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Certainly, there are not enough people interested in doing that to allow real change in a community where smog levels are concerned (Carle, 2006). Since smog is mostly made by cars and trucks, a much-reduced number of these vehicles would be required - and asking a commuter to give up his or her car is asking a lot. Still, there are options. Hardin (1968) talked of the need for a wide-scale adjustment to morality. This would be the easiest and best solution: everyone just wakes up one day in a collective mood to "do the right thing," and then they actually do it from that day forward, happily and without any wavering.
That might sound like utopia, but it is also completely unrealistic. The people in California and in Central Valley have absolutely no interest as a collective group in doing things this way. Their group morality is mostly set…
Bell, Michelle L. & Davis, D.L. (2004). A retrospective assessment of mortality from the London smog episode of 1959: The role of influenza and pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(1): 6 -- 8.
Carle, D. (2006). Introduction to the air in California. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162: 143-148.
Jacobs, C. & Kelly, W.J. (2008). Smogtown, the lung-burning history of pollution in Los Angeles. NY: Overlook Press.
China -- Globalization and Air Pollution
Because China has essentially become, as The New York Times explains, " ... the world's factory floor" by producing electronics, clothes and many other goods for America and other nations (as part of its globalization strategy), it has generated "huge emissions of pollutants" in the process. Those pollutants include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides; and certainly the burning of fossil fuels in Beijing and other major Chinese cities contributes carbon dioxide to the problem of global climate change. This paper looks at the problems facing China when it comes to air pollution -- which results from its huge manufacturing and electrical generating plants.
Air Pollution in China
An article in The Guardian claims that air pollution in China's cities is "so bad" it actually resembles a "nuclear winter" (Kaiman, 2014). A nuclear winter (after an atomic bomb has been dropped) is an atmospheric condition that…
Kaiman, Jonathan. "China's toxic air pollution resembles nuclear winter, say scientists."
The Guardian. Retrieved October 27, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com . 2014.
Liu, Coco. "China's War on Air Pollution May Cause More Global Warming." Scientific
American. Retrieved October 27, 2015, from http://www.scientificamerican.com . 2015.
Efforts are made to make healthier choices in terms of energy and transport in both developed and developing countries. All legislators now acknowledge the need for alternative energy and transport choices to promote the health and well-being not only of current generations, but also those of the future. Indeed, on a wider scale, healthier choices can eventually mean the difference between the longevity of the human race or its ultimate destruction. It can therefore be said with certainty that the impact of the 1952 event can still be felt today. It forms the basis of the fundamental realization that air pollution is very detrimental to human health, and that alternative fuel sources are essential if the situation is to improve.
II the Fire at andoz Ltd.
II.1 the Crisis
The 1986 fire at andoz Ltd. occurred near Basel, witzerland on 1 November. Like the London smog, was more or less…
BBC News. 1986: Chemical spill turns Rhine red. On this day: 1 November. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/1/newsid_4679000/4679789.stm
BBC News UK. (2002, Dec. 5). The Great Smog of London. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/2545759.stm
Bitzer, Dirk. 1986 Environment: So many dead fish! Geschichte
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
(Ward; Mohapatra; Mitchell, 2008)
The Great Lakes also contain large amounts of 'polychlorinated dibenzo-furans - PCDFs' and 'polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins -PCDDs' which are a result of the chlorine bleaching process of paper and pulp mills. In a nation wide study conducted for a period of 4 years on samples of fish and shellfish from various freshwater and marine water bodies in Canada, it was found that the fish from the Great Lakes were among the most contaminated samples. (Steinhart; Doyle; Food esearch Institute, Cochrane, 1995) the paper and pulp industry has also grown with the growth of the economy. However, contaminant discharge from this industry still continues despite the various environmental measures taken by the paper and pulp industry of Canada. This industry has also caused disturbance to the huge boreal landscape of Canada. Approximately 50% of Canada's fresh water is located in these boreal forests. Developmental activities have affected these…
Agioutantis, Zacharias. (2007) "Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Development..." SDIMI.
Burton, Philip Joseph; National Research Council Canada; Adamowicz, WL. (2005)
Towards sustainable management of the boreal forest" NRC Research Press.
Carter-Whitney, Maureen; Duncan, Justin. et. al. (2008) "Balancing
A direct effect of the endeavor performed by environmental agencies and programs like the 1970 Clean Air Act is the fact that the level of certain pollutants slowly decreased ever since the 80s. Even with that, such successes are rare and a great deal of the progress experienced in the time period lasting from the 70s and until the end of the twentieth century have been forgotten as pollution once again became a serious issue in Houston. During the recent decade emission levels have steadily increased as people failed to realize that they first have to discover which pollutants harm them the most and to act in accordance with this discovery (Sexton et. al.).
What most cannot understand is that air pollution is a direct effect of their living style and in order to decrease emission levels and to eventually stop pollution they have to change much about the…
1. McNulty, Sheila. Air pollution: Houston's other environmental disaster." Financial Times. September 12, 2010.
2. Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H.; Marko, Dritana; Bethel, Heidi; & Lupo, Philip J. "Comparative Assessment of Air Pollution-Related Health Risks in Houston," Environmental Health Perspectives 115.10 (2007)
3. "Getting the Big Picture on Houston's Air Pollution." Retrieved September 22, 2010, from the NASA Website: http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/everydaylife/archives/HP_ILP_Feature_03.html
law help protect the environment and what steps can citizens take to ensure that the law accomplishes this goal?
Protection of the environment is important for our health, but humans affect the system through various means such as through polluting water and atmosphere with toxic gasses, with oil, with car fuels, and with debris that is plunked into the waters as well as depleting the fisheries and filling the air with smog and the earth with pollution.
It is for this reason that legislation is put into effect to curb our destruction and to teach us how to look after the environment in better ways. The state employs its own regulations, but it needs a synthesis of both state, business and citizen involvement to safeguard the environment, and motivation from both business and citizen is not always forthcoming. The following essay discusses policies that have been implemented to help protect…
Amos, W. (2011) Development of Canadian Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Drilling: Lessons from the Gulf of Mexico RECIEL 20 (1)
British Columbia v. Canadian Forest Products Ltd.,  2 S.C.R. 74, 2004 SCC 38
Bruce, JP (2011) Protecting Groundwater: The Invisible but Vital Resource C.D. Howe Institute
DeMarco, Jerry V;Valiante, Marcia;Bowden, Marie-Ann (2005) Opening the Door for Common Law Environmental Protection in Canada Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 15, 2
Aldo Leopold and Environmental History
In answering the question of whether the United States has improved on environmental policy since the 1930s, the cyclical nature of the political system must be considered. A generational reform cycle occurs every 30-40 years, such as the Progressive Era of 1900-20, the New Deal of the 1930s and the New Frontier and Great Society of the 1960s and early-1970s. All of the progress that the United States has made in conservation, wilderness preservation and other environmental issues has happened in these reform eras. Barack Obama represents yet another reform cycle and his environmental record is better by far than any other president over the last forty years, although much of what he attempted to accomplish has been blocked by the Republicans and the corporate interests that fund them. In conservative eras like the 1920s, 1950s and 1980s and 1990s, almost nothing worthwhile happens with…
poor air quality in major cities in China has increasingly been viewed as a serious health threat -- and an economic problem as well -- over the past few years. The major culprit for this persistent pollution has been identified as coal-fired power plants, but auto emissions and factories are also contributors to this environmental problem. It has gotten so bad in Beijing, China, that on Tuesday December 8, Chinese leaders triggered a "red alert" closing schools, suspending factories, and keeping one-half of the vehicles off the streets (Mader, 2015). hat are the health-related issues brought on by this hazardous smog in China? This question will be addressed in this paper.
China's Air Pollution Kills up to 500,000 People Each Year
According to Chen Zhu, the former Chinese Health Minister -- who is a professor of medicine and a leading molecular biologist in China -- the terrible smog that envelops…
Kaiman, J. (2014). China's toxic air pollution resembles nuclear winter, say scientists.
The Guardian. Retrieved December 11, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com .
Mader, I. (2015). China smog triggers closure. Associated Press. Retrieved December 11, 2015, from http://www.ap.com .
Moore, M. (2014). China's 'airpocalypse' kills 350,000 to 500,000 each year. The Telegraph. Retrieved December 11, 2015, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk .
Promoting the Use of Public Transportation
Public transportation serves numerous purposes: first, it helps to ease congestion in urban areas by decreasing the number of cars on the road at any given time but especially during busy traffic hours; second, it helps people who may not otherwise have means of getting to work obtain these means; third, it can reduce pollution and fuel emissions that can harm the environment. All of these are good reasons for using and promoting public transportation. The problem of how to promote public transportation, however, is one that needs to be solved. In order to solve it, a variety of factors have to be considered: a) who is most likely to use public transportation—i.e., who is the audience to whom the message needs to be communicated; b) where are these individuals most likely to need to go; c) how can the benefits of public…
Of course, the 2007 pet food scandal is also a result of this same lack of regulation and inspection in China. Pet food manufactured here in the United States and in Canada contained melamine, an ingredient used in the manufacture of plastic dinnerware, but also a key ingredient in many fertilizers. It sickened thousands of dogs and cats, and hundreds died as a result of eating the tainted pet food. This incident helped bring the dangers of Chinese imported food and other products into focus, and made it much more real for many Americans. As a result, many people are becoming more vigilant about Chinese products, and some Congressmen have called for bans on all Chinese foods that are not inspected, but that has not occurred.
Clearly, this poses a danger to American consumers, and it is one reason that Chinese imports are the biggest threat to America.
Comerford, Michael Sean. "Red Scare Fear Grows over the Quality, Inspection and Sheer Volume of Imports from China." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), 15 July 2007, 1.
Elwell, Craig K., Marc Labonte and Wayne M. Morrison. Is China a Threat to the U.S. Economy? Federation of American Scientists. [online]. 2007. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33604.pdf .
Hirsch, Steve. "Safety Warning Issued on Chinese ATV; Government Cites Lack of Front, Parking Brakes." The Washington Times, 6 June 2007, C08.
Murray, Geoffrey, and Ian G. Cook. Green China: Seeking Ecological Alternatives/. New York: Routledge, 2002.
In the end, North Carolina seems to suffer from many of the ills experienced by the country at large. Although it is, without doubt, a state blessed with a high level of natural beauty as well as economic prosperity, it is also seriously affected by political and environmental issues that impact the lives of its citizens in very negative ways. hether the state will become increasingly mired in dollar-driven industrial and budgetary problems, or whether the state will eventually pull ahead of its neighbors in dealing with those issues will remain to be seen. One can only hope that a state with as rich a history, and blessed with such potential, will eventually triumph over the problems it currently faces, and arise clean and efficient in the years ahead.
Citizen Times. Staff. "Budget foot-dragging costly and inexcusable." Citizen Times Online Edition. 31 July, 2005. Retrieved on August 1,…
Citizen Times. Staff. "Budget foot-dragging costly and inexcusable." Citizen Times Online Edition. 31 July, 2005. Retrieved on August 1, 2005 http://www.citizen-times.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050731/OPINION01/50729022/1039
Citizen Times. Staff. "TVA should clean up its act, clear up our skies." Citizen Times Online Edition. 01 August, 2005. Retrieved on August 1, 2005 http://www.citizen-times.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050801/OPINION01/50729017/1039
Hamed, Mubarak, Thomas Johnson and Kathleen Miller, The Impacts of Animal Feeding Operations on Rural land Values, Community Policy Analysis Center, University of Missouri - Columbia. May, 1999.
Hartsoe, Steve. "States fighting shortages of state police and highway troopers." Newsday.com. 30 July, 2005. Retrieved on August 1, 2005 http://www.newsday.com/news/local/wire/connecticut/ny-bc-ct -- troopershortage0730jul30,0,702689.story?coll=ny-region-apconnecticut
4-billion expansion after it was shut down in May by the province's environment ministry due to urine-like smells wafting in to neighbouring communities from the company's new technology." (Stephenson, 2006)
III. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY REVIEW
In the work of Ross McKitrick entitled: "Towards the Use of Emission Taxes in Canada" a paper presented to the Finance Committee Round Table on Green Taxes in Ottawa, Canada on May 31, 2001, it is stated that in the presentation of the paper covered are:."..three topics: the context (international and domestic) for environmental policy in Canada, the basic principles of pollution tax design, and the priority I would suggest for proceeding with this policy instrument." (McKitrick, 2001)
McKitrick states that "the theory of optimal environmental taxation was worked out by Agnar Sandmo in an article in the Swedish Journal of Economics in 1975. Some points that have emerged from Sandmo's work are the following:
Macdonald, Doug (1995) Green Taxation and Environmental Policies - Presented to the annual meeting of the Environmental Studies Association of Canada, June 4, 1995. Online available at http://www.utoronto.ca/env/papers/macdon/macdon1.htm .
Planning for Sustainability (2000) Global Problems: Local Solutions - Transport Canada; Sustainable Transportation: The Canadian Context. Online available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/programs/environment/sd/monograph/solutions.htm .
Paehlke, Robert (2000) Environmentalism in One Country: Canadian Environmental Policy in an Era of Globalization. Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 29, 2000.
CCME Task Force on Cleaner Vehicles, Engines and Fuels (2005) 1.2 Motor Vehicle Emissions and Air Quality. 21 Apr 2005. Online available at http://www.ec.gc.ca/cleanair-airpur/CAOL/OGEB/fuels/reports/ccme/ccme1_2_e.htm .
Global warming has become an issue of major global concern. This research explores the complexities of the issues surrounding global warming and the development of models to help curb the human contributions to its continuation. This research focuses on the UAE and its initiatives to develop sustainable cities in the future.
Evolution of Cities
environmental change and Global warming
Field Work and Case Studies
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) covers an area of approximately 777 sq. km and has a population of over 5 1/2 million residents according to 2009 statistics (Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. 2009). The country has the six largest oil reserves in the world and is one of the most developed economies in the Middle East. It has one of the most developed infrastructures in the Middle East as well. Global warming has become a key issue in developed nations that…
Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (PDF). Expat numbers rise rapidly as UAE population touches 6m. 2009 revision. uaeinteract.com. [Accessed October 5, 2011] Available from World Wide Web: http://uaeinteract.com/docs/Expat_numbers_rise_rapidly_as_UAE_population_touches_6m/37883.htm.
Ellis, C. History of Cities and City Planning. [Accessed October 5, 2011] Available from World Wide Web: http://www.art.net/~hopkins/Don/simcity/manual/history.html
Environment and Ecology. 2011. UNESCO World Heritage. XIth World Congress of the OWHC -- Sintra 2011 Climate Change. [Accessed October 5, 2011] Available from World Wide Web: http://www.environment-ecology.com/unesco-world-heritage.html
Ewing, R., Bartholomew, K., & WInkel, S. et al. "Growing Coooler: evidence of urban development and climate change. Urban Land Insititute. [Accessed October 5, 2011] Available from World Wide Web: http://www.smartgrowth.umd.edu/pdf/GrowingCooler-Ch1Overview.pdf
The study will be delving into: What ASEAN constitutes and what remains beyond its scope? The aim of this study will be handing out a wide-ranging presentation of the present stance of ASEAN and its accomplishments till date, along with its challenges. The paper is intended as a suggestion for a master-plan that can be employed as a future pathway where ASEAN political-security support must be going towards in the forthcoming years.
To start with let us have a brief introduction of the organization. The creators of the Association of South East Asian Nations - ASEAN, visualized it as ultimately assembling all the nations of the region and managing them to lend a hand in assuring the peace, permanence and growth of the area. While the area was in a state of turmoil, a lot of nations were under pressure for the existence of the nation or autonomy. First…
ADBI (2002) "Did East Asian Developing Countries lose Export Competitiveness in the pre- Crisis 1990's?" ADBI Research Paper 34; Tokyo.
Altbach, Eric. (1999) "Growing Pains: ASEAN at 30" Japan Economic Institute Report. No. 23; June 19
Author Unkown. (1999) "Weathering the Storm: Hong Kong and the Asian Financial Crisis" Conference sponsored by the Far Eastern Economic Review. Hong Kong. 11 June.
Baietti Aldo. (2001) "Private Infrastructure in East Asia: Lessons Learned in the Aftermath of the Crisis." Washington, D.C. World Bank.
Urban Pollution by Joel a. Tarr
Joel Tarr's article, "Urban Pollution -- Many Long Years Ago" is largely about the form of urban pollution that preceded that created by automobiles. In short, this pollution was largely caused by horses, which were used as the dominant form of transportation from the end of the Middle Ages to the beginning of the 20th century. The author is essentially establishing a comparison between the pollution caused by horses and that caused by automobiles, although he devotes the vast majority of the article to elaborating on the fact that the pollution caused by horses was considered as big of a problem as the pollution caused by automobiles in the 1970s. If one examines the amount of space he uses for detailing the concerns regarding horse pollution to that of automobile pollution, one can infer that the former appears to be worse than…
Tarr, Joel. "Urban Pollution -- Many Long Years Ago."
urban area of Tampa, Florida, and serves as an instrumental case study of how an urban locale can address problems of environmental health and safety. Specifically, this study assesses the failures and successes of Tampa to regulate and reduce water, air and waste pollution through various programs. Through quantitative analysis of city managers' statistics and survey of the population (random sampling), findings indicate that positive steps have been taken through initiatives like S.W.E.E.P. and the attention given to Tampa's estuaries and water sources so as to maintain healthy ecosystems. However, air pollution has yet to be addressed, as the state has eliminated its vehicle emissions testing. Coal-burning power plants like Big Bend also contribute to air pollution and a discussion of the beneficial impact of wind power is provided as a recommendation for addressing this issue.
Environmental Health and Safety Case Study: Tampa, Florida
Urban areas in the U.S.…
Ackermannn, T., Soder, L. (2000). Wind energy technology and current status: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 4(4): 315-374.
Boyle, G. (2012). Renewable Energy: Power for a Sustainable Future. UK: Oxford.
City of Tampa. (2013). Solid Waste Recycling. Tampagov.net. Retrieved from http://www.tampagov.net/solid-waste/programs/automated-recycling
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among
personal experiences with assessments is an ongoing and continuous life event; every individual on earth is either assessing or being assessed in almost every interaction one can think of. Assessment is especially important in the educational communities. Heeneman, Oudkerk Pool, Schuwirth, Vleuten, & Driessen (2015) found that most experts agree with the viability of student assessments saying that "it is widely acknowledged that assessment can affect student learning" (p. 487). If what Heeneman et al. found to be true, is true, then assessing student progress (or lack thereof) through the use of assessments benefits the students by helping them learn.
My personal experience with being assessed and with creating assessments is quite extensive. Throughout my educational career I have taken (and done quite well overall) a large number of assessments in an equally as large number of courses, clinics and programs. Some of the most effective assessments that I can…
Heeneman, S.; Oudkerk Pool, A.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P. & Driessen, E.W.; (2015) The impact of programmatic assessment on student learning: Theory versus practice, Medical Education, 49(5) p. 487-498
Saint, D.A.; Horton, D.; Yool, A. & Elliott, A.; (2015) A progressive assessment strategy improves student learning and perceived course quality in undergraduate physiology, Advances in Physiology Education, 39(3) p. 218-222
Suskind, D.C.; (2015) Living assessment passes the test, Phi Delta Kappan, 97(1) p. 38-41
Text Readability Consensus Calculator (2015) accessed on October 5, 2015 at http://www.readabilityformulas.com/freetests/six-readability-formulas.php
Elderly in Monrovia, CA
The population of people aged 65 years or greater is steadily escalating, as baby boomers come of age. It is estimated that this age bracket accounts for 10% of the total world population, and is statistically increasing. As this sector of the population steadily increases, there are of course, accompanying health care issues: osteoarthritis, cardiac and kidney issues, Alzheimer's or dementia, and an ever-growing problem with depression. For this essay, we will concentrate on several health issues that plague seniors nationally, but will specifically focus on the aging population over 65 in Monrovia, California.
Monrovia is a smallish city located at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in the San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles County. Monrovia was settled in the late 1800s as a central hub for the growing orange grove industry, but has now become more of a bedroom community that supports the urban…
Breathe California of Los Angeles County. (2009). Cited in:
California Department of Public Health. (June 2009). "Healthy California -- 2010
Midcourse Review." Executive Summary. Cited in:
I don't think the children mind that the playground is covered. The snow is their toy of choice at this moment in time. They are making snow angels and throwing snow at each other. I see a small child trying to make a snowman, but since the snow is too soft, she can't do it. Other than her obvious frustration, the children look so happy and are having a wonderful time playing in the snow.
Some of the adults on the other hand, don't look as happy about the snow as the children do. I can see some people frantically digging their cars out from under the snow. The snow is about 5 inches deep most cars will have a hard time treading the wet snow.
The snow is showing no signs of relenting, as it seems to be coming down more and more. I open up the window and…
Nuclear energy possesses perhaps the largest potential for growth over the next few decades. The reason for this is the simple fact that it creates a relatively small amount of environmental pollution and can be adapted for use in nearly any part of the world. It certainly poses some security risks if it this technology is misused or mishandled, but the benefits certainly outweigh the costs. This type of energy production does not create smog, or direct environmental wastes, and many scientists, entrepreneurs, and engineers are looking at low cost, micro-nuclear solutions for small cities and towns (Kruger, 2006). Instead of building huge, multi-billion dollar power plants, the focus has shifted to creating small, sustainable, community nuclear power plants. The sustainability level of nuclear power is quite high given that a very small amount of nuclear waste is created for a huge amount of power output, unlike coal-fired power plants…
Hekkert, Marko P.; Hendriks, Franka H.J.F.; Faaij Andre P.C. And Maarten L. Neelis.. (2005).
"Natural Gas as an Alternative to Crude Oil in Automotive Fuel Chains Well-to-Wheel Analysis and Transition Strategy Development," Energy Policy: Vol. 33: Iss. 5, pp. 579-594.
Hoffmann, Peter. (2002). Tomorrow's Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet. MIT Press: Cambridge.
Kruger, Paul. (2006). Alternative Energy Resources: The Quest for Sustainable Energy.
Can both sides be right? Hardly, and when the initiative is analyzed with a critical eye, one sees that it looks like the initiative is a tactic for large corporations to appear to be following the letter of the law, but saving money by making Clean Air Act and EPA required equipment to reduce certain emissions by delaying capital expenditures and pushing out previous goals, thus saving millions if not billions of technological investment dollars. Likely these companies lobbied the Bush Administration, citing the need to reinvest in their businesses to become more competitive and thus, unable to divert funds into pollution control.
From the simplest ethnical standard, for instance utilitarianism, the initiative on its own might be ethical if not for the fact that it significantly alters previous legislation, and lessens the impact of EPS regulations on big-business. Certainly, stakeholders in those offending companies would benefit; stockholders, employees, management;…
President Announces Clear Skies and Global Climate Change Initiatives. (2002, February 14). Retrieved Nocember 2010, from the White House: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/02/20020214-5.html
Utilitarianism Resources. (2007, March). Retrieved November 2010, from Utilitarianism.com: http://www.utilitarianism.com/
Adams, J. (2003, Winter). Illogical Extremes. Retrieved November 2010, from NRDC-on Earth: http://www.nrdc.org/onearth/04win/view.asp
Bluhm and Heineman. (2006). Ethics and Public Policy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
The same pattern every single day, light follows darkness, and vice versa, I quietly thought to myself. ow everything was pitch black, quiet and still. I could not help but get the feeling that someone was following me, so I kept looking over my shoulder hoping to make eye contact with my stalker, forgetting that human eyes could not pierce through darkness. The quiet of the night was overwhelming at first, and breathing sounded almost like a symphony. As Robert Frost wrote in his back in 1923, I have been acquainted with the night. If you think about it, very few things have remained the same over the centuries, or even the decades. The night is still a source of fascination for both regular people, as well as artists. In many ways, I think that the mysteries of the night will never be uncovered because when darkness covers the Earth,…
I remember that night although to most people, every night is the same as the one before. I was sitting on my bed, reading a novel when I realized it was dark, and the lamp in my room seemed to be the only source of light on Earth. I opened a window and looked at the night sky, clean and pure, filled with stars. I was surprised at the starry night because the smog of civilization has gradually built a wall between the human eye and the stars above. I decided to go for a walk, and explore the darkness I had discovered through my bedroom window. When I stepped outside, I could immediately feel the fresh night air filling my lungs; the chilly air had fully embraced me. I was feeling safe although I was completely alone as the streets were empty. I kept walking and looking at the sky from time to time, for fear that the stars would suddenly disappear. Images started to flood my mind; my brain seemed completely open, and I was neither inhibited nor worried about anything for the first time in ages. It must have been that absence of visual stimuli which characterizes the night: everything was still, and for a moment in time, I was one with my surroundings and in total harmony with my own thoughts.
The same pattern every single day, light follows darkness, and vice versa, I quietly thought to myself. Now everything was pitch black, quiet and still. I could not help but get the feeling that someone was following me, so I kept looking over my shoulder hoping to make eye contact with my stalker, forgetting that human eyes could not pierce through darkness. The quiet of the night was overwhelming at first, and breathing sounded almost like a symphony. As Robert Frost wrote in his back in 1923, I have been acquainted with the night. If you think about it, very few things have remained the same over the centuries, or even the decades. The night is still a source of fascination for both regular people, as well as artists. In many ways, I think that the mysteries of the night will never be uncovered because when darkness covers the Earth, secrets are safe, and imagination remains the only tool of exploration.
More than 90% of California's population which is estimated to be 33 million residing in areas having bad air quality? The CAB in concert with the local air pollution control districts are in the process of regulating fresh and existing sources of pollution with the aim to control emissions. The Enforcement Division -- ED of the Board has included more and more serious responsibilities in every area of the State inspecting heavy duty vehicles, smoke emissions. Besides, it prevents school buses running on diesel from idling for too long a period very close to the tender lungs of children.
The CAB Enforcement Program during 1997 speaks of its illustrious achievement. These are (i) Closure of citations in 3442 cases (ii) Total penalties collected is $29,850,475 (iii) 3253 cases of mobile source / citations closed for more than $8.7M. (iv) 50 diesel fleet cases terminated for more than $3.1M. (v) 12…
Air Resources Board. 2007 Annual Enforcement Report. 2008.
Bellenger, Gail. What is the Clean Water Act? 2002.
Elderly individuals are also "more likely to take prescription medicines that impair the body's ability to regulate its temperature or that inhibit perspiration" (Heat stress in the elderly, 2009, CDC).
hat levels of prevention are warranted in the situation? hat might a community health nurse do to intervene?
The immediate concern is removing the residents to a safer area during oppressively hot days with bad air quality. For residents who wish to exercise, arranging for transport to a local cooling center where they can exercise is one option. For round-the-clock care, however, the unit overall must be maintained with a proper air conditioning and ventilation unit. The community health nurse must stress that this is to be done ASAP, otherwise the nurse will report the facility for health code violations. Until the unit is repaired, the nurse can provide supportive instruction to help residents deal with the heat, such as…
Asthma and the elderly. (2009). therubins.com. Retrieved March 24, 2009 at http://www.therubins.com/illness/asthma.htm
Heat stress in the elderly. (2009). Center for Disease Control (CDC). Retrieved March 24, 2009 at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/extremeheat/elderlyheat.asp
Heatstroke and the elderly. (2009). North Shore - Long Island Jewish Health System.
Retrieved March 24, 2009 at http://www.nslij.com/body.cfm?id=1231
The traditional family structure was destroyed, as result of labor mobility and the population shift to the cities. orking-class women were affected in different, and in some ways, worse ways than men because of industrialization than their male counterparts -- prostitution was a common, desperate resort of many women struggling to eke out an existence in the cities.
Agriculture was also transformed by industrialization. The cotton gin made processing cotton on a mass scale possible and profitable, and factories could rapidly weave cotton into consumer goods like fabric for clothing. Thus fashion also became more accessible to the masses. This era saw the birth of the consumer. Entrepreneurs strove to satisfy this new appetite for goods by mass-producing what once could only be made by hand on a farm, or which only was custom-made the wealthy. This new focus on mass-produced spectacles to delight the eye reached its apex in…
Sherman, Dennis & Joyce Salisbury. "Chapter 17: Factories, Cities, and Families in the Industrial Age. The Industrial Revolution (1780-1850)." The West and the World, Part II.
New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.
Awareness also plays a part on the other side of environmental crime -- laws cannot be made restricting certain activities with a detrimental environmental impact until that impact is known, and certain types of environmental crimes might remain hidden for years (Interpol, 2009).
The International Police organization, or Interpol, recognizes two major forms of environmental crime: wildlife crime and pollution crime (Interpol, 2009). Wildlife crime is the exploitation of protected plants or animals, such as the murder of elephants for ivory or whales for meat (Interpol, 2009). Because there is no direct human victim, these crimes may often go unnoticed, and if the public is not aware of the activity than the government is not very likely to do anything about it. The same is true of pollution crime, which does have a direct impact on human populations but which can often be very difficult to prove (EPA, 2009). Direct…
Environmental Crime." (2009). Interpol. Accessed 24 January 2009. http://www.interpol.int/Public/EnvironmentalCrime/Default.asp
Environmental Crime." (2009). EPA Website. Updated 13 January 2009. Accessed 24 January 2009. http://epa.gov/compliance/criminal/investigations/environmentalcrime.html
Emissions from a new car purchased today are 90% less polluting than a new vehicle purchased in 1970. The Act has been reformed to include a provision that in 2004, all new passenger vehicles, including SUVs, minivans, vans and pick-up trucks, must meet even more stringent tailpipe emission standards. "This marks the first time that light-duty trucks, including SUVs, pickups, and minivans are subject to the same national pollution standards as cars." A common criticism of the Act was that because it had different standards for larger vehicles, a critical component of vehicle-related pollution was being ignored.
One of EPA's earliest accomplishments was the elimination of lead from gasoline. The use of lead-based gasoline had effects beyond that of air quality. "Elevated levels of lead can damage organs and the brain and nervous system, and affect the heart and blood. Adverse health effects range from behavior disorders and anemia…
This would require the full support of government and state authorities to punish those who break the rules. For instance, officers should patrol the forests and severely fine the tourists who leave trash in the nature. Also, a radical change should come from the multinationals, which should respect stricter environment protection rules and should pay drastically when breaking these rules. The first point in this direction would be achieved once the population has an environment education and would then punish and ban the organizations which break these rules. With a damaged reputation and customers refusing to purchase their products, the corporations would have to reconsider their actions. Then, the second direction would appeal to the good will of the people and would state that the good deeds relative to the natural habitats are a social duty of each and every one of us. Therefore, if these two courses of action…
Leonard, a., 2008, the Story of Stuff, http://storyofstuff.ethicalbrand.org/,last accessed on July 10, 2008
January 10, 2000, Impact of Solid Waste, Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Council, http://www.ceroi.net/reports/johannesburg/csoe/html/nonjava/Waste/solid/Impact.html. Ast accessed on July 10, 2008
1997-2008, Garbage - How Can My Community Reduce Waste?, the Annenberg Media
http://www.learner.org/interactives/garbage/solidwaste.htmllast accessed on July 10, 2008
(Jordans, 2008) "Europe's unilateral approach will only lead to legal battles and trade wars," Bisignani also stressed. (Jordans, 2008) a hint of this contention occurring in the future was evidenced recently when 27 nations, including the U.S., China and 25 other countries, registered opposition to the EU's attempt to include commercial airlines in its cap-and-trade program by supporting an ICAO-run program. This signal confirmed united opposition to the European Union's intentions to develop a separate, regional emissions trading system. U.S. officials warn that the inclusion of U.S. And other non-European airlines in the EU cap-and-trade program "may break international aviation and trade laws." (Jordans, 2008) Although reasons differ, along with official warnings, scientists raise questions regarding the European program. Airlines, experts basically agree, contribute approximately 2% of man-made emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas reportedly contributing to global warming. Perceptions, nevertheless, differ regarding the impact of other gases aircraft emit,…
Aircraft emissions capped to tackle climate change." European Commission, 20 Dec. 2006. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://ec.europa.eu/news/environment/061220_1_en.htm .
Aviation and the Environment." Finance Wire, May 7, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2005, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1474988211.html .
EPA to Revise Aircraft Engine Emission Standards." IHS, 30 Nov. 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://aero-defense.ihs.com/news/2005/epa-aircraft-engine-emissionsstandards.htm .
FAQ on Aviation Emissions and Climate Change." HIS, 2 Jan. 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://aero-defense.ihs.com/news/eu-en-airplane-emissions-faq-1-07.htm .
The hippies also protested other forms of social and political injustice, such as communities tearing down buildings or removing parks and open space for development, and in modern innovations that resulted in harming the environment, such as smog and industrial pollution. Again, they brought attention to what was happening in cities and countries around the world, and the governments that were engaging in these practices. They planted flowers in vacant lots, urged people to love one another, and generally seemed to hate Richard Nixon and all the politics he stood for, from continuing the Vietnam War to hiding evidence he was behind the Watergate Burglaries. They wanted to be anything but mainstream and conservative, and so they dressed outrageously, lived outrageously, and fought for what they believed in.
The music and protests of the hippy era carried over long after most of the hippies themselves disappeared. Thirty years after Woodstock…
Americans will face important decisions as consumers, voters, and global citizens.
We need to understand that global warming has to be treated as a problem for all in order to properly solve it. If we continue to see it as a political issue as we sometimes do, it will never be fully resolved. Earth has to be made livable for everyone. It is not a place for first world or third world countries. It is a place for every human being and all life present here. Thus the issue must be seen clearly and humanitarianly instead of turning into another senseless political debate.
K. Taylor, "apid Climate Change," American Scientist 87 (1999): 320-327.
Scientists' Statement on Global Climatic Disruption, 1997" (Washington, DC: Ozone Action, 1997). Online at www.ozone.org/stateii.html.
K. McDonald, "Debate Over How to Gauge Global Warming Heats up Meeting of Climatologists," the Chronicle of Higher Education (February 5, 1999);…
Richard J. Pierce Jr. Energy Independence and Global Warming Environmental Law. Volume: 37. Issue: 3. 2007. 595+.
J. Lubchenko, "Entering the Century of the Environment: A New Social Contract for Science," Science 279 (1998): 491-497.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 1995: IPCC Second Assesment Report (Geneva, Switzerland: World Meterological Organization, 1995); P. Martens, "How will Climate Change Affect Human Health?" American Scientist 87 (1999): 534-541.
"One possible reason," he says, "for this is that most models don't include factors such as irrigation which can influence regional climates," meaning that the increase in large-scale irrigation during the 20th century has not been accounted for in current meteorological models. onfils adds that researchers have found "empirical evidence that irrigation has a large cooling effect on local summer daytime temperatures but minimal effect on nighttime temperatures."
David Lobell, one of the authors of the study issued by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, declares that "If this hypothesis is verified, the acceleration of CO2 emissions combined with a leveling of irrigation may result in a rapid summertime warming in the Central Valley in the near future." Exactly how this complex scenario will work itself out in the near future is not currently known, but as onfils sees it, "The 21st century may be less climatically complex than today" and that…
Human Activities Contribute to California's Global Warming." Science Daily. Internet. January 18, 2008. Retrieved at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/080118093350.htm .
The former had been neglected. This was a very serious kind of neglect, she said. She concluded that unless the nitrogen problem was confronted and adequately contained, climate change would not be solved (ohan).
EPA established that exposure to indoor NO below the 53 ppb outdoor standard could lead to respiratory symptoms among children with asthma, especially in a multi-family setting (elanger 2006). This effect continues to be a public health issue because of the number of people exposed to the gas. According to the U.S. Census, more than half of all U.S. households use gas. Their primary source of residential NO is a gas-fueled cooking appliance. This was the summary finding of a study conducted with 1,002 participating families in Connecticut and southwestern Massachusetts from 1997 to 1999. It associated indoor NO with increased respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children. At present, there are no U.S. standards for indoor…
Belanger, K., et al. (2006). Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide exposure with respiratory symptoms in children with asthma. 10 pages. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: American Thoracic Society
Bohan, S. (2007). Nitrogen overdose. 4 pages. Oakland Tribune: ANG Newspapers
Fields, S. (2004). Global nitrogen. cycling out of control. 9 pages. Environmental Health Perspectives: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Osenga, M (2005). EPA Proposes stationary diesel emissions regulations. 3 pages. Diesel Progress: Diesel and Gas Turbine Publications
Starvation is a distant memory in both countries.
The Club of Rome refused to take a look at the beneficial effects of the "Green Revolution," pioneered by American scientists in the 1960's. This revolution increased Indian agricultural production to the point that the country was not only able to feed itself, but to do it well. As soon as China gave its peasants 1/2 acre to farm on their own (in the 1960's), overall food production in China climbed 30%. The freeing of the Chinese farms in the 1980's by Deng Xiao Ping not only increased agricultural production; it dramatically increased peasant income.
Poorer Workers. The argument of the Club of Rome was pure socialism, and should have been recognized as such in 1972. Compare the average lifestyle of an ECD citizen today and in 1972: Home ownership, automobile ownership, richness of diet, ability to travel -- all are drastically…
One can argue that the world has more conflict today than in 1972, and therefore the effects predicted by the Club of Rome were muted. This author would argue that the world today is a much more peaceful place, which allows for the flowering of the world's population. What is clear is that if there is genocide, an ethnic cleansing or a populist uprising in the world today, people will know about it. The millions killed in the Cultural Revolution will never be accounted for because there was little public knowledge or recognition. Today, the military dictators of Burma, North Korea or Iran are no longer able to get away with murder in silence. Although religious differences still exist today, they are hashed out in a public environment. Gone is the secrecy and repression of the Cold War period -- dictators can no longer hide behind their loyalty to the Soviet Union, China or the United States.
The Club of Rome's predictions were wrong in 1972, and are wrong today. This author takes a much more optimistic view of citizens -- their ability to understand, adapt and change to their environment. As compared with 1972, we have many more people on this earth, but also many more who are living well.
Limits to Growth: The Thirty-Year Update
Firstly, it is crucial to raise awareness and to actually make people listen, care and then act accordingly. verybody needs to understand that the environment should be everyone's concern because it truly affects all of us as we are all inhabitants of the same planet. This is achieved through information which in turn, is achieved through long-term campaigns which have the mission to reach as many people as possible. This is where the civil society needs to really step in and help improve the quality of information as not everything we hear or see on television is actually scientific information. In fact, spreading untrue or simply unscientific information can be very harmful to society and its attitude towards the environment because people do not know what to believe. On the other hand, there is the danger of over exposing a certain topic, in this case environmental issues, which leads to…
Europa (4 April 2007).
International Issues. Environment. Retrieved September 14 from Website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/agreements_en.htm
European Environment Agency (29 Nov. 2005). The European Environment - State and outlook 2005. Retrieved September 13, 2007 from Website: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/state_of_environment_report_2005_1/en
This is an innovative system developed by Ford, and with this system, the vehicle operates either on the electric, on the gasoline, or on both engines together. The outcomes of this technology is that it helps emit 81% less smog forming emissions and that it delivers between 400 and 500 miles of travel on a tank of gas. The company has also invested $2 billion in cutting-edge manufacturing and environmental features for its Michigan manufacturing complex.
Another company that U.S. Auto has a lot to learn from is Toyota. Toyota is very much different from Ford and from any other car manufacturer in the world. The company stands out due to certain practices that the company has successfully implemented over the past years. These practices include: kaizen, just in time method, and Toyota Production System. These methods were required for counteracting any aspects that might have negatively affected the company,…
Putting Hybrids on the Road (2007). Ford Motor Company. Retrieved July 3, 2007 at http://www.ford.com/en/innovation/technology/puttingHybridsOnTheRoad.htm.
Toyota Production System (2007). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved July 3, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_Production_System .
Overview of Toyota's North American Engineering and Manufacturing (2007). Toyota Motor Sales. Retrieved July 3, 2007 at http://www.toyota.com/about/operations/manufacturing/index.html .
Another consequence of the exploitative use of water resources is the destruction of mangrove forests and the fragmentation of the habitats of endangered species. The United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna listed 189 endangered species in China among the 740 in the world.
Sand content is quite high in the Yellow iver. In the dry season, sand rises and flies up with the wind and soil desertization becomes severe. In addition, the iver's dri-up directly reduces the quantity of water for farmland irrigation. The supply of ground water decreases while the exploitation quantity of ground water increases. The results would include a deep crescent of ground water, a decrease of land evapo-transpiration, local climate drying, soil desertization, a reduction of biotic population and a simplification of biocommunity structure.
Another serious problem confronted in the Yellow iver is nitrogen contamination. A study found…
Federal Reserve Division. Country Profile: China. (Library of Congress, August 2006)
Retrieved April 23, 2007 at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/China.pdf b) Jiang, Gooming and Jixi Gao. The Terrible Cost of China's Growth. Part I. (Creative Commons, January 12, 2007)
Luo, Yufing, et al. The Lower Yellow River Basin: a System Dynamics Approach. ACIAR
Proceedings number 123. (Agricultural Water Management in China, September 2005). Retrived April 23, 2007 at http://www.aciar.gov.u/web.nsf/att/ACIA-6s79R7/$file/ACIAProc123WebPart3.pdf
It not only recycles, but unlike Universal Studios it donates electronics, furniture, and office supplies to community organizations, so that the products will be put to good use. Like Universal Studios, the alt Disney Company is committed to purchasing recycled-content products, and uses packaging materials that can be reused or recycled. It tries to buy in bulk to minimize packaging waste ("aste Minimization: The alt Disney Company," 2007, the alt Disney Company ebsite). In a unique program that is not present at Universal Studios, the company educates Disney employees both in company policies regarding environmentally sound living and encourages and instructs employees to engage in such practices in their own homes.
Bernards, Kori. (21 Apr 2006). "Film studios maintain healthy recycling rate: Earth Day
Report Shows Studios' Continued Commitment to the Environment." Motion Picture Association of America: Press Release. Retrieved 17 Apr 2007 at http://www.mpaa.org/press_releases/2006_04_21.pdf
Go Metro Specials."…
Bernards, Kori. (21 Apr 2006). "Film studios maintain healthy recycling rate: Earth Day
Report Shows Studios' Continued Commitment to the Environment." Motion Picture Association of America: Press Release. Retrieved 17 Apr 2007 at http://www.mpaa.org/press_releases/2006_04_21.pdf
Go Metro Specials." (2007). MTA. Retrieved 17 Apr 2007 at http://www.mta.net/riding_metro/special_offer/monthly_specials.htm#P8_776
Waste Minimization: The Walt Disney Company" (2007). The Walt Disney Company
The lizard is improbably likeable, with his enormous bright eyes and Cockney accent. The commercials are effective, in part, because they ask us to suspend belief. The lizard is the foil for whatever human character appears. The human does something silly or illogical and the lizard is the voice of reason. The situations are bizarre, which is what makes them funny. Geico is smart to change the commercials frequently. Just about the time the viewer tires of one, there is a new commercial starring the lizard in a fresh situation. As soon as the Geico logo appears on the television screen, the viewer is primed with anticipation for what the lizard will say and do next.
In each of these cases, the basis for appeal is appropriate to the product. Apple wants to appeal to our emotions while maintaining a serious tone. The iPad is supposed to be seen as…
'Geico Gecko Dollar Commercial,' YouTube. n.d. Web. 12 May 2011.
'If You Asked.' Apple iPad 2 TV Commercial. 4 May 2011. Web. 12 May 2011.
'Prius Harmony,' 2011 Toyota Prius TV Commercials. 2011. Web. 12 May 2011.
As in the other painting, light provides the interpretation of the picture, but whereas ships or individuals may serve as subject of Cuyp's painting, here light serves as the subjects of Turner's. Light from the full moon shines on the glittering water, with silhouetted ships (as in the other picture) framing the view. The other picture draws your eye to the centerpiece; here, Turner draws your eye out to sea and to the corners of the panting. Nature sweeps a clear elliptical path and becomes the centerpiece brushing ships and flame to the sides.
A palette knife conveys mood and atmosphere. Some areas, such as the silvery-white moon and the orange torchlight are painted more thickly than others, and unlike Cuyp's canvass which is smooth and polished, Turner's is rough and textured with the raised surfaces perfectly catching and representing the light and drama of the scene. Here, the paint…
You ask me what's the most important event in the city's history. I can tell you.
The Watts Riots. I wasn't born, but it was always talked about.
I see that as a sign that everybody wanted a place in this city.
Black, white, yellow, red, brown, we all want a home to call our own.
And we want to be treated equal.
There's parts of town still in that old Watts Riots mentality
That things aren't good and they never will be.
I try to ignore all that.
I think the point of all the troubles we had back in the day was so that we could move forward.
My little boy is going to grow up thinking the most important event in the history of LA was the day Daddy opened his restaurant. It's different now, for some of us anyway.
But people are always wrong about LA.…
They also cannot be arbitrarily sold by users as an individual in a pure market economy, for instance, can, when he wishes to sell his good another.
Further, in a pure market economy all goods and services are produced by business and forces of supply and demand inevitably and conclusively determine prices. In a mixed economy, on the other hand, government purchases land or housing (for instance), requiring others to pay for these purchases, and then uses these purchases to produce further goods which it makes accessible to the public. Prices, rather than being implemented by forces of supply and demand, are charged by government to businesses and households often at rates below market price.
There is also a differnce between the categories of services offered by a mixed market enterprise and that of pure market where the mixed market sectors offer both transfer payments where government provides benefits to…
64). Again, this has been recently evidenced by the recent battles in Congress over the federal budget. Although the budget deficit did not directly involve health care policy, the result was a compromise on the budget that required a corresponding change in the health care policy as to Medicare. This is not an unusual situation in the area of health care policy. Often, budgetary concerns must be addressed which in long-term have an impact on the formation of health care policy.
The formation of health care policy does not occur in a vacuum and there is a constant struggle between interests. Too often the concerns of the majority are afforded too much consideration and the interests of smaller and seemingly less important segments of society are overlooked. This is a serious problem for policy makers and one that reoccurs frequently but a problem that is inherent to the process that…
I was born and raised in Taipei, Taiwan, which is very different than the United States in many ways. Although the country is becoming more advanced, some forms of its culture are still very traditional. Also, the standard of living is much lower than most of America. There are many people who do not have jobs or are paid low wages. Because of our past history, the country has many political problems. The people are divided on becoming part of China. (My family?) moved to the U.S. four years ago when I was 19 years old because (?). I am glad that we did. Life is much better here, but I do miss some of the special things about Taiwan like the festivals
In the past, the family was very close in Taiwan. In most cases, children stayed home when they were not in school and the elderly were…
iddiqui (p.264) defines an 'honor crime' as consisting of:
a range of violent or abusive acts committed in the name of honor, including emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and other controlling and coercive behaviors such as forced marriage and female genital mutilation which can end, in some extreme cases, in suicide or murder. (13)
These felonies, it is true, can happened, and do happen, in any civilized country but they are legalized, accepted (sometimes even condoned) and happen to an unimaginable extent in societies that are marked by their Islamic way of living.
The outhall Black isters, for instance, have consistently argued that men from minority cultures have often used religion and culture to justify the range of violence and humiliation that they impose upon women. We do find many cultures that have extreme views perpetuating misogyny. This includes cultures such as Mormonism, fundamentalists Judaism, fundamentalist Christianity, and…
Aslam, N. (2005) Maps for Lost Lovers Knopf, UK
Lynn Welchman and Sara Hossain (2005) Honour: Crimes, Paradigms and Violence Against Women Zed Books: UK
Siddiqui, H. There Is No Honour
Due to the Montreal Protocol signed in 1987 in which 160 of the world's nations joined together in banning CFCs and in an initiative to try to off-set any further effects due to emissions of gases that deplete the Ozone there are many recent reports that the hole in the Ozone layer is becoming smaller.
The "impressive global response to ozone layer destruction," were sung praises of the Secretary-General but also cautioned that it is not a time for complacency. There were minimum effects of decreasing to the ozone levels in the Antarctic during the decade of the 1990's. During 2000 and 2003 the hole extended over 10.8 million square miles or an area larger than the North American Continent.
All damages to the Ozone layer are not of the manmade type. It is known that volcanoes emit sulfuric acid droplets during the course of an eruption. Although it is…
Ricks, Delthia (2004) "U.S. Urban Air Polution: Ground-level Ozone Tied to Deaths"-
Newsday Report [Online] Retrieved from HighBeam Research ttp://www.highbeam.com library/doc3.asp?DO CID=1P1:102525028& num=4& ctrlInfo=Round9b%3APro d%3ASR %3AResult& ao=
Fundamental of Physical Geography (nd) Chapter 7: Introduction to the Atmosphere: Atmospheric Composition [Online] located at; http://www.physicalgeography.n et/fu ndamenta ls/7a.html
Mukhopadyay, R. (2004) Rubber World: Ozone Attack and Tire Sidewall Protection (Tech Service); 9/1/2004; Mukhopadhyay, R.
Primal Leadership vs. Getting Things Done
"Primal Leadership" by Daniel Goleman applies the concepts of emotional intelligence to leadership. The book postulates that a leader must spread positivity and radiate energy and enthusiasm and not negativity and dissonance in order to lead an organization towards success.
Indeed, the emotional task of a leader is primal, according to Goleman. Leaders in today's organizations must "drive the collective emotions in a positive direction" and clear the smog created by toxic emotions. If the organization's members' emotions are pushed towards enthusiasm, performance will accelerate. If, however, people are driven towards "rancor and anxiety," performance will suffer as the people are thrown off stride.
The trick for leaders to push their organization's members in a positive direction emotionally is emotional intelligence. How leaders handle themselves and their own relationships is the leading controller of top organizational performance: "Leaders who maximize the benefits of primal…
Urban sprawl is not something that too many people really seem to spend that much time thinking about. Despite this, however, many people do have to deal with it. Those that are faced with the problem are often unsure about what they should be doing about it, and those that work in the field of trying to control it often struggle between making sure that there are enough places for people to live and making sure that the environment is not destroyed by the new houses and other buildings that are being created. Sometimes, balancing this is very difficult, and this is at the heart of the problem. For this reason, this paper focuses on urban sprawl and the environmental impact that is often seen when it takes place.
Environmentalists have so many concerns that they often can overlook the problems that urban sprawl is causing when it comes to…
Garreau, J. (1991). Edge City. New York: Anchor Books.
Gordon, P. & Richardson, H. (1998). Prove it: The costs and benefits of sprawl. Brookings Review 16(3): 23-26.
Lomax, T. & Schrank, D. (1998). Urban Roadway Congestion, 1982 to 1996. College Station, Texas: Texas Transportation Institute.
Reid, A. (10 December 1996). Area traffic stuck in a costly jam. Washington Post, A1.
Environmental egulations in Public Transit
The negative effects of air pollution are that it can force illness on us. It can produce burning eyes and nose and an itchy, irritated throat, in addition to difficulty in breathing. The cause for certain diseases like cancer, birth defects, brain and nerve injury and long-standing wound to the lungs and breathing passages is found to be some chemicals in polluted air. Severe injury or even death can happen if some hazardous air pollutants are released by mistake. Air pollution affects environment. Air pollution also affects trees, lakes and animals. Air pollutants are contracting the shielding ozone layers above the Earth. This loss of ozone can lead to alterations in the environment in addition to more skin cancer and cataracts in people. By soiling buildings and other structures, air pollution spoils properties like home, offices, etc. Damages to stone-based structures like buildings, monuments and…
Background on Air Pollution. Retrieved from http://www.nsc.org/ehc/mobile/acback.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Background Sheet: The Clean Air Act. 4 November, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.deq.state.la.us/assistance/educate/readdat4.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Clean Air Act. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/clean-air-act Accessed on 28 May 2005
Economic aspects of sustainable development in India. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/india/eco.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
The final point is that others have to do whatever they are doing as all cults try to expand their numbers at the earliest opportunity. (the Cult Influence Tactics)
Another method of influence that comes on us is through frames and they are used for both good of the people or evil. The frames are manipulative to put individuals in a situation where they would find it very difficult to get out of. The frames are formed in a manner where they can not be determined easily as ordinary persons are too busy to realize that they are facing an issue which has been framed. The method of avoiding this is to remember that one has to make all decisions for oneself with full responsibility. One of the areas when this is used in convincing people to purchase some not needed items. To avoid this people have to ask themselves…
Ethics in Advertising." PONTIFICAL COUNCIL for SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS. Retrieved at http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/pccs/documents/rc_pc_pccs_doc_22021997_ethics-in-ad_en.html . Accessed on 23 May, 2005
Frame Defense." Retrieved at http://www.workingpsychology.com/frdefens.html . Accessed on 23 May, 2005
The Cult Influence Tactics." Retrieved at http://www.workingpsychology.com/cultdef.html . Accessed on 23 May, 2005
Some forms of energy, such as wave and tidal energy and hydrogen fuel cells are still being studied. Another writer states, "Techniques to harness the energy found in the oceans are best developed for tidal power, wave power and ocean thermal energy conversion" (Middleton 52). Many other types of alternative energy, such as solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal energies are all being used where they make sense. Other solutions include nuclear energy, but the problem of disposing of the nuclear waste is a big problem, and so, no new nuclear facilities are being built. Authors Ottinger and Williams continue "Nuclear energy is excluded [...] because of its high capital and operating costs, complex technical requirements for operation and maintenance, and unresolved problems of proliferation and waste disposal" (Ottinger and Williams 331).
None of these solutions are being used enough to remedy the problem, and there are many reasons why they…
Author not Available. "Causes of Global Warming." EchoBridge.org. 2005. 21 July 2005. http://www.ecobridge.org/content/g_cse.htm
Cristol, Hope. "New Concern About Acid Rain: Trees' Immune Systems may be Damaged by Pollution." The Futurist Nov.-Dec. 2002: 8+.
Cruver, Philip C. "Lighting the 21st Century." The Futurist Jan.-Feb. 1989: 29+.
Johnson, Dan. "Alternative Energy Sources Gain Worldwide." The Futurist Aug.-Sept. 1998: 15.
In fact, the changes in technology and complexities of modern life enhance this idea. This is nowhere as apparent as it is in the idea of environmental safety and health, for actions taken in one part of the world do have a profound effect on other parts of the world. Even in modern, developed nations like the United States, we find mercury from Chinese factories, dust from Saharan Africa and smog from Mexico -- accounting for about 30% of the nation's ozone problems (Watson, 2005).
The Gaia Hypothesis, in fact, is a theory that the entire planet is large and complex living organism. This proposes that everything on earth, organic and inorganic, are completely integrated into a single and self-regulating complex system that maintains the conditions for life on earth (Gribbin, 2009). The complexity is so vast that we may not be able to completely understand it at present. For…
Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Our Nation's Air: Status and Trends Through 2010. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/2011 / report/fullreport.pdf
Gribbin, J. (2009). James Lovelock: In Search of Gaia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Watson, T. (March 14, 2005). Air Pollution from Other Countries Drifts into USA. USA Today -- the Nation. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-03-13-pollution-_x.htm
World Health Organization. (2006). Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/preventingdisease/en/
Because transportation infrastructure and services are important components of the urban system, they need to be sustainable and contribute to economic growth rather than harm the people that rely on them for their livelihoods. According to Asri and Hidayat (2005), "The expansion of social and economic activities has resulted in rising pollution and environmental degradation following the economic crisis in Jakarta Metropolitan area where environmental regulations were largely disregarded" (p. 1792). Taken together, these issues represent a growing public health threat that requires informed solutions, and these issues are discussed further below at they relate to the aims and objectives of the study.
Aims and Objectives
This research has an aim and several objectives. The aim of this research is to find out how the pollution levels occurred in several main roads in Jakarta and explore some strategies to reduce carbon pollution levels by using some schemes and scenarios. These…
Asri, D. U & Hidayat, B 2005. Current transportation issues in Jakarta and its impact on environment. Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 5, 1792
Barth Boriboonsomsin. 2009. Real-World CO2 Impacts of Traffic Congestion. (ONLINE)
Available at: http://www.uctc.net/papers/846.pdf (Accessed 18 May 2012)
Are Organizations Likely to Find Better Solutions to Information Overload Through Changes to Their Technical or Social Systems?
In various forms, we human beings are suffering from information overload. The term "Information Overload" clicks one sentence in our minds and that is "Too Much Information." The information theorists have defined typologies that distinguish between data, information and knowledge. Most organizations are unable to identify relevant material on timely basis; this requires management through information tools. This essay is based on an analysis whether better solutions to information overload can be achieved through changes to organizations' social systems or technical systems- or both? This essay also explains how a "socio-technical" perspective involving joint consideration of both systems together may be better than dealing with either system by itself.
Are Organizations Likely to Find Better Solutions to Information Overload Through Changes to Their Technical or Social Systems?
The term "Information Overload"…
Bell, B.K. (2000, February). The Role of Email on Information Overload in Organizational Managers. Retrieved July 26, 2012 from http://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1029&context=fac_dis
Edmunds, A., & Morris, A. (2000). The Problem of Information Overload in Business Organizations: A Review of the Literature. International Journal of Information Management, 20, 17-28.
Figure from www.crmbuyer.com. (2009, April 16). Drowning in Data: Web Analytics and Information Overload. Retrieved July 26, 2012 from http://www.crmbuyer.com/story/66810.html .
Heylighen, F. (2002, April 12). Complexity and Information Overload in Society: Why Increasing Efficiency Leads to Decreasing Control. The Information Society. Retrieved July 26, 2012 from http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/Papers/Info-Overload.pdf.
Cars and driving are emblems of American culture, and have defined American lifestyle and identity. American cities are built around the car, and so is the urban and suburban sprawl. It is no small coincidence, therefore, that both Flannery O'Connor and Dagoberto Gilb use a car as a central symbol in their short stories. In O'Connor's "A Good Man is Hard to Find," a road trip turns deadly when the family runs into a group of escaped convicts on their way to Florida. Florida makes a brief appearance in Gilb's short story, "Love in L.A.," too, as protagonist Jake mistakes Mariana's heritage for being Cuban since her license plates are from Florida. Like "A Good Man is Hard to Find," "Love in L.A." centers around cars and driving as the central motifs, but in Gilb's story, the ending is not gruesome. Although "Love in L.A." And "A Good Man is…
Gilb, Dagoberto. "Love in L.A."
O'Connor, Flannery. "A Good Man is Hard to Find." Retrieved online: http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~surette/goodman.html
Ford Motor Company's efforts to redefine strategies to address key strategic issues during the upcoming fiscal year. The essay also reviews Ford's business-level strategy, the company's value chain activities and identifies Ford positioning with respect to the five forces of competition.
Ford's current business- level strategy was developed as a result of challenges the company has faced in the last decade. Ford saw their market share in the U.S. decline from 23.7% in 2000 to 15.5% in 2006. Over the same period Ford's North American division reported billions in losses from the Ford, Lincoln and Mercury product lines. To return the North American division to profitability, Ford launched an ambitious restructuring plan, the Way Forward. (Kirtane, Shukla, Wang and Zhan, 2006).
Over the last decade, Ford's business-level strategies were ambiguous, with the result that they were neither a successful differentiator nor cost leader. Ford failed to innovate on many of…
Cisco Systems Inc. (2007). Ford's innovative customer relations programs increase owner satisfaction and promise 20% growth in annual savings. [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 September 2011].
Ford Motor Company. (2011). Our value chain and its impacts. Ford corporate website. [online] Available at: < http://corporate.ford.com/microsites/sustainability-report-2010-11/operations-value> [Accessed 11 September 2011].
Herman, C. (2007). Ford zooms past competition in quality. ABC News. [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 September 2011].
Johnson, D. (2011). Future Lincolns to be better differentiated from Ford counterparts. Left Lane. [online] Available at:< http://www.leftlanenews.com/future-lincolns-to-be-better-differentiated-from-ford-counterparts.html > [Accessed 11 September 2011].
Macabre Marketing: Forest Lawn
Forest Lawn and the entrance of 'dark tourism' in Los Angeles
"Crypt For Sale: overlooking ocean by private owner" reads the ad. A classified post in the sea of advertising in the Megalopolis of Los Angeles, the mortuary market is significant in terms of combining funerary services with the delicacies of celebrity thanatourism. It is an underestimate to argue that Southern California's cemetery real estate is at a premium. Forest Lawn Mortuaries located throughout the Southland, reflect precision in consumer segmentation. Much like the planned communities of the San Fernando Valley surrounding Forest Lawn Mortuaries, 'communities' adjacent find comfortable simulacra in the marketing, spatial organization and classification of the deceased by according to branding and segregation resonant with class identification.
Property ownership and its confining boundaries of memory and social contract merge in the most elite location at Forest Lawn in the plot section,…
Forest Lawn (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.forestlawn.com
Mitford, J. (1969). The American Way of Death. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Rentel, R. And Zellnik (2007). Karma Queens, Geek Gods, and Innerprenuers: Meet the Nine Consumer Types Shaping Today's Marketplace. New York: Mc-Graw Hill.
Schwartz, A. (2003). The Queen's Own Private Royal Garden. Scalpel & tongs, 47, 12 -13.
Describe the object in detail. What is the medium? What is the color and size? If there are human figures what are they doing? How are they posed? What are they wearing? What are the expressions on their faces?
According to the website of the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, The Hope Hygieia is a marble, life-sized statue of the ancient goddess of health that was originally discovered in the ancient Roman port of Ostia in 1797. It was originally owned by the British collector Sir Thomas Hope before being sold to William Randolph Hearst, who donated it to the city of Los Angeles in 1950. Over the years, the statue has been restored, de-restored to the condition in which it was originally found, the re-restored at the Getty Museum in 2006. This is a white marble statue with the clothing and hairstyle of a young Roman…
Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le oy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical
The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.
Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing,…
Centers for Disease Control National Asthma Control Program. (2010). Asthma's impact on the nation. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency. (No date). Asthma and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf
Islam, T., Gauderman, J., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Avol, E., Peters, J., Gilliland, F.D. (2007). Relationship between air pollution, lung, function and asthma in adolescents. www.thorax.bmj.com. Retrieved from http://thorax.bmj.com/content/62/11/957.full.pdf+html
Natural Resources Defense Council. (2005). Asthma and air pollution. www.nrdc.org. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/fasthma.asp