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Social Anxiety Questionnaire: A New Scale to Measure Social Phobia
Social anxiety or social phobia is the most common anxiety disorder and affects millions of Americans. The effects of social anxiety can be quite devastating. There are several scales that have been developed to assess social anxiety in people, but there are few scales that consist of less than 20 items. The Social Anxiety Questionnaire, a 14-item scale to measure social anxiety, was tested on 89 college students and compared to the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (Mattick & Clarke, 1998) and Eysenck's Introversion Scale (Eysenck. 1970; 1971) for validity. The psychometric properties of the scale, future directions for research, and practical applications of the scale are discussed.
The Social Anxiety Questionnaire: A New Scale to Measure Social Phobia
Social anxiety disorder (also known as social phobia) consists of feelings of apprehension, worry, or nervousness concerning being placed in situations where…
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-TR. Arlington, VA: Author.
Anthony, M.M. (1997). Assessment and treatment of social phobia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 826 -- 834.
Brown, E.J., Turovsky, J., Heimberg, R.G., Juster, H.R., Brown, T.A., & Barlow, DH (1997). Validation of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale across the anxiety disorders. Psychological Assessment, 9, 21-27.
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Theories of Etiology (Causes) of the Social Anxiety Disorder
Subordination Stress Model
Primates depend on establishing social relationships, and like men, laboratory assessments can be conducted to study their behavior. Studies that focused on nonhuman primates in an informal setting concerning dominance and subordination targeted female cynomolgus monkeys. The study established that subordinates dedicated more time living alone where they scanned their social world with fear. This is unlike the dominants who displayed directly opposite of the behavior. Biological analysis focusing on the subordinates further revealed hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, impaired dopaminergic neurotransmission, and serotonergic functions. A different challenge study on social subordinates registered HPA axis activation and hyper-secreted cortisol. A challenge test about fenfluramine on cynomolgus macaques (housed) showed low response on prolactin, which indicates a fall in central serotonergic response. These monkeys' strata were subjected to low social interactions and reduced body contact compared to those with…
Balogh, E. P., Miller, B. T., & Ball, J. R. (2015). Improving diagnosis in health care.
Bandelow, B., Michaelis, S., & Wedekind, D. (2017). Treatment of anxiety disorders. Dialogues Clin Neurosci, 19(2), 93-107. DOI: 10.31887/DCNS.2017.19.2/bbandelow
Bridges to Recovery. (n.d.). Causes of Social Anxiety. Retrieved November 14, 2020, from https://www.bridgestorecovery.com/social-anxiety/causes-social-anxiety/
Khetrapal, A. (2019). Neural mechanisms of Social Anxiety Disorder. Retrieved from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Neural-Mechanisms-of-Social-Anxiety-Disorder.aspx
Majdandi?, M., Möller, E. L., de Vente, W., Bögels, S. M., & van den Boom, D. C. (2014). Fathers\\' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: A longitudinal observational study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(2), 301-310.
Mathew, S. J., Coplan, J. D., & Gorman, J. M. (2001). Neurobiological mechanisms of social anxiety disorder. American journal of psychiatry, 158(10), 1558-1567.
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK. (2013). Social anxiety disorder: recognition, assessment, and treatment. British Psychological Society.
Norton, A. R., & Abbott, M. J. (2017). The role of environmental factors in the aetiology of social anxiety disorder: A review of the theoretical and empirical literature. Behavior Change, 34(2), 76-97.
Biopsychosocial Case Formulation (BCF) PerspectiveThe BCF perspective considers the 4 Ps of biological, psychological, and social factors: predisposing factors, precipitating factors, perpetuating factors, and protective factors. Predisposing factors indicate vulnerabilities that could represent risk variables in the patients presenting issue, such as temperament, attachment style, family history of psychological disorder or prenatal exposure to substance abuse, immigration history, or access to health care. Precipitating factors are typically stressors that precipitate symptoms of the presenting issue, such as medical illness, family or social conflicts, identity crises, cognitive distortions or psychosocial development transitions. Perpetuating factors include conditions within the patients life systems that affect the patients issue, such as chronic illness, emotional dysregulation, unresolved conflicts, socioeconomic instability, work-related stress, or education hurdles. Protective factors can refer to an individuals good health, support systems, religious faith, skills, hobbies, likes, abilities, or other factors such as access to outpatient healthcare services that provide positive…
Barker, P. (1995). The child and adolescent psychiatry evaluation. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific.
Felsman, P., Seifert, C. M., & Himle, J. A. (2019). The use of improvisational theater training to reduce social anxiety in adolescents. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 63, 111-117.
Jefferies, P., & Ungar, M. (2020). Social anxiety in young people: A prevalence study in seven countries. PLoS One, 15(9), e0239133.
Krauss Whitbourne, S. (2019). Abnormal Psychology, Clinical Perspectives
Social integration is one of the most important factors influencing the decision of first year college students to continue studies into the next year. Although certainly not the only factor, social integration can make the difference between student retention and student drop out. Tinto's model of student retention shows that academic integration, goal commitment, individual attributes, family attributes, and a host of other issues will impact a student's decision to stay or leave an academic institution (Draper, 2008). Draper (2008) points out that of the factors that impact student retention, academic and social integration are the most important.
Empirical research highlights the importance of social integration on a student's collegiate experience during the first year of school. esearch shows "a student's sense of belonging is largely built upon feelings of acceptance as an individual and as part of a community," (Bagunu, 2009). A feeling of acceptance creates the sociological and…
Bagunu, G.A. (2009). Helping our students integrate into social life on campus. UC San Diego Student Affairs Impact Newsletter. Retrieved online: http://vcsa.ucsd.edu/Newsletter/issue4/integration.html
Draper, S.W. (2008). Tinto's model of student retention. Retrieved online: http://www.psy.gla.ac.uk/~steve/localed/tinto.html
A number of excuses are given over the course of the film. The brother and sister of one of the perpetrators said they initially assumed the killer was drunk and disoriented. Later, they say that they didn't want to be involved in something 'negative.' The girlfriend of one of the killers also said he initially sounded drunk and confused. When she discovered the body of the victim, she called 911, but refused to give much information. The mother of one of the killer's friends says she was initially told the victim was fine, and then assumed he had been taken to an area hospital after the body was discovered. When 911 was called -- twice -- the vague attitude of both of the callers caused emergency personnel to treat the call as a non-emergency.
Source: Prevos, Peter. (2006, January 3). Explanation models for the bystander effect…
There are concerns that schools are performing an injustice by passing students onto the next grade level although they fail the basic requirements for the current grade level. Underachieving middle school students are being promoted with little regard as to how it may impact their future success in education. It sets the precedence for some students who believe that they do not have to make any effort and they will still move to the next grade without suffering any consequences. This gives the message that accountability in middle schools is unimportant.
The purpose of this research study is to identify and evaluate the effects of social promotion amongst middle school students.
Teachers have encountered many cases in which students should have been retained in the same grade as a result of poor attendance, limited ability, and lack of effort. However, school administrators have granted social promotion to…
The balanced view: social promotion & retention.
Westchester Institute for Human Services Research, http://www.sharingsuccess.org/code/bv/socprom.html
Christie, K. (2001). The middle level: more than treading water. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(9), 1-3.
Darling-Hammond, L. (1998). Avoiding both grade retention and social promotion. Education Digest, 64(3), 48-53.
Anxiety and Learning
Anxiety impacts roughly 18% of the population in one form or another. It is particularly troubling for students in higher academics. This study aims to investigate the question: What factors outside of the classroom increase anxiety in academic performance? This paper will provide an overview of anxiety, discuss how college students are affected by it, examine the factors that cause it, and look at how parents and educators can help those who suffer from it.
What is Anxiety?
There are many different types of anxiety, but generally put anxiety refers to nervousness and a feeling of being overwhelmed by stress about something related to one’s life. There is social anxiety, panic disorder, fears and phobias, separation anxiety, and general anxiety disorder, which refers to a chronic case of anxiety that simply will not go away. The characteristics of anxiety include a feeling of apprehension, tension, restlessness, jumpiness,…
Anxiety disorder is among the most prevalent mental health disorders in the U.S>.with approximately 18 of Americans suffering from some form of anxiety (NAMI, 2017). Different types of anxiety disorders include social anxiety, panic disorder, phobias such as agoraphobia, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety disorder (chronic worry over everyday life isues). Behavioral components of anxiety include feeling an overwhelming sense of apprehension, tense, irritable, restless, jumpy, and always anticipating the worst possible outcome. Individuals suffering from anxiety may isolate themselves from others, have difficulty communicating what’s wrong, and may have difficulty focusing on tasks, catching their breath or gaining control of their bodies during an anxiety attack. The biological components of anxiety can include headaches, upset stomach, increased heart rate, loss of breath, sweating, tremors, fatigue, insomnia and frequent urination (NAMI, 2017). It is believed that anxiety may have a genetic or environmental cause.
Treatment options for anxiety include…
Social psychology view: What ensures that women are treated fairly in office settings in the United States?
One of the most prudent applications of social psychology within contemporary settings are those that relate to gender. Gender issues can become exacerbated when they are viewed within particular social constructs, such as the work environment. Due to the fact that the majority of the world was initially a patriarchal society (particularly in the United States) before modern conceptions of gender became prevalent, the role of women within the work environment is one which is certainly worthy of investigation in terms of how women are treated, what sorts of issues they must contend with, and how others (men) consider working women. The principle difference between contemporary and most historic notions of gender pertaining to women in the workplace is that in modern times, there is supposed to be a substantial greater amount of…
Bisika, T. (2008). Do social and cultural factors perpetuate gender-based violence in Malawi?.Gender & Behaviour, 6(2), 1884-1896. doi:10.4314/gab.v6i2.23426
Cikara, M., Rudman, L., & Fiske, S. (2012). Dearth by a Thousand Cuts?: Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology. Journal Of Social Issues, 68(2), 263-285. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2012.01748.x
Gilbert, D.G., Fiske, S.T. & Lindzey G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Huerta, M. (2007). Intersections of race and gender in women's experiences of harassment. (Order No. 3253291, University of Michigan). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 110-110 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304848503?accountid=25340 . (304848503).
According to Freud, human societies require people to give up many of their most natural instincts and to replace their natural desires with the need to satisfy the "false standards of measurement" such as the "power, success and wealth [that they seek] for themselves and admire & #8230; in others, and that [as a result,] they underestimate what is of true value in life." Fred suggested that the need to live up to the standards and expectations set by society causes "too many pains, disappointments and impossible tasks" and that "to bear it we cannot dispense with palliative measures." By that, Freud meant that all of the psychological mechanisms, substitutions, and escapes that cause psychological problems and that often prevent human happiness. These ideas introduced by Freud about the psychological price paid by people living in society would later be part of the views of several other 20th century sociological…
Western Sexual Mores and Fundamental Beliefs about omantic Love:
Beyond the unfair effect of gender-based differential sexual socialization on sexually liberated women in dating relationships, another component of American social psychology often undermines romantic happiness. Specifically, the many messages about romance and marriage that help shape the American view of love suggest that: (1) sexual desire between couples who love each other is exclusive; (2) sexual desire for others indicates a failure of a relationship (or lack of character or sincerity of one's partner); and (3) sexual jealousy is an indication of romantic love (Branden 2002).
Sexual jealousy is practically universal in romantic love within Western society (Buss 2000), but the fact of the matter is, at least in human beings, it is a learned reaction that is virtually unknown in several known aboriginal societies (Barash & Lipton 2001).
Despite the fact that psychologists consider sexual fidelity a matter of…
Ackerman, D. (1994) a Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage.
Baker, R., Elliston, F. (2002) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Barash, D.P., Lipton, J.E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy: Fidelity and Infidelity in Animals and People. New York: Henry Holt.
Branden, N. (2002) the Psychology of Romantic Love.
Social Media and Suicide
Internet has become a gadget of everyday use for people of 21st century. As it is offering many benefits to the users in terms of information communcaition, interaction, entertainment, socialization and earning livelihhod, there are certain dark factors related to it. The dark factors are as severe as forcing people to commit suicide. It is no exaggeration to mention that Intenet is used as a medium to harass people and get undue benefits from them.
Social media today is playing major role in enabling people and organizations to communicate and share ideas, views and knowledge with other people. The traditional methods of communication have been modified through social media platforms like chat rooms, social networking sites (Facebook, My-Space, Twitter, Google+ etc.), video sites (YouTube), discussion forums, video chat, text messages, blogs etc. (Lexton et al., 2012). The most well-known social networking website Facebook had…
Biddle, L., Donovan, J., Hawton, K., Kapur, N., Gunnell, D., 2008. Suicide and the Internet. British Medical Journal, 336, 800-802.
"Cyberbullying Does Not 'Cause' Teen Suicide," 2012. Retrieved from http://www.science20.com/news_articles/cyberbullying_does_not_cause_teen_suicide-95444
"Facebook Statistics," 2011. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics
"Facebook statistics by country," n.d. Retrieved from http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics
The participants should be able to rate their performance both in the experimental situation involving a small audience and in that involving a large audience.
This is also a measure of their self-efficacy prior to exposure to the audiences. The purpose of this act is to see whether the change in their self-evaluation is due to exposure to the audiences. The self-evaluation is done by using a self-administered questionnaire. The second stage is the exposure to the two types of audience. After performing in front of the two types of audiences, the group of gymnasts is asked to rate themselves using the same self-administered questionnaire. Using the subjects' self-evaluation it is possible to identify the changes. And by taking into consideration the changes it would be possible to decide whether the size of the audience had any impact on the performance. However, in such a study it is possible to…
Presence of others, Retrieved at http://myclassonline.com/pub/content/ad080d01
Lambert, a.J., Payne, B.K., Jacoby, L.L., Shaffer L.M., Chasteen, a. (2003) Stereotypes as Dominant Responses: On the "Social Facilitation" of Prejudice in Anticipated Public Contexts, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 84, No. 2, 277-295
Social Facilitation, Retrieved at http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/social_facilitation.htm
The Power of the Situation
Sam Sommers (2008) writes in an article entitled The Elusive Power of Daily Situations about an incident in which he broke a finger of each one of his hands and had to undergo a minor surgical operation that was necessary to ensure the healing process. He describes how this situation was altered for him by his anxiety over the various choices and complications that were part of this type of surgery, by the discomfort he felt wearing a flimsy hospital gown that he was unable to tie due to his broken fingers and being in an unfamiliar place, and by his embarrassment at the incident that resulted in the injury in the first place. Sommers relates this to the phenomena of the power of the daily situation as he writes "As we know from decades of research in social psychology, many of us…
Berger, P.L. And Luckmann, T. (1966) The Social Construction of Reality.
Biali, S. (2007) Was Michael Jackson a Highly Sensitive Person (HSP)? Are You? Retrieved on May 2, 2011 from http://www.psychologytoday.com / blog/prescriptions-life/200907/was-michael-jackson-highly-sensitive-personhsp-are-you.
Gleitman, Fridlund, and Reisberg. (2004) Personality. Psychology Today. 6th Ed. New York W.W. Norton and Co.
Markman, A. (2009) People, Situations, Attributions, and the Hollywood Movie. Retrieved on May 2, 2011 from
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY PLEASE FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS AND ANSWER EITHER a OR B. AND ANSWER C...YOU WILL ANSWER a TOTAL OF TWO QUESTIONS: 1. Answer AB.A. Asian, Hispanic, White American, Black American students tend agree makes attractive female face.
Arranged marriage seems fundamentally anathema to the American culture of individualism and choice. Historically, in Western culture, the ideal of romantic love has emphasized passion and personal autonomy. In Romeo and Juliet, the 'bad' parents try to push Juliet into an arranged marriage vs. her desired match with her true love Romeo. However, the Indian writer Shoba Narayan states that our belief in star-crossed love may be a cultural illusion. She points to her own, modern arranged marriage with a man with whom she has an equal partnership and her failed attempts at traditional American courtship. Narayan points out cultures with high rates of arranged marriages have low divorce rates…
Social workers try to help people make the most of their environment, their relationships, and any struggles they might have with money or family. A lot of social workers deal with people who face life-threatening circumstances, such as criminal activity or substance abuse. Other issues that social workers try to tackle are inadequate housing, unemployment, illness, disability, or difficulties around childbirth (Social Work Professions: Summary of the Social Worker Fields, 2010).
There are various social work specializations, but the larger categories include child, family, and school social workers, who provide social services and assistance to children and their families; medical and public health social workers who provide support for people with illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer, or AIDS; mental health and substance abuse social workers who deal with people who struggle with psychological issues; and social workers who deal with the intricacies of social policy and planning (Social Work…
Social Work Practice. (n.d.). Retrieved August 31, 2010, from Web site:
Social Work Professions: Summary of the Social Worker Fields. (2010). Retrieved August 31,
2010, from Education Portal Web site: http://education-
The stopping of treatment is the primary reason for this early intervention. This tactic has been extremely successful for many years and should be
Once the induction interviews are complete, the client and the social worker can move on to treating the patient. Once the treatment has started it is vitally important that the social worker pay careful attention to eliminating communication patterns that are counterproductive. Social workers have to be careful not to get stuck in unproductive type of communication that serve no purpose and do nothing to assist the client.
In addition if a social worker must examine the family functioning and diverse family and cultural contexts. This simply means that the social worker is responsible for examining the home situation of the client and assisting the client based on this environment. There are several different family structures that may be present including single family homes, blended families…
Glossary. Retrieved November 24, 2009 from: http: / / www. cmpmhmr. cog.pa.us / glossary.html
Hardcastle, David A. (2004) Community Practice: Theories and Skills for Social Workers. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press
Hepworth, DH Rooney, R.H., Rooney, G.D., Strom-Gottfried K., Larsen J. (2009) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills. Cengage Learning, 2009
Ogrodniczuk, J.S., Joyce, A.S., and Piper W.E. (2005) Strategies for Reducing Patient-Initiated Premature Termination of Psychotherapy. Harvard Review Psychiatry Vol. 13 Issue 2, p57-70, 14p. March/April 2005
There is also real indication to depict that declining supply and drinking time could assist in solving the binge drinking, as resulted in Finland, Sweden and Norway. (Lords Hansard text, 2005) Moreover, the Interim Analytical eport indicates that increasing amounts of consumption has been coupled with the increase during the last 25 years in accessibility. It continues to visualize that applications for on-licenses of alcohol have enhanced by 145% over the last two decades. The connection between enhanced accessibility and harm is in someway recognized. But despite suggesting for the regulations on this enormous expansion in supply, the 2003 Act makes the alcohol industry depend on a 'voluntary social responsibility scheme'. The Government is profoundly pressurized by the alcohol industry that promotes income as well as jobs. Therefore, any approaches that are not agreeable to or threat the profit of the alcohol industry have been discarded. Those related to the…
Drummond, Colin. D.2004. An Alcohol Strategy for England: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly.
Alcohol & Alcoholism, 39(5), pp.377-379.
Goodacre, S. 2005. The 2003 Licensing Act: an act of stupidity? Emergency Medicine Journal, 22(1), p.682.
Ghodse, Hamind G. 2005. Addiction at Work: Tackling Drug Use and Misuse in the Workplace.
She did not have the benefit of a bedroom door for the last two years of high school.
Without the bedroom door, the client changed her clothes in the bathroom and was often unable to sleep at night because of her father's snoring. The first time her mother confronted her for being wide awake (and reading) in her room in the middle of the night, the client admitted that her father's snoring kept her awake. A few minutes later, her father entered her room and whipped her with the belt for "being disrespectful."
After discovering that alcohol allowed her to fall asleep and sleep through the night, she began drinking vodka at bedtime, which she chose because it was odorless and easy to hide in alternative containers in her room and among the cleaning supplies in the bathroom cabinet.
The client has always recalled the details of her childhood physical…
Butler, K. (1997). The Anatomy of Resilience; the Family Therapy Networker, 21(2):22-31
DeJong, P., Miller, S. (1995). How to Interview for Clients Strengths;
Social Work, 40(6).
Goldstein, E. (1995). Ego Psychology and Social Work Practice. (2nd
By improving their self knowledge, leaders can change and develop as leaders of people. Clinical supervision for leaders is sometimes called administrative clinical supervision. This is managerial clinical supervision with a focus on problems related to leadership and organization of work, particularly human relations issues. Administrative clinical supervision makes use of experiential learning focused on oneself and one's work (Sirola-Karvinen and Hyrkas, 2008).
Administrative clinical supervision means clinical supervision for leaders that address leadership issues in order to achieve set goals. Supervision promotes cohesion within the organization and is directed at change. Administrative clinical supervision is the examination of leadership in which leaders have the chance to reflect upon the quality of their decisions and share their feelings. In terms of action, administrative clinical supervision involves process-like support and mentoring, which boost the leader's confidence in coping with leadership duties and changes associated with it. Administrative clinical supervision addresses issues…
Clinical supervision 'can inoculate staff against stress'. (2010). Mental Health Practice. 13(7),
Clinical Supervision. (2009). Retrieved June 27, 2010, Australian College of Mental Health
Nurses Web site: http://www.acmhn.org/career-resources/clinical-supervision.html
It is also referred to as luminal stimulus or limen. However the irritability of the population in our case is different, they will react to the slightest provocation of their egos. The isolation formats them to such a sensitive being that they react with very minimum provocation.
Effectiveness of management of excessive stimulus input- the population in study more often will not know the difference between the general pathogenic influences and the and adverse trauma, they may end up treating the two in similar manner since they are not in a position to manage or put under effective control the stimulus they react to nor the stimuli they send out. This is due to isolation which makes then non-interactive for a long time hence cannot use exposure to others to learn the trick.
Generally isolation due to disruption of the cultural system imposed on a population by poverty can…
Bruce et.al, (2000). Neighborhood Poverty and the Social Isolation of Inner-City African
American Families. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-66274514.html
Encyclopedia.com (2005). Ego Functions. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3435300417.html
Henderson David, (2010). Hispanic Poverty and Social Isolation Effects on Low-Income People.
Integration of Social Networks Changed Society and How People Socialize?
The objective of this work is to examine how the integration of social networks has changed society and the ways in which people socialize. This work will answer the question of how the new forms of socialization and communication have affected people and if this effect is positive or negative and will answer as to whether the social networks have served to make life better or alternatively, make life worse.
Despite the positive aspects of social networking sites, the negative aspects of social networking sites have provide to make life worse in many ways.
Pros and Cons of Social Networking Sites
Social networking sites have both positive and negative effects on the lives of individuals. For example, social network positively enables people to "create new relationships and reconnect with friends and family." (Procon.org, 2012, p.1) Studies show that increased communication…
Are Social Networking Sites Good For Our Society? (2012) Social Networking. Procon.org. Retrieved from: http://socialnetworking.procon.org/
Sigman, A. (2009) "Well Connected?: The Biological Implications of 'Social Networking'," Biologist, Feb. 2009
Derbyshire, D. (2009) "Social Websites Harm Children's Brains: Chilling Warning to Parents from Top Neuroscientist," Daily Mail, Feb. 24, 2009.
National School Boards Association (2007) "Creating and Connecting: Research and Guidelines on Online Social - and Educational - Networking," NSBA.org, July 2007.
" (Ungar, 2001) in the work of Jerry Williams entitled: "Knowledge, Consequences, and Experience: The Social Construction of Environmental Problems" explored are the "realist and constructionist approaches to environmental-social problems." (1998) Neither view in its current form is adequate as the actual reality is one that "moves beyond relativism and definitional constructionism" recognizing that the natural world is not dependent upon the constructions of humans. (Williams, 1998) the work of Carvalho and urgess (2005) entitled: "Cultural Circuits of Climate Change in the U.K. roadsheet Newspapers 1985-2003" provides an argument supporting "a cultural perspective to be brought to bear on studies of climate change risk perception." This article holds that those who produce and consume media texts "are jointly engaged in dynamic, meaning-making activities that are context-specific and that change over time." (Carvalho and urgess, 2005) Richard a. Kerr in the work entitled: "Global Warming: Rising Global Temperature, Rising Uncertainty" states…
Dunn-Brown, Beth (2007) Far North is 'Ground Zerio' for Global Warming. AP New Wire. 15 April, 2007. Online available at http://news.aol.com/topnews/articles/_a/far-north-is-ground-zero-for-global/20070415145709990002?ncid=NWS0001
Shelden, Ungar (2001) Moral Panic vs. The Risk Society: The Implications of the Changing Sites of Social Anxiety. The British Journal of Sociology. 52 (2) 2001 June.
Williams, Jerry (1998) Knowledge, Consequences, and Experience: The Social Construction of Environmental Problems. Sociological Inquiry. Vol. 68 No. 4. October 1998.
Carvalho, Anabela and Burgess, Jacquelin (2005) Cultural Circuits of Climate Change in U.K. Broadsheet Newspapers, 1985-2003.
Aboriginals and Social Work
This course provided a very broad perspective of the impact Western and European cultures have an aboriginal culture. It showed how devastating these influences have been to native aboriginal cultures, generally serving to suppress them and change the shape of aboriginal culture, in some cases smothering aboriginal cultures completely. The overall impact this course had on me was allowing me to comprehend this impact on aboriginal societies and see that the Western or European way is not always the best way. This course helped provide a general framework for understanding the difficulties and challenges faced by aboriginal youths and adults. It also showed that social work must be adapted significantly to take into consideration one's cultural background because this can dramatically shape the framework of social work. If one uses a Western or European model on aboriginals, they may find themselves misaligning the model for support…
Absolon, K. (2011). Kaandossiwin: How we come to know. Fernwood Publishing.
Chisholm, R. (1985), 'Destined children: Aboriginal child welfare in Australia: directions of change in law and policy', Aboriginal Law Bulletin, Vol.14
Ross, MG. (1986). Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. Oral Tradition, 1(2): 231-71.
Sinclair, R. (2007). Identity lost and found: Lessons from the sixties scoop. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 3(1): pp.65-82.
psychological diagnosis related children. TOPIC: GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER. Topics selected Diagnostic Statistical Manual Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). The research paper discuss: a.
Anxiety disorders are presently responsible for interfering in people's lives and preventing them from being able to successfully integrate society. hen considering the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), matters are particularly intriguing as a result of the fact that many people have trouble identifying it and actually go through their lives thinking that their thinking is perfectly normal. In spite of the fact that there are no motives to provoke the exaggerated worry seen in people with GAD, they are unable to realize that they are overstressed. Millions of people from around the world are currently suffering from GAD, with the malady affecting virtually everything about their lives.
hile some individuals actually acknowledge the fact that their worries are unfounded, it is very difficult for them to put across rational…
Gliatto, M.F. "Generalized Anxiety Disorder." American Family Physician. October 1, 2000.
Kendall, Philip C. Pimentel, Sandra Moira Rynn, A. Angelosante, Aleta and Webb, Alicia "12 Generalized Anxiety Disorder," Phobic and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Clinician's Guide to Effective Psychosocial and Pharmacological Interventions, ed. Thomas H. Ollendick andJohn S. March (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Murray, Megan "Treading Water: Self-reflections on Generalized Anxiety Disorder," Human Architecture 2.1 (2003)
Nutt, David; Bell, Caroline; Masterson, Christine and Short, Clare Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Psychopharmacological Approach (London: Martin Dunitz, 2001)
ICT Controversy: Does Using the Internet Strengthen or Weaken Social Connections?
Since the dawning of the Digital Age, the Internet has served as a social device, connecting people around the world more easily than ever before in history. Yet what is the actual social effect of Internet-connectivity? Does using the Internet in fact strengthen or weaken social connections? There are two sides to the answer to this question: on the one hand, it can be argued that the Internet is a powerful social tool that strengthens social connections by breaking down barriers of time and place so that access to information and communication are nearly instantaneous; on the other hand, it can be argued that the Internet reduces actual face-to-face time and real-life social interaction so that every generation of the Digital Age will grow up without ever developing the ability to read and register social cues, understand how to…
Amichai-Hamburger, Y., Hayat, Z. (2011). The Impact of the Internet on the social lives of users: A representative sample from 13 countries. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1): 585-589.
Brandtzaeg, P. (2012). Social networking sites: Their users and social implications -- a longitudinal study. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 17(4): 467-488.
Ellison, N., Steinfeld, C., Lampe, C. (2011). Connection strategies: social capital implications of Facebook-enabled communication practices. New Media and Society, 27.
Ellison, N., Vitak, J., Gray, R. (2014). Cultivating social resources on social network sites: Facebook relationship maintenance behaviors and their role in social capital processes. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19(4): 855-870.
There are a wide range of issues it consider here; from the effect that changed ecosystems can have on the general environment to studies of the 'disappearing' coral reef and the glaciers that are rapidly melting. "Scientists predict that composition and range of many ecosystems will shift as species respond to climate change..." (eschatology of the left)
This will also have an impact on the forests and it is estimated that as much as two-thirds of the worlds footrests will be affected.
Figure 1. Comparison of emissions source: (http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/recognizing-forests-role-in-climate-change.html)
2.1. The media and the construction of perceptions
Taking into account the enormous significance of global warming and the potential that it poses for the disruption and even destruction of human life on earth, it is important to gauge the effect that this event has had on the public perception. The media as a conduit of popular perception is also means…
Boykoff J. And Boykoff M. Journalistic Balance as Global Warming Bias:
Creating controversy where science finds consensus. May 4, 2007. http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1978
Brief Analysis of Climate Change Report. May 4, 2007. http://alt-e.blogspot.com/
Eschatology of the left. May 4, 2007 http://www.watchblog.com/republicans/archives/001181.html
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Humans have a natural response to survival, stress and fear. Such responses enable an individual to pursue pertinent objectives and respond accordingly to the presence of danger. The 'flight or fight' response in a healthy individual is provoked via a real challenge or threat and is utilized as a means of acting appropriately to the situation. However, when an anxiety disorder manifests in someone, then an inappropriate/excessive state of arousal develops. People then feel symptoms of fear, apprehension, or uncertainty. These feelings or reactions may surface even when no real threat exists.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), is a common anxiety disorder that affects roughly 5% of the United States general population. "GAD is commonly associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities and is often chronic. GAD is associated with extensive psychiatric and medical utilization and, if left untreated, can cause impairment as severe as major depressive disorder…
Asmundson, G. J., Fetzner, M. G., DeBoer, L. B., Powers, M. B., Otto, M. W., & Smits, J. A. (2013). LET'S GET PHYSICAL: A CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THE ANXIOLYTIC EFFECTS OF EXERCISE FOR ANXIETY AND ITS DISORDERS. Depression and Anxiety, 30(4), 362-373. doi:10.1002/da.22043
Butnoriene, J., Bunevicius, A., Saudargiene, A., Nemeroff, C. B., Norkus, A., Ciceniene, V., & Bunevicius, R. (2015). Metabolic syndrome, major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and ten-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in middle aged and elderly patients. International Journal of Cardiology, 190, 360-366. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.04.122
Chokroverty, S. (2013). Sleep Disorders Medicine: Basic Science, Technical Considerations, and Clinical Aspects. Elsevier Science.
Dodhia, S., Hosanagar, A., Fitzgerald, D. A., Labuschagne, I., Wood, A. G., Nathan, P. J., & Phan, K. L. (2014). Modulation of Resting-State Amygdala-Frontal Functional Connectivity by Oxytocin in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(9), 2061-2069. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.53
The Social Media Age
A social change that I have experienced is the arrival of the Digital and Information Age, which has led to a revolution in the way people communication, obtain knowledge, and engage with ideas. Mainly the big change is the arrival of social media which has made everything private suddenly public. There is no more line between a private life and a public life. Everything is blurred together. People are less genuine and more interested in building their “brand” than in actually being human—because, after all, being human does not necessarily get one a million subscribers on YouTube. As Olsen (2013) notes, everything is “leading to a world that feels less personal, less polite and less human.” So while there have definitely been some good points about the Digital Era and the Information Age—such as the ability to now share information more easily than ever before, to…
The form of oppression and discrimination discussed in Unit 2 is mental health problems among veteran are further compounded by other problems such as financial difficulties, joblessness, marriage problems, social isolation, and homelessness (Smith et al., 2017). These problems are major risk factors for suicide and substance abuse. The federal policy from the Library of Congress that relates to this social justice is the Affordable Healthcare Act.
Include a description of the programs and services that are provided through the policy. What is the purpose of this policy? What problem does it seek to remedy?
The Affordable Care Act is also referred to as the health care law and was established with the main purpose of providing more Americans with greater accessibility to affordable health insurance, enhancing the quality of health care and health insurance, and also diminishing health care spending in the in the United States. Basically, its main…
The manufacturing, advertising, and retailing of a product devoid of consideration for ethical, legal, and social aspects is harmful to the general success of any entity. The company in consideration is Jolly Company, which is presenting Bubbly Energy Drink. This is a start-up company that will have its base of operations in the State of Texas, in the United States. With the U.S. being the domestic market, the international market included in this discussion is Mexico. Energy drinks are amidst the most fast growing business segments of the entire beverage industry in the present day and are progressively more market in the direction of young individuals. Owing to the fact that these drinks are comparatively new to the market, the impacts of their longstanding use continues to be vague, and there is increasing proof to hint that they may be detrimental to young consumers. One of the legal issues linked…
social networking has in the last couple of years stirred a lot of debate among politician and scholars alike. The level of risks and benefits associated with social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace especially to children and teenagers has elicited a mixed reaction among the debating parties. In this paper we present a systematic analysis of the implications of social networking sites for both children and teenagers with a sharp focus on Facebook. We also focus on the benefits as well as the issue surrounding the use of social networking sites by use of relevant illustrations. Overall, we evaluate how the use of computer technology has impacted the society in general and education in particular.
Definition of Social Networking
Several scholars have attempted to define the concept of social networking and its components. Boyd & Ellison (2007) define social networking sites as special web-based services that are…
Berkshire District Attorney. Sexting. Pittsfield, MA: Commonwealth of Massachusetts; 2010.
Availableonline at: www.mass.gov/?pageID_ berterminal&L_3&L0_Home&L1_Crime_Awareness_%26_Prevention&L2_Parents_
%26_Youth&sid_Dber&b_terminalcontent&f_parents_youth_sexting&csid_Dber. Accessed onApril 5, 2011
Tynes, BM (2007),Internet Safety Gone Wild? Sacrificing the Educational and Psychosocial
In today's modern world, organizations have become global, where people from different countries and cultures come together to work for common and shared organizational goals. Several cultural issues arise when employees from distinct backgrounds are in the same place. Religion is one of the most critical ones since it is the set of spiritual beliefs and values that individuals follow in their daily lives. They expect their organizations to give them leverage for following their religion as this provides for their personal development. Enhancement in personal self would support bettering individual and group performance; hence, upgrading in organizational competitiveness would be observed.
Hofstede said that the religion practiced in a certain region is the result of cultural values that were followed previously by the ancestors in the same area (Mazur, 2010). The existing cultural strength is increased when people follow a religious guideline as they can with themselves…
Mazur, B. (2020). Organizational culture under religious influence. Intech Open. Retrieved from https://www.intechopen.com/online-first/organizational-culture-under-religious-influence
Nandi, A. & Platt, L. (2018). The relationship between political and ethnic identity among UK ethnic minority and majority populations. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 46(5), 957-979. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2018.1539286
Raday, F. (2003). Culture, religion, and gender. Oxford University Press and New York University School of Law, 1(4), 663-715. http://arabic.musawah.org/sites/default/files/Culture%2C%20Religion%20and%20Gender.pdf
Ramos, M.R., Massey, D., Bennett, M. & Hewstone, M. (2019). Social diversity is initially threatening, but people do adapt over time- new research. The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/social-diversity-is-initially-threatening-but-people-do-adapt-over-time-new-research-118066
Seyranian, V., Atuel, H. & Crano, W.D. (2008). Dimensions of majority and minority groups. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 11(1), 21-37. DOI: ff10.1177/1368430207084843ff.
Winkel, H. (2019). Religious cultures and gender cultures: Tracing gender differences across religious cultures. Journal of Contemporary Religion, 34(2), 241-251. https://doi.org/10.1080/13537903.2019.1621540
UK Children and Families
Homeless families are generally defined as adults with dependent children who are briefly accommodated by voluntary agency, local authority or housing association hostels in the United Kingdom (Vostanis 2002). They are taken in from a few days or several months, often four to six weeks and generally provided with bread and breakfast. Although this broad definition does not include children who have lost homes and live with friends and relatives, it is estimated that there are 140,000 such displaced families in the UK today. The average family consists of a single mother and at least two children. Trends show that these families become homeless again within a year from being housed by agencies. Domestic violence and harassment from the neighborhood are the most frequent cause behind their homelessness. The volume of homeless refugee families among them has dwindled in the late 90s, mostly confined in the…
1. Harrisona C. et al. (2001). Who is failing abused and neglected children? Archives of Disease in Childhood. http://www.fetalneonatal.com/cgi/content/full/85/4/300
2. Jackson, S (2001). Reducing risk and promoting resilience in vulnerable children. IUC Journal of Social Work, Journal Issue 4. Department of Social Relations and Services: Bemidji State University. http://www.bemidji.msu.edu/sw_journal/issue4/articles/jackson.html
3. Jowell, T et al. (1999). Lone parent families: routes to social inclusion. Gingerbread. http://www.gingerbread.org.uk/lprtsi.txt
4. Nixon, P. Family group conference connections: shared problems and joined-up solutions. International Institutes for Restorative Practices. http://iirp.org/library/vt/vt_nixon.html
Social Media on Teenagers -- Literature eview
The recent technological advancements have transformed modern communications by generating new ways for interactions. One of the by-products of these advancements is the emergence of social media, which has become an important communication tool in today's society, especially among teenagers. Teenagers are increasingly using social media networks for interactions because of the numerous advantages of social networking sites. However, the substantial use of social media by teenagers has become an alarming issue that is characterized by concerns regarding privacy and security. Actually, the impact of social media on teenagers aged between 13 and 19 years has become the focus on numerous studies. This is primarily because teenagers are increasingly trying to be socially active and struggle to cope up with school. The existing studies have attempted to determine the various impacts of social media on teenagers and how negative impacts can…
Daclan, J.R.L. (2013, October). Online Social Networking-based Health Education: Effects on Students' Awareness and Practice of Laboratory Safety. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 12(4).
Dimitriou, D., Knight, F.L. & Milton, P. (2015, December 1). Social Media and Drinks Before Bed Affecting Teenagers' School Performances. Community Practitioner: The Journal of the Community Practitioners' & Health Visitors' Association, 89, 1.
Eckles, J. E., & Stradley, E.G. (2012). A Social Network Analysis of Student Retention Using Archival Data. Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, 15(2), 165-180.
Jimoyiannis, A., Tsiotakis, P., & Roussinos, D. (2013). Social Network Analysis of Students' Participation and Presence in a Community of Educational Blogging. Smart Education, 10(1), 15-30.
Optimism and Pessimism Relates to Stress and Coping with Cancer
An increasing amount of research links negative and positive emotional states to wellness or ill health. The negative or pessimistic emotions seem to have a negative effect on the immune system and on general health. Pessimism has been shown to be unhealthy and have adverse effects on health, including increasing the risk of cancer and preventing recovery from the disease. On the other hand, positive or optimistic emotions have been shown to strengthen immune function and bring good health. (Gillman, 1989)
There is a wealth of research that suggests optimism has a positive association with better mental and physical health, as well as coping with stress. Pessimism has been linked to a higher risk of death before the age of 65, while positive emotions, like optimism, are linked to lowered production of the stress hormone cortisol, better immune function, and…
Schultz, Richard. Bookwala, Judith, Scheier Michael. "Pessimism, Age, and Cancer Survival." Psychology and Aging, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp 304-309.
Brissette, I., Scheier, M.F., & Carver, C.S. (2002). The role of optimism and social network development, coping, and psychological adjustment during a life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 102-111.
Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M.F. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and self-regulation. In E.C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice (pp. 31-51). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Gillman, Jane. The Science of Optimism and Hope: Research Essays in Honor of Martin E.P. Seligman. Templeton Foundation Press, 1999.
Client is an African-American male, age 19, diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder 1 (296.89), with mixed and psychotic features. Lability and mood cycles have become more rapid recently. Currently, the client is experiencing an acute but mild manic episode.
The client has no significant biological issues. As the first in his family known to have Bipolar Disorder, no genetic component to the disorder has been determined, but further work in a family therapy context might help determine if there are any biological risk factors. The client is physically healthy. He does not use drugs or alcohol, but tends towards a pattern of excessive denial.
Psychologically, the client struggles with low self-esteem, denial, and mood swings. Although the client reports strong and amicable relationships with family and friends, there may be little empathy from his closest relatives due to perceived stigma about bipolar disorder and lack of knowledge of the…
Balanza-Martinez, V., Lacruz, M. & Tabares-Seisdedos, R. (2015). Staging and early intervention in bipolar disorder. Chapter 15 in Neuroprogression and Staging in Bipolar Disorder. Oxford University Press.
CDC (2015). Burden of mental illness. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/basics/burden.htm
Cipriani, A., et al. (2005). Lithium in the prevention of suicidal behavior. The American Journal of Psychiatry 162(10): 1805-1819.
Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA, 2015). Bipolar disorder statistics. Retrieved online: http://www.dbsalliance.org/site/PageServer?pagename=education_statistics_bipolar_disorder
children in the United States suffer from learning disabilities and disabilities that impair their ability to socialize properly with others. Social skill interventions are designed to help students with specific disabilities like autism understand how to learn and adapt while in a social setting like a classroom or school trip. One such project, the HANDS project, developed a way to support students with autism spectrum disorder learn important social and life skills. "The HANDS project has developed a mobile cognitive support application for smartphones, based on the principles of persuasive technology design, which supports children with ASD with social and life skills functioning -- areas of ability which tend to be impaired in this population" (Mintz, Branch, March, & Lerman, 2012, p. 53).
This kind of technology is not only easy to access, but easy to use making it feasible for any parent or teacher looking to help a student.…
MacFarlane, K. & Woolfson, L. (2013). Teacher attitudes and behavior toward the inclusion of children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties in mainstream schools: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Teaching and Teacher Education, 29, 46-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.08.006
Mintz, J., Branch, C., March, C., & Lerman, S. (2012). Key factors mediating the use of a mobile technology tool designed to develop social and life skills in children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Computers & Education, 58(1), 53-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.07.013
Walton, K. & Ingersoll, B. (2012). Improving Social Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Autism and Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability: A Review of the Literature. J Autism Dev Disord, 43(3), 594-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1601-1
Technology has both enlightened and darkened the souls of humanity. It has connected people from all walks of life and it has also divided people. ith the invention and proliferation of the internet, knowledge is just a web result and click away. ith articles discussing Google, social networking, and the creation of smarter than human computers, is technology truly a blessing, or ultimately a curse?
In an article titled "Is Google making us Stupid?" by Nicholar Carr, the writer discusses the increase in internet usage and the perhaps increased decline in overall intelligence. hile writers like Carr gain incredible ability to research quickly and with ease in the comfort of home, there is also more chances for people to go online to entertain themselves, skim text, and avoid actually reading. Yes, it is more convenient than going to the library and looking up physical copies of information, but most people…
Bostrom, Nick. "Nick Bostrom: What Happens When Our Computers Get Smarter Than We Are?." Singularity Weblog. N.p., 2015. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.
Carr, Nicholas. "Is Google Making Us Stupid?." The Atlantic. N.p., 2015. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.
Sentow, Manuel. "OMG: Tweeting, Trending, And Texting (Summary and Reflection)." themanuelsantosblog. N.p., 2015. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.
Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics
Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.
While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…
Abrams, D. & Hogg, M. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 317-334.
Bond, R., & Smith, P. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's
(1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119(1), 111-137.
Darley, J. & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4), 377-383.
Social Advocacy in Counseling
Social advocacy has been described by some counseling theorists as a "fifth force" paradigm that should be considered to rival if not replace other major counseling psychology paradigms regarding behavior and mental illness (atts, 2009). This paper briefly discusses what social justice/advocacy is, the debate regarding its status as a paradigm in counseling psychology, and how social advocacy can enhance both the client's experience and life and the professional counselor's personal, professional, and ethical obligations to helping others.
Social justice is fairness or impartiality exercised in society, specifically as it is implemented by and within different levels of social classes of a society. A truly socially just populace would be based on the principles of solidarity and equality, would consider and maintain values, human rights, and the dignity of every person in the society (Bell, 1997). Social justice/advocacy theories have in recent years been…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
Bell, L. (1997). Theoretical foundations for social justice education. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice (pp. 3-16). New York: Routledge.
Betancourt, J.R., Green, A.R., Carrillo, J.E., & Park, E.R. (2005). Cultural competence and health care disparities: Key perspectives and trends. Health Affairs, 24, 499 -- 505.
Carlson, N. (2011). Foundations of behavioral neuroscience (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson
Social Media and Technology
The entire sphere of human interaction has undergone large-scale transformation as a result of the rapidly changing technological environment and the emergence of the internet. Back in the day, social interactions were primarily based on hand-written letters and occasional telephone conversations. Thanks to technological progression, however, numerous online communication platforms have been developed, and what we have now is an internet revolution and a totally new and dynamic realm of human interaction and long-distance communication. Currently, 73% of America's adult population, and 93% of the teen population uses social media platforms to communicate with family members and friends. Today, Facebook is home to more than 700 million users who can conveniently communicate with each other at the touch of a button without having to grapple with the time and space limitations that back in the day forced people to choose their partners and friends from their…
Anderson, T.L. & Emmers-Sommer, T.M. (2006). Predictors of Relationship Satisfaction in Online Romantic Relationships. Communication Studies, 57(2), 153-172.
Andon, S.P. (2006). Evaluating Computer-Mediated Communication on the University Campus: The Impact of Facebook.com on the Development of Romantic Relationships. The Florida State University Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations. Paper 208. Retrieved 3 October 2014 from http://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3729&context=etd
Baack, D., Fogliasso, C. & Harris, J. (2000). The Personal Impact of Ethical Decisions: A Social Penetration Theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 24(1), 39-49.
Babbie, E. (2010). The Practice of Social Research (12th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Social media involves online content that people use via highly accessible technologies. Basically, social media marks a change in the way people read, discover and share information, news and content. Therefore, social media fuses technology and sociology leading to a change in monologues into dialogues and also marks information democratization, making everyone an author instead of being a mere content reader. Social media has become very popular since it enables people interaction through the internet to create relations useful for different reasons including political, personal and business. Businesses consider social media to be an amalgamation of consumer-generated media. The social media takes different forms like, blogs, Internet forums, wikis, pictures, podcasts and video. Therefore, it is obvious that the Internet is a fundamental social medium (Customer Centric Business Strategies, n.d.). This may not change since people endeavor to engage with each other online; hence, social media is going to be…
Ali, S. (2012, August 8). Social Media - A Good Thing or a Bad Thing? Retrieved, from http://www.socialmediatoday.com/content/social-media-good-thing-or-bad-thing
Fernandez, A. (2011). Clinical Report: The impact of social media on children, adolescents and families. Archivos de Pediatriadel Uruguay, 82(1), 31-32.
Gaal, Z., Szabo, L., & Obermayer-Kovacs, N. (2015).The Power of Social Media in Fostering Knowledge Sharing. Proceedings Of The European Conference On Intellectual Capital, 114-121.
Hajli, M.N. (2014). A study of the impact of social media on consumers. International Journal Of Market Research, 56(3), 387-404. doi:10.2501/IJMR-2014-025
Mr. iley's agoraphobia is a matter of particular concern as this defensive response to his anxiety disorder has prevented the subject from engaging a normal, health, active, productive life. According to A.D.A.M. (2010), "panic disorder with agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder in which there are repeated attacks of intense fear and anxiety, and a fear of being in places where escape might be difficult, or where help might not be available. Agoraphobia usually involves fear of crowds, bridges, or of being outside alone." (A.D.A.M., p. 1) The fear of the outside world has inclined the subject in this case to increasingly shut himself off from others and from opportunities to experience life. The result, A.D.A.M. (2010) reports, is a deepening sense of isolation and a further descent into the irrational response mechanisms that have come to control Mr. iley's life.
One major demographic concern for Mr. iley might…
A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. (2010). Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. PubMed Health.
DSM IV. (2010). DSM IV Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Criteria. Biological Unhapiness.com.
Malinckrodt, B.; Porter, M.J. & Kivlighan, D.M. (2005). Client Attachment to Therepist: Depth of In-Session Exploration, and Object Relations in Brief Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(1), 85-100.
Knowledge of avenues for community support as well as for physical aid such as shelter and food are vital to providing help, both immediate and long-term, to discriminated populations. I have confidence that between my studies and real-life experiences such as internships and work, that I can gain this knowledge and disperse it amongst clientele.
The fourth role a therapist ought to play is as a "consultant helping clients (and others in their life) find ways to work toward reducing discriminatory practices in the community" (Atkinson, et.al., 1993, pp. 264-270, cited in Cooper and Lesser, 2005, p. 67). This role dovetails with the second role above of being an advocate oneself.
If one is successfully filling the role of advocate, then sharing information on how to participate in the local community, to contact one's officials, and to agitate for change is not a large step. Teaching clients how to successfully…
Atkinson, D.R., Thompson, C.E. And Grant, S.K. 1993. "A three-dimensional model for counseling racial/ethnic minorities," in The Counseling Psychologist, 21(2), 257-277.
Babakan, H. And Gopalkrishan, N. "Posttraumatic experiences of refugee women," in Rabin, C. ed., Understanding Gender and Culture in the Helping Process. Sydney, Thomson Wadsworth.
Banks, J. 2004. "Approaches to Multicultural Curriculum Reform," in Banks,.J and Banks, C., eds. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Massachusetts, Wiley.
Banks, J. 2004. "Multicultural Education: Characteristics and Goals," in Banks, J and Banks, C., eds. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Massachusetts, Wiley.
Personal Social Class
My Parent's Class Position
My parents grew up in poverty in Latin America. Their story is not an unfamiliar one in America. My parents were able to obtain a middle school education, which at that time in Latin America, was a good educational accomplishment. Like most children living in impoverished, lower class families, my parents both had to contribute to the household income. Opportunities for earning extra money were scarce, but my parents were creative and determined; they took what jobs they could find and set themselves up to establish work where there had previously been none. My mother would say that sometimes people just didn't know what work they needed someone else to do -- but if you do some work, and the people like it, they see that it is nice not to have to do the work for themselves. When my grandparents immigrated to…
Measurement of Social Persuasion
Social Persuasion Defined
The term 'social persuasion' has been defined differently by various researchers and scholars in different fields of study. For purposes of this text, however, Kaptein's (2012) definition and scope will be adopted. Thus, social persuasion is defined as the symbolic ability "to convince other people to change their attitudes or behaviors regarding an issue, through the transmission of a message in an atmosphere of free choice" (Kaptein, 2012, p. 1). In other words, it is the art of getting a target to change their attitude or opinion about something, and to consequently adopt a different viewpoint.
This conceptualization draws from the early works of Cartwright (1959) and Kurt ewin (1951), both of whom hold the view that an individual's behavior/attitude is the product of a range of forces or tensions within their life space, and their ability/inability to resist the same. Towards this…
Liu, O.L. & Wilson M. (2010). Sources of Self-Efficacy Belief: Development and Validation of Two Scales. Journal of Applied Measurement, 11(1), 24-37.
Schwenk, G. (2009). Evaluating Social Influence Relations: An Item-Response Modeling Approach. Metodoloski Zvezki, 6(1), 27-50
Swasy, J.L. (1979). Measuring the Bases of Social Power. In William L. William & M. Ann Abor: Association for Consumer Research Vol. 6. (pp.340-346).
The term 'applied social psychology' is used to denote a methodical utilization of socio-psychological models, study approaches and outcomes, concepts, ideologies, and intervention approaches for comprehending or ameliorating social issues. Psychologists belonging to this subfield concentrate on comprehending and solving practical issues and coming up with intervention approaches to enhance individual, organizational and societal response to social issues. While this domain's chief concern is the generic tackling of practical and social issues revolving around the environment, education, and so forth, social psychology may also help enrich people's lives (Schneider, Gruman, & Coutts, 2012). Social psychological theories offer prescriptions to solve practical and social challenges. This paper is presented as a review of literature on social psychological theories and their generic role in resolving practical and social problems.
A key applied social psychological theory is Cognitive Dissonance, whose main premise is that an individual is driven to remain consistent…
internet has brought to the forefront communication via social networking sites. College students in particular enjoy communicating with friends and relatives via websites like Facebook or Twitter. In fact, current literature suggests that several factors go into deciding to socialize online. For example, younger college students tend to frequent Facebook more than they tend to older college students. Females outnumber males in relation to having Facebook accounts and communicating on Facebook from around 4:1 (Lenhart, Purcell, Smith & Zickuhr, 2010). Furthermore, those that exhibit shyness tendencies are more than likely to use online social networks to interact with others whether they are in their community or long distance.
Online social networking sites have thus provided people from certain ages, gender, and proclivity, with the ability to engage with people of interest over a platform that is easy to access, the internet. However, can personal relationships grow online? Some literature suggests…
Davies, H. (2015). Social media and personal relationships: online intimacies and networked friendship. Information, Communication & Society, 17(2), 279. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1369118X.2013.850527?journalCode=rics20
Lenhart, A., Purcell, K., Smith, A., & Zickuhr, K. (2010). Social Media and Young Adults. Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. Retrieved 1 November 2015, from http://www.pewinternet.org/2010/02/03/social-media-and-young-adults/
Manago, A., Taylor, T., & Greenfield, P. (2012). Me and my 400 friends: The anatomy of college students' Facebook networks, their communication patterns, and well-being. Developmental Psychology, 48(2), 369-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0026338
Moreno, M., Jelenchick, L., Egan, K., Cox, E., Young, H., Gannon, K., & Becker, T. (2011). Feeling bad on Facebook: depression disclosures by college students on a social networking site. Depression And Anxiety, 28(6), 447-455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.20805
The DSS is a state agency charged with the responsibility of protecting children from child abuse and neglect. DSS is committed to protecting children and strengthening families. When children are abused or neglected by the people responsible for caring for them, DSS will intervene to ensure the safety of the children. DSS responds to reports of abuse or neglect 24 hours a day. DSS becomes involved if there are any concerns that caretakers, parents, step-parents, guardians or other persons responsible for caring for children may be abusing or neglecting these children. Whenever possible and appropriate, DSS attempts to keep families intact. DSS reviews all the reports of child abuse and neglect received by the agency. If it is determined that abuse or neglect has occurred, or if a child appears to be at risk of being hurt, or is being neglected, DSS
takes action to protect that child.…
Berman-Rossi, T. (1993). "The tasks and skills of the social worker across stages of group development." Social Work with Groups: 26(1/2): pp. 70-81.
Duffy, T. (1994). "The check in and other go-rounds in group work: Guidelines for use."
Social Work With Groups, 17(1/2): 163- 174.
Gazda, G., Ginter, E. & Herne, A. (2001). Group counseling and group psychotherapy.
Though there is not anything that clearly indicates that Cliff has not been through some sort of traumatic event to trigger his anxiety, it is unlikely that he suffers from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder since, again, his anxieties are not focused on any one thing and there is no indication in this vignette that he feels he is reliving any kind of event from his past. Social Phobic Disorder is highly unlikely since, again, Cliff operates out in the world with moderate success, and what is most telling to eliminate this diagnosis is the fact that Cliff does not state that he is concerned about his evaluations at work, but instead simply about arriving on time. And finally, Specific Phobic Disorder is not a consideration since, as stated before, his anxieties are not fixed on any one object, person, or situation.
American Psychological Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual…
American Psychological Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-IV-TR 4th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Caldwell, J.P. (2005). Anxiety disorders. Redmond Hill, ON CA: Firefly Publishers.
eduction of Prejudice
The Contact Hypothesis of Gordon Allport and the eduction of Prejudice
The literature covering the nature of prejudice, its scope, the effects of prejudice, and methods to reduce on prejudice is among the most extraordinary body of literature in all of social science. The total volume of research on the topic of prejudice is quite extraordinary and this body of work reflects several decades of scholarly investigation of the meaning of prejudice, its assessment, its etiology, its consequences, and methods to reduce prejudice. There are very few areas of study that have attracted a greater range of theoretical perspectives than the area of prejudice. Theorizing about the nature and manifestation of prejudice has also been accompanied by many spirited debates about the appropriate way to conceptualize methods to reduce prejudice in people. The result has been a rich body of measurement instruments and reduction strategies. The most…
Allport, G. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Aron, A., Aron, E. & Coups, E. (2011). Statistics for the behavioral and social sciences: A brief course. (5th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall.
Bar-Haim, Y., Ziv, T., Lamy, D., & Hodes, R.M. (2006). Nature and nurture in own-race face processing. Psychological Science, 17 (2), 159-163.
Binder, J., Zagefka, H., Brown, R., Funke, F., Kessler, T., Mummendey, A., Maquil, A., Demoulin, S. & Leyens, J. (2009). Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(4), 843-856.
Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) and its theory, techniques, application, strengths, weaknesses or other related topics are: the article by Souza et al. (2016) that examines the effects of IPT on treatment-resistant depression in adults, and the article by Markowitz, Lipsitz and Milrod (2014) that examines the relevant literature available on the impact of IPT on anxiety disorders.
Both articles provide assessments of the theory of IPT, which is that IPT provides a short-term treatment for individuals in need of psychological treatment. Its aim is to assist the individual in regaining functioning day-to-day abilities. The application typically takes between twelve and sixteen weeks and the theory upon which it is based is the idea that how the individual relates to others has a significant impact on his mental health. Thus, the concept that guides Interpersonal Psychotherapy is that relationships and how they are perceived, interpreted, developed and maintained is of critical importance…
Mary Law entitled: "Autism Spectrum Disorders and Occupational Therapy' states of the autistic child that this child "may be the child who is standing in the middle of the field at recess spinning around in circles, or she may be the child who can't stand the way a certain fabric feels on her body or the way a certain texture of food feels in her mouth, or it may be the child who is throwing a severe temper tantrum because they just can't communicate their needs." (Law, 2006) According to Law, Autism Spectrum Disorder is characterized by four main categories:
1) Impairment in social interaction;
2) Impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication;
3) Restricted repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and interests and activities; and 4) Delays in development. (2006)
Law states that occupational therapy focuses on assisting individuals to "participate in daily occupations, including taking care of oneself, contributing to society…
Bellini, Scott and Pratt, Cathy (2006) Early Intervention for Young Children on the Autism Spectrum: Parent's Perspective. IRCA Articles 2006. Online available at http://www.iidc.indiana.edu/irca/education/EarlyIntervention.html
Law, Mary (2006) Autism Spectrum Disorders and Occupational Therapy. Briefing to the Senate Standing Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology. Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists. 9 Nov 2006. Online available at http://egfl.net/Teaching/Issues/startingpoints/ASD%20docs/11%20tchng%20Social%20Skills.doc
Benson, Bernadette and Dewey, Deborah (2008) Parental Stress and Needs in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. International Journal of Disability, Community & Rehabilitation Volume 7, No. 1. Online available at http://www.ijdcr.ca/VOL07_01_CAN/articles/benson.shtml
Stahmer, Aubyn C. (2007) the Basic Structure of Community Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autism: Provider Descriptions. Journal of Autism Development Disorder. 2007. August 37(7). Online available at http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2084486
Counseling for Multiculturalism and Social Justice
One interesting theme which emerges in the book Counseling for Multiculturalism and Social Justice: Integration, Theory, and Application is the idea that the multicultural and social justice perspectives counselors may adopt are not necessarily synonymous. Although multiculturalism may stress the need to take into consideration a counseling subject's unique needs, including the fact that the client comes from a more collectivist culture, the social justice perspective emphasizes the need for change and dynamism in society and ensuring fairness for the client in frequently unfair situations. The social justice may challenges some of the client's deeply-held social assumptions and force the client out of his or her comfort zone. The counselor must weigh the need to be sensitive and not impose a particular worldview on the client with an accurate view of the client's situation.
It is true that multiculturalism and the social justice perspective…
Ratts, M. & Pederson, P. (2014). Counseling for multiculturalism and social justice: Integration, theory, and application. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents
Current essay is a discussion of the antisocial behavior disorder amongst adolescents. The author critically reviewed studies on the topic. The literature suggests that neighborhood and peer holds a great influence as regards antisocial behavior amongst adolescents. Previous research has confirmed socialization experiences outside of the family shape what goes on inside of the family. Also there is possibility that peer and neighborhood characteristics are related to parenting and family relationships. Presence of violence in neighborhood may cause stress among parents resulting in poor parenthood quality.
Mediating Effects of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior
Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents
The importance of socialization contexts outside of the family has been well documented. In particular, neighborhood (e.g., violence, collective efficacy) and peer relationship (e.g., relationship quality, peer deviancy) factors both have been linked to a number of adolescent outcomes, such as self-esteem, academic…
Barnes, J., Belsky, J., Broomfield, K.A., Melhuish, E., & the National Evaluation of Sure Start Research Team (2006). Neighborhood deprivation, school disorder and academic achievement in primary schools in deprived communities in England. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 127-136.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Capaldi, D., DeGarmo, D., Patterson, G.R., & Forgatch, M. (2002). Contextual risk across the early life span and association with antisocial behavior. In J.B. Reid, G.R. Patterson, & J. Snyder (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and model for intervention (p.123-145). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Chapple, C.L. (2005). Self-control, peer relations, and delinquency. Justice Quarterly,22, 89-106.
WA 2 social sciences
Genital herpes affliction owing to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), causes ill health and even death across the globe. Although in most cases symptoms are not found, the possibility of severe clinical manifestations cannot be ruled out, specifically in people living in inhospitable and unhygienic conditions. People additionally have a scope of mental responses to the determination; for a few, stresses about telling accomplices and the effect on their sexuality are very critical, especially immediately after the revelation. Moreover, genital herpes can be prenatally transferred and cause life-debilitating neonatal HSV contamination. In addition, it proffers the danger of acquiring HIV two to three-fold and additionally HIV transmission in those dually afflicted. This level of danger of ailment makes counteractive action and treatment of genital herpes disease very important globally. Be that as it may, this has still been…
Ashley, R.L., & Wald, A. (1999). Genital herpes: review of the epidemic and potential use of type-specific serology. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12(1), 1-8.
Genital Herpes and Self-Image (2001).
HA Weiss, SL Thomas, SK Munabi, and RJ Hayes. (2006). Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sex Transm Infect; 82(2): 101 -- 110.
Hofstetter, A. Rosenthal, S. Stanberry, L (2014). Current Thinking on Genital Herpes. Retrieved January 26, 2015, from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/820140
Psychology of marriage and family systems
Considering the text reading assignments, what do you see going on with Phillip and his family?
Given that Phillip was born to a mother who abused alcohol in the past, it is possible that there are physical issues which are affecting his performance in school. Phillip should be screened for learning disabilities and other issues which could inhibit his progress. Phillip is also struggling with issues which make him 'different' from his peers, including the poverty of his household, the fact that he is being shipped from one home to another as the result of his parents' divorce, and the fact that he might receive negative attention because of his mother's LBGT status as well as the fact he is a Native American.
If Phillip is being sexually molested, however, this could be another source of his withdrawal and anxiety, given…
Lubell K.M., Lofton T, Singer H.H. (2008). Promoting healthy parenting practices across cultural groups: A CDC Research Brief. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2008.
Lucero, S. (2007). Working with Indian families and child substance abuse challenges. NRC4
Tribes. Retrieved from: http://www.nrc4tribes.org/files/Urban%20Indian%20guide.pdf
Measuring and Evaluating Performance
Select a societal issue that detracts from the mental health and welfare of society members anywhere in the world.
Unemployment is regularly cited as a major factor that adversely affects the mental health and welfare of people all over the world (Butterworth, 2008). Although there are a number of reasons for people being unemployed, the condition can have a wide range of negative effects, including higher levels of depression and anxiety, and even serious mental disorders such as schizophrenia (Butterworth, 2008). These effects are further exacerbated by a lack of availability of appropriate mental health resources for the poor in many communities, even in affluent nations (Butterworth, 2008). Finally, the condition of being unemployed adversely affects individuals' self-esteem and sense of self-worth, as well as limiting their ability to satisfy their basic daily living needs (Martin, 2009).
Write a brief description of the societal issue you…
Butterworth, P. (2008, Summer). The experience of welfare receipt: Depression, demoralisation and despair? Impact, 15-17.
Code of ethics. (2008). National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/pubs/code/code.asp.
Campos, J. E. & Pradham, S. (2007). The many faces of corruption: Tracking vulnerabilities at the sector level. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Couch, J. F. & Atkinson, K. E. (2005, April). The impact of enterprise zones on job creation in Mississippi. Contemporary Economic Policy, 23(2), 253-258.
The symptoms of ADHD, as described above, may simply be the behavior of a normal child. "Except for a minority of cases involving distinct medical problems such as hyperthyroidism and explicit brain injuries, most youngsters diagnosed with ADHD may simply be normal, highly playful children who have difficulty adjusting to certain institutional expectations." (Panksepp)
Ritalin is used by so many people because it seems to be easier than dealing with the untreated child, or seeking alternative treatment options.
Despite increasingly widespread concern over ADHD medications being given to some children unnecessarily, drugs have unquestionably helped children who truly do have ADHD." (Meyer) The question, however, remains regarding whether or not ADHD can be properly diagnosed at all. Until ADHD was introduced to the public, children with this supposed disorder were only known as "daydreamers," and while these students sometimes had academic trouble, they still functioned in society. Yet children are…