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social environment in the Palestinian Territories, I have a tremendous appreciation for some of the benefits and opportunities available to young people in the U.S. that many of my future classmates may take for granted. For example, in my homeland, there is a desperate need for a more efficient and affordable energy supply. As a result, I appreciate the convenience of affordable electricity in the U.S. that might never occur to some of my classmates who have never known life without it. Partly because of the need for affordable clean energy in my homeland, I developed an interest in pursuing the technical challenges of developing affordable energy sources for use in areas of the world where energy needs are not currently being met by the existing infrastructure and systems available. I hope to pursue that interest, beginning through my choice of a double academic major in Theoretical Mathematics and Physics.…
(Committee on Public Education and Professional Practice, 1993) the conclusion of the Council states that "...it is essential that the profession act concertedly to bring about the changes that they know to be necessary for effective education in the province's classrooms. Specific recommendations of the Council are those as follows: (1) Development of a comprehensive position on public education and professional practice must take place on the foundations as follows: (a) a significant reduction in expectations placed on public education; (b) elimination of contradictory expectations; - recognition and enhancement of professionalism and of teachers' right to make choices and judgments in the light of their training, expertise, and needs and interests of their students; (d) provision of the resources to allow teachers to refine and perfect instructional techniques; (e) efficient organization of schools to recognize the constraints of group instruction and the reasonable limits to individualization; (f) a revised model…
Trying to Teach (1993) the Alberta Teachers' Association - Interim Report of the Committee on Public Education and Professional Practice as Approved by Provincial Executive Council for discussion at the 1993 Annual Representation Assembly. 1993 Jan.
Ozga, Jennifer and Lawn, Martin (1981) Teachers, Professionalism and Class: A Study of Organized Teachers. Taylor & Francis, 1981.
Barrett, Ralph and Meaghan, Diane (1998) Proletarianization, Professional Autonomy and Professional Discourse: Restructuring Educational Work in Ontario Colleges College Quarterly
Spring 1998 - Volume 5 Number 3.
political and social environment is the issue of childhood obesity and the extent to which schools should play a proactive role in modifying children's eating habits. "Between 1980 and 2004, the prevalence of overweight in children (6 -- 11 years) increased from 6.5% to 18.8% and in adolescents (12 -- 19 years) increased from 5.0% to 17.4%" (Fitzgibbon & Beech 2009). Some people believe that a more active role is needed by our nation's schools, regarding American children's eating and exercise habits. On the other hand, many parents stress the psychological damage that being overly fixated on weight can cause. They believe that schools should teach children that it is what is inside that matters, rather than the outside, and that children's eating habits should be left in the hands of the parents. I believe that a balanced approach is necessary. On one hand, it is essential that children learn…
Black, Jane. "Improving school food is not the answer." Slate. 2011. [12 Dec 2011]
This essay is an overview of different solutions presented to treat childhood obesity. It examines the ways schools can and cannot address the issue.
"Children with healthier diets do better in school, study suggests." ScienceDaily, 20 Mar 2008.
Functionalism and Interaction Theory to Poverty
Functionalism and interaction theories provide an understanding of various social happenings including poverty. The similarities held by the theories recognize the fact that poverty in our contemporary society occurs due to the influence of different factors, which makes them vulnerable to poverty. Functionalism theory assumes that the social stratification is important to stimulate special intelligence and knowledge to respond to various social problems including poverty. The theory recognizes that the variability in the abilities of individuals to respond to different situations attests to the poverty seen in the society. In addition, functionalism theories also stress that the social stratification and inequality are factors that are inevitable and important to society. The privileges linked to the high status positions in the society contribute to poverty. Individuals considered coming from the high status exploit those of the middle and lower classes; hence, poverty. Cumulatively, functionalist theories…
Roberts, A.R., & Watkins, J.M. (2009). Social workers' desk reference (2nd ed.). Oxford [England: Oxford University Press.
Wodarski, J.S., & Dziegielewski, S.F. (2002). Human behavior and the social environment: integrating theory and evidence-based practice. New York, NY: Springer Pub..
Zastrow, C., & Ashman, K.K. (1990). Understanding human behavior and the social environment (2nd ed.). Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publishers
eve of MLK Day, Michelle Alexander and Randall Robinson on the Mass Incarceration of Black Americans (13th January, 2012).
The show is a discussion between Tran Africa founder Randall Robinson and author Michelle Alexander about the disproportionate number of African-Americans that are represented in American correctional facilities that include prisons, jails, or that are on probation, or on parole. According to both founder and author, there are more African-Americans currently incarcerated in the American system than were enslaved in 1850 and more Americans disenfranchised now than they were with the Jim Crow laws in 1870. Both presenters call for a greater emphasis on providing African-Americans with dignity, education, and jobs rather than casting them into jail.
The topic, presented on Martin Luther King Day, is of concern to Americans interested in social justice, since the jail system does show disproportionate statistics of incarcerated minorities to White and most of…
Nagin, D. & Pogarsky, G. (2001) Integrating celerity, impulsivity, and extralegal sanction threats into a model of general deterrence. Criminology, 39 (4).
Robinson, R. & Alexander, M. (13th January, 2012). "On eve of MLK Day, Michelle Alexander and Randall Robinson on the Mass Incarceration of Black Americans"
Economic and social classes are artificial divisions of individuals and groups based on their incomes, lifestyles, and professions. Economic class stresses level of income, number and quality of material possessions, from houses to cars to electronic equipment. Social class is often a function of economic class but social class can also include the relative prestige of one's profession, unrelated to one's annual income. For example, a lawyer in the public defender's office might make less than a public sanitation worker but the lawyer is considered to be a member of a higher social class. In most modern societies, individuals are judged significantly based on economic and social class.
Likewise, individuals are judged based on their race and ethnicity. Race is an artificial construction that usually refers to physical features like skin color. Ethnicity and race are closely intertwined, but ethnicity usually incorporates cultural, historical, and nationalistic elements as well…
Farewell to Manzanar
The intact Wakatsuki family consisted of Papa George Ko, Mama Riku Sugai, ill the eldest, Eleanor, Woodrow or Woody and Jeanne, the youngest, who co-authored "Farewell to Manzanar (2001) (Sparknotes 2005)" with her would-be husband, James. Jeanne was born on September 26, 1934 in Inglewood, California. She spent early childhood with her Japanese family in Ocean Park where her father worked as a fisherman, until things began to change. This is the background of the autobiographic novel written by Jeanne and her husband, as she interpreted the events, the environment and the characters. eing born in the U.S., Jeanne has identified more with American culture and is the most independent of the Watsukis children.
On December 7, 1941, Japan staged a surprise night-time bombing of the U.S. naval base in Pearl Harbor in the island of Oahu in Hawaii. Its 360 airplanes destroyed 18 U.S. ships and…
1. Comella, Pamela A. (2001). A Brief Summary of Bowen Family Systems Theory. Bowen Theory. http://www.bowentheory.com/abriefsummaryofbowenfamilysystemstheorycomella.htm
2. Creek, Rock. (2003). Images of Manzanar. Sierra Nevada Webring. http://www.owensvalleyhistory.com/manzanar2/page/29.html
3. Houston, Jeanne and James Houston. (2001). Farewell to Manzanar. Hungry Minds, Inc.
4. -- .(2005). Sparknotes, Inc. LLC. http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/manzanar.html
Chapter Summary: Groups and Networks
How Social Networks are Formed and What In Groups Mean
The chapter looks at the basic theories regarding group interaction and how groups shape the social environment in which people live. It looks at the size and shape of a group, what difference role players make, and how the power of a group differs from individual power or institutional power. It explains the difference between a dyad and a triad—a dyad being a group of two, which is more of a symmetrical relationship; a triad being a group of three or more in which the group has more power as a group than any one individual. In a group, roles are unequal and important. There is the mediator, the rejoicer, and the one who divides and conquers. Size matters in groups. Small groups are good for face to face interaction and grassroots level activity. Large…
Some jobs will require that a person continue his college education and some will require learning that can take place on the job in order to acquire the needed skills.
on-the-job training can take place in several forms. An outside training firm can be brought in to the company to hold seminars on a relevant topic for the employees. In this environment, the social nature of learning could be one of camaraderie or competitiveness among the adult employees. The adult employee wanted to get ahead may try to excel and outperform his coworkers to increase his chances of advancing. On the other hand, the environment could be more of a friendly social nature while everyone is learning. They may be asked to work in groups, much like in a college classroom setting. This will allow them to collaborate and perhaps learn about new skills they can acquire from their coworkers.…
Cameron, David. (2010). Adult learning and the way it inspires people is crucially important. Adults Learning, 21(9), 16-17.
http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html (Accessed on June 22, 2010).
http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html (Accessed on June 22, 2010).
Schmidt, Laurel. (2008). How we don't learn. Leadership, 38(2), 10-14.
The GEMS effort was to create a social environment that encouraged healthy eating and exercise, and expanded health literacy in a fun manner, and was accessible to young girls.
It is easier to change health-related behaviors in the young, and the program tried to address the unique and often more acute problem of obesity in African-American young girls. The entire community and family units were incorporated into the program effort. Positive aspects of the African-American community, such as strong social support, were used by the study designers, also in line with social cognition theory. Existing support structures and social learning were combined: for example, the families in question were often not educated in how to properly read food labels, but once they were, the desire to help their daughters become healthier would hopefully reinforce the need to engage in proactive steps to improve dietary health. During Family Nights, families of…
Marvella E. Ford, Barbara C. Tilley, & Patricia E. McDonald. (1998). Social support among
African- American adults with diabetes. Journal of American Medicine. 90 (6) 361-365.
Retrieved July 9, 2010 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2568240/pdf/jnma00165-0047.pdf
Story, Mary, et al. (2003, Winter). "An after-school obesity prevention program for African-
Since we observe the responses of our peers and friends, we are very much attuned to how we interact with others, and how their succeed or fail. The theory of self-efficacy is fundamental to understanding social cognitive learning, because it implies that the process of using this theory creates greater confidence. Since individuals learn from their cultural environment, it is imperative to construct a positive enforcing messages through the educational process to ensure that individuals feel that they can accomplish any and all given tasks.
A contextual example of the social cognitive learning model can be seen in the case of student as in the provided example. As is a student who feels no self-efficacy when it comes to mathematics, despite numerous opportunities to learn from math, he has taken no opportunities to improve himself. When questioned he clearly asserts that he cannot learn math, something that appears counterintuitive from…
The stopping of treatment is the primary reason for this early intervention. This tactic has been extremely successful for many years and should be
Once the induction interviews are complete, the client and the social worker can move on to treating the patient. Once the treatment has started it is vitally important that the social worker pay careful attention to eliminating communication patterns that are counterproductive. Social workers have to be careful not to get stuck in unproductive type of communication that serve no purpose and do nothing to assist the client.
In addition if a social worker must examine the family functioning and diverse family and cultural contexts. This simply means that the social worker is responsible for examining the home situation of the client and assisting the client based on this environment. There are several different family structures that may be present including single family homes, blended families…
Glossary. Retrieved November 24, 2009 from: http: / / www. cmpmhmr. cog.pa.us / glossary.html
Hardcastle, David A. (2004) Community Practice: Theories and Skills for Social Workers. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press
Hepworth, DH Rooney, R.H., Rooney, G.D., Strom-Gottfried K., Larsen J. (2009) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills. Cengage Learning, 2009
Ogrodniczuk, J.S., Joyce, A.S., and Piper W.E. (2005) Strategies for Reducing Patient-Initiated Premature Termination of Psychotherapy. Harvard Review Psychiatry Vol. 13 Issue 2, p57-70, 14p. March/April 2005
This leads one to believe that they are not very well off financially and the mother has not real education in order to obtain employment since she is currently attaining administrative assistant training. Antonio also has issues with controlling his behavior when in the daycare environment, as he frequently has violent outbursts and crying spells.
If one were to assess Antonio from an Eco-Feminist perspective one would be better able to understand Antonio and his present behavior. Ecofeminism is the social movement that regards the domination of women and nature as unified. It is one of the few movements and analyses that in fact connect the two movements. Lately, ecofeminist theorists have extended their analyses to reflect on the interconnections flanked by sexism, the domination of nature, and also racism and social dissimilarities (What is Ecofeminism, n.d.). Daniel spent a lot of time suppressing Hilda in his behavior that he…
"Neil Adger on Social Resilience." (2010). Retrieved December 2, 2010, from Ecological
Sociology Web site: http://ecologicalsociology.blogspot.com/2010/05/neil-adger-on-social-resilience.html
Kendall, Diana. (2008). Sociology in our Times. Belmont: Thompson Wadsworth.
Mannelli, Sandra. (n.d.). What Are Defense Mechanisms Anyway? Retrieved December 3, 2010,
Under the NHE approach, families are analyzed as households that "consume," and these 'consumables' can be both tangible (basic commodities such as food, clothing, shelter) and intangible (such as health and relaxation, among others).
All these socio-economic variables impact the family, according to the UN study (Zeitlin et. al., 1995). Examples of these impacts include the following findings: (1) "loosening social controls" -- legal controls or social norms that must be followed by members of the society -- lead men to "discontinue their support to wives and children," (2) "economic profitability" (i.e., more financial resources) for female head of the family allows other female members of the family to be economically profitable as well, and (3) increased employment opportunities for women in the family improves child welfare in general (related to finding #2). These findings demonstrate that power and conflict in the family is determined by the social forces and…
Zeitlin, M., R.Megawangi, E.Kramer, N. Colletta, E. Babatunde, and D. Garman. (1995). Strengthening the family: Implications for international development. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
The rise of the middle class and the Industrial Revolution brought forth a demand to render this emerging class in fiction, and not simply relegate it to the sidelines of prose narratives in the United States. Realism in the United States is often said to stretch from the Civil ar to the end of the 19th century. The interest in Realism was also spawned by the crisis of national confidence that occurred after that bloody battle. Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, and later Henry James are all classified as Realistic writers who "wrote fiction devoted to accurate representation and an exploration of American lives in various contexts" (Campbell 2008). Also as the United States grew rapidly after the Civil ar, "the increasing rates of democracy and literacy, the rapid growth in industrialism and urbanization, an expanding population base due to immigration, and a relative rise in middle-class affluence provided a fertile…
Campbell, Donna M. "Realism in American Literature, 1860-1890." Literary Movements.
Last modified July 2008. February 16, 2010 at .
Literary realism. Art and Popular Culture. February 16, 2010.
It is the process of interaction among family members that determines the rules by which the family is governed. This is the family's level of cohesion, its adaptability, and its communication style. Finally, these interactions work together to serve individual members and collective family needs;
(3) Family function is the output of the interactional system. Utilizing the resources available through its structure (input), the family interacts to produce responses that fulfill its needs; and (4) the family life cycle introduces the element of change into the family system. As the family moves through time, developmental and non-developmental changes alter the family structure and/or the family's needs. These, in turn, produce change in the way the family interacts." (Allen, et al., 2007)
Figure 1 -- the Family System
Source: Allen et al. (2007)
The family is stated by Allen et al. (2007) to have many "attitudes, rules and communication patterns which…
Allen, Jo Ann (1991) Understanding Families, Children's Bureau, Administration for Children, Youth and Families, Office of Human Development Services, United States Department of Health and Human Services. Online available at:
Anderson, Ralph E., Carter, Irl. E. And Lowe, Gary (1999) Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Social Systems Approach. Aldine Transaction 1999. Google Books. Online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=hYfv-ieHdYkC
Family Developmental Theory (nd) University of Kansas -- Department of Psychology. Online available at: http://www.psych.ku.edu/dennisk/PF642/Family%20Developmental%20Theory.pdf
Fontaine, Reid Griffith (2005) Applying system Principles to Models of Social Information Processing and Aggressive Behavior in Youth. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 11 (2006) 64-76.
In preparation for this paper, I reviewed all class notes and lectures. I also referred to Schriver's (2011) Human Behavior and the Social Environment and also Payne's (2005) Modern Social Work Theory. I also reviewed several websites in preparation for a thorough community analysis, while also evaluating my own notes and photographs from assessing the community. My analysis of a specific community is based on several interrelated theories of social work and sociology including conflict theory, systems theory, and functionalism.
In light of what I have read, and based on my observations and interviews with locals, Downtown Indianapolis has undergone major restoration, gentrification, and revival since the 1990s. Issues like empowerment, advocacy, cultural diversity, and conflict theory all come to mind as I evaluate the community by applying theories of social work. I would like to focus in particular on the positive changes that have taken place,…
Arndt, R. (n.d.). Functionalist theory background. University of North Carolina: Pembroke. Retrieved online: http://libguides.uncp.edu/content.php?pid=315635&sid=2582715
Friedman, B.D. & Allen, K.N. (n.d.). Systems theory. Retrieved online: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/32947_Chapter1.pdf
Payne, M. (2005). Modern social work theory, 3rd Ed. London: Lyceum Books.
Schriver, J. (2011). Human behavior and the social environment, 5th Ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
social networking has in the last couple of years stirred a lot of debate among politician and scholars alike. The level of risks and benefits associated with social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace especially to children and teenagers has elicited a mixed reaction among the debating parties. In this paper we present a systematic analysis of the implications of social networking sites for both children and teenagers with a sharp focus on Facebook. We also focus on the benefits as well as the issue surrounding the use of social networking sites by use of relevant illustrations. Overall, we evaluate how the use of computer technology has impacted the society in general and education in particular.
Definition of Social Networking
Several scholars have attempted to define the concept of social networking and its components. Boyd & Ellison (2007) define social networking sites as special web-based services that are…
Berkshire District Attorney. Sexting. Pittsfield, MA: Commonwealth of Massachusetts; 2010.
Availableonline at: www.mass.gov/?pageID_ berterminal&L_3&L0_Home&L1_Crime_Awareness_%26_Prevention&L2_Parents_
%26_Youth&sid_Dber&b_terminalcontent&f_parents_youth_sexting&csid_Dber. Accessed onApril 5, 2011
Tynes, BM (2007),Internet Safety Gone Wild? Sacrificing the Educational and Psychosocial
Conflict of social norms and its effect on school environment
Social norms can be defined as the rules that determine what should be done or avoided by people in their social settings and circumstances. Norms make sure that people keep promises, ranging from the lane to drive on, to sticking by the golden rule. These are tools for explaining phenomena. They are used to analyze the state of the world even as great as international diplomacy or as subtle and ordinary as traffic rules. However, the body of knowledge regarding norms is spread across disciplines and traditions of research with unclear guidelines or consensus on the way the term should be put to use. Existing research on the subject has largely majored on the effects of the norms and the content of the same. By description, social norms cut across such disciplines as sociology, game theory, economics, and legal studies…
functions of management, planning, organizing, directing and controlling, to which we will add commanding and coordinating, as subsidiaries of the directing and controlling functions, we will easily arrive to the conclusions that the first two functions refer to the company's strategy, to the manager's role in determining a strategic vision for the company and the ways it should follow into the future, while the two latter, corroborated with the subsidiary functions, refer to the human resource management.
In the 21st century, a proper human resource management often makes the difference between the success of the organization, especially as a business entity, and its failure. It has become more and more determining for the company's success the way it chooses and it succeeds to properly utilize the human potential it has in its ranks. Quite so often, it is less a question of financial investments one can make, but more a…
1. McDonald, Gael. 2000. Business Ethics: Practical Proposals for Organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 169-184.
2. Mirchell, Terence R, Mickel Amy E. Jul 1999. The meaning of money: An individual-difference perspective. Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review. Briarcliff Manor:.Vol.24, Iss. 3; pg. 568
3. Limerick, David. The Shape of the new Organization: Implications for Human Resource Management. Griffith University.
4. Rashid, M. & Shariff, K (1996) 'Perceptions of unethical practices in the Insurance industry' Asian Academy of Management. v 1(1) pp. 42 -- 52
Academic Studying and Development of Personal Skill: A Self-Regulatory Perspective by Barry I. Zimmerman, discusses the essential role that self-regulation plays in improving the academic performance of students, with the potential of also improving the individual's life throughout his/her development. Self-regulation, defined as "self-generated thoughts, feelings, and actions for attaining academic goals," is a primary tool, according to research, in determining efficacy in student development because it involves "personal initiative, resourcefulness, persistence, and sense of responsibility" -- that is, tools that make for "self-motivation," the catalyst for self-regulation to occur (73).
Thus, Zimmerman conducts this research based on two grounds: (1) there has been little literature on the topic of self-regulation among students, especially when applied in the educational setting; and (2) the potential of self-regulation as the primary determinant that explains a student's academic performance and "learning ability." Using the method of structured and in-depth/focused interviews of students, data…
Zimmerman, B. (1998). "Academic studying and the development of personal skill: A self-regulatory perspective." Educational Psychologist, 33. 73-86.
S.A., Canada, the UK, Australia, and Finland.
To begin, the age range of study populations can be problematic, as the social experiences and social environment of an 85-year-old may be wildly divergent than an 11-year-old, for example. Further, the recollections (after the fact) of an adult may be greatly different than those of someone in the throes of puberty and new social and sexual experiences. Similarly, diagnoses, and location between the papers could lead to a great divergence in the study populations. Differences in IQ assessment between the papers may also have created a disparity of IQs. Essentially, the authors may have cast their net a bit too wide in their analysis.
Overall, Wiegerink et al.'s (2006) analysis provides a useful overview of the problems faced by adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. Further research, however, should attempt to more painstakingly describe how the many factors influencing social and…
Wiegerink DJ, Roebroeck ME, Donkervoort M, Stam HJ, and Cohen-Kettenis PT. 2006. Social and Sexual Relationships of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: A Review. Clin Rehabil. Dec;20(12):1023-31.
Social Media Trends: Health Psychology
One of the most notable trends in recent years is the rise in interest in the field of popular psychology. People conduct personality tests on themselves, engage in self-diagnosis, and simplify psychological conditions (both common and uncommon) and apply them to their daily lives. The ubiquity of the Internet has made this even more accessible. Although self-help books have been best sellers for more than a hundred years, and even 19th century magazines printed personality self-quizzes, the ease of taking and scoring them online has caused an explosion of self-analysis (Bisceglio, 2017). Although some of the quizzes are clearly silly, others, like online versions of the Myers-Briggs, are also used in a serious setting as a method of analyzing prospective employees. “In-depth psychological assessments like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator began popping up in the first half of the 20th century for the purpose of scanning…
Social Cognitivism: Viewpoint Synthesis
Literature eview on Social Cognitivism
Theoretical Paper: Social Cognitive Theory of Personality by Albert Bandura
The core of the social cognitive theory is that through observation, learning occurs. This theory has several premises forming its foundation. Human beings are seen to learn when they participate in the observation process. A person who is a model, demonstrates a behaviour while the observer picks up this behaviour or learns it by seeing the model doing it. Albert Bandura, in his Social Cognitive Theory on personality, which is now known as the Social Learning Theory, states that there are many interactions of various elements such as people, the environment and behaviours when learning is taking place. Thus it takes place within a social setting (Bandura, 1999).
Purpose of the study
Bandura pursued various aims in this study. He looked at the behaviour of groups and individuals and…
Bandura A. (1989) Social Cognitive Theory. IN: Annals of Child Development (Vol 6, p1
60. (Vasta R, ed). Greenwich, CT: Jai Press LTD.
Bandura, A. (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Social psychology view: What ensures that women are treated fairly in office settings in the United States?
One of the most prudent applications of social psychology within contemporary settings are those that relate to gender. Gender issues can become exacerbated when they are viewed within particular social constructs, such as the work environment. Due to the fact that the majority of the world was initially a patriarchal society (particularly in the United States) before modern conceptions of gender became prevalent, the role of women within the work environment is one which is certainly worthy of investigation in terms of how women are treated, what sorts of issues they must contend with, and how others (men) consider working women. The principle difference between contemporary and most historic notions of gender pertaining to women in the workplace is that in modern times, there is supposed to be a substantial greater amount of…
Bisika, T. (2008). Do social and cultural factors perpetuate gender-based violence in Malawi?.Gender & Behaviour, 6(2), 1884-1896. doi:10.4314/gab.v6i2.23426
Cikara, M., Rudman, L., & Fiske, S. (2012). Dearth by a Thousand Cuts?: Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology. Journal Of Social Issues, 68(2), 263-285. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2012.01748.x
Gilbert, D.G., Fiske, S.T. & Lindzey G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Huerta, M. (2007). Intersections of race and gender in women's experiences of harassment. (Order No. 3253291, University of Michigan). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 110-110 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304848503?accountid=25340 . (304848503).
Social Implications of Sexual Identity Formation and Coming Out Process
Chad Mosher's article, "The social implications of identity formation and the coming-out-process: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature" provides a fairly comprehensive look at the theories and realities of individuals asserting their homosexual tendencies to the world. The article is widely written as a source of material and instruction for psychologists who are employed in a therapeutic or counseling capacity with such individuals, as there are implications for them to incorporate into their practice in the article's conclusion. In addition to discussing the two principle theories regarding coming out, essentialism and social constructionism, the author discusses aspects of the theories that are integrated as well as the effect of coming out on both the audience and the homosexual perception. Audiences are stratified into three distinct categories: family members, heterosexuals, as well as homosexuals and those somewhere in between…
Mosher, C. (2001). The social implications of identity formation and the coming-out-process: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature. The Family Journal. 9 (2): 164-173.
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Modern day examples of human modification of an ecosystem
Module 01 Question 01: Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Various measures have been put in order to modify and contain the natural state of the ecosystem. Preservation is one of the approaches that have been used to foster equitable management of the ecosystem. Through preservation, it has become evident that the ecosystem has taken a different understanding from the avenue of human perception. For instance, rules and regulations that help to protect the ecosystem have changed the entire perception of the ecosystem globally. Initially before the establishment of preservation approaches, the ecosystem was getting devastated gradually. Nonetheless, modification has come with the introduction of laws and regulations that work towards protection and preservation of the available avenues in the market.
Through the rules and regulations created, the ecosystem has achieved a new state of protection in…
Callan, S., & Thomas, J.M. (2010). Environmental economics & management: Theory, policy, and applications. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Corwin, J. (2009). 100 heartbeats: The race to save earth's most endangered species. New York, NY: Rodale.
FAO/IRRI Workshop on Judicious and Efficient Use of Insecticides on Rice, International
Rice Research Institute. & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…
Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.
Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.
Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.
Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Accumulating evidence suggest that sustainable agriculture should be promoted. The growth and development of agriculture will still be the driving force of the loss of ecosystems in the 21st century. In specified areas, the growth and development of agriculture poses a danger to ecosystems, establishment, evaluation, and technological diffusion. This could see the rise of the food production sustainably per unit area with the absence of trade-offs relating to excessive water consumption or nutrients and pesticides use, would lessen pressure significantly to ecosystems. For many cases, the required technologies are in place, and they could be implemented in a wider variety, but the nation is facing financial constraints and lacking intuitional capabilities to use and gain the stated technologies. In areas where technology is predominant of the landscape, maintenance of ecosystems within the landscape is a very significant constitute of…
Hayden, J. (2009). Introduction to health behavior theory. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
O'Donnell, M.P. (2008). Health promotion in the workplace. Albany: Delmar Thomson Learning
Scutchfield, F.D., & Keck, C.W. (2009). Principles of public health practice. Clifton Park: Thomson/Delmar Learning
Stephens, C. (2008). Health promotion: A psychosocial approach. Maidenhead: Open University Press
I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.
Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…
David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Social Cognitive, Behavioral Drinking
Social Cognitive/behavioralist Drinking
Drinking behavior provides informative demonstration of how social cognitive and behavioralist theories provide complementary rather than competing explanations of human agency. Bandura (1999) casts social cognitive theory against various determinist and materialist theories on the assertion humans are "sentient agents of experiences rather than simply undergoers of experiences" because people explore, manipulate and influence the environment they discover (p. 4). This contrasts against "automaticity," habit, "tendencies to repeat responses given a stable supporting context" (Oullette and Wood, 1998, p. 55). Oullette & Wood (1998) compare habit learning to skill development, where practice can lead to "nonvolitional, frequent, and consistent experiences in a given context" but new situations require deliberation (p. 55). Wood and Neal (2007) largely reiterate this summary as repeated learned behavior (843). The present inquiry is particularly interested in how and why particular behaviors become repeated after negative consequences have been…
Bandura, A. (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. John (Ed.),
Handbook of personality (2nd ed., pp. 154-196). New York: Guilford Publications. (Reprinted in D. Cervone & Y. Shoda [Eds.], The coherence of personality. New York: Guilford Press.)
Ouellette, J. & Wood, W. (1998). Habit and intention in everyday life: The multiple processes by which past behavior predicts future behavior. Psychological Bulletin 124(1), 54-74.
Wood, w. & Neal, D.T. (2007). A new look at habits and the habit -- goal interface. Psychological Review 114(4), 843 -- 863. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.114.4.843
Social Media etailing Applications: Opportunities and Threats
How Has Social Media Developed and What are the Benefits and Downsides of Using Social Media for etailers Today?
This study examines social business in general, how it developed and the benefits of using social media in particular. Second, this study provides a discussion concerning the potential positive as well as the effects of social business in the retail sector which is followed by a description of optimal business strategies for social media applications, the pros/cons of using these tools in the industry, and some representative case studies concerning companies that succeeded and some that recently failed in their use of social media. Finally, the study provides a summary of the research and important findings is followed by a series of recommendations concerning how retailers should use social media technologies in their own businesses in the concluding chapter.
Social Media Business Applications
About Honda. (2013). Honda. Available: http://corporate.honda.com/america/philanthropy.aspx?id=philanthropy_overview . Last accessed 1 November 2013.
About Virgin. (2013). Virgin America. Available: http://www.virginamerica.com/about/airline-company.html.
Baumann, M. (2010, June). @Twitter Discloses Business Model #Promotedtweets RT.
Information Today, 27 (6) 1-5.
Social Perceptions and Bias
Within any organization there is a dual cognitive and emotional role in making decisions. In the 21st century global environment, this role is accentuated and allows far less time than ever before. Typically, decision making is the result of stimuli, then choosing from alternatives based on past and current knowledge, then making a final choice of an action or group of action. One way of looking at the decision making process is that it is ingrained within the human psychological perspective, which makes it both unique and complex for the individual or organization involved. esearchers Seo and Barrett (2007) present a theory that contrary to the popular belief that emotions (feelings) are dysfunctional in decision making, in fact, research shows that individuals who are able to identify and distinguish among feelings have a greater chance of making successful and discreet decisions by looking critically at their…
Ashforth, B., Humphrey, R. (1995). Emotion in the Workplace: A Reappraisal.
Human Relations. 48 (2): 97-125.
Baron, R., Kenney, D. (1986). The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social
Psychological Research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 51 (6): 1173-82.
What is meant by the term 'social enterprise' and what do social enterprises contribute to society and the economies in which they operate?
The acceleration with which the world is changing day by day is continuous. A majority of organizations that have a motto of 'not-for-profit' are looking out for prospects with the help of which they can begin or widen their projects in order to get their missions fulfilled and offer the needy the earned profits. Thus, any organization or scheme that brings about the mentioned twofold objectives is considered a social enterprise. Social enterprises sell mission-related goods or services and by doing so they try to create a more impartial and fair environment through specific market-based strategies (Bornstein & Davis 2010).
In other words, a business is regarded as a social enterprise when the main objective is to cope up with the prevailing societal problems and…
Baptiste, T. (2009). Being a Leader and Making Decisions. 1st. ed. New York: Chelsea House.
Beerel, A. (2009). Leadership and Change Management. 1st. ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Bornstein, D. & Davis, S. (2010). Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to Know. 1st. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Borzaga, C. & Defourny, J. (2001). The Emergence of Social Enterprise. 1st. ed. London: Routledge.
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia: How the Social Media Affect the E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia
SOCIAL COMMECE IN SAUDI AABIA
Conceptual Framework Model
Psychological Aspect and Theories
Digital Divide in Saudi Arabia
Ethos, eligious conviction, and Government in E-commerce Adoption
The ise of the P Industry in Saudi Arabia
Conceptual Model and esearch Hypothesis (Drawing)
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia
Modern Saudi Arabia today actually represents an exceptional and convergent mixture of social conservatism and technological ability, a wonderful alteration from a remote, desert land that it was just something like 50 years ago. As social media is turning out to be increasingly prevalent in Saudi Arabia, online marketers are starting capitalizing in methods that service social media and include online customers. In Saudi Arabia Online marketers' adoption of new online marking trends is being prompted by discoveries that show individuals are spending great amounts…
Anderson, M. (2013). Turning "like" to "Buy" Social Media Emerges as a Commerce Channel. Booz & Company, 23-56.
Assad, S.W. (2009). The rise of consumerism in saudi arabian society. International Journal of Commerce & Management,, 73-104.
Bahaddad, A.A. (2013). Attracting customer in saudi arabia to buy from your business online. . International Journal of Business and Management, 65-81.
Brock, C. (2014). F-COMMERCE AND THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF TRUST. Online Communities and Digital Collaborations, 1-11.
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…
Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.
Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
A proposal to change the program
educing Benefits: This can be done in various ways. Monthly benefits can be reduced by minimizing cost of living adjustments or by minimizing the primary insurance amount (PIA) for a certain average indexed monthly earnings (AIME). Other proposals include targeting reductions towards high-income retirees. Benefits can also be reduced by increasing the retirement age or imposing full taxes on social security benefits. These benefit reduction proposals are some of the simplest and cheapest to implement. If future clients expect lower benefits, they are expected to save more or work longer; all of which will have a positive effect on the economy (Midgley, 2006).
Complete privatization: one of the radical proposals is to erase the social security system and encourage individuals to save in their accounts held by private investment companies. Owners of accounts will have great discretion over their decision of investment…
Brown, J., Liebman, J., & Wise, D. (2009). Social Security Policy in a Changing Environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cross, T.E. (2010). Social security: Capital markets & educational issues associated with individual accounts. S.l.: Diane Pub Co.
Midgley, J. (2006). Challenges to social security: An international exploration. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Auburn House.
.This is not to say, though, that these themes and others are not examined. For example, Hank Hill's relationship with his father, Cotton ("I killed me fifty men") Hill explores the role of the elderly in modern American society, and even presents a poignant episode in which his father dies and he is forced to confront the mixed-blessing of this loss. Likewise, Homer manages to become more than a bungling parent from time to time and actually connect with his children in ways that would not be feasible in traditional sitcom formats. Homer and Lisa breaking into the Springfield Museum to see the Egyptian exhibit, only to discover the secret to an ancient music box by accident is a good example. Similarly, Bart and Homer even manage to overcome their differences and become a team when it comes to thwarting the good-natured advances of Ned Flanders (who is still…
Harrison, C. (2010). American culture in the 1990s. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Mills, B. (2009). The sitcom. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Pehlke, T.A. & Hennon, C.B. (2009, Spring). Does father still know best? An inductive
thematic analysis of popular TV sitcoms. Fathering, 7(2), 114-118.
My social unit is Canada, which is a sovereign nation. I'm not sure how to redefine it, unless Canada expanded its borders or something. Perhaps by expanding the definition from strict geographic borders to incorporate all Canadians, living anywhere in the world. Canada is one of the most globalized nations in the world. As an immigrant nation, it features cities with some of the highest percentages of foreign-born people. Furthermore, with a large and globalized economy, Canada scores highly on many globalized indexes, and would score higher if those indexes took into account having immigrants from all over the world.
The first article is Zhang & Smith (2012). This article outlines the effects of globalization on workplace performance in Canada. There are a few different dimensions to this paper. The authors make several findings. First, they find that productivity is higher at foreign-owned firms, and productivity is also…
Laroche, M. (2011). Globalization, culture and marketing strategy: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 64 (9) 931-933.
MacDonald, A. (2013). Consideration of identity in teachers' attitudes toward teaching controversial issues under conditions of globalization: A critical democratic perspective from Canada. Ontario Institute for Studies. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/35891/1/MacDonald_Angela_M_201306_PhD_Thesis.pdf
Slaymaker, O. & French, H. (2012). The changing Canadian cryosphere, globalization and global environmental change. Changing Cold Environments: A Canadian Perspective.
Zhang, H. & Smith, M. (2012). Globalization and workplace performance in Canada: Cross-sectional and dynamic analyses of productivity and wage outcomes. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility. Vol. 30 (3) 310-327.
Social Equity Public Administration
Emergence as Concern in Field of Public Administration
Social equity has always been an important aspect of public administration, though only recently is it receiving much attention in the press. Whereas in times of old social equity concerned itself primarily with issues of fairness and equality in the public workplace, today social equity is emerging as a field encompassing many different aspects of administration.
Among these include public education, policy development, hiring and promotional practices, public welfare and even transportation. In modern public administration, all of these issues are applied to the field in order to establish fairness, justice and equality for all. Social equity in the field of public administration has emerged as a response to consumer demands for equitable policy making and fairness in governance.
Public administration as a whole may be defined as the management of "matters which have principally to do with…
Frederickson, G. (1986). "New public administration." Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Rice, M.F. (2003). "Organizational Culture, Social Equity & Diversity: Teaching Public
Administration." Texas A& M. University, Bush School Working Paper #314. 14, November, 2004: http://bush.tamu.edu/content/research/working_papers/mrice/teach-post-modern.pdf
Christopher, G.C., Rutledge, P.J. (2001). "Reinvigorating the Social Equity Debate."
Social trends in Education / the next 5 years
With societal establishments and school structures, we can carry the most important task of providing youths with the necessary education which will provide them opportunities to thrive in our community. A simple casual glance at the comparative mode of lifestyle in our country would make it obvious that these establishments performed in an excellent manner for the greater part of this century. But the universe is transforming in manners that radically remodels the suppositions, customs and guiding principles, which catered the American people earlier. Besides, the pace of transformation is gearing up at an amazing speed, requiring in many customs and establishments the need to progress in certain spheres. To look forward to modifications, to a certain extent than acting in response to it, schools are spotting developments and scrutinizing their probable connotations.
ather than guessing what the coming years has…
Anglin, John. S. Educational Trends for the Future. Handbook of Theory and Research in Higher Education: Volume: 8; pp. 115-121. New York: Agathon, 2002
Carter, Holly. Implementation of International Competence Strategies: Faculty. In Bridges to the Future: Strategies for Internationalizing Higher Education, pp.191-203. Ed. Charles Klasek, Carbondale, Illinois: Association of International Education Administrators, 1992.
Corson, David. Language Diversity and Education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001.
Morrison, J.L. Higher-Education Trends and Indicators. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Volume: 46, No: 3; September 10, 1999; p. A54
The relationship of this dynamic system can be seen in the past 9/11 attack at the World Trade Center. All of the three elements, the society, business, and government, were involved and aggravated in the incident. First of all, it was the international relationship and activities of the U.S. government that was the main reason why the attack was committed. To communicate the disagreement of the terrorist party to the government, what they did was to hamper and injure the businesses in U.S., particularly the World Trade Center which is located in the main business district of America. Consequently, from such attack to businesses as the terrorists' way to communicate their anger to the U.S. government, the society was the main element who received and experienced the harm.
Social Media in the Business Environment
In the past few years, there has been a tremendous and dramatic increase in the use of social networking sites and social media such as Facebook and Twitter. This is particularly because of the low-cost, user-oriented, and highly collaborative means of communication that continues to evolve through its own impetus. Consequently, social networking sites or social media are based on certain principles that the corporate or business environment can learn from. There is an assumption that the widespread adoption of social media in people's personal lives can be moved to the professional environment where they can be used to develop unprecedented knowledge bases in which people, industries, and the society can be empowered. However, many businesses still consider social media and social networking sites tools as frivolous to an extent that they have prohibited their use in the working environment. Actually, these companies still…
Coleman, A (2012), How Social Media can Benefit Small Businesses, The Guardian, viewed 6
Ernst & Young (2012), Protecting and Strengthening your Brand, Ernst & Young, viewed 6
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…
Baker, David P. And Deborah Perkins Jones. 1993. "Creating Gender Equality: Cross-national Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance." Sociology of Education 66:91-103.
Bassili, J.N. (2008). Attitude strength. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin, (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change, Frontiers of social psychology. New York, NY; Psychology Press, pp. 261-286.
Cialdini, R.B. 2001. Influence: Science and Practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
There is a good case to be made for focusing on externalities and seeking to manage all of them in a social responsible manner, especially as the world becomes globalized and the key success drivers become relationships and information.
Mintzberg, H. (1994). The rise and fall of strategic planning. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved May 16, 2010 from http://online.worcester.edu/external/evescio/Principles%20of%20Management/strategicplan.pdf
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved May 16, 2010 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
De Toni, a. & Tonchia, S. (2003). Strategic planning and firms' competencies: Traditional approaches and new perspectives. International Journal of Operations and Production Management. Vol. 23 (9) 947-976.
ettstein, F. (2010). For better or for worse: Corporate responsibility beyond "do no harm." Business Ethics Quarterly. Vol. 20 (2) 275-283.
Peng, M., ang, D. & Yi, J. (2009). An institution-based view of international business strategy: A focus on…
Mintzberg, H. (1994). The rise and fall of strategic planning. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved May 16, 2010 from http://online.worcester.edu/external/evescio/Principles%20of%20Management/strategicplan.pdf
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved May 16, 2010 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
De Toni, a. & Tonchia, S. (2003). Strategic planning and firms' competencies: Traditional approaches and new perspectives. International Journal of Operations and Production Management. Vol. 23 (9) 947-976.
Wettstein, F. (2010). For better or for worse: Corporate responsibility beyond "do no harm." Business Ethics Quarterly. Vol. 20 (2) 275-283.
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…
Jacobs, Garry; Cleveland, Harlan. (1 November, 1999) "Social Development Theory" retrieved at http://www.icpd.org/development_theory/SocialDevTheory.htm . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Keirsey, David. (1998) "Parenting and Temperament" retrieved at http://keirsey.com/parent.html . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Lavoie, Rick. "The Teacher's role in developing social skills" Retrieved at http://www.ldonline.org/article.php?max=20&special_grouping=&id=400&loc=22Accessed on 27 February 2005
Moore, Shirley. G. "The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence" ERIC Digest. Retrieved at http://www.fww.org/articles/misc/0628e.html. Accessed on 26 February 2005
Addams included a large amount of environmental reforms in her program for Hull House. One of the most prominent incorporated her labors to address the unhealthful heaps of garbage in immigrant areas because of a lack of public interest. The mayor of Chicago ultimately appointed Addams garbage inspector for her region a job that she took very seriously. Addams managed garbage collectors and took violators of garbage policies to court. Even though Addams and her associates frequently started reforms, the immigrants had a dynamic role as well, helping in knowledge gathering and its communication to their neighbors (Settlement House Movement, 2011).
ichmond's devotion and professionalism, along with her scientific charity has been documented and developed over the years. Her casework practice, managerial talents, research, and stress on social work education fashioned a professional environment in what was beforehand thought to be just charity work. This professionalized social work permitted philanthropic…
Settlement House Movement. (2011). Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
Smith, Mark K. (2002). Casework and the Charity Organization Society. Retrieved March 23,
2011, from Web site: http://www.infed.org/socialwork/charity_organization_society.htm
Environment is something all people and all cultures share. Nature knows no international boundaries or religions. On the contrary, nature is the universal constant binding people together. A healthy relationship with the environment can promote intercultural dialogue and cross-cultural communication because of the universal need for and appreciation of nature. Nature is "healing," and it impacts human well-being (University of Minnesota). Although individuals and societies will have different attitudes, beliefs, and goals related to environmental stewardship, it is possible to discover shared values and work towards a new vision for the future.
Individuals and communities have responsibilities to protect, serve, and conserve the environment. As individuals change their attitudes toward nature, each person can work towards shifting social norms related to consumerism, materialism, and overconsumption. Likewise, individuals can alter their relationship with nature by promoting appreciation and affection for the beauty in all things. As the Canadian Conference of Catholic…
Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops. Our relationship with the environment: The need for conversion. Retrieved online: http://www.cccb.ca/site/images/stories/pdf/enviro_eng.pdf
University of Minnesota. What is our relationship with nature? 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.takingcharge.csh.umn.edu/enhance-your-well-being/environment/nature-and-us/what-our-relationship-nature-0
Social Partnership' And
The Implications for Trade Unions
This report attempts to explain what is meant by the term social partnership and it also evaluates some implications of social partnerships on trade unions. Social Partnerships have been elevated to be more of the foundation of industrial relations policies. Industrialized nations in these highly global, competitive and technologically advanced economic situations have all new social demands and issues. Labor parties and management teams today have come to realize and understand that if there are going to be economic success stories in their future, then both sides will be required to put emphasis on the importance of partnerships in the workplace. These partnerships entail new methods for problem solving, quality control and productivity. Today, both sides must understand that partnership agreements will help produce more socially adept workers who are well trained, prepared and competitive. Labor and management must come to a…
Baccaro, Lucio, et al. (1999). "The Brave New World of European Labor: European Trade Unions at the Millennium." Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Boucher, Gerry, & Collins, Grainne (2003). Having One's Cake and Being Eaten Too: Irish Neo-Liberal Corporatism. Review of Social Economy, Vol. 61.
Ferner, A. And Hyman, R. (eds) (1998) "Changing Industrial Relations in Europe." Oxford: Blackwell.
Guest, D.E. And Peccei, R. (2001) "Partnership at work: mutuality and the balance of advantage" British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 399 no.2 pp.207-236
Social integration is one of the most important factors influencing the decision of first year college students to continue studies into the next year. Although certainly not the only factor, social integration can make the difference between student retention and student drop out. Tinto's model of student retention shows that academic integration, goal commitment, individual attributes, family attributes, and a host of other issues will impact a student's decision to stay or leave an academic institution (Draper, 2008). Draper (2008) points out that of the factors that impact student retention, academic and social integration are the most important.
Empirical research highlights the importance of social integration on a student's collegiate experience during the first year of school. esearch shows "a student's sense of belonging is largely built upon feelings of acceptance as an individual and as part of a community," (Bagunu, 2009). A feeling of acceptance creates the sociological and…
Bagunu, G.A. (2009). Helping our students integrate into social life on campus. UC San Diego Student Affairs Impact Newsletter. Retrieved online: http://vcsa.ucsd.edu/Newsletter/issue4/integration.html
Draper, S.W. (2008). Tinto's model of student retention. Retrieved online: http://www.psy.gla.ac.uk/~steve/localed/tinto.html
Thus, this aspect can multiply into many sub-genres that focus on one or more aspects of the social world as they contribute to influencing behaviors and innate thought processes. Focusing on the social means looking for more abstract concepts that relate to existence within a social world. Actually trying to predict later success in publication, "Predicting the future success of junior scholars is of great concern to academic hiring committees," (Haslam & Lamb 2009:144). Yet it is based within two correlating variables that can then be compared, "It is therefore reasonable to predict that publication success during graduate school may be associated with publication success later in people's academic careers," (Haslam & Lamb 2009:144). Although the subject is socially constructed, the method of analysis is still quantitatively measured. Even this study shows quantitative measurement use- using mathematical prediction models in analysis of data (Haslam & Lamb 2009). egression analysis, common…
Haslam, Nick & Laham, Simon M. (2009). Ten years on: does graduate student promise predict later scientific achievement? Current Research in Social Psychology. 14(10):143-147.
Kearl, Michael C. (2009). Social psychology. Trinity University. Retrieved 28, October 2009 at http://trinity.edu/~mkearl/socpsy.html
New York University (2009). Infants able to identify humans as source of speech. Science Daily. Retrieved October 28, 2009 at http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2009/10/091019162919.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
For What easons Do Organizations Need
An Awareness of Their Environment
Competitive pressure, globalization and the continuing economic turbulence and uncertainty of the world's leading nations all contribute to a level of risk that businesses have never seen before. Continually being aware and monitoring their environments gives businesses of all sizes an opportunity to anticipate significant shifts in customer demand and react accordingly. The intent of this paper is to provide insights into the many factors that drive organizations to have a greater awareness of their global environment.
Striving Towards Agility and isk Management
The most common factor that drives businesses of all sizes to continually stay aware of their environment is the need to always stay in step with their customers, markets, and their unmet needs. The need for being responsive to the market is a critical one that underscores every successful organization globally today (Ball, Lorange,…
Ball, Ben C., Jr., and Lorange, Peter. 1979. Managing Your Strategic Responsiveness to the Environment. Managerial Planning 28, no. 3, (November 1): 3.
Anna Shaojie Cui, David A Griffith, and S. Tamer Cavusgil. 2005. The Influence of Competitive Intensity and Market Dynamism on Knowledge Management Capabilities of Multinational Corporation Subsidiaries. Journal of International Marketing 13, no. 3, (January 1): 32-53.
Fahey, Liam, King, William R., and Narayanan, Vandake K.. 1981. Environmental Scanning and Forecasting in Strategic Planning -- the State of the Art. Long-Range Planning 14, no. 1, (February 1): 32.
Kuei, C., C. Madu, and C. Lin. 2011. Developing global supply chain quality management systems. International Journal of Production Research 49, no. 15, (August 1): 4457.
Description of Company
My company, idgetCo, designs and manufactures widgets here in Dullsville, USA. The company has been in operation since 1927, and moved to Dullsville shortly after II to take advantage of the large clustering of industry around the steel plant in Steelville. The steel plant and many of the other businesses have now closed, but idgetCo has long been an innovator in widget design, so remains a thriving business. The company is now the largest employer in Dullsville. Operating as a differentiated provider, we are able to meet the needs of our customers -- mainly manufacturers -- who now are spread throughout the NAFTA region.
There are a number of stakeholders for idgetCo, and we believe that it is important to take the needs of each into consideration when embarking on major strategic endeavors (Leigh, 2013). Internally, we see our stakeholder universe as consisting of management,…
Gillan, S. & Starks, L. (2000). Corporate governance proposals and shareholder activism: The role of institutional investors. Journal of Financial Economics Vol. 57 (2000) 275-305
Holzer, B. (2008). Turning stakeseekers into stakeholders. Business & Society. Vol. 47 (1) 50-67.
Kokemuller, N. (2013). How do stakeholders influence business activities? Houston Chronicle. Retrieved April 28, 2013 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/stakeholders-influence-business-activities-18754.html
Leigh, J. (2013). The differences between primary and secondary stakeholders. eHow. Retrieved April 28, 2013 from http://www.ehow.co.uk/facts_7267188_difference-between-primary-secondary-stakeholders.html
Competitor products and their equivalent prizes, this is so that after establishing our break-even analysis it can act as a guiding line to set the best price. (Tao 2008)
The survey should enable one establish the best marketing strategies and anticipate any future contingencies.
Entrepreneurship development services
This service will target individuals who wish to start business on their own or in a group it will mainly involve
Training on how to originate business ideas. It is said that if you feed a man you have only feed him a day, a long-term problem in a short-term way. If you show the man how to fish then you have feed him and his family for life and I add that if you show the man how to run a fish business you will have feed the society too. In his book ich Dad Poor Dad, Kiyosaki explains that the most…
Adaman F., Keyder C., Mudderrisoglu S., Yukseker D. (2009) Poverty and Social Exclusion in the Slum Areas of Large Cities in Turkey. European Commission on Employment, SocialAffairs and Equal Opportunities Development Goal. European Union, Luxenbourg, Europe.
Agbola T., Agunbiade E. (2009) Urbanization, Slum Development and Security of Tenure: The Challenges of Meeting Millennium Development Goal 7 in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Camur E. (2003) What are the Social, Physical and Economic Problems of Slums and their Expectations from the Urban City? Sage books.New York.
Dumashie a. (2004) Informal Housing in East Africa: Lessons Learned From Cross Country Borders (Part II). Journal, FIG Working Week, May 22-27, United Kingdom.
They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].
The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:
The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal
Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.
It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did
James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at http://www.spcollege.edu/Central/libonline/path/shortstory.pdf .
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.
December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.
Social Marketing Plan
Stop Crime, Be a Human first
Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).
According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar…
SouthAfrica.info, (2011). South Africa's population. Available at http://www.southafrica.info/about/people/population.htm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
BBC (2003). Xenophobia in South Africa. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3153461.stm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
Beggs, John J., and Wayne J. Villemez. (2001). Regional Labor Markets. Sourcebook of Labor
Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes, edited by Ivar Berg and Arne L. Kalleberg. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. (503-29).
Social Determinants of Health
Quality Improvement and isk Management in Health Care
A health care system is an institution or organization of people using resources to deliver health care services to meet the target population's health needs. There are many health systems worldwide with many organizational structures and histories. Different countries have various systems that support their health system planning such as trade unions, governments, market participants, charities and religious co-ordinate bodies who deliver health care services that are planned and evolutionary. isk management entails the proper strategies that reduce possibilities of specific losses in health organizations (Spath, 2009).
The systematic utilization and gathering of data are very important to the practice and concept. The programs of risk management consist of both reactive and proactive components. The reactive components include the actions, which are in response to adverse occurrences while proactive components include those activities done to prevent adverse occurrences…
Barry, R. (2002). The six sigma book for healthcare: Improving outcomes by reducing errors. Chicago: Health Administration Publisher
Cook, R. (2006). Awareness and influence in health and social care: How you can really make a difference. San Diego, C.A: Radcliffe Publishing
Kavaler, F. (2003). Risk management in health care institutions: A strategic approach. Sudbury, U.S.A: Jones and Bartlett Publishers
Marco, W. (2011). Performance-Based medicine: Creating the high performance network to optimize managed care relationships. New York: Productivity Press
Social System, Institutional Values and Human Needs_
Burton's Deviance, Terrorism, and War redefined the nature of the problem to be discussed and the means to discuss it. Burton's agenda is not about states and state centric dynamics. He constitutes a new definition of the problem and a new definition of the reality (1979). In fact, the subtitle of his book, solving unsolved social and political problems, attests to this. Burton's work is therefore committed to addressing the process as opposed to stasis or structures. The book is committed to solving social and political problems and not their containment, management, or control. It is committed to initiating change not coercion. It is concerned with recurrent patterns of human behavior at all levels of social complexity (Burton, 1979).
Burton (1979) assesses the way society classifies and defines deviance. Structure of freedom underpins a portion of Burtons work. Structure of freedom is recognized…
Burton, J. (1965). International Relations, a General Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Burton, J. (1979). Deviance, Terrorism and War: The Process of Solving Unsolved Social and Political Problems. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Social Contract, Rousseau argues that we are all born free and equal, yet do not live either freely or equally. Rousseau then goes on to argue that the construction of the General Will is the means by which people can achieve freedom. The General Will is the social contract where all members of society agree to obey the General Will to be part of society. Rousseau argues that by this General Will, the separate wills of each member of society converge into one. Freedom is achieved because every citizen is equal, each being a single unit of the General Will and having the same amount of influence over it. Rousseau argues that this General Will is the way individuals in society retain their equality and find freedom. Further consideration of the implications of the General Will and the social contract will show that Rousseau's version of freedom and equality may…
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Social Contract. Trans. Maurice Cranston. New York: Penguin, 1987.
Social Context of HIV and AIDS in Africa
The government of Africa has been moving toward criminalization of HIV transmission in its attempts to respond to the rising numbers of HIV infections however, those who advocate for human rights are concerned that these laws result in a violation of the rights of individuals living with HIV and ultimately resulting in the marginalization of these individuals. As well, it has been argued that laws criminalizing transmission of AIDS are counterproductive to the reason for their creation, which is that of slowing the rate of transmission and infection of HIV. There are arguments both for and against criminalization of HIV transmission that are valid and worthy of consideration.
The question addressed in this research study is one asking if criminalization of HIV transmission is a valid option to slowing the rate of infection among the population.
Significance of the Study…
The Criminalization of HIV (nd) UNFPA, Worldaids Campaign, IPPF, and GYCA,
Bernard EJ: (2008) Criminal HIV Transmission. 2008 in: HIV is a Virus, Not a Crime: Ten Reasons Against Criminal Statutes and Criminal Prosecutions. Journal of the International AIDS Society. Dec 2008.
UNFPA Fact Sheet (2008) 'The Criminalisation of HIV' in: HIV is a Virus, Not a Crime: Ten Reasons Against Criminal Statutes and Criminal Prosecutions. Journal of the International AIDS Society. Dec 2008.
Bernard EJ (2008) Criminal HIV Transmission. Neue Zurcher Zeitung 2008 in: HIV is a Virus, Not a Crime: Ten Reasons Against Criminal Statutes and Criminal Prosecutions. Journal of the International AIDS Society. Dec 2008.