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Ban eliminated smoking in most public places.
The idea is to protect non-smokers from second hand smoke.
Smokers view this as a violation of their Constitutional rights.
The question is whose rights take precedence.
The mayor of Dallas supports the ban.
Restaurants feel the ban will hurt business.
Councilwoman says the ban does not go far enough.
Restaurants try to get enforcement of the ban blocked.
Smokers group tries to get ban's wording changed by using a petition.
Health Effects of Second Hand Smoke
Negative upper respiratory effects have been proven.
Asthma can be aggravated in children.
Links to heart disease and cancer have not been proven.
Exposure to second hand smoke can result in hospitalization for extremely sensitive individuals.
It's impossible to justify allowing people to smoke in public if it will cause harm or discomfort to even one person.
Based on this information, the ban…
McFadden, Rogie. "Mayor Dreams of Smoke-Free World." Citizine. 2003. http://www.citizinemag.com/texas/texas-0302_dallas.htm>.
Savona, David. "The Battle Against the Dallas Smoking Ban." Cigar Aficionado. 2003. http://www.cigaraficionado.com/Cigar/CA_Daily/CA_Daily_News/0,2342,782,00.html .
Second Hand Smoke and Your Family." American Lung Association. 2002. http://www.lungusa.org/tobacco/smosecondha.html >.
" (Montini, Bero, 2008)
During their research, Montini and Bero spoke with many bar owners and discussed the problem of compliance with the law. They found that generally they all wanted to comply because compliance meant no fines and bars had very slim margin of profits which meant they did not want to owe any money to the agencies. But they complained of "level playing field" issue. For a restaurant owner, the same problem may arise. Since there is no level playing field, compliance can be hindered. Not all restaurants in the vicinity of this restaurant would want to comply with this law and those who don't are likely to cause fewer problems for their customers. This meant customers have an option available if smoking ban is too strict at one restaurant. However, if all restaurant owners sit together and decide in favor of compliance then customers will have no…
Theresa Montini and Lisa A Bero. Implementation of a workplace smoking ban in bars: The limits of local discretion. BMC Public Health 2008, 8:402
All these variables are viewed to have a direct effect on the student as an individual thus are important to consider.
There are variables that will be considered at school-level and these will be generated from the responses or data collected from the individual variables. The first variable in this case is the prevalence of rules or policy banning smoking in schools and this will be deduced from the responses given by the students as individuals and will indicate the average percentage of schools that have such rules.
Significance of the study
Currently there are many cases of school unrests caused by students through strikes which lead to disruption of activities and even destruction of property. Such actions have more often been associated to drug and substance use among students which include smoking, drinking and other modes of administering drugs. This has also led to the drastic reduction…
Abernathy, T.J. et al. (2002). Relationship between poverty and health among adolescents.
Adolescence 37:55 -- 67.
Aveyard, P. et al. (2004). Methodological and substantive review of the evidence that schoolscause pupils to smoke. Social Sciences Medicine 58: 2253 -- 65.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (1994). Guidelines for school health programs to prevent tobacco use and addiction. MMWR, 43:1 -- 18.
" All this means that the ban is not effective nor applied as it should be. And a major effect it generated was controversy and a never ending dispute.
In order to retain their customers, local facilities have changed their status. For instance, a local diner and family place, posed on their door the "21 and over" sign as to be considered an age-restricted venue and still keep its smoking customers. And this procedure is more and more common, especially after bar sales dropped at a rate of 20 up to 30% per week when patrons did not allow smoking. They explained that once they turned to "21 and over," they sales went back up.
Other bars kept the smoking restriction and their customers went into the street to smoke. The success of this measure is given by the fact that most smokers are anyway uncomfortable to be smoking around…
Repa, B.K., Your Rights at the Workplace, NOLO Publishing, 2007
Tennessee Smoking Ban Effective October 1, Topix, 2007, http://www.topix.com/law/employment-labor/2007/09/tennessee-smoking-ban-effective-october-1last accessed on March 5, 2008
Tennessee's Smoking Ban Takes Effect, the Thoughtful Conservative Word Press, October 1, 2007, http://thoughtfulconservative.wordpress.com/2007/10/01/tennessees-smoking-ban-takes-effect/last accessed on March 5, 2008
Smoking Ban Effects, WZTV FOX Nashville, February 18, 2008
It is the equivalent of banning air traffic to protect the hearing of people who choose to live next to airports.
Modern urban society is associated with many risks and compromises not required of those who choose to live in more suburban communities. Environmentalists tell us that breathing smog is damaging to our lungs, which is a valid reason to exercise the freedom of choice not to live in a large city. Just as concentrated vehicle exhaust gases and industrial air pollution are inherent risks of the choice to live in urban and industrial environments, tobacco smoke is an inherent risk of patronizing business establishments where smoking is permitted.
A stronger argument against smoking in bars and restaurants is made by individuals who work in the food and drink service industry, because they are exposed to second-hand smoke continually. On the other hand, if second-hand smoke is that much of…
Aamot, Gregg. At One Minnesota Bar, the Show's Over; Associated Press (March 14, 2008). Retrieved March 30, 2008, from the Fox News website, at http://www.foxnews.com/wires/2008Mar14/0,4670,SmokingBanLoophole,00.html
Nizza, Mike. Watering Down Smoking Bans; the New York Times (March 28, 2008). Retrieved March 30, 2008, from the New York Times website, at http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/03/28/watering-down-smoking-bans/?hp
O'Neill, Xana and Lite, Jordan. Real Estate Companies Making it Tougher for Smokers in Their Homes; the New York Daily News (March 30, 2008). Retrieved March 30, 2008, from the NY Daily News website, at: www.nydailynews.com/news/2008/03/30/2008-0330_real_estate_companies_making_it_tougher_.html
policy proposal addressing the smoking ban in restaurants and bars in Denver. The arguments as well as suggestions will be presented in three main parts:
Smoking has been one of the most controversial topics in Denver because the authorities of the government are in the opinion of banning smoking in restaurants and bars but they also need opinions and advices from the people living in Denver. Based on their suggestions and advices the authorities would take any action related to their idea of banning smoking especially in restaurants and bars.
This decision of the government authorities has been generated from the facts that the smokers have polluted the environments of restaurants and bars and the people who are non-smokers, ultimately suffers because of those who smoke in the bars and restaurants. These people have made complaints against the action of smokers and therefore, they have requested the authorities and the…
As retrieved from Smoking ban proposed to protect employees in bars and restaurants http://www.eiro.eurofound.eu.int/2002/12/inbrief/no0212101n.html. On April 22,2004
As retrieved from The benefits to smoke free restaurants http://www.wish-wi.org/benefits_to_smoke_free_restaurants.htm . On April 22,2004
Bar and restaurant owners also contend they have the right to set the terms of their employment, and to create a particular atmosphere in their restaurants -- including a sophisticated or seedy image that allows for smoking. However, foot traffic at restaurants and bars actually rose after the ban went into effect (Rutenberg & Koppel 2005, p.1). Even one smoker admitted he was converted to a non-smoking atmosphere, saying now: "I'm all for it. My dry-cleaning bill's gone way down…and I'm smoking less" (Rutenberg & Koppel 2005, p.2). Once upon a time, smoking was allowed in all workplaces. However, as the health consequences of smoking became know, more people adapted to the smoke-free environments, and Americans are less likely to smoke, because it is less socially acceptable. Just like 'sin taxes' and banning vending machines, prohibiting smoking in restaurants and bars makes the practice less socially acceptable, and less costly…
Cross, Heather. (2009. April 1). Smother-friendly bars in NYC. About.com.
Retrieved September 12, 2009 at http://gonyc.about.com/cs/barsnightlife/a/smokerfriendly.htm
Dangers of second-hand smoke. (2009). The Cleveland Clinic.
Retrieved September 12, 2009 at http://my.clevelandclinic.org/healthy_living/smoking/hic_dangers_of_second-hand_smoke.aspx
BANS ON SMOKING IN AMEICAN CITIES: NEW YOK CITY & LOS ANGELES
Moving with unexpected swiftness, New York state lawmakers passed a sweeping anti-smoking measure that makes New York the third state after California and Delaware to ban smoking in all workplaces, including restaurants, bars, and hotels. Within hours of the New York bill's passage, Governor George E. Pataki signed the tough measure, which exempts only America-Indian-owned casinos, cigar bars already licensed in New York City, fraternal clubs, outdoor areas of restaurants with no roof or awning, private homes, and personal but not company cars. New York's ban will take effect July 24 in areas where smoking now is permitted and where local ordinances are weaker. Although the law will not supersede the stricter measures previously passed in Westchester and Nassau counties, it will replace elements of New York City's new law, which took effect March 30.
Hahn, RN, E.J., Rayens, PhD, M.K., York, RN, PhD, N., Zhang, RN, M., Dignan, PhD, Delaimy, MD, PhD, W.K. (2006) Effects of a Smoke-Free Law on Hair Nicotine and Respiratory Symptoms of Restaurant and Bar Workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 48(9), 906 -- 913.
Magzamen, S., & Glantz, PhD, S.A. (2001) The New Battleground: California's Experience with Smoke-Free Bars. American Journal of Public Health, 91(2), 245 -- 252.
Banning Smoking in Cars With Children: Moral and Legal Issues
Five states in America, Arkansas, California, Louisiana, Maine and Oregon, and also Puerto ico -- have made it a crime to smoke in cars when children are there, and more states are considering the adoption of this legislation as well. For instance, other nations such as Canada, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates are also leaning towards such a ban. The ban is viewed as beneficial in the sense that it not only protects children but it also minimizes the amount of accidents which will be derived from cigarette-related distractions, such as lighting, ashing or dropping them while driving (ash.org). However, the biggest impetus for this legislation is the desire to protect all innocent children from exposure to the hazards which are inherently connected to cigarettes and cigarette smoke. One of the inherent necessities of this issue is in…
Ash.org. (n.d.). Smoking Should be Banned in Cars Whenever Children are Present. Retrieved from Ash.org: http://ash.org/carsmoking
Brown, A. (2014, Jan 29). Banning smoking in cars is wrong: where would it end? Retrieved from telegraph.co.uk: http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/andrewmcfbrown/100257222/banning-smoking-in - cars-is-wrong-where-would-it-end/
Healthday. (2013, July 23). Poll: U.S. Adults Support Smoking Ban in Cars With Kids. Retrieved from usnews.com: http://health.usnews.com/health-news/news/articles/2013/07/23/poll- us-adults-support-smoking-ban-in-cars-with-kids
Jarvie, J., & Malone, R. (2008). Children's Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Private Homes and Cars: An Ethical Analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 2140 -- 2145.
Banning Smoking in Restaurants in All States
Through this study, the author aims to support a policy regarding ban on smoking in restaurants in all the 50 states of USA. The author is of the view that smoking should be banned in restaurants in all 50 states to lower the rate of second hand smoking related diseases in non-smokers
Due to bad impacts on secondhand smoke, it has been banned on public places and educational institutions in many states. For example, Utah fully banned smoking in restaurants in 1995 and California imposed a complete ban on smoking in restaurants and bars in 1998. No further complete smoking bans were passed by any state till 2002 when South Dakota totally banned smoking in workplaces, and Delaware totally banned smoking in workplaces, restaurants, and bars. As of 2002, the number of states where there is complete ban on smoke at workplace, restaurant…
Borland, R., Mullins, R. Trotter, L., & White, V.(1999). Trends in environmental tobacco smoke restrictions in the home in Victoria, Australia. Tobacco Control, 8, 266-271
Cunningham, R. (2006). National and subnational legislation requiring 100% smokefree restaurants and bars. Canadian Cancer Society. Retrieved on August 28, 2011 from www.smokefreeottawa.com/2006_en/pdfs/smokefreevacations.pdf.
Dockrell, M.J., Sandford, A., & Ward, S.(2007). Smoke-free public places and their impact on public health. Epert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, 7(4), 309-313
Farrelly, M.C., Nonemaker J.M., Chou, R., Hyland, A., Peterson, K.K., & Bauer, U.E. (2005). Changes in hospitatilty workers' exposure to secondhand smoke following the implementation of New York's smoke-free law. Tobacco Control, 4(4), 236-224
Furthermore, smokers are also in greater danger than non-smokers of premature death as a result of their habit. Indeed, the Action on Smoking and Health Web site states that worldwide, a staggering 5 million smokers per year die prematurely, and that half of all smokers are at risk of premature death.
The prospects for non-smokers exposed to secondary smoke are also gloomy. According to Science News Online. http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07), a study has shown that secondary smoke causes at least 40% of the damage to a non-smoker as smoking does. Surely, for the protection not only of non-smokers, but also of smokers themselves and of our children, the law should discourage this habit.
Action on Smoking and Health. "Factsheet No:2." http://www.ash.org.uk/html/factsheets/html/fact02.html (accessed 07March07).
Seppa N. " Science News Online: Secondary Smoke Carries High Price." http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07).
Action on Smoking and Health. "Factsheet No:2." http://www.ash.org.uk/html/factsheets/html/fact02.html (accessed 07March07).
Seppa N. " Science News Online: Secondary Smoke Carries High Price." http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07).
And, students should be notified of where they can go to report smoking policy violations.
The student who does not comply with smoking policies should be allowed only one warning before mandatory expulsion. Because of this significant penalty, the student should be asked to sign an agreement before the beginning of each school year that they are aware of the university's smoking policies and will abide by them as a condition of attending school. This measure should help protect the university against possible law suits and will give the student adequate information to determine if this is an environment that is conducive to the student's desired lifestyle.
To improve the health of our university community, the administration should also encourage health services to educate smokers about the harm smoking causes to both smokers and nonsmokers. The administration should also encourage health services to develop and promote programs to help smokers…
18-24-year-old smoking prevalence. California Department of Health Services. http://www.dhs.ca.gov/tobacco/documents/pubs/18-24-year-olds06.pdf
New Surgeon General's report focuses on the effects of secondhand smoke (2006, June 27). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
"Perhaps less dramatic because of their ubiquitous presence and legal status, nicotine and alcohol are often consumed together for physiological and/or social reasons. Both drugs stimulate dopamine release, and work synergistically to increase dopamine levels" (Menke, 2009). Similarly, the concept of enjoying a drink and a cigarette makes some people think that they live in a permissive environment, this standing as proof that they live in a democrat society. Moreover, "the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA, 1 998) reports that between 80% and 95% of alcoholics smoke" (Menke, 2009). It is thus difficult to consider the outcome that the smoking ban has had on bars and restaurants without actually checking for convincing data. In spite of the fact that many bar and restaurant owners complained in regard to how their businesses were severely affected by the smoking ban, reality seems to be different. The smoking ban was…
Menke, J. Michael "Bar Patronage after a Smoking Ban," Journal of Drug Issues 39.2 (2009)
Whitney, Ben "Study Finds New York Restaurants Not Hurt by Smoking Ban," Retrieved June 24, 2011, from the Tobacco Control Website: http://www.tobaccocontrol.neu.edu/tcu/tcu05.1/States/study_finds_new_york_restaurants.htm
"NYC Smoking Ban Debuts," Retrieved June 24, 2011, from the CBSNews Website: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/03/29/national/main546751.shtml
emoving Smoking in the Workplace Increases Productivity
The purpose of this proposed study is to determine if removing smoking from the workplace has increased workplace productivity. The writer will explore the question by using a survey study method. The participants will include workers across the nation in varying levels of work and careers. The proposed study is designed to measure whether or not there is an increase in productivity since employers began refusing to allow smoking in the workplace environment. There are several factors involved in the study including a look at five previously published studies regarding smokers and their habits. In addition the writer explores some of the different concerns for productivity that have been studied throughout the years with regards to smokers including secondhand smoke damage, absenteeism and dollars lost. This proposal suggests the direct question of affect on productivity from the time workplaces began to ban smoking…
Robert A. Logan; Daniel R. Longo, Rethinking Anti-Smoking Media Campaigns: Two Generations of Research and Issues for the Next. Vol. 25, Journal of Health Care Finance, 06-01-1999, pp 77-90.
Gonz-z; M.L. Ballester Calabuig., Tuberculosis Related to Labor Activity in an Area of Valencia, Spain. Vol. 62 no, Journal of Environmental Health, 07-01-1999.
Greene, Robert E.; Williams, Phillip L., Indoor air quality investigation protocols.. Vol. 59, Journal of Environmental Health, 10-01-1996, pp 6(9).
Dardis, Rachel; Keane, Thomas, Risk-benefit analysis of cigarette smoking: public policy implications.. Vol. 29, Journal of Consumer Affairs, 12-01-1995, pp 351(17).
Students Smoking Behavior
The rates of campus students smoking have fluctuated over a period of the last twenty years. Most of the lifelong smokers' start their smoking habit before they reach the age of 24 years. This therefore means those campus years are a very crucial time when it comes to any study of cigarette smoking. Cigar rete smoking in campus has now become a very serious issue in public health issue. This has led to an increase in campus wide bans in smoking alongside other preventive programs in place to reduce students smoking rates. There are several economic, social and environmental factors that have been associated with the increase of smoking around campus students. Some of these factors are low socioeconomic status, students who have parents, close friends and relatives who smoke the acceptance as well as positive views of peers who smoke the exposure and high availability of…
Indiana University (2011), September 14). Campus smoking ban reduced students' smoking, changed attitudes. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 11,2013 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110914122700.htm
Schorr, M.(2009).A Third of college students smoke. Retrieved September 11,2013 from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=118065&page=1
Coster, D.(2013). Campus smokings ban a drag for some students. Retrieved September 11,2013 from http://www.stuff.co.nz/taranaki-daily-news/news/9122346/Campus-smoking-ban-a-drag-for-some-students
Outcomes to be Assessed:
The primary objective is to see that subjects of the program cease smoking and remain abstinent from tobacco use. This will be the primary outcome to be assessed therefore. Individuals in both the experiment and control groups would be consulted at the six-month juncture and the one year point in order to determine how many among them have remained abstinent from tobacco use in that duration and up to that point.
Other outcomes to be assessed would be long-term health factors relating to the use of tobacco. According to statistics compiled and sponsored by the T.J. Samson Community Hospital in Glasgow, Kentucky and most recently updated in the spring of 2006, habitual smokers of cigarettes are "fourteen times as likely to die of lung cancer" and twice as susceptible to fatality by heart disease. (T.J.S.C.H, 1) This means, according to the Community Hospital, that…
American Heart Association (AHA). (2009). Smoking Cessation. Americanheart.org.
Bickman, L. & Rog, D.J. (2009). Randomized Controlled Trials for Evaluation and Planning. The Sage Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods.
Euromonitor International (EI). (2009). Tobacco in Costa Rica. Euromonitor.com
Fiore, M.C.; Novotny, T.E.; Pierce, J.P.; Giovino, G.A.; Hatziandreu, E.J.; Newcomb, P.A.; Surawicz, T.S. & Davis, R.M. (1990). Methods Used to Quit Smoking in the United States. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 263(20), 2760-2765.
battle against cigarettes and tobacco has been around for a long time. As the authors A. Lee Fritschler and James M. Hoefler point out in their book Smoking and Politics there has always been a tug of war over the "golden leaf," the paradox that strict regulation of the business meant a windfall for the government.
Concern about the health consequences of smoking predates the "modern era" by nearly four centuries. In 1604, for example, King James I of England lambasted smoking as, "a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the Nose, harmeful to the braine, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, nearest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomless" (as quoted in Sullum, 1998, p 18). King James subsequently raised the tax on tobacco by 1000%, deriving significant revenues for his coffers. This illustrates the profound dilemma that has…
American Cancer Society, et al. (2002) "Critical Elements of Any Legislation to Grant FDA
Authority to Regulate Tobacco Products." Viewed online on 11/25/2002 at http://www.tobaccofreekids.org /research/factsheets/pdf/0181.pdf
Center for Disease Control: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health
Promotion (2002) "Chronology of Significant Developments Related to Smoking and Health." Viewed on 11/27/2002 at http://www.cdc.gov /tobacco/overview/chron96.htm
Military personnel must achieve and maintain the best physical conditioning of they are reasonably able to reach for the duration of their enlistment as a fundamental obligation of being fit for duty. Smoking makes that impossible. Likewise, the American taxpayer has a justifiable interest in reducing the costs of fielding a military by eliminating unnecessary costs. Smoking invariably adds to the already substantial costs of providing medical care to armed services personnel, both during their active service as well as throughout their lives afterwards to the extent they rely on veteran's services for medical care.
Military personnel already understand that the privilege and benefits associated with military service entail various restrictions on rights enjoyed by civilians. In this case, military justice must catch up to the manner in which civilian society has already incorporated the understanding of the risks of smoking into American life.
Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire:…
Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
O'Neill, Xana and Lite, Jordan. "Real Estate Companies Making it Tougher for Smokers
in Their Homes" The New York Daily News, March 30, 2008. Retrieved February
scientific effects of smoking on the human body especially on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We will give a brief analysis on how smoking affects the mentioned systems and see how the human body system works if the individual does not smoke. We will also support our paper with scientific and statistical evidence regarding the facts related to smoking.
Smoking and its effects
Before looking at smoking and its effects lets review on how the respiratory and cardiovascular systems work. When we breathe air it first enters Trachea/windpipe through which it enters on each of the bronchi present at both of the lungs. The bronchus is spread throughout the lungs like branches on trees and at its tips is as thin as a hair (bronchioles). Each lung has about thirty thousand bronchioles. At the tip of every bronchiole lies an area which leads to tiny air sacs known as alveoli.…
Timmins, William. (1989). Smoking and the workplace. New York: Quorum Books.
Klarreich, Samuel. (1987). Health and fitness in the workplace. New York: Praeger.
Weiss, Stephen. (1991). Health at work. New Jersey: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.
Bunton, Robin. (2002). Health Promotion. London: Routledge.
In the case of Darlene and old smoke, we can thus say that employers need to ask themselves what they would want in this situation so strongly that they would wish it were the law. There are many courses of action available to them such as they can force Darlene to work in the main file room, they can force Frank and Alice to quit smoking complete or they can develop a new policy whereby the entire workplace would stay smoke-free and there would be no designated smoking areas. The choice of the course of action is up to the employers who wouldn't want to hurt the rights of anyone but at the same time, would want a conflict with the law.
In my opinion, the best course of action is to make the entire workplace completely smoke-free so that there will be no conflicts based on old or lingering…
Immanuel Kant. Mary J. Gregor (Editor), Kant: The Metaphysics of Morals. Cambridge University Press; 2nd edition (1996)
Encouraging people to report violations for the sake of their health is a final service that nurses can perform to support the ban. People often do not like to report violations, because they feel like 'busybodies' but there is no way that state health inspectors alone can constantly police restaurant owners who illegally look the other way when customers light up. Nurses can remind the public that this legislation was the result of a voter-generated, rather than a politician-generated effort. It must be supported by the public to succeed.
One final criticism of the bill was that smokers will simply go across the border to smoke (Steinberg, 2007). However, proponents point out that, for smokers, there are other options, like patios, personal residences, and other places where they can smoke and not put hospitality workers' lives at risk. And once again, nurses can act as advocates, asking smokers to ask…
The Basics: Smoke Free Arizona" (2007). Smoke Free Arizona. Retrieved 19 May 2007 at: http://www.smokefreearizona.org/
Exemptions." (2007). Smoke Free Arizona. Smoke Free Arizona. Retrieved 19 May, 2007 at
cannot control the urge, then the employee might consider seeking outside professional help with the addiction. Since a person's car is private property, however, it is unlikely that any non-smoking ban would extend to that area. However, the smoker would need to take steps to ensure that their clothing and work supplies did no retain the odor of smoke. In essence, other than in the privacy of one's own car and home, thus any place that one could potentially harm someone else with smoke, is legally favoring the non-smoker (Grensing-Pophal, 1999).
Co-Workers Can Sue Over Excessive Perfume in the Workplace. (28 August 2009). Godlike
Productions. etrieved from: http://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message869754/pg1
Indoor Air Quality in Hospitality Venues Before and After Implementation of a Clean Indoor Air
Law. (12 November 2004). Center for Disease Control -- MMW. etrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5344a3.htm
Negative Ions: More Scientific esearch. (2010). Comtech esearch. etrieved from:
Co-Workers Can Sue Over Excessive Perfume in the Workplace. (28 August 2009). Godlike
Productions. Retrieved from: http://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message869754/pg1
Indoor Air Quality in Hospitality Venues Before and After Implementation of a Clean Indoor Air
Law. (12 November 2004). Center for Disease Control -- MMWR. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov /mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5344a3.htm
Bans save cash. It is costly to encourage smoking in prisons. Smoke-harmed detainees and staff require costly medical care, for different tobacco impacts. Citizens pay, both by expanded duties, and by expanded insurance rates. The prison authorities must raise the issue with government officials and ask them how much smoking costs citizens. When inmates smoke in jail, more bills, hospital expenses, come to citizens: for the smokers' conditions, and for those of the nonsmokers around, being unconstitutionally pushed to inhale contaminated air (Ducat, 2009).
Approximately 50% of smokers die from tobacco related ailments (World Health Organization, 2007). Available evidence confirms that prisoners die from cancers related to smoking at higher rates than the public. Further, second hand smoking is also threatening lives of non-smokers within the system of prisons. They include workers, visitors, prison officers and other inmates. The ban on smoking in prison will dramatically reduce the…
Ducat, C.R. (2009). Constitutional interpretation. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Hendrick, J. (2010). Law and ethics in nursing and health care. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.
McWay, D.C., & McWay, D.C. (2010). Legal and ethical aspects of health information management. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.
World Health Organization (2007). Protection from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke: Policy recommendations. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Ethical Argument: Smoking in the Workplace
In 1994, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) defined second- hand tobacco smoke as a potential workplace hazard, estimating that as many as 14,000 workers die each year from the effects of exposure to passive tobacco smoke. The National Cancer
Institute endorsed much higher estimates, according to which as many as 65,000 Americans die each year from heart disease and lung cancer caused by inhaling secondhand smoke (Washington Post, 2004). Since then, many states have instituted legislation prohibiting smoking in the workplace and the FAA has imposed an outright smoking ban on commercial aircraft, which many smokers view as an infringement of their rights.
While anti-smoking legislation certainly does affect the rights of smokers, it is justified on the basis of comparing the relative imposition on smokers to the rights of non-smokers to a healthy work environment. Certainly, smokers have the same…
Washington Post; "Who's Protecting Workers' Health." August 27, 2004; p. A20. (Washingtonpostonline.com) Accessed August 27, 2004, at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37210-2004Aug26.html
In public statements such as the one below:
We are keen to work with governments, public health authorities and other tobacco companies to agree on rules and regulations for our industry. We want to do what we can to respond to public health concerns and, at the same time, establish a stable business environment for our company (Why we support strong legislation (http://www.philipmorrisinternational.com/PMINTL/pages/eng/busenv/Tob_regulation.asp)."
The industry provides an attitude of compassion and caring for the products they place on the retail shelves and therefore in the hands of innocent buyers.
They further combat the regulations however by making statements like the following:
It can be difficult to create a regulatory environment for a product that is dangerous yet remains popular (Why we support strong legislation (http://www.philipmorrisinternational.com/PMINTL/pages/eng/busenv/Tob_regulation.asp)."
The industry has given up the fight against public smoking bans and instead decided on a smart advertising strategy of agreeing with such bans in…
Buyout program (Accessed 12-06-06)
Kraft Boycott (Accessed 12-06-06)
mall-Business Management & Entrepreneurship
The fruition of many years of dreaming and planning will be realized through the opening of a restaurant in the Tri Cities area. Opening any business requires serious planning and calculations, yet the special needs of a restaurant are particular to the idea that many restaurants have gradual and long-term returns on investment. tart-up costs are often very significant with hard goods and food costs making up a very large output, not to mention procuring a location and either a purchase or lease and either building or remodeling space to meet the needs of the business and procuring the real estate.
Breaking even is often a guiding light at the end of a very long tunnel, between six months and two years depending on the region, and turning a profit often takes much longer. Another consideration is of coarse that restaurants usually do not provide a…
Service Business." Retrieved February 20, 2003, Website: ( http://www.paloalto.com/ps/bp/ebb_details.cfm?b=1&ac=googleselect , restbind)
Sanson, M. (December, 2002). Will It Come to a Smoking License for Restaurants?
Restaurant Hospitality, 86(12), pg. 8.
Employees that wish to work in healthy environments are likely to be more motivated, and workers who are encouraged to be healthy will enjoy their work more, and become more productive.
"Some say it may be more effective just to award employees cash and prizes for weight loss rather than devote resources to long-term wellness programs" (Obesity, 2008, Consumer Affairs). However, this would seem to unjustly penalize poorer workers, as workers with "limited economic means may not have the ability to pay for gym memberships, smoking cessation drugs, or more nutritious food. Indeed, data from several studies confirm that those in lower socioeconomic classes have poorer smoking cessation rates and diets with less whole grains, lean meats and fresh fruits and vegetables" (Mhurchu 2010). Less affluent workers are less likely to work for companies like Google that provide amenities like on-site gyms or even gym memberships. Ironically, workers who are…
Capretta, Peter; Karen Davenport; Kevin Pho; Arthur Caplan; Gary Charness; & Uri Gneezy. (2010,
June 14l). Should people be paid to stay healthy? The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2011 at http://roomfordebate.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/06/14/should-people-be-paid-to-stay-healthy/
The Google Culture. (2010). Google. Retrieved February 27, 2011 at http://www.google.com/corporate/culture.html
Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Louise M. Aston, & Susan a. Jebb. (2010, February 10). Effects of worksite health promotion interventions on employee diets: a systematic review. BMC Public
Health Care -- Measurable Outcomes -- Tobacco Control Program
n "outcome" is a planned and deliberate effect of a program. Programs ideally have short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes leading to achievement of the program's stated goals. The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) is an excellent example of a program that has attained short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes due to its aggressive, ambitious mission and efforts. Through its 20+ year history, the CTCP program's outcomes have included significant inroads in public attitudes about smoking, lower smoke-related illness, morbidity and health care costs, and impactful actions against the tobacco industry. Given the measurable outcomes of the CTCP program, it is understandably a guiding force for tobacco control programs in other states and countries.
Body: The Measurable Outcomes that Would be Representative of the California Tobacco Control Program
n important aspect of any health-related program resides in its outcomes. Simply put, an "outcome"…
An important aspect of any health-related program resides in its outcomes. Simply put, an "outcome" is a planned and deliberate effect of the program (MacDonald, et al., 2001, p. 31). Well-planned programs typically have short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes that ideally lead to achievement of the program's stated goals. A short-term outcome is typically an immediate effect of a program, usually focusing on the target population's desired gains in attitudes, knowledge and skills because of the program. Some examples of short-term outcomes for a tobacco control program might include: the public's greater awareness of the harms of environmental tobacco smoke; the public's greater understanding of valid reasons for bans on smoking in public places; and business owners' more positive reactions to smoking bans in places of business (MacDonald, et al., 2001, p. 32). An intermediate outcome normally involves a more established change in behavior, norms and policies. Some examples of intermediate outcomes for a tobacco control program are voluntary clean air policies and voluntary bans on smoking in public places (MacDonald, et al., 2001, p. 32). A long-term outcome is typically achieved over a period of years. Examples of long-term outcomes for a tobacco control program are: a decrease in the use of tobacco; a decrease in tobacco-related illness; and a decrease in tobacco-related deaths (MacDonald, et al., 2001, p. 32). Though tobacco control programs may differ in some specific approaches, their short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes are often similar or even identical.
The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) was established more than 20 years ago with the specific mission "to improve the health of all Californians by reducing illness and premature death attributable to the use of tobacco products" (California Department of Public Health, 2010, modified 10/31/2012). With that ambitious mission in mind, CTCP developed the core strategy of changing social norms (California Department of Public Health, n.d.) and long-term goals of: empowering health agencies to promote health and quality of life by giving leadership and research advocating the appropriate social norms creating a tobacco-free environment; halting illegal tobacco sales to California youth; combatting the aggressive marketing employed by the tobacco industry; assisting people in permanent smoking cessation programs (California Department of Public Health, n.d.). Given the ardent mission and long history of the CTCP, it has achieved numerous measurable short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes, though the program has operated so successfully for such a long time that many of the cited outcomes are long-term.
The CTCP's measurable outcomes, whether short-term, intermediate or long-term, are so numerable that it they could not be listed in a short paper. However, several measurable outcomes are obvious. For example, through data collection and evaluation, researchers have found
Smoking rates do seem to be down, as a result of sin taxes and smoking bans in public areas like restaurants.
However, although this might be an example of when Bentham's moral science might seem to work (although it is controversial how helpful mandatory sentences may be) it is hard not to think of a familiar phrase: "one man's meat is another man's poison" -- in short, what gives pleasure to some might not give pleasure to all. A good example of this might be a child who is starving for parental attention. The child begins to 'act out' and is punished. The parents think they are acting to deter the behavior, but in reality, rather than experiencing an intense and swift punishment, the child experiences the punishment as a kind of reward, because it is at least feels like some kind of attention. Another example might be that of…
nurse in one of the local hospitals in Louisiana, I have noticed that many children are hospitalized with various health issues like ear infections, bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, rhinitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, and sore throats. These medical issues have become common among students in the region without a clear understanding of the major contributing factors. In attempts to identify the main factors resulting in the illnesses, I have conducted state-wide analysis of the problem. The analysis has indicated that most of these children are exposed to secondhand smoke, which has enhanced the rates of these diseases. Children in this state are increasingly exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke in various environments. It is reported that over 294,000 children below 18 years and 91,000 children below 5 years regularly share breathing space with smokers in their own homes throughout Louisiana.
The scope of this issue contributes to the need to establish measures that will…
"Arizona." (n.d.). Protect Local Control: Ensuring Community Rights to Pass Smokefree
Ordinances. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.protectlocalcontrol.org/state.php?sid=3
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, April 25). 25 States and DC are Smoke-Free.
Retrieved from Office of the Associate Director for Communication website: http://www.cdc.gov /features/Smoke-FreeLaws/
Selfless Actions and a Sustainable Future
There are many ways in which a person can get involved in selfless actions that can help the planet. One of these is to take public transportation (or carpool) instead of driving. There are certainly people who live in places where they cannot do this, or who have the types of jobs where this simply would not be realistic. However, for the most part people who live in urban areas are capable of using public transportation in their daily lives or carpooling with others on their way to work or other types of activities, including shopping. This helps the planet because it reduces the number of cars on the road. In turn, that reduces the level of emissions being placed into the air. With healthier air, not only can human beings breathe better but so can plants and animals. The entire ecosystem…
The union thus acts as an advocate for worker's legal rights, including their right not to be subject to drug tests as well (although this issue is far more contentious, given that Xanitos also argues that testing is required from the point-of-view of patient safety.
A more controversial drug testing issue is prohibiting all workers from using tobacco, a controversial practice that has become increasingly common amongst healthcare establishments. "More hospitals and medical businesses in many states are adopting strict policies that make smoking a reason to turn away job applicants, saying they want to increase worker productivity, reduce health care costs and encourage healthier living" (Sulzberger 2011: 1). However, the union argues "such policies are a slippery slope -- that if they prove successful in driving down health care costs, employers might be emboldened to crack down on other behavior by their workers, like drinking alcohol, eating fast food…
Green, Laura. (2010, November 5). Housekeepers union files lawsuit against St. Mary's Medical
Center. The Sun Sentinel. Retrieved February 22, 2011 at http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/2010-11-05/news/fl-nurses-lawsuit-20101105_1_hospital-workers-housekeepers-union-contract
Runkel, Ross. (2006, January). Disparate impact. Law Memo. Retrieved February 22, 2011 at http://www.lawmemo.com/101/2006/01/disparate_impac_1.html
Service Employees International Union. (2011). Official website. Retrieved February 22, 2011 at http://www.seiu.org/splash/
Maketing to a multicultual audience -- Stabucks and McDonald's
All businesses today must be multicultual to some extent (Makgosa 2012). The Intenet has opened up new potals to multicultual, multinational consume audiences. Moe foeign nationals in developing nations aspie to imitate the Ameican, consumeist life they see potayed in the moden media. Ameica itself is gowing inceasingly divese, which demands a moe caefully-segmented appoach to maketing. Howeve, this ceates a poblem fo global businesses such as Stabucks and McDonald's. On one hand, the coe foundation of thei business is based upon maketing a paticula type of lifestyle, a lifestyle gounded in an image ooted in Ameicana (o in the case of Stabucks, a vey Ameican vision of a Euopean cafe). The coe poblem of today's multicultual maketing is that changes must be made to addess an inceasingly divese audience: an audience which demands moe than mee tokenism o…
Palacios, S. (2011). Multicultural is the wave of the future. Ad Age. Retrieved:
Patterson, P.G., Scott, J., & Uncles, M.D. (2010). How the local competition defeated a global brand: The case of Starbucks. Australasian Marketing Journal, 18(1), 41-47.
Starbucks: Japan's highest-rated coffee chain. (2009). What Japan Thinks.
CVS enames Itself CVS Health as it Ends Sale of Tobacco Products
(1) Who are the major winners and losers in this story? Why do you think so?
There is a mix of winners and losers in this story and some parties could be considered both. For example, CVS is gaining a lot of support for its new focus on health, but it also does so at the expense of revenues. The video mentions that CVS's revenue will decrease from the organization stopping the sale of tobacco products at its retail chains.
The consumers could also be considered both winners and losers. The video mentions one individual who states that he will simply have to walk across the street to buy his cigars. However, other tobacco customers could be more significantly inconvenienced and have to travel further to buy tobacco products. However, depending on the perspective, some would argue that…
Boughton, J. (2014, January 16). Reflecting on the history of smoking cessation. Retrieved from MedPage: http://www.kevinmd.com/blog/2014/01/reflecting-history-smoking-cessation.html
Minmum 750 words.
The tobacco industry is one of the most successful businesses in the contemporary society. This happens in spite of the fact that individuals who smoke are very well-acquainted with the risks coming along with smoking the substance. What is even more concerning is that smoking is often adopted by certain individuals as a result of the fact that they believe that they are fashionable because they smoke. Surely, freedom is one of the most important values that the social order benefits from and it would be absurd to deny someone the right to smoke as long as the respective individuals understands the risks and still wants to do it. However, considering that most people who start to smoke do it because they are searching for social acceptance or simply want to feel what it is like to smoke, it seems that the system needs to install more…
Pahl, Nadine, and Richter, Anne, "Does the Latest German Anti-Smoking Law Affect the Restaurant Behaviour of the Berlin People?," (GRIN Verlag, 2009)
Slovic, Paul, "Smoking: Risk, Perception & Policy," (SAGE 2001)
Public Health Achievements
hat factors accounted for the control of tobacco in the U.S. Currently, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about 42.1 million Americans smoke cigarettes, which is about 18.1% of all adults (18 or over). About 20.5% of men smoke cigarettes and 15.8% of women smoke cigarettes (Liss, 2013).
the information environment -- mass media and counter-advertising. There is no doubt that media campaigns have a positive impact when it comes to anti-smoking campaigns. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that the first year of the federal government's national advertising campaign called "Tips from Former Smokers" "exceeded expectations; an estimated 1.6 million cigarette smokers attempted to stop smoking. Of those, about 100,000 actually succeeded in quitting, and that information came from a study published by the medical journal, The Lancet. Moreover, the campaign run by the CDC reportedly "inspired millions of nonsmokers to encourage…
Centers for Disease Control. (2011). Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov .
Liss, S.M. (2013). CDC's Anti-Smoking Ad Campaign Spurred Over 100,000 Smokers to Quit;
Media Campaigns Must be Expanded Nationally and in the States. Center for Disease
Controls. Retrieved April 12, 2014, from http://www.tobaccofreekids.org .
The case of "Old Smoke" presents workplace issues involving cigarette smoke, perfume and body odor. The employer is responsible for upholding law and company policy, as well as using common sense and tact to deal with possibly competing employee interests while continuing to effectively meet business requirements. Though laws and company policy sometimes assist in formulating solutions, employers are also charged with creative thinking to deal with some workplace issues uncovered by law and/or policy.
Explain how you would handle this situation if you were Charles Renfold
Charles Renfold has competing problems. Darlene Lambert is an employee entitled to a safe workplace, including freedom from second-hand smoke and the scent of old smoke. Simultaneously, Renfold has a pressing deadline for a report requiring Darlene's assistance with files located in a room that strongly smells of old smoke (Shaw, 2010, p. 339). Darlene rightfully refuses to work in that…
Shaw, W.H. (2010). Business ethics: A textbook with cases, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Winterbauer & Diamond P.L.L.C. (1998). Multiple chemical sensitivity and the ADA: Taking a clear picture of a blurry object. Retrieved on February 23, 2012 from Winterbauerdiamond.com Web site: http://www.winterbauerdiamond.com/inprint/Doc040629.PDF
West (1997) stated that clinicians, researchers, policy makers and others who work in the area of addiction, with addicts or who have to deal with the consequences of addiction, cannot easily ignore the strong ethical dimension to the problem. Ethics is concerned with determining the nature of normative theories and applying these sets of principles to practical moral problems. It is concerned with how we should live, as individuals and societies, what is right and wrong, what is good and bad and what is just and unjust. The bases on which such judgments can be made have been subject to systematic enquiry since before the time of Plato. Utilitarianism is perhaps the strongest thread running through the analysis of ethical and policy decisions in the field of addiction.
(Weissman, 1997) reported the following findings regarding tobacco companies and their advertising, He reported that the tobacco companies are expected to meet…
Pollack, H., Lantz, P.M., & Frohna, J.G. (2000, March). Maternal Smoking and adverse birth outcomes among singletons and twins. American Journal of Public Health, 90(3), 395-400.
Schwartz-Bickenbach, D., Schulte-Hobein, B., Abt, S., Plum, C., & Nau, H. (1987, January). Smoking and passive smoking during pregnancy and early infancy: effects on birth weight, lactation period, and continue concentrations in mother's milk and infant's urine.. Toxicology Letter, 35(1), 73-81.
Weissman, R. (1997, July/August). The Great Tobacco Bailout. Multinational Monitor, 18(7/8), 9-18.
West, R. (1997, September). Addiction, Ethics and Public Policy. Addiction, 92(9), 1061-1071.
Toward an Effective olution
In principle, the most effective solution to the tremendous problem of cigarette smoking in the U.. would simply be to impose legislation banning the manufacture, sale, or consumption of cigarettes altogether. In fact, it is impossible to justify any logical distinction between the current illegal status of marijuana (at the federal level and in almost all of the individual states) and the fact that a slightly different cultivated vegetation that is empirically linked to almost half a million preventable premature deaths annually is still perfectly legal to market at great financial profits. However, from a practical perspective, the U.. already had experience during the Prohibition era of the 1920s with the difficulties of trying to ban alcohol. In addition to widespread violation by otherwise law-abiding citizens, that ban created such a tremendous opportunity for profit associated with the black market production and distribution of alcohol that…
Anderson, S., Ling, P., and Pollay, R. "Taking Ad-vantage of Consumers: Advertising
Light Cigarettes: Reassuring and Distracting Concerned Smokers"
Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 63, No. 8 (2006): 1973-1985.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Smoking and Tobacco Use: Health
Flu deaths expected to rise" is written by influenza expert Mr. . Paul McKinney. He stated that the influenza virus will be stronger and worst this year and the health officials should make precautions for it and spread awareness amongst the masses about the attack. The virus is expected to attack more brutally on the older people and infants, i.e., people who are older than 65 years and younger than 5 years are more likely to be attacked. The virus can also cause several deaths of those who are already suffering with chronic diseases. Hence there will be an overall rise in flu deaths this year. There is no doubt that the government and other health officials and professionals are trying their best in order to educate people about the severity of the virus and to make the situation prominent and vivid, but there is a need of much more…
Mckinney, N. Flu deaths expected to rise. Pearson Neighborhood news, Week 11. http://www.pearsonneighborhood.com/lvl1/news/week_11.cfm
Lowell, A. Smoking breaks a thing of the past? Pearson Neighbourhood news, Week 9. http://www.pearsonneighborhood.com/lvl1/news/week_09.cfm
Scutchfield, F.D., & Keck, C.W. (2003). Principles of public health practice. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning.
Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2004). Community & public health nursing. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby.
Not even 50 years ago, many people felt skeptical about the hazards of cigarette smoking. Although increasing numbers of studies showed that some connection existed between tobacco and lung and heart ailments, questions still remained about the true effects on health. In 1964, however, the United States Surgeon General Luther Terry confronted 200 media reporters in a State Department auditorium for two hours and completely changed the course of history. For the first time, the American government made it official: Smoking causes lung cancer. How much of an impact did this warning and other warnings to come by the Surgeon General and additional interested parties in the future alter the numbers of people smoking nationwide? The results are not too promising.
After the Surgeon General's first announcement, there was an immediate reaction. At this time, about 46% of people smoked in the U.S. When Americans heard the Surgeon…
Bowman, Lee. "Potomac Watch: 40 years ago, government linked smoking to cancer."
Scripps Howard News Service, January 10, 2004. 31. May 2005. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/156042_pot10.html
Eckman, B, & S. Goldberg. "The viability of the Marlboro Man among the 18-24 segment." Bates no. 204462266-2024462292., 8, 1992.
Geoffrey Fong. "UW Researcher to get U.S. Grant to study Warning Labels." 31 May, 2005. http://www.adm.uwaterloo.ca/infonews/release/2002/153%20Cigarette%20warning%20labels%20studied,%20July%2024,%202002.html
This act enlarged the labels on the cigarettes, and required that the labels on cigarettes and cigarette ads say things like,."..Cause lung cancer...may complicate pregnancy...quitting smoking now greatly reduces hazards to your health... may result in low birth weight and fetal injury." Yet despite all these attempts to educate, all the package warnings and all the public service ads, we still see that despite the millions of dollars spent on smoking prevention each year, every year sees more and more people taking up the habit, until today death from cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in the United States, contributed in a great part by smoking. And yet we keep legislating, when then proof shows that what we are doing is not working.
Our discussion of vice-based legislation now brings us to the subject of fattening foods. In 2002, a lawyer in New York filed suit against the four…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable Mortality and Years of Potential Life Lost-United States, 1984. MMWR 1997 46:444-51.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Federal Trade Commission Request for Comments Concerning Regulations Implementing the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986. Accessed [March 7, 2000]. http://www.tobaccolaw.org/Documents/Events/HealthCanadaNewcigarettelabellingmeasures.htm " Health Canada New Cigarette labeling Measures.
National Cancer Institute. Cigars Health Effects and Trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 98-4302, 1998.
American Drug Policy: Marijuana
Marijuana is one of the most vilified drugs in history and it very difficult to see just why this is so. The United States used to have a thriving agricultural concern that consisted of hemp (marijuana) famers producing plants for their fibers and seeds. The fibers were used in products such as rope and paper and the seeds were used to make oil which served as a lubricant and a food additive. Unfortunately, people became aware of its psychotropic properties and growing marijuana for any reason was banned. This ban also coincided with the introduction of products that were superior to those made of hemp. The drug usage properties of marijuana had been known for centuries and it had been used in religious ceremonies and as an additive to medicines, but it could also be used in quantities that made the user completely incapacitated…
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). "Tax and Fee Rates." U.S. Department of Treasury, 2012. Web.
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "No Rational Basis: The Pragmatic Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law 17.1 (2009): 43-82. Print.
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "Liberty Lost: The Moral Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Indiana Law Journal 85.1 (2010): 279-299. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Oct. 2012.
Chilea, Dragos. "A Brief Overview of Drug Control Policy in the United States and It's Current Challenges." Judicial Current 14.3 (2011): 13-22. Print.
My overall advice to Mr. Smith would be that he has a weak case, at best.
To evaluate whether Susie has a valid equal protection claim, one must start by determining whether the city ordinance is a state action. As a city is a branch of the state, the smoking ordinance would be considered a state action. The next step is to determine whether she belongs to a suspect class or whether a fundamental right is being violated. Although being a woman places her in a quasi-suspect class, this ordinance does not involve a distinction between the genders. Instead the issue is between smokers and non-smokers and as such, there is no suspect class involved. Furthermore, there is no fundamental right involved as neither the right to smoke or to open a business is considered a fundamental right. (Chemerinsky, 2002; p. 157).
Under these facts, the court will…
Barron, Jerome. (2005): Black Letter Outline on Constitutional Law. West Publishing.
Chemerinsky, Erwin. (2002): Constitutional Law: Principles and Policies. Fredericksburg: Aspen.
Graham, Francis. (2003): Equal Protection: Rights and Liberties Under the Law. New York: ABC-CLIO Inc.
Korematsu v. U.S., 584 F.Supp. 1406 (1984).
Declaration of Rights of Students
A Declaration of the Rights of Students to the Uber Chancellor Supreme
Acknowledging that there is one governor above us, we the students put before his attention and the attention of all a list of complaints, which should, being rational and true, secure a place of prominence in the mind of any man, who calls himself a rational being. This Declaration casts no blame, nor proposes injury; its purpose is only to draw attention to the God-given, natural, and inalienable rights of students. For a student is no less a man than any other -- and for students to be viewed as something less than equal to any other living member of the human race is nothing but an abuse of reason, and an abuse of justice. In justice' sake, in equality's sake, and out of a fraternal bond that separates us not but links…
Buchler, Justus, ed. Introduction to Contemporary Civilization in the West. Vol 2. New
York: Columbia University Press, 1961.
Damrosch, David, ed. The Longman Anthology. British Literature. Vol 2A: The Romantics and Their Contemporaries. New York: Longman, 2002.
"The Quotable Franklin." The Electric Ben Franklin, n.d. Web. 21 Feb 2011.
life we are always faced with situations where the rights on one individual overlap those of another, causing a legal conflict that is often decided upon in the court of law. In many cases, these are private rights, but we are sometimes in a situation when the rights delimitation is imposed by the government, as is the case with the tobacco industry and smoking regulations and delimitations.
The problem with smoking in public places bares much resemblance in Canada, Europe or the United States. The right of smoking individuals to smoke in public places was gradually and constantly diminished to the degree that nowadays smoking in restaurants, offices or any closed locations. The movement against smoking in public places seems to have started in Canada in the early 1990s, when the City of Toronto emitted a series of by-laws, referred to as The Workplace Smoking y-law. This law "requires all…
1. H. Demsetz, "Toward a Theory of Property Rights," American Economic Review, Vol.57 (May, 1967).
2. R.Coase, "The Problem of Social Cost," Journal of Law and Economics, Vol.3 (October 1960).
3. Impact of Workplace Smoking Restriction - Compliance Issues. On the Internet at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hecs-sesc/tobacco/facts/workplace/part3_compliance.html
Impact of Workplace Smoking Restriction - Compliance Issues. On the Internet at
The new attitude of the ussian government makes perfect sense because, according to the article, the annual national death toll attributable to smoking in ussia is approximately 400,000. Moreover, the morbidity associated with smoking is only a portion of the total societal cost of smoking because it is estimated that smoking also costs the already-cash-strapped nation the equivalent of almost $50 billion in annual healthcare costs and lost worker productivity from smoking-related illnesses. Just as in the West before the historic disclosure of previously confidential industry information by a former insider that led to multiple class action settlements from litigation initiated by various state attorneys general in the 1990s, there is a tremendous tobacco industry political lobby in ussia fighting tooth-and-nail against the proposed legislation. Generally, they represent only the selfish interests of the tobacco companies and do not have any concern for the welfare of the members of…
Alpert, L.I. "Kremlin Cracks Down on Big Tobacco: Russia, the World's Second-Largest
Cigarette Market after China, Plans 'Harsh' Anti-smoking Rules." The Wall Street
Journal, October 15, 2012. Retrieved online:
Courage, the ability to face danger or hardship without showing fear, may have subtly different meanings in various cultures, but it is universally viewed as a virtue.
Courageous people, e.g., those who show bravery in wars and battles are honored by their nations, communities and even enemies through medals, rewards and praise. Most heroes in history built their reputation due to the extra-ordinary courage shown by them in the face of adversity. Cowardice, on the other hand, is almost unanimously considered to be a vice and cowardly people are commonly derided as chicken-hearted, gutless, and "yellow."
Some people distinguish between "physical courage" and "moral courage" although both types of courage are usually present side by side. For example, Martin Luther King Jr. may be categorized as possessing "moral" courage as he took an unflinching moral stand against racial discrimination. However, King could not have been morally courageous if he was…
Doctors use microscopic television cameras to probe the interior of a human body without surgery.
Nicotine behaves as a sedative when it is absorbed slowly in the blood; and as a stimulant when absorbed rapidly
For example, cigarette smoking in the U.S.A. has fallen more than 40% since 1965 (Quoted in "Smoking," Article in Encyclopedia Encarta Online, 2005; available at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579162/Smoking.html)
Industries that face stiff competition may favor and encourage an aggressive approach from employees that produces rapid results, rather than thoughtful, strategic action. When the gains cannot be realized in the desired time frame, there is a temptation to implement short cuts; resulting in fraud." (Price; Norris, 2009) That however is not a justification, although it prompts some regulations on the way industries operate.
The Law Catches Up
Today the criminal justice system responds to corporate crime much better than before. This is because earlier the scams were an unknown commodity in Australia and it was a U.S. phenomenon. Globalization changed that and now, according to the National Crime Prevention office in Australia the fraudster type of activities in firms were classified as fake billing and invoicing, investments and money chain scams, advance fee frauds, borrowing from the public as in ponzi type scams, the pyramid and money chain, insolvency…
Braithwaite, John. (1992) "Penalties for White-Collar Crime"
Retrieved 28 July, 2012 from http://www.anu.edu.au/fellows/jbraithwaite/_documents/Articles/Penalties_White_1992.pdf
Braithwaite, John. (1985) "White Collar Crime" Annual Review of Sociology vol. 11, no. 1, pp: 1-25.
"Definition of white collar crime" (from the scanned reference mailed by client -- book title not clear) Please insert book title here
New York Times describes how R.J. Reynolds Tobacco was found guilty of breaking its agreement to market cigarette products only to adults. The judge found that the company had pursued an advertising strategy aimed at promoting youth smoking. Important to the ruling, is the judges decision that 'actions speak louder than words' with it being reported that "the judge ruled that 'it does not matter' whether Reynolds intended to single out children and get them to smoke. The fact that it did not adopt 'reasonable measures' to shield young people from its advertisements represented a breach of the company's responsibility to help reduce youth smoking" (Winter).
It is also reported that Reynolds is not the only company accused of specifically targeting young people, a snuff making company is also accused of the same thing.
These issues have several significant implications on nursing practitioners, health practices and on health care.
Winter, Greg. "Tobacco Company Reneged on Youth Ads, Judge Rules." New York Times, 7 June 2002.
Participants will be recruited with announcements in local newspapers and school newsletters. Flyers are posted in the nurse's offices and in the clinic. esponse cards will be given to parents who indicate an interest in participating in the study. See the participation invitation -- Appendix 1.
Once enrolled, participants will answer a series of questions related to food choices, influences, physical activities and food and beverage advertisements. The first measure will involve showing the children a set of distinct images. The children will then be asked 1) what company the image belongs to; 2) what they feel about that company; 3) if the images make them feel good/bad/nothing; 4) if they enjoy the food; 5) how they feel after eating the food; and, 6) what their parents think of the type of food or company. The following 15 images are examples of popular logos. These 15 will be used…
Caprio, Sonia. (2006). Treating child obesity and associated medical conditions. The Future of Children,16(1), 209+. Gale Group.
Darwin, David. (2009). Advertising obesity: Can the U.S. follow the lead of the UK in limiting television marketing of unhealthy foods to children? Vanderbilt journal of transnational law,42(1), 317+. Gale Cengage Learning.
Enz, C., & Lundberg, C. (1993). A Framework for student case preparation. Case Research Journal,13, 134.
Evans, W. Douglas. (2008). Social marketing campaigns and children's media use. The Future of Children,18(1), 181+. Gale Cengage Learning.
Marginal ate of Substitution (MS) is the rate that an individual is ready to give up from "good A" to obtain one or more unit of "good B" while keeping the overall utility constant. In other words, MS reveals how many units of good x that an individual is ready to give up to gain extra unit of good y while keeping the same level of utility constant. The MS involves the trade off of goods to change the allocation of the total bundles of goods while maintaining the level of satisfaction. Typically, MS is calculated between goods being placed on indifferent curve. The product of cheeseburger and hotdogs is used to illustrate the MS. If the marginal rate of substitution of cheeseburger for hot dogs is 2, thus, consumer will be willing to give 2 cheeseburger to obtain 1 extra hot dog.
However, marginal rate of substitution diminishes…
Jha, P. Chaloupka, F.J. Moore, J. et al. (2006). Chapter 46 Tobacco Addiction from the book Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Second edition. World Bank.
One very important aspect related to smoking marijuana concerns the number of deaths reported on an annual basis linked to using other legal and illegal substances. For example, according to the U.S. ureau of Mortality Statistics, 400,000 Americans die annually as a direct result of smoking cigarettes; 100,000 die prematurely from drinking alcohol; some 20,000 die from abusing legal prescription drugs like Oxycontin, Valium, Percodan, and other drugs prescribed by physicians; 2,000 die from the effects of consuming too much caffeine, mainly from heart failure, while the number of Americans who die from smoking marijuana currently stands at zero, an indication that smoking marijuana does not directly cause any known fatal and debilitating disease ("The Legalization of Marijuana," Internet).
Therefore, considering the number of Americans who die prematurely from consuming alcohol which has been legal since the end of Prohibition in the early 1930's, there is no logical reason not…
Franklin, Michael J. The Pros and Cons of Marijuana Legalization in the United
States. New York: Random House, 2006.
"The Legalization of Marijuana." 2009. Internet. Accessed November 24, 2009
from http://www.legalizationofmarijuana.com .
Tragically, it harms the most vulnerable among us -- children. This must stop
Please, send Senate Bill 1172 to the Assembly floor for a vote. It is the right thing to do. Thank you. (Domi,, 2012 ).
Advocates of conversion therapy are correct in maintaining that as long as the therapy helps a quantifiable amount of people, and these people voluntarily choose that theory, it should be maintained. The question is, however, how many other people has it harmed, and what is the extent and intensity of this harm... As in every other aspect, an approach that is harmful needs to be curtailed by the government. The government restricts smoking and drugs since harmful to the person. Advocates label this system as 'therapy', and therefore, say that a patient can choose the type of therapy that he or she wishes. However, the Ninth Circuit addressed this point in…
American Psychological Association, February 2008 (PDF) Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality http://www.apa.org/topics/sexuality/orientation.aspx?item=8
Buchanan, W (September 29, 2012). State bans gay-repair therapy for minors. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/State-bans-gay-repair-therapy-for-minors-3906032.php
Domi, T (June 26, 2012 ) UPDATE: Prop 8 Witness Ryan Kendall Testifies on Conversion Therapy; Committee Approves 5-2
Block for Instructions
Issue facing a local community:
Limitations on soda consumption in New York City
One of the most divisive local issues in America does not pertain to gun control or education but revolves around that quintessentially all-American beverage -- the soft drink. New York City Mayor Bloomberg recently proposed limiting the sizes of "large sodas and other sugary drinks at restaurants, movie theaters and street carts, in the most ambitious effort by the Bloomberg administration to combat rising obesity" (Grynbaum 2012). While New York City's obesity rates are not as alarmingly high as elsewhere in the nation, they are still high enough to cause concern, specifically within demographics such as children, minorities, and the poor. Sodas have been the target of anti-obesity activists because of their minimal nutritional value and high caloric content. Under the proposal, sales of sweetened drinks larger than 16 fluid ounces would be prohibited…
DeNoon, Daniel. (2005). Drink more diet soda, gain more weight? Web MD. Retrieved:
Gross, Samantha. (2012). N.Y. mayor wants to limit soda drinks to 16 ounces. Philly.com.
Medical Marijuana Legislation and Civil Liberties
When the historic passage of legislation permitting medical marijuana use in states like Arizona (2010), Delaware (2011) and Massachusetts (2012) is considered in conjunction with the fact that 13 other states have similar legislation or ballot measures pending, the traditional conception of marijuana ingestion as a criminal act is being reexamined on a societal level. Further bolstering this assertion is the legal situation in California, Colorado and Washington, where marijuana has been decriminalized entirely and permitted for recreational sale by licensed dispensaries, providing the platform for a restoration of basic rights in these jurisdictions. With approximately half of the states in the union already affording citizens with medical needs the liberty to seek relief in the form of marijuana, while the federal government's ostensible ban on the substance remains in effect, the stage has been set for a national debate over the merits of…
Mill, J.S., Smith, J.M., & Sosa, E. (1969). Mill's Utilitarianism: Text and criticism. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Pub. Co.
Durkheim Four Principles of Deviance
In looking at the four functions of deviance in the context of examples. Namely rock and roll music and marijuana smoking, etc. In the 1950s and 1960s compared to today.
The first function according to Durkheim is that deviance gives affirmation to validate the values and cultural norms that guide behavior in society (Macionis, 2006).
In America a guiding principle of society has always been morality. Since the country was founded on a primary belief in Godly ("In God we Trust") principles of right and wrong. Along with the freedoms that comes with allowing people of all religions to determine their own destinies. With this freedom comes the realization that there will be differences in opinion about behavior and the type of attitudes that accompany a moral premise. If there is a virtue of what is 'acceptable' or good in society there has to be…
Digital Dream Door. (2005). Rock n Roll Timeline. Retrieved July 27, 2011 from http://www. digitaldreamdoor. com/pages/best_timeline-r1. html
Henslin, J.M. (1996). Essentials of Sociology. Retrieved July 27, 2011 from Needham
Heights:MA. Publishers Allyn & Bacon,
Macionis, J.J. (2006). The Basics of Society. Prentice Hall. Pearson Education. Edition 5.
Laurel v. Hardy
Main issue: Laurel and Hardy, a professional comic duo, entered into a contract that agreed if they ever disbanded their partnership, they would refrain from using each other's material without compensation to the other party. After the duo disbanded, Hardy continued to use the materials without paying Laurel. Laurel is suing Hardy for $500,000. Hardy travels and has thus not been properly served Court Papers and refuses to read the local paper or respond to the suit. Laurel motions for a default judgment and Court Costs, which is granted. Hardy appeals this because he has not been properly notified.
Relevant Legal Concept: Contractual law and Service of Summons and Judgment
Procedural Due Process: Service by registered mail and publication in local newspaper; the Court is not responsible if the person being served pleads ignorance.
Relevant Definitions: Substituted Service of Court documents
Relevant Case Law: Dorsey v. Gregg,…
Best, R. (2006). California Physician-Patient Privileges. Retrieved from: http://california-discovery-law.com/physician_patient_privilege.htm
Cornell University. (2012). Rule 501. Privilege. Retrieved from: http://www.law.cornell.edu/rules/fre/rule_501
Logan, M., et al. (2010) Product Liability: Protection for the "Innocent" Seller. Kane Russell Coleman and Logan. Retrieved from: http://www.natlawreview.com/article/products-liability-protection-innocent-seller-texas
Schubert, F. (2010). Introduction to the law and the Legal System. 10th ed. Mason, OH: Cenage.
S. production value. Exports account for approximately half this amount (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). Figure 2 portrays three views of bamboo. One: A bamboo forrest; Two: A bamboos shoot; Three: A bamboo grove walkway.
Figure 2: Three Views of Bamboo (adapted from Stickman).
As bamboo production levels have risen, the amounts of raw materials needed to facilitate the production have simultaneously increased. The bamboo industry in Anji predominantly harvests bamboo from plantations, as it primarily grows a fast growing and easily cultivated, bamboo species, locally known as "maozhu" or "moso bamboo" (phyllostachys heterocycla) (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). .
Currently in Anji, the cultivation of moso bamboo encompasses 60% of the forest area, with the percentage rising as plantations expand. Along with the hefty production of bamboo, the intense cultivation bamboo industry uses mammoth amounts of fertilizers and pesticides; which contributes to negative environmental effects. In reference to the bamboo production…
Applegate, Ed and Johnsen, Art. Cases in advertising and marketing management: real =
situations for tomorrow's managers Plymouth, United Kingdom: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.
Adhikary, Nripal. "Treatment Process." Abari Adobe and Bamboo Research Institute. 2009.
Web. Available at: . 09 October 2009.
However, the issue is more nuanced -- what if, as a humanitarian effort, a pharmaceutical company sold recently expired drugs at very low cost to an impoverished developing nation in the grips of an epidemic? hat if a food company donated food that was safe but 'past its expiration date' to a famine-stricken nation? In this case, a utilitarian calculus would support such exchanges. The balance between the benefit of being cured or not starving to death and potential harm of bad drugs or food would suggest such a donation was ethical. From a Rawlsian point-of-view, imagining whether you were the producer or the consumer, it seems likely that 'you' the consumer would take a risk of eating safe but recently stale rice to avoid starvation, much like a producer would be happy to gain good publicity and unload goods that cannot be sold in the U.S. Everyone, in short,…
Shaw, W.H. & Barry, V. (2007). Moral issues in business. (10th ed.). USA: Thomson