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Social Classes in America
The American dream is what many people hopes to attain in their lives. Many Americans, or even non-Americans who migrated to America, pursue a goal in life that they call the American Dream. Within this dream is an objective of being in the American workforce. Sad as it is in reality, however, this dream has been categorized by many into classes -- classes that distinguish the higher from the lower groups of people in society.
To be called a "professional" makes one feel proud of the achievements that he is attaining in life. A lot of people perceive that the term "professional" means that an individual had attained a college diplomas, or even masters and doctoral degrees. However, if we are to consider the following few meanings of the term, we can conclude that a "professional" is not only those who holds a diploma, but someone…
Ohanian, S. The Mind at Work: Valuing the Intelligence of the American Worker.
Retrieved on Nov. 16, 2004, from Susan Ohanian.Org Online.
Web site: http://www.susanohanian.org/show_research.html?id=59
For example, in discussing his childhood in "Southie" a poor neighborhood in Boston, Patrick MacDonald talks about the willful ignorance of the people in the neighborhood when he was a child. "They were all here now, all of my neighbors and friends who had died young from violence, drugs, and from the other deadly things we'd been taught didn't happen in Southie" (MacDonald, 1999, p.2). In other words, the reality of the poverty that defined the lives of the people in his neighborhood was less important than their concept of what it meant to live there.
However, while MacDonald makes it clear that the people in Southie considered themselves blessed to live there, he also makes it clear that they dealt with some very real struggles and that these struggles impacted how they viewed the world. They understood that they were disadvantaged compared to other whites. Therefore, like many groups…
MacDonald, P. (1999). All Souls: A Family Story from Southie. Boston: Beacon Press.
McCall, L. (2008). What does class inequality among women look like? A comparison with men and families, 1970-2000. In a. Lareau & D. Conley (Eds.), Social Class: How Does it Work? (pp.293-325). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Newman, K. & Chen, V.T. (2007). The Missing Class: Portraits of the Near Poor in America.
Boston: Beacon Press.
Social Class And Health During the Renaissance and Medieval Times
THE ASIS OF PRIVILEGE
The Diet of the Rich and the Poor
What the rich and the poor ate in those times was vastly distinct (Cheng et al., 1999). The nobles and the wealthy could well afford and were served a wide variety of foods by cooks. Poor peasants, on the other hand, subsisted on a few and affordable types of meat and vegetables. Even the dishes they ate in common were nonetheless prepared differently. Those served to the rich and nobles were made from the best selected ingredients and carefully prepared, served fresh and more palatable. They were more varied than the ordinary, often with expensive spices from the Orient. The dishes prepared by peasants, on the other hand, had only little meat, which was also stored for long duration and served in the simplest manner. If spices were…
Cheng, A et al. (1999). The rich and poor. Woodland Senior Public School: Tripod.
Retrieved on March 14, 2012 from http://www.members.tripod.dom/med_food/richpoor.html
MacDowell, S. (2012). What are the cooking supplies for Renaissance food? eHow:
Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on March 14, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8435592_cooking-supplies-renaissance-food.jtml
These families provide their children with the suitable training within the same social class. The social status is considered to be normally the generalized asset of the family and it cannot be personified. In absence of proper terminology the social classes are attempted to be distinguished as highest, upper, middle, lower and lowest. (Headrick, 66)
To conclude, the social class that is always a contentious and contested topic can be realized as a large group and the study of social class dynamics is therefore considered mutually informative with the study of large group dynamics. The description of the contemporary social classes involves prioritization of individuals and groups in accordance with their access to resources and accumulated material or social wealth. The prioritization significantly implies a ladder of meaning or value there by placing a large number of people below the standard. An existence of a strengthened force molding the psychological…
Headrick, William Cecil. A Study of Social Stratification with reference to social class barriers and social class rigidity. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at New York State University. December 1, 1941
Rummel, R.J. Understanding Conflict and War: The Conflict Helix. Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications, 1976
Storck, Lauren E. 'Reality' or 'Illusion'? Five Things of Interest about Social Class as a Large Group. Group Analysis. Volume: 35; No. 3, 2002; pp: 351-366.
Wouters, Cas. The Integration of Social Classes. Journal of Social History. Volume: 29; No: 1; 1995; pp: 47-53
IT is commonly asserted that there are in the United States no classes, and any allusion to classes is resented. On the other hand, we constantly read and hear discussions of social topics in which the existence of social classes is assumed as a simple fact. "The poor," "the weak," "the laborers," are expressions which are used as if they had exact and well- understood definition.
Karl Marx, a famous philosopher and sociologist, studied social classes as part of the human society. According to him, social classes is a form of social inequality that caused problems and differences between people of different social status. He defined social classes as a creator of gauging the living status of an individual. From International Socialist Group Online, it was indicated that Classes emerge at a distinct point in the evolution of human society on a particular economic foundation. The social inequality which leads…
N. Smelser. Sociological Approaches.
1994. SocioUmas Online. 2004. http://www.sociumas.lt/Eng/Nr3/smelser.asp
Analyzing and Resolving Class Conflict.
2000. Conflict Research Consortium. 2004. http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/full_text_search/AllCRCDocs/rubenst.htm
SOCIAL CLASS SYSTEM IN THE U.S.
Classism' refers to distribution of national wealth is such a manner that it benefits the highest social class, the elites, and leads to the creation of social hierarchy. "Classism is made up of falsehoods about the frugality and seriousness of the upper class and the profligacy and frivolity of the lower" (Dugger, 1998). While in the Britain and other imperial countries, social classes took birth because of the presence of monarchy and aristocracy, in America it came with capitalism. United States, the greatest champion of democracy, developed the principle of individualism to remove the insidiousness associated with classism. However its efforts in this connection resulted in the development of capitalism and with industrialism and capitalism came the problem of wealth distribution, which eventually paved way for classism as the elite always got the biggest share.
Classism or social class system in the United States…
Ayres, Clarence E. Toward a Reasonable Society: The Values of Industrial Civilization. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1961
Dugger, William M., Against inequality. (Income inequality). Vol.32, Journal of Economic Issues, 06-01-1998, pp 286(18)
W. Lloyd Warner; Marchia Meeker; Kenneth Eells; Social Class in America A Manual of Procedure for the Measurement of Social Status: Science Research Associates: Chicago: 1949
Jurgen Ruesch, Martin B. Loeb, et al., Chronic Disease and Psychological Invalidism; a Psychosomatic Study (New York: American Society for Research in Psychosomatic Problems, 1946).
That changes your view of yourself and also influences the way people interact with you. They want to listen to you; they like being in your company and you are invited to almost all the best parties around. It was a superb life and one that I was enjoying beyond belief. I no longer cared about the various coupons you could find in newspapers because I could afford almost everything. I almost had half of my money invested in stocks. And with all this money, I now started thinking more about investing in my education. I had barely gone beyond high school and even my high school education was nothing to write home about.
A got myself enrolled in one of the best colleges and began thinking about a career in advertising. I realized just how many opportunities you could have with money at your disposal. My life had not…
In "producing something," workers elevate their status in life by justifying that their work is meaningful not only to them, but to society, for they contribute to the economic machinery of capitalism everyday.
The following passages from various interviews in "Working" demonstrate the concepts of "producing something" and "making sense" as the avenues through which workers momentarily suspend or escape their marginalization in American society:
The *****in' world's so *****ed up, the country's *****ed up. ut the firemen, you actually see them produce. You see them put out a fire. You see them come out with babies in their hands. You see them give mouth-to-mouth when a guy's dying. You can't get around that *****. That's real. To me, that's what I want to be.
"I worked in a bank. You know, it's just paper. it's not real. Nine to five and it's *****. You're lookin' at numbers. ut I…
Houseman, S. And M. Osawa. (2003). Nonstandard work in developed economies: causes and consequences.
Michigan: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
Terkel, S. (1985). Working: people talk about what they do all day and how they feel about what they do. NY: Pantheon Books.
Thiessen, V. (2002). "The social distribution of youth's images of work." Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 39, Issue 1.
' Even "very bright students now come to college and even law school ill-prepared for critical thinking, rigorous reading, high-level writing, and working independently" (Goodwin 2013).
In my personal experience in Guatemala, students suffer even more extreme discrimination through the public education and private education systems. Government-run schools are substandard, compared with private schools which are attended by children of the rich. The fact that so many wealthy and influential students attend private schools takes a great deal of pressure off the public schools to perform to a high standard. This is one of the fears that many American educators have regarding the discrepancies between schools in the American system: the more unequal the resources of rich and poor schools, the more isolated students will be from wealthier areas, and the fewer parents of students from richer districts will care about the suffering of under-educated poorer children. Thanks to the…
Goodwin, Michele. (2013). Law professors see the damage done by 'No Child Left
Behind.' The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved:
Therefore, other strategies such as guest talks and city council meetings, as well as church groups, must also address such differences and promote tolerance and understanding. While it is imperative that society functions without prejudice, in a smooth, diversity-promoting way, competing interests could always overthrow this delicate balance. Certain institutions must therefore conduct a never-ceasing effort to promote understanding through communication and interaction, for only in this way can one find a lasting solution to race and class-based prejudice.
The above paragraphs have discussed how prejudice has been fostered in two segments of society. These two groups include Arab-Americans and African-Americans. With respect to the latter, it has been described that African-Americans have suffered at the hands of prejudice, both racial and class-based, for centuries, and that this continues to this day. In the case of the former group, it has been shown that Arab-Americans have only recently been discriminated…
Social Class, followed, by Age and ten Income seem to sow te most significant associations in various entertainment categories, indicating tat, in tat specific order, tese tree are te most important categories for expensive restaurants to consider.
Movies seem to be te most relevant in Income, Age, and Life Cycle. Golf is relevant in Income. Bowling in Life Cycle. In-state travel seems to be somewat (toug moderately significant in bot Life Cycle and Age. Skiing seems to ave minor insignificance in Age alone. Dining at restaurants possesses low to moderate significance and inges on Age, Income, and Life Cycle. Professional atletic events and Nigtclubs are two variables tat are significant at te .01 level in Life Cycle in bot instances.
Explain te statistical test tat is reported.
Warner's Index of Status Caracteristics - also known as te Index of Status of Caracteristics (ISC) is used in researc dealing wit consumer…
Lantos, GP (2010) Consumer Behavior in Action: Real-Life Applications for Marketing Managers. Google -- Book
Dismissed: How TV Frames the Working Class directed by Loretta Alper. Specifically it will evaluate how work and social class is perceived in this documentary film and other television shows. The working class always seems to be the brunt of negative humor and satire on television and this documentary explores that phenomenon, from the 1940s to the present day. If a person bases their opinions about the working class only on television, they will come to see an uneducated, group of buffoons who are entertaining but certainly not enlightening. Instead of poking fun at the working class, the media should acknowledge the contribution most working class families make to the American culture.
The film opens with the statistic that about 62% of Americans are members of the working class, and that means they are the average people you might meet on the street, stroll a shopping mall with, or dine…
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, better known as Miguel de Cervantes. The first section will be a brief biography of his life and times. Following will be an examination of his works, including Don Quixote, La Galatea, and Entremeses. Focus will be on how different classes of people appear in his works with examples of characters of lower, middle and upper class standing in Cervantes' world. The paper will conclude with ideas of class in general.
Miguel de Cervantes Saaverdra
Miguel de Cervantes Saaverdra's reputation rests almost entirely on the most famous figure in Spanish literature, Don Quixote. Known by most as Miguel de Cervantes, his production of novels, plays and poems was considerable. According to Jean Canavaggio, author of "Cervantes," a contemporary of Cervantes, William Shakespeare, had read Don Quixote. (1990) In spite of his fame throughout Europe, Cervantes spent his life as a poor man. Cervantes life was unsettled…
Education system a "ladder of opportunity" or does it simply reflect, reinforce and reproduce existing class differences?
The education system in Britain currently exists as a hierarchical system enabling class differences to continue to persist despite some policy changes that would help facilitate a more equitable program for all involved. Is the educational system a ladder of opportunity? A ladder of opportunity should be considered something that facilitates achievement for all individuals irrespective of their race, national origin or social class. Many consider the educational system a "ladder of opportunity" because education can facilitate achievement and professional growth and wealth for those that pursue it to its highest levels. However, within the UK the education system is not equitably accessible to all levels of the population, and because of this the system actually reinforces and perpetuates existing class differences that already exist within the country.
Within the UK the educational…
Ball, S., Maquire, M. & Macrae, S. (2000). Choice, pathways and transitions post 16:
New youth, new economies in the global city. London: Routlege Falmer.
Hayton, A. & Leathwood, C. (2002). "Educational inequalities in the United Kingdom: A
critical analysis of the discourses and policies of new labour." Australian Journal of Education, 46(2): 138
What are the purposes of determining to which social class a person or occupation belongs? How does class background, or current class position influence individual actions?
In creating a democratic form of government, Americans had long prided themselves for creating a radically new society divorced from the Old World social hierarchies. Yet social class stratification persisted in the United States since the birth of the nation. Social class has also intersected with gender and race throughout the history of the country. Class stratification serves several functions, not least of which is the ability of a ruling elite—including the owners of the means of production—to exploit the lower classes for labor. Moreover, the elite social classes possess social and cultural capital in addition to financial capital. Forms of social and cultural capital serve to facilitate the actions of the upper classes, while preventing those with lower status to access positions of…
The place and role of social class within the American society
Social class plays a significant role in shaping the American society to what it is today and influences the interaction of people in different social classes and the interaction inn terms of politics as well as influencing the economic trends of given regions.
Definition of social class in the American context -- the various definitions as fronted by different scholars and how they differ.
Significance of understanding social class -- the reasons behind ability to tell the different classes and their characteristics.
Definition of terms-understanding of various terms that will commonly appear in the research.
The brief history of social class-how the issue of social class was perceived during and after the great depression to the current times.
b. The role social class has played in the shaping of American history -- the pertinent aspects of…
"Letter from Birmingham Jail," Martin Luther King, Jr., 573-589 in TCR
"What Work Is," poem by Philip Levine, http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/182873
"The Gettysburg Address," Abraham Lincoln, 601-602 in TCR
"On the Relationship between Social Class and Prejudice"
My current social class is dependent upon the fundamental reason why I am writing this paper: my level of education. Even though it is an idealization to consider that education in America is as meritocratic as it pretends to be, and whether its high price-tag is merited. The price tag looks particularly high when viewed in comparison with most European countries, in which the cost of university education is virtually subsidized. Recent riots broke out in London over the raising of the level of school fees required to be paid by students at universities like Oxford and Cambridge. By American standards, even the proposed raised fees make Oxford only as expensive as a community college education would be for an American. Nevertheless, the price tag of an education in America is only part of the complex process whereby it does offer an automatic way of increasing one's own…
Cultural epresentation of Social Class
Social class is a reflection of more than the material conditions of the lives that people live. Objective resources such as income are responsible for shaping up some cultural practices as well as behaviors which signal social class. These signals end up creating cultural identities among the people in the upper and those in the lower classes. This makes people get rooted perceptions that are subjective in terms of social classes. The paper will look at how culture which is related to social class impacts identity and pride within individuals within specific social classes.
Social classes have a great influence on people thoughts, feelings and their actions. Social class is a form of cultural identity which is constituted in various processes. First of all the social class that someone belongs to is determined by symbols such as wealth, preferences and social behaviors such as the…
Gabrenya, W.K. (2003).Culture and Social class. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from http://my.fit.edu/~gabrenya/social/readings/ses.pdf
Menon, D. (2011).Social class as culture. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/news/releases/social-class-as-culture.html
Personal Social Class
My Parent's Class Position
My parents grew up in poverty in Latin America. Their story is not an unfamiliar one in America. My parents were able to obtain a middle school education, which at that time in Latin America, was a good educational accomplishment. Like most children living in impoverished, lower class families, my parents both had to contribute to the household income. Opportunities for earning extra money were scarce, but my parents were creative and determined; they took what jobs they could find and set themselves up to establish work where there had previously been none. My mother would say that sometimes people just didn't know what work they needed someone else to do -- but if you do some work, and the people like it, they see that it is nice not to have to do the work for themselves. When my grandparents immigrated to…
Jean Anyon: Social Class And the Hidden Curriculum of ork
Is there a hidden curriculum in schools for teachers to approach their classes based on how smart the teachers perceive the students are, and what socioeconomic status teachers believe students fall into? Essayist Jean Anyon observed five elementary schools during a school year in 1980, and it is her belief that students in certain schools are "being prepared to occupy particular rungs on the social ladder," which is abhorrent to some educators and leaders since there has been a sense in American education that all students should be motivated to achieve the best they can achieve.
hat do I disagree with in her essay? In the working class schools the teachers did not make any attempt to explain the reasoning behind the math problems, but instead just drilled them on steps to take. This is somewhat familiar to me as…
Anyon, Jean. (1980). Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work. Journal of Education,
Sacks, Peter. (2007). Tearing Down the Gates: Confronting the Class Divide in American
Education. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
There is little chance for them to obtain a college degree, either because s/he does not have the money to afford it or the time to spend for it, or both. What is evident is that the plight of the lower class members of the society makes it impossible for them to compete against the higher class, since the latter has the money, time, and opportunity to maintain the lifestyle of attending formal schooling at private and acclaimed universities in the country.
Although religion is said to encompass social boundaries determined by human society, social class ultimately determines an individual's affiliation to a religious institution. As discussed in the text, Episcopalians, Baptists, and Methodists cater to various social classes in the society: the middle- to -upper classes, lower classes, and heavily on the middle class, respectively. Attaining salvation from one's sins, an important teaching of Catholicism, also favors those who…
In fact, the Toy is considered to be one of the most racist films of all time due to these issues (Sastry).
Blazing Saddles and the Toy approach comedy from distinct perspectives, and although they may have common elements, the differences in their approach to humor, comedy, and race allow the audience to understand why Blazing Saddles is successful in its commentary on society and why the Toy fails miserably at changing people's perspectives about society in a positive way. Brooks's approach to race and social status helps to redefine how blacks were viewed in cinema, and also helps to demonstrate that previous cinematic depictions have been skewed due the control exercised by Hollywood executives. On the other hand, Donner's approach to race and social status ends up being degrading, racist, and further reinforces negative stereotypes of race and social status. It is through these various depictions and approaches that…
Blazing Saddles. Directed by Mel Brooks. United States: Warner Bros., 1974. DVD.
Dirks, Tim. "Comedy Films." AMC Filmsite. Web. 13 April 2013.
Rice, Kathryn. "Race Consciousness and Class Invisibility in American Comedy." Dissident
Voice: A radical newsletter in the struggle for peace and social justice. 4 Sept 2010. Web. 12 April 2013.
For instance, Sylvy could have decided to go with the man and leave her rural life. She could have left the life of poverty and gone back to the city. Had she made this choice she knew that she would never have to worry about money again. However, having come from the city originally, she also knew the personal freedom that she would be giving up. She felt that if she went away with the guest, she could learn to serve, follow, and love him, "as a dog loves" (Jewett, a White Heron, Harper Series, p. 1646). This line summarizes the oppression of the urban woman in the late 1880s.
Jewett tells her readers much about her feelings about social class and the political position of women during her time. She portrays women as "followers" of men. She alludes to the position of women as "servants" of man. She compares…
McQuade, D., Atwan, R., Banta, M., Kaplan, J., Minter, D., Stepto, R., Tichi, C., & Vendler, H. (Eds.). (1999). The Harper single volume of American literature (3rd ed.).Sarah Orney Jewett, a White Heron, (pp. 1639-1646. New York: Longman.
Not only do they manage to present a situation which is unfair, making the reader empathize with the female characters under discussion, but they also demonstrate the complex mechanisms through which the social identity of the woman is constructed.
The main factors of decision are the belonging to a certain race and a to a certain social class. The implications of these belonging to are fundamental, but the implications are strong only as far as the social persona is concerned. The impact upon the person is not something that can be described as a universal rule. The power dynamics in society clearly favour the position of men. However both readers succeed to demonstrate that while women depend on men, the situation is artificially maintained by social dynamics which have nothing to do with the personal value of the individual.
Stereotypes about race are also dealt with by both Yanez and…
Social Order and Inequalities
Social order and inequality
Ideas, beliefs, values, norms, roles, statuses, organizations and social class may have impact on an individual's life directly or indirectly. This can be in form of gender and social inequality. The life of my friend Jane who is a woman is an example of how these phenomenon impacts the life of individuals.
Gender inequalities rise from deepening division in the roles that are assigned to men and women, especially in the political, economic and educational sphere. When my friend Jane could not make it to the leadership of their community despite various attempts, it showed that women are always underrepresented in political activities as well as decision making processes. This is brought by the ever existing beliefs that men are better leaders than women. As a woman she is subjected to institutional discrimination where they face problem of accessing education which has…
Social Class And Crime
For this study the researcher chose to explore social class and crime rates, because while there are many studies conducted on race and crime and gender and crime or related factors, social class seems to be something that is relatively little regarded in modern times at least in places like the U.S. Social class is often a large predictor of factors including crime in many countries overseas, but it is sometimes something that is overlooked in the U.S., where people assume democracy guarantees people the right to safety. Studies suggest however that this is very often not the case.
Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy.
In this research study, the authors explore social cohesion and collective efficacy, which they define as the willingness of neighbors to intervene "on behalf of the common good" which they hypothesize is essential to reducing violence. The…
Flango, V.E. & Sherbenou, E.L. (2006 March Online) Poverty, Urbanization & Crime.
Criminology. Vol. 14, Issue 3. Pp. 331-346.
Logan, J.R., & Stults, B.J. (1999 May). Racial differences in exposure to crime: The city and suburbs of Cleveland in 1990. Criminology. Vol. 37(2) pp.251-276.
Markowitz, F.E., Bellair, P.E., Liska, A.E., Liu, J. (2006 Mar). Extending social disorganization theory: Modeling the relationships between cohesion, disorder, and fear. Criminology. Vol. 39, Issue 2, pp. 293-319.
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…
Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.
Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.
Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.
Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
Social psychology view: What ensures that women are treated fairly in office settings in the United States?
One of the most prudent applications of social psychology within contemporary settings are those that relate to gender. Gender issues can become exacerbated when they are viewed within particular social constructs, such as the work environment. Due to the fact that the majority of the world was initially a patriarchal society (particularly in the United States) before modern conceptions of gender became prevalent, the role of women within the work environment is one which is certainly worthy of investigation in terms of how women are treated, what sorts of issues they must contend with, and how others (men) consider working women. The principle difference between contemporary and most historic notions of gender pertaining to women in the workplace is that in modern times, there is supposed to be a substantial greater amount of…
Bisika, T. (2008). Do social and cultural factors perpetuate gender-based violence in Malawi?.Gender & Behaviour, 6(2), 1884-1896. doi:10.4314/gab.v6i2.23426
Cikara, M., Rudman, L., & Fiske, S. (2012). Dearth by a Thousand Cuts?: Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology. Journal Of Social Issues, 68(2), 263-285. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2012.01748.x
Gilbert, D.G., Fiske, S.T. & Lindzey G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Huerta, M. (2007). Intersections of race and gender in women's experiences of harassment. (Order No. 3253291, University of Michigan). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 110-110 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304848503?accountid=25340 . (304848503).
Social Equity Public Administration
Emergence as Concern in Field of Public Administration
Social equity has always been an important aspect of public administration, though only recently is it receiving much attention in the press. Whereas in times of old social equity concerned itself primarily with issues of fairness and equality in the public workplace, today social equity is emerging as a field encompassing many different aspects of administration.
Among these include public education, policy development, hiring and promotional practices, public welfare and even transportation. In modern public administration, all of these issues are applied to the field in order to establish fairness, justice and equality for all. Social equity in the field of public administration has emerged as a response to consumer demands for equitable policy making and fairness in governance.
Public administration as a whole may be defined as the management of "matters which have principally to do with…
Frederickson, G. (1986). "New public administration." Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Rice, M.F. (2003). "Organizational Culture, Social Equity & Diversity: Teaching Public
Administration." Texas A& M. University, Bush School Working Paper #314. 14, November, 2004: http://bush.tamu.edu/content/research/working_papers/mrice/teach-post-modern.pdf
Christopher, G.C., Rutledge, P.J. (2001). "Reinvigorating the Social Equity Debate."
Inductive reasoning occurs when one makes inferences from particular situations or scenarios to predict future situations. In this study, the authors seek to use information from particular youth's experiences of the transition to adulthood and apply it to the development of a general understanding of whether or not youth can overcome existing social class, gender and ethnic divisions (MacDonald et al., 2005).
5. Identify at least 4 major findings from this study.
MacDonald et al. (2005) found that with few exceptions youth stayed within the community in which they were raised. The authors attributed this finding to the housing market but a more influential factor appears to be the preference of these youth to remain in their neighborhoods despite the presence of social exclusion. A key factor in this preference was the comfort that is provided through familiarity with the neighborhood (MacDonald et al., 2005). Within these neighborhoods, MacDonald et…
MacDonald, R., Shildrick, T., Webster, C., & Simpson, D. (2005). Growing up in poor
neighbourhoods: The significance of class and place in the extended transitions of 'socially excluded' young adults. Sociology, 39(5), 873-891.
Teachers will continue to lead the educational process, but they need to be very sensitive about the issues facing the society as a whole and the children as individuals in this society. Then, education becomes a means of identifying the issues in the life of the students and gaining knowledge and understanding about them. Education in this global society also has to acknowledge that cultural diversity is valued and preserved (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 190). Teachers have to ensure that their students are taught in ways that respond to cultural groups without bias (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 420). In education, there is a responsibility for students to gain a respect for other races, religions and gender that are different from their own. This is the only way that a diverse society can successfully survive.
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New…
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New York, the Guilford Press.
Byrne, a. (1998). Interpretivism. In Roberto Casati (ed.), European Review of Philosophy. Stanford: CSLI Publications
Dewey, J. (1997). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone Books.
Giroux, H. (1997) 'Crossing the Boundaries of Educational Discourse: Modernism, post-modernism, and Feminism' in a.H. Halsey, H. Lauder, P. Brown and a.S. Wells (eds.) Education: Culture, Economy, and Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
" (Adams et al.)
hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science.
The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. ashington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of alter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror tale character). Around the same time that Eleanor Dwight Jones was striving to preserve the white race, the United States Public Health Service began the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. hat took place was a forty year analysis of the life of syphilis. The two hundred black men who had syphilis were "deliberately denied treatment" (Adams et al.) in what was just one more step in oppression and callous social engineering.
And at the same time the Tuskegee experiment was…
Adams, Myrtle, et al. "Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee."
1996. Web. 8 June 2011.
Cone, James. Risks of Faith. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999. Print.
Dowlings, Keven, and Knightley, Philip. "The Spy Who Came Back from the Grave."
I find this very surprising because I thought that social learning and incorporation of operant conditioning as part of the social learning theory plays a preeminent role in influencing criminality.
I think that the theories that explain best the findings of the articles are the sociological and theories. Psychological and biological theories are not suitable for support. I chose from the sociological theories the "Social Disorganization Theory" emanating from the Chicago School research of Shaw and McKay. According to this theory's general hypothesis "low economic status, ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility, and family disruption lead to community social disintegration, which in turn increases crime and delinquency rates" (Sampson, .J. & Groves, W.B., Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory, p. 774.) The Social Disorganization Study is the theory that by virtue of the article's title actually underlies the research of Triplett & Gainey. But in large parts it also mirrors the…
Monahan, J. (19 February 2010). The Causes of Violence. Derived 15 August 2011 from www.sodahead.com/united-states/the-causes-of.../blog-263921
Sampson, R.J. & Groves, W.B. (1989). Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory. AJS Volume 94 Number 4 (January 1989): 774-802, derived 15 August 2011 from RJ Sampson… - American Journal of Sociology, 1989 -- JSTOR.
A model that stresses the fact that people in a generally bad mood or situation will seek out pro-social behaviors, i.e. To help others to make him or herself feel better. (Berkowitz 185) Though this theory has often been contested, not simply because it tends to negate altruism but because people in bad moods tend not to seek out the doing of good deeds, (Berkowitz 186) these two examples of pro-social behavior in this film are both realistic and examples of the negative state relief model of action.
The first example is when Rob agrees to help two skater slackers and frequent shoplifters at his store to produce a record. Rob does not have a record label but it is a logical extension of his love of music and of human progress. He walks into the store, where Barry and Dick are listening to a demo tape of Vince and…
Berkowitz, Leonard. Causes and Consequences of Feelings. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Geen, Russell G. Human Aggression. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2001.
Heath, Robert L., and Jennings Bryant. Human Communication Theory and Research: Concepts, Contexts, and Challenges. 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
Competitor products and their equivalent prizes, this is so that after establishing our break-even analysis it can act as a guiding line to set the best price. (Tao 2008)
The survey should enable one establish the best marketing strategies and anticipate any future contingencies.
Entrepreneurship development services
This service will target individuals who wish to start business on their own or in a group it will mainly involve
Training on how to originate business ideas. It is said that if you feed a man you have only feed him a day, a long-term problem in a short-term way. If you show the man how to fish then you have feed him and his family for life and I add that if you show the man how to run a fish business you will have feed the society too. In his book ich Dad Poor Dad, Kiyosaki explains that the most…
Adaman F., Keyder C., Mudderrisoglu S., Yukseker D. (2009) Poverty and Social Exclusion in the Slum Areas of Large Cities in Turkey. European Commission on Employment, SocialAffairs and Equal Opportunities Development Goal. European Union, Luxenbourg, Europe.
Agbola T., Agunbiade E. (2009) Urbanization, Slum Development and Security of Tenure: The Challenges of Meeting Millennium Development Goal 7 in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Camur E. (2003) What are the Social, Physical and Economic Problems of Slums and their Expectations from the Urban City? Sage books.New York.
Dumashie a. (2004) Informal Housing in East Africa: Lessons Learned From Cross Country Borders (Part II). Journal, FIG Working Week, May 22-27, United Kingdom.
Social System, Institutional Values and Human Needs_
Burton's Deviance, Terrorism, and War redefined the nature of the problem to be discussed and the means to discuss it. Burton's agenda is not about states and state centric dynamics. He constitutes a new definition of the problem and a new definition of the reality (1979). In fact, the subtitle of his book, solving unsolved social and political problems, attests to this. Burton's work is therefore committed to addressing the process as opposed to stasis or structures. The book is committed to solving social and political problems and not their containment, management, or control. It is committed to initiating change not coercion. It is concerned with recurrent patterns of human behavior at all levels of social complexity (Burton, 1979).
Burton (1979) assesses the way society classifies and defines deviance. Structure of freedom underpins a portion of Burtons work. Structure of freedom is recognized…
Burton, J. (1965). International Relations, a General Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Burton, J. (1979). Deviance, Terrorism and War: The Process of Solving Unsolved Social and Political Problems. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Northrop Frye recognized this fact but believed that the satire missed its mark:
It completely misses the point as satire on the ussian development of Marxism, and as expressing the disillusionment which many men of good-will feel about ussia. The reason for that disillusionment would be much better expressed as the corruption of expediency by principle (Frye 1987, p. 10).
What links 1984 and Animal Farm most directly is that both are anti-utopian in nature, for Orwell had developed a certainty that government in a utopian society would always be corrupted and would lose sight of its principles because of expediency.
Animal Farm was written during World War II. There is evidence that he was planning a novel that would become 1984 even before he wrote Animal Farm, and there is a relationship between the two books that is not often noted:
The form each book took was very different,…
Brander, L. (1954). George Orwell. New York: Longmans, Green and Co.
Crick, B. (1986). The making of Animal Farm. In Critical Essays on George Orwell, B. Oldsey and J. Browne (eds.). Boston: G.K. Hall.
Frye, N. (1987). In George Orwell, H. Bloom (ed.). New York: Chelsea House.
Green, T.H. (1995). Liberal legislation and freedom of contract. In Sources of the Western Tradition, M. Perry, J.R. Peden, and T.H. Von Laue (eds.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Early trauma that causes anger often corresponds to higher levels of aggression later in life, especially where the traumas are suppressed and internalized instead of being expressed at the time of their origin and at the source.
Furthermore, since many dysfunctional families forbid the expression of anger by children (particularly anger toward parents), individuals who experience significant levels of early trauma that produces repressed anger are often considerably more aggressive throughout life subsequently than individuals who were fortunate not to experience as much early trauma (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). Aggression is a known factor in criminal conduct as well as other forms of non-criminal negative social behavior such as those associated with overt prejudice and other types of social intolerance toward others (Macionis 2003).
Aggression and Prejudice:
One of the primary ways that aggression-prone individuals express their repressed rage is in their treatment of other less powerful individuals (Gerrig &…
Friedman, a. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, R.G. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th Ed.
Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
One of the primary concerns was multicultural relationships -- the recognition that ethics were relative to specific cultures and that each culture had to be understood according to its own functions, has to be respected for what it is, and had to be addressed in light of its cultural history and practices so that its people could best be helped. Social work had come a long way from attempting to squeeze all citizens of America in the model of the 'perfect American' as it had done in the 1920s. Nowadays, it is well-recognized that immigrants have many problems that deter them from receiving the rights that all Americans should receive optimal beneficial medical care and healthy living accommodations. Suffering from handicapped language skills and ignorance about the ways of their new land, immigrants are often exploited by an unjust and insensitive system as well as by willful individuals. This is…
Chesney, A.P., Chavira, J.A., Hall, R.P., & Gary, H.E. (1982). Barriers to medical care of Mexican-Americans: the role of social class, acculturation, and social isolation. Med. Care 20, 883 -- 91
Raemer, F. (1998) The evolution of social work ethics Nat. Assoc. Of Social Workers.
Great Britain has always possessed a rigid class structure with few chances for upward mobility. However, in modern times, class structure has received a new face-lift. Instead of the traditional three tiered social class structure, instead is in place a seven tiered class structure that has various ways to measure class that include social, cultural, and economical. Therefore, class within British society, is not just categorized through how much money a person has, but also how socially and culturally active they are. Still, there is some debate to whether or not class plays an important role in British society as much as it did in the past. Evidence suggest it does and the more money and influence a person has in society, the more likely they will do well and receive more opportunities, therefore removing the notion that class does not have much of an impact on a person's future.…
Akinwale, B., Lynch, K., Wiggins, R., Harding, S., Bartley, M. And Blane, D. (2010). Work, permanent sickness and mortality risk: a prospective cohort study of England and Wales, 1971-2006. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 65(9), pp.786-792.
Bianchi, S. And Milkie, M. (2010). Work and Family Research in the First Decade of the 21st Century. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3), pp.705-725.
Boliver, V. (2010). Expansion, differentiation, and the persistence of social class inequalities in British higher education. High Educ, 61(3), pp.229-242.
Holden, C., Kilkey, M. And Ramia, G. (2011). Social policy review. Bristol, U.K.: Policy Press.
Criminology researchers usually draw on multiple sociological theories for understanding crime and offenders. Certain elements of serial-killing research continue to be a subject of speculation and exploration, on account of the numerous preconceptions and myths surrounding the crime. The significance of establishing a theoretic basis to explain sociological factors proves crucial to distinguishing between fact and fiction (Hickey, 2013).
Social Structure Theory
This class of theories concentrates on the socioeconomic status of a person and suggests that the poor perpetrate more offenses owing to their struggle to achieve social or monetary success. They are, particularly owing to their subcultural, racial, or ethnic status, restricted in several ways from lawfully attaining the great “American Dream\". Thus, they resort to deviant techniques to succeed. Structural theories provide convincing justifications for numerous offenses, with the exception of serial killing. Normally, serial killers lack financial or social motivation, and aren’t members of any specific…
The rise of the middle class and the Industrial Revolution brought forth a demand to render this emerging class in fiction, and not simply relegate it to the sidelines of prose narratives in the United States. Realism in the United States is often said to stretch from the Civil ar to the end of the 19th century. The interest in Realism was also spawned by the crisis of national confidence that occurred after that bloody battle. Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, and later Henry James are all classified as Realistic writers who "wrote fiction devoted to accurate representation and an exploration of American lives in various contexts" (Campbell 2008). Also as the United States grew rapidly after the Civil ar, "the increasing rates of democracy and literacy, the rapid growth in industrialism and urbanization, an expanding population base due to immigration, and a relative rise in middle-class affluence provided a fertile…
Campbell, Donna M. "Realism in American Literature, 1860-1890." Literary Movements.
Last modified July 2008. February 16, 2010 at .
Literary realism. Art and Popular Culture. February 16, 2010.
Oppression of Class And Gender
Class and gender are two separate but related concepts in the sociological analysis and understanding of inequality and oppression in society. A definition of class is "A group of individuals ranked together as possessing common characteristics; as, the different classes of society; the educated class; the lower classes." (Definition of class)
According to the sociologist Max Weber class is defined in relation to the way that goods and services are distributed or allocated in a society.
All communities are arranged in a manner that goods, tangible and intangible, symbolic and material are distributed. Such a distribution is always unequal and necessarily involves power. "Classes, status groups and parties are phenomena of the distribution of power within a community."
(MAX WEER: asic Terms)
Class therefore refers to the categories in a society of those who have access to wealth and privilege and those who do not.…
"Advertising Images of Girls and Women." 1997 Children Now. Retrieved May 12, 2005. ( http://www.childrennow.org/media/medianow/mnfall1997.html )
Chaffins, S., Forbes, M., Fuqua, H.E., & Cangemi, J.P. 1995. "The Glass Ceiling: Are Women Where They Should Be." Education, 115(3), 380+. Retrieved May 12, 2005, from Questia database. ( http://www.questia.com )
Cohen, C.I. 2002. " Economic Grand Rounds: Social Inequality and Health: Will Psychiatry Assume Center Stage? Retrieved May 11, 2005. ( http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/53/8/937
"Changing Ideal Body Types over the Century." 2002. Retrieved May 12, 2005.
Holly Sklar writes, "the gulf between the rich and the rest of America will continue to widen, weakening our economy and our democracy. The American Dream will be history instead of poverty."
With the advent of more billions into the ranks of the Fortune 400, so it is; instead of witnessing the booming middle class that marked the Scientific and Industrial evolutions, America is undergoing a transformation that more clearly limns the demarcation between classes than ever before.
With economic segregation an ever more encroaching reality, the distinctions between race, age, and gender come increased under review as Americans are forced to examine the origins of social class, its solidification in early childhood, and its place in the national life.
In academic circles, social class describes the relationships between individual agents and groups as they struggle through social hierarchies. Weber famously defined the social stratification as a three-component theory frequently…
Adair, Vivian C. "Branded with Infamy: Inscriptions of Poverty and Class in the United States." Signs. Vol. 27, No. 2. (Winter, 2002.)
Collins, C. & Yeskel, F. "Economic Apartheid in America: A Primer on Economic Inequality & Insecurity." New York: The New Press, Oct. 31, 2005.
Conley, Dalton. Being Black and Living in the red: Race, Wealth, and Social Policy in America." Berkley: University of California Press, 1999.
Kotlowitz, Alex. There Are No Children Here. New York: Anchor Press, 1992.
He seems to suggest that treating strangers like extended members of the same social group, which, in a modern society they are, will help erase the feeling of cultural disconnect that many people in modern society experience.
Perhaps Forni's most important sociological contribution comes in his chapter about asserting oneself. The competitive nature of modern society has created a scenario in which people feel as if asserting oneself and being polite are an either/or proposition, and that one cannot assert oneself without being rude. Forni disagrees with this proposition. Instead, he believes that "assertiveness ought to be a natural consequence of [one] being reasonably sensitive to [one's] own needs" (Forni, p. 111). Moreover, he believes that a study in civility will help people learn how to simultaneously be assertive and show respect for the needs of others. "e can choose to pay no because we are entitled to exercise control…
Forni, P.M. Choosing Civility: The Twenty-Five Rules of Considerate Conduct. New York:
St. Martin's Press, 2002.
social commentator, Thomas Frank, has published an insightful article in the February, 2011 issue of Harper's magazine assailing the members of what he describes as the privileges class in America failure to exhibit empathy and understanding for the plight of the working and middle class. In the article, entitled "Servile Disobedience," Frank states, "The rich are different from you and me (T. Frank). They are ruder and less generous. They don't get what others are thinking and apparently they don't really care." In offering these comments, Frank echoes the thoughts offered many years before by the writer and poet, Ralph aldo Emerson. Emerson saw the United States as being infected with "selfishness, fraud and conspiracy (Emerson)."
Frank in his article laments that, "e need the rich to be nicer. e need the rich to discover brotherly love, and fast." He recognizes that among the rich there are a number who…
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Essential Writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson. New York: Modern Library, 2000.
Frank, Robert. "Millionaires Support Warren Buffett's Tax on the Rich." 27 October 2011. Wall Street Journal. 1 December 2011 .
Frank, Thomas. "Servile Disobedience." Harper's February 2011.
Kraus, Michael W. "Social Class, Contextualism and Empathic Accuracy." Psychological Science (2010): 11716-1723.
Economic Concens in Film
Metopolis, Invasion of the Body Snatches and La Jetee span fou decades, although the latte two could be consideed examples of Cold Wa science fiction. Metopolis was set duing the Weima Republic, although cetain scenes wee eeily pophetic of Nazism, but in eality the city itself could also have been New Yok o any othe uban cente of the futue. Fo diecto Fitz Lang, the city was a symbol of Fodist mass poduction and mass consumption, with the wokes down below butalized by povety, hunge and dull, outine, obot-like jobs, while at the same time, the middle and uppe classes above wee also dehumanized by mindless hedonism and nihilism, o dull, confomist cleical and administative wold. Dehumanization was also a majo theme of La Jetee, in which the suvivos of a nuclea holocaust live undegound, lacking even the basic necessities of food, wate and medical cae,…
references to these. Only superficially does the world of Santa Mira still resemble an American town, since the main work of its residents had become production and distribution of seed pods, which they distributed to surrounding towns. In this work, they were like a totalitarian hive of worker bees or ants, having only the instinct to survive. Of course, they also had to eliminate any internal dissent by converting everyone in town to creatures like themselves, with Dr. Miles Bennell and his lover Becky Driscoll as the last human holdouts. They attempt to escape, with everyone in town pursuing them, although Miles loses Becky when she falls asleep and turns into one of 'them'. Only at the very end did Miles manage to convince the humans on the outside that they are in grave danger and that the authorities must be called in to deal with Santa Mira before this alien virus spreads completely out of control.
Both Body Snatchers and Metropolis have happy endings, even though these feel more than a bit contrived, while La Jetee is grim from start to finish. Civilization survives in the first two films, even though the real question might be whether such a society should have survived at all. Lang's vision of middle class charity and humanitarianism bringing about a reconciliation of capital and labor looks very unlikely given the extreme divisions presented between the underground and aboveground worlds in that film. Nazism restrained class conflict mainly by abolishing organized labor and leftist political parties, and using police state methods against all dissent, and history shows that the workers only received justice and a fair share of the social pie when they were politically well organized and able to vote. La Jetee does not even make a pretense that civilization is being saved, since what little of it survived the Third World War resembled an underground Nazi concentration camp, with prisoners experimented upon and exterminated to suit the needs of their overlords. Both of these films reflect grimmer European historical circumstances that Body Snatchers, which is certainly a disturbing and creepy film by American standards, but with a Hollywood ending in which the hero saves the day in the end. Although the world of the pod people in Santa Mira still looks like Middle America on the surface, they have all been infected by some alien virus that turns their town into a totalitarian police state run by zombies, robots and clone, lacking human individuality, desires and emotions. In fact, their all-American town was starting to look too much like something in Germany and Russia, which is why it hard to be destroyed in the end.
Conflict of social norms and its effect on school environment
Social norms can be defined as the rules that determine what should be done or avoided by people in their social settings and circumstances. Norms make sure that people keep promises, ranging from the lane to drive on, to sticking by the golden rule. These are tools for explaining phenomena. They are used to analyze the state of the world even as great as international diplomacy or as subtle and ordinary as traffic rules. However, the body of knowledge regarding norms is spread across disciplines and traditions of research with unclear guidelines or consensus on the way the term should be put to use. Existing research on the subject has largely majored on the effects of the norms and the content of the same. By description, social norms cut across such disciplines as sociology, game theory, economics, and legal studies…
Client is an African-American male, age 19, diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder 1 (296.89), with mixed and psychotic features. Lability and mood cycles have become more rapid recently. Currently, the client is experiencing an acute but mild manic episode.
The client has no significant biological issues. As the first in his family known to have Bipolar Disorder, no genetic component to the disorder has been determined, but further work in a family therapy context might help determine if there are any biological risk factors. The client is physically healthy. He does not use drugs or alcohol, but tends towards a pattern of excessive denial.
Psychologically, the client struggles with low self-esteem, denial, and mood swings. Although the client reports strong and amicable relationships with family and friends, there may be little empathy from his closest relatives due to perceived stigma about bipolar disorder and lack of knowledge of the…
Balanza-Martinez, V., Lacruz, M. & Tabares-Seisdedos, R. (2015). Staging and early intervention in bipolar disorder. Chapter 15 in Neuroprogression and Staging in Bipolar Disorder. Oxford University Press.
CDC (2015). Burden of mental illness. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/basics/burden.htm
Cipriani, A., et al. (2005). Lithium in the prevention of suicidal behavior. The American Journal of Psychiatry 162(10): 1805-1819.
Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA, 2015). Bipolar disorder statistics. Retrieved online: http://www.dbsalliance.org/site/PageServer?pagename=education_statistics_bipolar_disorder
Social Advocacy in Counseling
Social advocacy has been described by some counseling theorists as a "fifth force" paradigm that should be considered to rival if not replace other major counseling psychology paradigms regarding behavior and mental illness (atts, 2009). This paper briefly discusses what social justice/advocacy is, the debate regarding its status as a paradigm in counseling psychology, and how social advocacy can enhance both the client's experience and life and the professional counselor's personal, professional, and ethical obligations to helping others.
Social justice is fairness or impartiality exercised in society, specifically as it is implemented by and within different levels of social classes of a society. A truly socially just populace would be based on the principles of solidarity and equality, would consider and maintain values, human rights, and the dignity of every person in the society (Bell, 1997). Social justice/advocacy theories have in recent years been…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
Bell, L. (1997). Theoretical foundations for social justice education. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice (pp. 3-16). New York: Routledge.
Betancourt, J.R., Green, A.R., Carrillo, J.E., & Park, E.R. (2005). Cultural competence and health care disparities: Key perspectives and trends. Health Affairs, 24, 499 -- 505.
Carlson, N. (2011). Foundations of behavioral neuroscience (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson
Social and Cultural Diversity
The U.S.A. is widely viewed as a unifying state in which immigrants are accommodated and assimilated into the largely 'white' dominant socio cultural structure. This principle has allowed the country to facilitate a friendly environment for the nation to sustain a pluralistic perspective. The immigrants retain and maintain their beliefs and ideals even as they adjust their lives to be practically functional in their new American society. Multicultural counseling has come up against three core challenges linked to such diversity. There is the culture, attitude and theoretical perspective; then there is the culture of the client and, finally the many variables naturally wound around individual characteristics (olton-rownlee, n.d.).
Oversimplifying the Client's Social asis: Application of universal categories is essential for our understanding of human experiences. However, if we lose sight of differences between individuals, it would lead to a range of ethical breaches. Clients are influenced…
ACA. (2014). 2014 ACA Code of Ethics. American Counselling Association.
Banks, J. A. (1996). Multicultural Education, Transformative Knowledge, and Action. New York: Teachers College Press.
Barnett, J., & Bivings, N. (n.d.). Culturally Sensitive Treatment and Ethical Practice. APA Divisions.
Bolton-Brownlee, A. (n.d.). Issues in Multicultural Counseling. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest. Retrieved from Eric Digests: http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-925/issues.htm
Socioeconomic Status, ace and Healthcare
Higher rates of illness among blacks as compared to whites have become a persistent thing over time. At the same time other ethnic/racial minority groups have over the years shown an elevated disease risk for some of the health conditions. This paper will look at how race and socioeconomic status combine to affect health. Health comprises of several dimensions such as loss of functionality, diseases and conditions, disability and even death. The process of health change within a population is thought to start with the onset of diseases and conditions that lead to loss of functionality and impairment and eventually cause disability or even death. The development of some of the chronic diseases, while they are not recognized clinically until one reaches their middle age is affected mostly by lifelong circumstances that are related to race and socioeconomic status. Some factors affect the likelihood of…
Williams, D.(1999). Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Health
The Added Effects of Racism and Discrimination. Retrieved June 10,2014 from http://www.isr.umich.edu/williams/All%20Publications/DRW%20pubs%201999/race,%20SES,%20and%20health.%20the%20added%20effects%20of%20racism%20and%20discrimination.pdf
Crimmins, E., Hayward, M., & Seeman, T.(2010). Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Health. Retrieved June 10, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK25526/
.This is not to say, though, that these themes and others are not examined. For example, Hank Hill's relationship with his father, Cotton ("I killed me fifty men") Hill explores the role of the elderly in modern American society, and even presents a poignant episode in which his father dies and he is forced to confront the mixed-blessing of this loss. Likewise, Homer manages to become more than a bungling parent from time to time and actually connect with his children in ways that would not be feasible in traditional sitcom formats. Homer and Lisa breaking into the Springfield Museum to see the Egyptian exhibit, only to discover the secret to an ancient music box by accident is a good example. Similarly, Bart and Homer even manage to overcome their differences and become a team when it comes to thwarting the good-natured advances of Ned Flanders (who is still…
Harrison, C. (2010). American culture in the 1990s. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Mills, B. (2009). The sitcom. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Pehlke, T.A. & Hennon, C.B. (2009, Spring). Does father still know best? An inductive
thematic analysis of popular TV sitcoms. Fathering, 7(2), 114-118.
Social Media etailing Applications: Opportunities and Threats
How Has Social Media Developed and What are the Benefits and Downsides of Using Social Media for etailers Today?
This study examines social business in general, how it developed and the benefits of using social media in particular. Second, this study provides a discussion concerning the potential positive as well as the effects of social business in the retail sector which is followed by a description of optimal business strategies for social media applications, the pros/cons of using these tools in the industry, and some representative case studies concerning companies that succeeded and some that recently failed in their use of social media. Finally, the study provides a summary of the research and important findings is followed by a series of recommendations concerning how retailers should use social media technologies in their own businesses in the concluding chapter.
Social Media Business Applications
About Honda. (2013). Honda. Available: http://corporate.honda.com/america/philanthropy.aspx?id=philanthropy_overview . Last accessed 1 November 2013.
About Virgin. (2013). Virgin America. Available: http://www.virginamerica.com/about/airline-company.html.
Baumann, M. (2010, June). @Twitter Discloses Business Model #Promotedtweets RT.
Information Today, 27 (6) 1-5.
Franklin's autobiography demonstrates a truly American kind of businessman, because he so neatly embodies all of the assumptions and logical fallacies that American capitalism depends on in order to justify its dominance in an ostensibly equitable and representative society.
Where Franklin's autobiography demonstrates the peculiar appeal to divine right that is used to justify the inequity of American capitalism, Herman Melville's Bartleby the Scrivener demonstrates the almost willful obtuseness necessary for any apologists of capitalism who must interact with the exploited lower classes on a regular basis. The narrator of Bartleby the Scrivener is entirely unaware of anything outside the extremely limited range of his own preconceived ideas, which is both why Bartleby's passive resistance stuns him so much and he is ultimately unable to come to terms with Bartleby's death. He practically admits as much when he says "the easiest way of life is the best," because the easiest…
Franklin, B. (2008). Autobiography of benjamin franklin. New York: Forgotten Books.
Melville, H. (1856). Bartleby the scrivener. New York: Plain Label Books.
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…
Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.
Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
Social Upward Mobility
Explain how the economic system in the United States can be used both to allow upward social mobility and trap others in lower status levels.
America is known as the land of opportunity. This is because no matter where someone comes from, their racial group, nationality or economic class everyone has the chance to be successful. If they have a good idea and are willing to work at it, they will realize their long-term goals. Throughout the course of U.S. history, this has been the case. As innovators from across the world can start out with nothing and earn a fortune during the course of their lifetimes. (Cullen 2004) (Henslin 2013)
This is because the economic system enables upward mobility by encouraging the free flow of ideas through a culture of acceptance and understanding. At the same time, the movement of working capital and people from one…
Cullen, Jim. 2004. The American Dream. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
DeParle, Jason. 2012."Harder for Americans to Rise." Retrieved July 21, 2013 ( http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/05/us/harder-for-americans-to-rise-from-lower-rungs.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 )
Henslin, James. 2013. Essentials of Sociology. New York, NY: Pearson Education.
Social Implications of Sexual Identity Formation and Coming Out Process
Chad Mosher's article, "The social implications of identity formation and the coming-out-process: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature" provides a fairly comprehensive look at the theories and realities of individuals asserting their homosexual tendencies to the world. The article is widely written as a source of material and instruction for psychologists who are employed in a therapeutic or counseling capacity with such individuals, as there are implications for them to incorporate into their practice in the article's conclusion. In addition to discussing the two principle theories regarding coming out, essentialism and social constructionism, the author discusses aspects of the theories that are integrated as well as the effect of coming out on both the audience and the homosexual perception. Audiences are stratified into three distinct categories: family members, heterosexuals, as well as homosexuals and those somewhere in between…
Mosher, C. (2001). The social implications of identity formation and the coming-out-process: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature. The Family Journal. 9 (2): 164-173.
Social workers often have commitments to specific policies, laws, or funding of programs that are vital to the population they serve or an issue that they strongly support. Such commitments often lead social workers to become involved in political issues and the campaigns of specific candidates. Being a social worker, such campaign experiences, the outcomes of your efforts, and how effective you felt you were may affect your view of the political process and the likelihood of becoming involved in similar campaigns in the future. Social workers' involvement in political advocacy is usually influenced by the impact of politics on social work practice. Through advocacy and lobbying in the political arena, social workers seek to promote changes in legislation and policy to enhance social conditions and promote social justice towards meeting basic human needs. In essence, social workers' participation in political advocacy is geared towards protecting individuals' rights and enhancing…
A nation faithful to democracy is blessed and called to spread this "good news" throughout the nations "(Withrow,2007, p.15 ).
Coupled with this "gospel" was the support and verification of major scientific theories during this period. Social Darwinism was derived from Darwin's work on the evolution of the species. In essence, Darwin's theory of human evolution refers to the principle of the 'survival of the fittest," on which the ideal of human progress becomes possible. Therefore, taking this principle into account, Social Darwinism attempt to explain and justify the social and economic inequalities in society in terms of those who are the strongest and fittest in the society i.e. those who are the most prosperous and who accumulate the most. Therefore, the vision that this theory produced was one that favored and justified the strongest and most successful in society.
In order to understand the impact of Social Darwinism one…
Carnegie a. The Gospel of Wealth Reflection Questions. Excerpts of an essay written by Carnegie in 1889. Retrieved from http://learningtogive.org/resources/stories/gospelofwealth/
De Santis, V. The American Gilded Age Revisited. Australian Journal of Politics & History, 29
(2), pp. 354 -- 367. Available from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119538983/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
Withrow L. Success and the Prosperity Gospel: from Commodification to Transformation a Wesleyan Perspective. Journal of Religious Leadership, 6(2). Available from http://arl-jrl.org/Volumes/Withrow07.pdf.