes. he buffalo was said to have reach near-extinction by the end of the 1870s when it numbered less than 1,000. Rapid American expansion in less than 50 years was behind it and other dismal results to the Continent (Fixico).

IV. Cost: But more and more evidence has been coming up, which…… [Read More]

The Aztecs had a well-structured and highly codified government, led by a very powerful emperor (Birklid 2010). He strictly required taxes from those he conquered. Then distributed land to his people, especially the warriors. The Aztecs became the largest empire in Mexico by 1473 through conquest of neighboring tribes. The capital, Tehnochtitlan, was described as a beautiful city, consisting of pyramids, long floating roads, aqueducts, brisk marketplaces and about a hundred thousand residents (Birklid).

The Aztecs used a 365-day calendar, similar to the one used by the Mayans (Birklid 2010). They used symbols to write and create sentences. Their most important god was white-faced Quetzacuatl, the god of intelligence and creation (Birklid).

They engaged in regional politics and entered into alliances with neighboring tribes, who were also expanding (Birklid 2010). These allies were the Tepanecs of Azcapotzalco, northwest of Tenochtitlan. They had skilled warriors and skilled diplomats. In 1428, they
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American Holocaust' 1993 David Stannard

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62954043

. . The most sustained on record" whilst the American Indian: The First Victim (1972) maintained that American civilization had originated in "theft and murder" and "efforts toward . . . genocide."

In the Conquest of Paradise (1990), Sale condemned the British and American people for pursuing a genocidal program for more than four centuries (Lewy, 2004).

It was not only masssacre; epidemics were introduced by the White people too, one of which was smallpox that destroyed entire tribes at one go. Measles, influenza, syphilis, bubomic plague, typhus, and cholera were only a few of the other plagues that the "visitors" bequeathed to the inhabitants already living on this soil. Approximately 75 to 890% of the deaths of American Indians resulted from these pathogens.

There was forced relocation of Indian tribes. The removal of the Cherokee from their homeland in 1838 -- an experience that was later called the Trail…… [Read More]

References

Lewy, G. Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide? History News Network, 2004. Web.  http://www.hnn.us/articles/7302.html 

Stannard, D. American Holocaust USA: Oxford University Press, 1993
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Environmental and Agricultural Terrorist Targets

Words: 773 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26092703

On the prevention side, there needs to be research about the most infectious diseases, widespread vaccination against the most threatening animal borne pathogens, monitoring and intelligence to identify potential threats, and education about bioterrorism at all levels of government (RAND, 2). On the response side, early detection, early containment, treatment plans, stockpiles of vaccines and drugs, and an animal depopulation and disposal plan are all necessary (RAND, 2).

The government has passed a number of laws to help address potential threats and be ready in the event of an attack. For example, the Bioterrorism Preparedness Act tightens control of certain toxins and threatening agents and expands agricultural security. The FDA and USDA have both passed rules to increase record-keeping and monitoring related to potentially dangerous agents. Homeland Security has been authorized to increase agricultural border inspections, with the assistance of the USDA. These inspections identify and quarantine potential threats. (Monke…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gonzales, Alberto, Regina Schofield, and Glenn Schmitt. Agroterrorism -- Why We're Not Ready: A Look at the Role of Law Enforcement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2006. Print.

Monke, Jim. Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2004. Print.

RAND National Defense Research Institute. Agroterrorism: What Is the Threat and What Can Be Done About it? Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2003. Print.
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Immunizations and Public Org India

Words: 3532 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 13081055

The resulting information points to the idea that there are more factors at play than simply developing and then providing vaccination doses to developing nations. The action plans that produce better results are paramount to success, and factors of social significance are just as important as or more important than having enough clinicians or clinics to administer the immunizations. The idea that community based and local volunteers would be needed to help administer and do family teaching about immunizations in India is also supported by Prinja, Gupta, Singha & Kumar who stress that in their large trial, associated with timely vaccinations of children in India with the DPT vaccination the results were far better when local volunteers were recruited as the presence of these individuals as well as their supportive education helped individuals better understand the need for their children to get the vaccination (eb-97). Another concept that is raised…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ali, Hammad, Nicholas Zwar & Jo Wild. "Improving Childhood Immunization Coverage Rates: Evaluation of a Divisional Program." Australian Family Physician. 38 (10) (October 2009): 833-835. . (10 November 2010).

Arora, Narendra K., Sanjay Chaturvedi & Rajib Dasgupta. "Global Lessons from India's Poliomyelitis Elimination Campaign." Bulletin of the World Health Organization (2010) 88-232 -- 234 (10 November 2010).

"Global Routine Vaccination Coverage, 2009" MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 59 (42) (October 29, 2010) 1368-1371. <  http://www.cdc.gov /mmwr/pdf/wk/mm5942.pdf" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Companion Diagnostics Translational Medicines

Words: 4711 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9971327

Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.

Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.

Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from  http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24 

Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
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Amerindians Wright What Is Your

Words: 819 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 3579677



Mann challenges the belief that superior weaponry was the main factor in the Inca loss to the Spanish. Give two examples of Inca weaponry or strategy that was viable in warfare against the Spanish. 1) Huge roadway system connecting all parts of the Incan Empire; 2) Versatility and ability to fight at high altitudes; 3) Overwhelming population; 4)Large stone fortifications; 5) No gunpowder, but an abundance of weapon: clubs, spears, bows, lances, slings that were accurate at shorter distances.

Mann argues that the rivalry for power in the Andes among the Inca and other native groups was a major factor the Spanish conquest. Explain at least one of these rivalries. Who were the two, three or four players involved? Who were they allied with and what role did they play in the Spanish victory? Because Atawallpa's clan had been so authoritarian and destructive in subjugating other populations (e.g. those from…… [Read More]

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Adaptive Immunity & Blood Groups Types

Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18877685

"The antigens are located on the surface of the red blood cells and the antibodies are in the blood plasma. Individuals have different types and combinations of these molecules" (Blood group, 2010, Nobel Prize).

The ABO and h classifications of blood type are the most important systems of differentiation from a medial perspective. The mismatching of these types can cause the immune system to attack the cells in a hostile fashion during a transfusion. "Mixing incompatible blood groups leads to blood clumping or agglutination, which is dangerous for individuals. The clumped red cells can crack and cause toxic reactions. This can have fatal consequences" (Blood group, 2010, Nobel Prize).

"There are two antigens and two antibodies that are mostly responsible for the ABO types. The specific combination of these four components determines an individual's type

(O'Neil 2009). However, "individuals with type O blood do not produce ABO antigens which mean…… [Read More]

References

Blood group, blood type. (2001, December). Nobel Prize. Retrieved February 11, 2010 at  http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/landsteiner/readmore.html 

Hoyt, Alia. (2010). How vaccines work. How stuff works. Retrieved February 11, 2010 at  http://health.howstuffworks.com/vaccine.htm 

Kaiser, Gary E. (2007, October). The adaptive immune system. Retrieved February 11, 2010 at http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/overview/overview.html

O'Neil. Dennis (2009, December 19). Human blood: ABO systems. Human Blood. Retrieved February 11, 2010 at http://anthro.palomar.edu/blood/ABO_system.htm
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Knowledge Metis Summary and Analysis

Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4164117

Scott suggests that the perceptions of individuals are as delicate as sensing slight differences in weight: at first the slight differences are imperceptible, but then clear to the person holding the object. However, this phenomenon cannot be predicted or described beforehand.

The ineffability of craft -- knowing when to add a pinch of this or a pinch of that to a stew -- is what is missing in rigid utopian programs. Another comparison might be studying a language academically without really having to speak it, versus the benefits of total immersion. Scott asks: What would you rather have as a guide: a sailor who knew the sea, or a map and clearly prefers the former.

Scott does not totally deny the benefits of what he calls 'techne' or skilled knowledge, versus 'Metis' or knowledge learned through practice. Techne attempts to "bracket uncertainty" by providing generalized knowledge, such as scientific theories…… [Read More]

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William Byrd Religion and William

Words: 752 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 140992



Byrd does show a distinction in his attitude towards prostitutes and some of the other women with whom he has sexual relationships. This distinction is not based upon faith, but a sense of social propriety and the woman's social class. The fact that Mrs. Crtny was a married woman is the reason he eventually writes to her to terminate their affair. Prostitutes are assumed to be 'there for the taking,' and he does not feel any guilt about corrupting their souls, as they have no husband to offend. But even when involved with a married woman, Byrd only notes that he "neglected" his prayers when indisposed, not when he felt unworthy, just as his reasons for not meeting with various paid women are due to logistics rather than moral compunction.

Byrd had friendly relationships with women, as well as sexual ones: he played cards with Mrs. Lindsay and Mrs. Coatsworth,…… [Read More]

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Democracy and Public Administration

Words: 5642 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63787304

Policy

Democracy and Public Administration

This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…… [Read More]

References

Antos, Joseph. (2008). "Medicare's Bad News: Is Anyone Listening?" American Institute for Public Policy Research. April, No. 3.

American Public Health Association (2009). Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from American Public Health Association Web Site:  http://www.apha.org  aphanet. (2001). Senators' Introduce Bill to Prepare For Possibility of Biological Warfare. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from  http://www.aphanet.org 

CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at  http://www.cdc.gov /h1n1flu/sick.htm.

Center for Disease Control. (2009). State and Local Infrastructure. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center for Disease Control Web Site:
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Herpesvirus 3 One of the

Words: 1514 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 51794917

Further research is needed for determination of type and strain, as well as longitudinal graphing of various populations at risk for HHV-3. In addition, dormancy issue and likelihood of shingles is an important area of future research (Orrin and Goldman, 2006). Additionally, when chickenpox becomes fatal in children, it appears that the liver becomes compromised, either with anti-inflammatory drugs or through burdening it with other toxins. Further research into this phenomenon is clearly necessary (Krasner 1999).

EFEENCES

Arvin, a. And a. Gershon, eds. Varicella-Zoster Virus: Virology and Clinical

Management. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Varicella-Chickenpox. April 2009. Cited in:

http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/

"Chickenpox -- Healthier You." CPM Medica. 2008. Cited in:

http://www.healthieryou.com/chickpox.html

Krasner, G. "Chickenpox: Why Do Children Die?" Coalition for Informed Choice.

1999, Cited in:

http://www.garynull.com/documents/Vaccines/ChickenPoxWhy.htm

Orrin, S. And G. Goldman. The Chickenpox Vaccine: A New Epidemic of Disease and Corruption. Viritualbookworm.com, 2006.

Poland, G. "The…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Arvin, a. And a. Gershon, eds. Varicella-Zoster Virus: Virology and Clinical

Management. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Varicella-Chickenpox. April 2009. Cited in:

 http://www.cdc.gov /vaccines/
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Mayflower in Human History Many

Words: 2199 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 97728011



Why, though, is the name so popular and so utilized to mean change, evolution, choice, and really as an icon of a perilous journey to a new life? And what is the real story of the First Thanksgiving? In brief, the name has remained a popular icon because of the inherent nature of the story -- lively persecuted group befriends new population and thrives. Now, let us simply revise the point-of-view by one cog; instead of viewing the story as a European colonist, imagine if you will, a land that supported numerous bands of hunter-gatherers who took only from the land what they needed, had deep traditions about their interaction with nature, and, just like other societies, had passive and aggressive cultures. New people arrive who do not know how to dress, to hunt, to fish, or even how to build the proper house to stay warm. So, you help…… [Read More]

REFERENCES CONSLUTED

Adkins, R. (2005). "Mayflower: The Voyage That Changed the World." Geographical.

77(9): 78.

Arenstam, P., et.al. (2007). Mayflower 1620: A New Look at a Pilgrim Voyage. National Geographic Books.

Bush, S. (2000). "America's Origin Myth: Remembering Plymouth Rock." American Library
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Sociology in Indigenous Populations Specifically it Will

Words: 1953 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46381443

sociology in indigenous populations. Specifically it will discuss what the terms ethnicity and racism mean, and critically examine how these terms apply to Indigenous Australians? Ethnicity and racism apply to Indigenous Australians (Aborigines) throughout their history, sad but true. Since the English first settled Australian in the 1700s, the Indigenous population has suffered greatly, and it is one of Australia's greatest shames that it went on so long.

The Indigenous people of Australia (Aborigines and Torres Straight Islanders) are one of the oldest cultures on Earth. Archaeologists believe their lineage goes back at least 50,000 years, and some believe it could go as far back as 65,000 years ago. They were the original occupants of Australia, and have a deep and abiding respect for the land and its many different environments. An Aboriginal Web site notes, "For Indigenous Australians, the land is the core of all spirituality and this relationship…… [Read More]

References

Adams, M. (2006). Raising the profile of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men's health: An Indigenous man's perspective. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2006(2), 68+.

Author not Available. (2006). Indigenous Australians. [Online] Available at:  http://www.aihw.gov.au/indigenous/index.cfm .

Clarke, F.G. (2002). The history of Australia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Editors. (2008). Australian Indigenous cultural heritage. [Online]. Available at: http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/articles/indigenous / [Accessed 17 June 2009].
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Shaman as a Spiritual Specialist

Words: 2131 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 85190069

( Achterberg 21) The man then proceeds to chop up the rest of his shaman's body, which he then boils in a pot for three years. After three years the body is reassembled by the spirits and covered with flesh. This means that in effect the ordinary man is now, through the process of initiation and dismemberment, resurrected as a shaman who has the capability to communicate with the spiritual world and who can acquire the knowledge to help and heal numerous illnesses. As the research by Achterberg notes, he now has the ability to, "…read inside his head…" (Achterberg 22) In other words, he now has the ability to see in a mystical sense without the use of his ordinary vision. (Achterberg 22) The initiation process also refers to the view that the shaman acts and perceives in a way that is different to ordinary human beings.

The world…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Achterberg J. Imagery in Healing: Shamanism and Modern Medicine. London:

Shambala Press. 1985.

Berlo J. And Phillips R. Native North American Art. New York: Oxfors University

Press. 1998.