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Social identity is a means to an end, the end being the maintenance of a community with flexible but strong boundaries. Ultimate objectives of social identity therefore include mutual protection against perceived threats, and strategic sharing of resources. This is why social identity often transcends geographic boundaries; in a globalized world, geo-political boundaries are actually less significant than social identity. The concept of social identity therefore becomes strongly connected with the sociological needs of in-group/out-group status and consciousness. Historically social identity was forged via top-down methods, within hierarchical societies. Usually the process of social identity formation occurred via political elites or rulers who "established their identity by differentiating themselves downwards," (Geller and Beruilly 47). Eventually, social identity becomes a self-perpetuating phenomenon with "ruled micro-communities" differentiating themselves "laterally from their neighbors," (Gellner and Breuilly 47).
In other words, an in-group/out-group consciousness seems essential to community construction and is embedded in…
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities. New York and London: Verso, 2006.
Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism. Blackwell, 2006.
Smith, Anthony D. National Identity. University of Nevada Press, 1991.
Juvenile Delinquency Theory
Social identity theory
Postmodernist criminology theory
Postmodernism is a relatively unique theory of criminology: rather than simply trying to understand why people commit crimes and explain such behavior, it questions the notion of what constitutes 'crime' altogether. The underlying assumption of postmodernism is that crime is a culturally constructed concept. [One sentence thesis] For example, in the 1950s, being gay was considered criminal -- today being gay is socially accepted behavior. White-collar crime is often considered less serious than violent crime. Postmodernist theories of criminology suggests that this is not because that white-collar crime is less serious, rather it is because the perpetrators are more apt to be socially powerful and wealthy individuals who can define how crime is constructed.
Similarly, postmodernism would suggest that the social construction of the identity of the juvenile delinquent is laden with class and historical assumptions. Once upon a…
Barak, Gregg Stuart Henry & Dragan Milovanovic. (2011). Constitutive criminology: An overview of an emerging postmodernist school. Red Feather Journal. Red Feather
Institute Postmodern Criminology Series. Volume 1. Retrieved October 17, 2011 at http://www.critcrim.org/redfeather/journal-pomocrim/vol-1-intro/001overview.html
Cowling, Mark. (2006). Postmodern policies. Internet Journal of Criminology.
Retrieved October 17, 2011 at http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Cowling%20-%20Postmodern%20Policies.pdf
Expression of Distinct Group Identities
Social Identity Theory Laboratory eport
Simultaneous Expression of Distinct Group Identities
Social identity theory holds that an individual's self-esteem is tied to the groups they belong to and accordingly view themselves as having group traits. The existence of group identity was investigated in the present study by interviewing queued drivers after they experienced a suspected outgroup intrusion into the petrol queue ahead of them. Socioeconomic status, in terms of luxury vs. non-luxury cars, was the group identity tested. The data revealed that the 49 queued drivers that were surveyed were overall very upset with the intrusion, regardless of whether the intruder was driving a luxury or non-luxury car. However, there was a significant increase in the level of anger expressed by queued non-luxury drivers when the intruder and confederate buffer both drove luxury vehicles. These findings are consistent with multiple group identities being expressed simultaneously…
Brown, R., Condor, S., Matthews, A., Wade, G., and Williams, J. (1986). Explaining intergroup differentiation in an industrial organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 273-286.
Ethier, Kathleen A. And Deaux, Kay. (1994). Negotiating social identity when contexts change: Maintaining identification and responding to threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(2), 243-251.
Gibson, David R. (2008). Doing time in space: Line-joining rules and resultant morphologies. Sociological Forum, 23(2), 207-233.
Gye, Hugo, Warren, Lydia, and Malm, Sara. (2012, Nov. 23). The battle of Black Friday: Mayhem as millions of shoppers punch, kick and even pull guns on each other in race to the best bargains. Mail Online. Retrieved 22 Apr. 2013 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2237187/Black-Friday-2012-Nothing-puts-shoppers-U.S.-goes-crazy-bargains.html .
He was eventually arrested after 9/11 and convicted of planning to bomb the Israeli Embassy in Canberra.
Through conversations with oche, Aly and Striegher (2012) conclude that social identity theory provides a good model for oche's conversion from a 'loser' to a Holy warrior. Having failed in his former life, he found a sense of belonging as he adopted and studied Islam and was welcomed into the Muslim communities in Australia and Indonesia. The feelings of belonging were reinforced when oche when recruited by a Jamaah Islameeah cell in Australia and later sitting around a campfire in Afghanistan with Osama bin Laden. This sense of belonging and group purpose led oche to adopt the offered reinterpretation of the Islamic faith and turn his back on what family and moderate Muslim connections he still had. It was at this point that oche viewed himself fully as a Holy warrior willing to…
Aly, Anne and Striegher, Jason-Leigh. (2012). Examining the role of religion in radicalization to violent Islamist extremism. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35(12), 849-862.
Archer, Dale. (2013, Apr. 21). The mind of the Boston Marathon bombers. Is being a "loser" now a reason for terrorism and mass murder? Psychology Today. Retrieved 6 May, 2013 from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/reading-between-the-headlines/201304/the-mind-the-boston-marathon-bombers .
Friedersdorf, Conor. (2013, Mar. 28). The horrifying effects of NYPD ethnic profiling on innocent Muslim Americans. The Atlantic. Retrieved 7 May, 2013 from http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2013/03/the-horrifying-effects-of-nypd-ethnic-profiling-on-innocent-muslim-americans/274434/ .
Student Social Identity Development
A Speech Covering the Project
When it comes to university students and their need for advice and leadership, there are important principles and key strategies that an incoming academic advisor should be familiar with and should be eager to put into practice. First of all it is vitally important for an incoming academic advisor to understand that many students aren't involved in higher education just obtain a degree, although of course that is an important part of the experience. For many students, they are in universities and colleges in order to develop a strong social identity and to achieve a higher level of intellectual competencies, which they believe will help them rise to another social level, perhaps greater than they had after high school
The new student, especially, should be viewed by academic advisors as being involved in a dramatic transition from one developmental stage --…
Swarovski & Luxury Fashion
Use of 360 Degree Marketing by Swarovski
Merits of Experiential Marketing
Three Ds of Experiential Marketing
Swarovski: A Transition from Traditional Marketing to Experiential Marketing
Emotional Brand Attachment
Importance of Social Media for Luxury Brand
Translation of Unique Brand Elements to Social Platforms
Adapt Business Practices to the Online Business Model
Swarovski is a leading name when it comes to global luxury brands. It has managed to rise above its actual self and makes its customer perceive it as an actual personality. The marketing techniques used by it have made it operate differently than the other luxury brands and that makes it a prime choice of fashion lovers globally. Its use of experiential marketing, social media and exploitation of customer's brand attachment has made it attract and retain customers from all…
Abrahams, R.D. 1986, 'Ordinary and Extraordinary Experience', in Turner, V.W. And Bruner, E.M. eds. The Anthropology of Experience, pp. 45-73. Urbana, University of Illinois Press.
Addis, M. And Holbrook, M.B. 2001, 'On the Conceptual Link between Mass Customisation and Experiential Consumption: An Explosion of Subjectivity', Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 1-1: 50-66.
Arnould, E. And Price, L. 1993 'River Magic: Extraordinary Experience and the Extended Service Encounter', Journal of Consumer Research, 20, pp. 24-45.
Arnould, E., Price, L. And Zinkhan, G. 2002, Consumers. New York, McGraw-Hill.
Annotated bibliography: Adolescent Psychology
Donaldson, S.J. & Ronan, K. R. (2006, Summer). The effects of sports participation on young adolescents' emotional well-being. Adolescence, 41(162), 369-373
This 2006 study investigated the link between participation in sports and emotional well-being in adolescents. Concerning emotional well-being, the researchers investigated the relationship between sports and aspects of emotional well-being, such as behavioral problems, emotional problems, and self-concept. The data used in this study had been collected from 203 adolescents utilizing a multi-trait and a multi-method assessment methodology. The information was collected utilizing a questionnaire that queried adolescents' perceptions about sports and their frequency of participation in sports, among other things. Information about emotional well-being was collected utilizing the Youth Self Report questionnaire (Achenbach, 1991) and the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985). This 2006 study discovered that adolescents who frequently participated in sports had better behavioral well-being, emotional well-being, and self-concepts. The study also…
Bruner, M. W., Balish, S. M., Forrest, C., Brown, S., Webber, K., Gray, E., ... & Shields, C. A. (2017). Ties that bond: Youth sport as a vehicle for social identity and positive youth development. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 88(2), 209-214.
Donaldson, S.J. & Ronan, K. R. (2006, Summer). The effects of sports participation on young adolescents' emotional well-being. Adolescence, 41(162), 369-373
Eime, R. M., Young, J. A., Harvey, J. T., Charity, M. J., & Payne, W. R. (2013). A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sports for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport. International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 10(1), 98
Khan, M. & Jamil, A. (2017, July 1). Perceptual posture of stakeholders: Efficacy of sports in curbing violent behaviors among youth. The Journal of Educational Research, 20(2), 170-177
Swann, C., Telenta, J., Draper, G., Liddle, S., Fogarty, A., Hurley, D., & Vella, S. (2018). Youth sport as a context for supporting mental health: Adolescent male perspectives. Psychology of sport and exercise, 35, 55-64.
Vella, S. A., Benson, A., Sutcliffe, J., McLaren, C., Swann, C., Schweickle, M. J., ... & Bruner, M. (2020). Self-determined motivation, social identification, and the mental health of adolescent male team sport participants. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 1-15.
I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.
Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…
David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…
Baker, David P. And Deborah Perkins Jones. 1993. "Creating Gender Equality: Cross-national Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance." Sociology of Education 66:91-103.
Bassili, J.N. (2008). Attitude strength. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin, (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change, Frontiers of social psychology. New York, NY; Psychology Press, pp. 261-286.
Cialdini, R.B. 2001. Influence: Science and Practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
(2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice esearch, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis evisited. Status Bias in the eduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. esearch Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Pearson, A., Dovidio, J., & Pratto, F. (2007).acial Prejudice, Intergroup Hate, and Blatant and Subtle Bias of Whites toward Blacks in Legal Decision Making in the United States. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p145-158, 14p. etrieved July 8, 2009 from EBSCO online database Full Text http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=27747337&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
amasubramanian, S. &…
Fiske, S. (2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice Research, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis Revisited. Status Bias in the Reduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. Research Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
According to David Scott (2009) traditionally, White men, as well as other men, are socialized to equate self-worth with economic terms. They are taught to function at all costs and to be in control. These power issues are linked to the salience of their race and gender. In American culture people are ranked on their proximity to the normal referents of society: White, male, middle-class, Christian, heterosexual, and able-bodied persons. The current economic conditions, along with the constant pressure to live up to the masculine stereotype, such as no emotions and family provider continue to be ripe for ongoing oppression and racism by White men in the work place. As unemployment rises, White men are losing jobs and finding it harder to secure employment. These conditions can lead to frustration and anger by White men who are becoming disillusioned by the American dream. This paper will be an…
Howard, J.A. (2000). Social psychology of identities. Annual review of sociology, Vol. 26, Issue 1, 367- 393. Retrieved September 5, 2011, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9d41e83e-4e0b-4b27-8fe3-a0aa7ed2dc5c%40sessionmgr111&vid=4&hid=127
Newman, D.M. (2005) Identities and inequalities: Exploring the intersections of race, class, gender and sexuality, 7th ed. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Scott, D.A. (2009) White male identity development and the world of work: Using the key model. In G.R. Walz, J.C. Bleuer, & R.K. Yep (Eds.), Compelling counseling interventions. VISTAS 2009. 21-29. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association. Retrieved September 5, 2011, from http://counselingoutfitters.com/vistas/vistas09/Article_3_Scott.pdf
The practices significantly support the development of the immigrant children. The research indicates of the children experiencing interactions that are complex. This is with the respective peers when engaging in creative activities inclusive of gross motor and language arts (Donald et al., 2007). The creative activities reflect on open-ended aspects with the resultant stratification in shaping the initial academic progress of the immigrant children possibility. The application of the developmentally suitable practices in the primary setting of the immigrant children society positively influences the outcomes of the children (Donald et al., 2007).
The challenge faced in defining the developmentally fit strategies emphasizes on the child-centered approaches. The approaches relate to the developmental theory with the society directed instructions originating from the behaviorist perspective of the immigrant children. As a result of the theoretical course from which the child-centered practices derives, they reflects on the synonymous view with the appropriate practices.…
Bornstein, Marc H. And Cote, Linda R. (2004). Mothers' Parenting Cognitions in Cultures of Origin, Acculturating Cultures, and Cultures of Destination. Child Development,
January/February 2004, Volume 75, Number 1, Pages 221 -- 235. Retrieved from http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/pp/01650254.html
Capps, R., Kenny, G., & Fix, M. (2003). Health insurance coverage of children in mixedstatus immigrant families (Snapshots of America's Children, No. 12).
Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Early trauma that causes anger often corresponds to higher levels of aggression later in life, especially where the traumas are suppressed and internalized instead of being expressed at the time of their origin and at the source.
Furthermore, since many dysfunctional families forbid the expression of anger by children (particularly anger toward parents), individuals who experience significant levels of early trauma that produces repressed anger are often considerably more aggressive throughout life subsequently than individuals who were fortunate not to experience as much early trauma (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). Aggression is a known factor in criminal conduct as well as other forms of non-criminal negative social behavior such as those associated with overt prejudice and other types of social intolerance toward others (Macionis 2003).
Aggression and Prejudice:
One of the primary ways that aggression-prone individuals express their repressed rage is in their treatment of other less powerful individuals (Gerrig &…
Friedman, a. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, R.G. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th Ed.
Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND WHAT DOES IT AIM TO STUDY?
Inspired by Kurt Lewin (1951), social psychology adopted the experimental method to study human behavior (Wood & Kroger, 1998). In this regard, Wood and Kroger (1998) report that, "Lewin's experiments in leadership style (autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire) became classics in the new experimental social psychology" (p. 267). Lewins' early work was carried on by Festinger and others who explored cognitive dissonance for the next 20 years at MIT and subsequently at the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota, making this one of the foundations of social psychology (Wood & Kroger, 1998).
Simply stated, social psychology uses the scientific method to study human social behavior (ogers, 2003). According to ogers, psychological social psychology "studies how social events and phenomena influence the ways in which individual people feel, think and act. It is concerned with the psychological processes (such as social perception and cognition) that…
Hayes, D. (2004). RoutledgeFalmer guide to key debates in education. New York:
Karakashian, L.M., Walter, M.I., Christopher, A.N. & Lucas, T. (2006). Fear of negative evaluation affects helping behavior: The bystander effect revisited. North American
Journal of Psychology, 8(1), 13.
Religion and Spirituality in a Broad Sense
Spirituality and religion are two terms that have rather unstable, historically changing definitions, characterized by numerous implied and explicit theological considerations. Further, the general contention is that these definitions are either overly specific or overly generic. A more astonishing fact is, possibly, these researches' level of concurrence that spirituality represents a private, budding, personal and emotional sphere, whilst religion is more public, group-based and fairly stable. Interviews and questionnaire tools arising out of these definitions characteristically undertake measurements of the spirituality element by posing questions with regard to people's self-identity, psychological experiences, and psychological health. By contrast, the element of religion is measured using questions that relate to religious participation, events and undertakings, observance of community or religious code. (Bender 1).
The ideal approach to spirituality would be considering it as a means to know the divine. Individual means to do so are,…
Criminology researchers usually draw on multiple sociological theories for understanding crime and offenders. Certain elements of serial-killing research continue to be a subject of speculation and exploration, on account of the numerous preconceptions and myths surrounding the crime. The significance of establishing a theoretic basis to explain sociological factors proves crucial to distinguishing between fact and fiction (Hickey, 2013).
Social Structure Theory
This class of theories concentrates on the socioeconomic status of a person and suggests that the poor perpetrate more offenses owing to their struggle to achieve social or monetary success. They are, particularly owing to their subcultural, racial, or ethnic status, restricted in several ways from lawfully attaining the great “American Dream\". Thus, they resort to deviant techniques to succeed. Structural theories provide convincing justifications for numerous offenses, with the exception of serial killing. Normally, serial killers lack financial or social motivation, and aren’t members of any specific…
This construction gave credence to the concept of class consciousness. Class consciousness is really class identity; it is the way entire groups of people conceive themselves as belonging to a whole. This understanding permeates the corpus and unites the initiated into a common group think. This group or class view is reinforced through the economic determinants that are at the foundation of the group's position. These determinants reinforce inequalities and class identities.
The challenge to class as a locus of identity formation; results from the assertion that contemporary society is too layered and complex for class identity to be relevant. The discussion centers not on the existence of inequalities but the explanation of those inequalities. In the postmodern context the inequalities that exist are not anchored in an a priori formulation of class structure. This formulation considers the development of a classless society. This is not to be interpreted as…
Becker H.S. (2003).The Politics of Presentation: Goffman and Total Institutions Symbolic
Interaction, 26 (4):659-669.
Bottero, W. (2004). Class Identities and the Identity of Class. Sociology 38 (5): 985-1003.
Burnhill, P., Garner, C., McPherson, a. (1990). Parental Education, Social Class and Entry to Higher Education 1976-86. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series a (Statistics
Social identity refers to an individual's sense of who they are, which is based on their group membership. The social identities identified and spoken about in the article are race, ethnicity, gender, nationality, sexuality, or religion. These identities have the effect of shaping an individual's thought patterns, a way of life, or the projects they undertake. The author does mention the development of labels for individuals. These labels are aligned with the social identifications that have been developed. The labels tagged or given to an individual do come with privileges or restrictions. In the example of the attlers and the Eagles it is clear that the two groups came in the camp with different identities, and from different backgrounds, but based on their groupings they managed to develop similar identities. The rattlers were labeled as tough while the eagles were labeled as sissies (Appiah, 2010). The individuals within…
Appiah, K. A. (2010). The ethics of identity. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
In today's modern world, organizations have become global, where people from different countries and cultures come together to work for common and shared organizational goals. Several cultural issues arise when employees from distinct backgrounds are in the same place. Religion is one of the most critical ones since it is the set of spiritual beliefs and values that individuals follow in their daily lives. They expect their organizations to give them leverage for following their religion as this provides for their personal development. Enhancement in personal self would support bettering individual and group performance; hence, upgrading in organizational competitiveness would be observed.
Hofstede said that the religion practiced in a certain region is the result of cultural values that were followed previously by the ancestors in the same area (Mazur, 2010). The existing cultural strength is increased when people follow a religious guideline as they can with themselves…
Mazur, B. (2020). Organizational culture under religious influence. Intech Open. Retrieved from https://www.intechopen.com/online-first/organizational-culture-under-religious-influence
Nandi, A. & Platt, L. (2018). The relationship between political and ethnic identity among UK ethnic minority and majority populations. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 46(5), 957-979. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2018.1539286
Raday, F. (2003). Culture, religion, and gender. Oxford University Press and New York University School of Law, 1(4), 663-715. http://arabic.musawah.org/sites/default/files/Culture%2C%20Religion%20and%20Gender.pdf
Ramos, M.R., Massey, D., Bennett, M. & Hewstone, M. (2019). Social diversity is initially threatening, but people do adapt over time- new research. The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/social-diversity-is-initially-threatening-but-people-do-adapt-over-time-new-research-118066
Seyranian, V., Atuel, H. & Crano, W.D. (2008). Dimensions of majority and minority groups. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 11(1), 21-37. DOI: ff10.1177/1368430207084843ff.
Winkel, H. (2019). Religious cultures and gender cultures: Tracing gender differences across religious cultures. Journal of Contemporary Religion, 34(2), 241-251. https://doi.org/10.1080/13537903.2019.1621540
Conflict of social norms and its effect on school environment
Social norms can be defined as the rules that determine what should be done or avoided by people in their social settings and circumstances. Norms make sure that people keep promises, ranging from the lane to drive on, to sticking by the golden rule. These are tools for explaining phenomena. They are used to analyze the state of the world even as great as international diplomacy or as subtle and ordinary as traffic rules. However, the body of knowledge regarding norms is spread across disciplines and traditions of research with unclear guidelines or consensus on the way the term should be put to use. Existing research on the subject has largely majored on the effects of the norms and the content of the same. By description, social norms cut across such disciplines as sociology, game theory, economics, and legal studies…
Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics
Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.
While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…
Abrams, D. & Hogg, M. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 317-334.
Bond, R., & Smith, P. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's
(1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119(1), 111-137.
Darley, J. & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4), 377-383.
Social Order: Institutions, Socializations, And the Performance of Social Roles
Erving Goffman dramaturgical theory is a seminal theory in the field of sociology. An example of "micro-sociological analysis," it forced sociological analysis back into the examination of things which actually exist, individual behavior, instead of mere concepts. Goffman demonstrated that the examination of real things can not only clarify existing lines of thought, but open up new avenues for the study of social behavior. Thesis: Through his emphasis on the individual's performance of social roles, Goffman demonstrates that, although social organization and dynamics do influence individual behavior, it is the individual herself who determines the final shape of this behavior.
Summary of the Theory
Erving Goffman's work, often classified as "symbolic interactionism," is highly valuable for the study of socialization and the performance of social roles. Erving studied how individuals used symbols in the performance of their social roles and…
Calhoun, C.J. (2002). Contemporary sociological theory. Oxford: Blackwell
Social Implications of Sexual Identity Formation and Coming Out Process
Chad Mosher's article, "The social implications of identity formation and the coming-out-process: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature" provides a fairly comprehensive look at the theories and realities of individuals asserting their homosexual tendencies to the world. The article is widely written as a source of material and instruction for psychologists who are employed in a therapeutic or counseling capacity with such individuals, as there are implications for them to incorporate into their practice in the article's conclusion. In addition to discussing the two principle theories regarding coming out, essentialism and social constructionism, the author discusses aspects of the theories that are integrated as well as the effect of coming out on both the audience and the homosexual perception. Audiences are stratified into three distinct categories: family members, heterosexuals, as well as homosexuals and those somewhere in between…
Mosher, C. (2001). The social implications of identity formation and the coming-out-process: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature. The Family Journal. 9 (2): 164-173.
nd are trying to make their own hallmark in the life of today. mericans are quiet eager to leave up their children as soon as they grow up and therefore they inculcate a sense of insecurity and loneliness in their children from the onset when they are too young and are still looking for someone to nurture them.
Friendships and close relationships suffer when increased amount of time is spent at work. Increased working hours translate into time away from friends and loved ones and this leads to social isolation, which is having a huge negative impact on mental and physical health of people in the U.S. ccording to a recent study, it was reported that 50% more than the figure that was attained in 1985 complained of having no one they could turn to when personal problems arise. Most people said that their spouses were the only persons they…
And are trying to make their own hallmark in the life of today. Americans are quiet eager to leave up their children as soon as they grow up and therefore they inculcate a sense of insecurity and loneliness in their children from the onset when they are too young and are still looking for someone to nurture them.
Friendships and close relationships suffer when increased amount of time is spent at work. Increased working hours translate into time away from friends and loved ones and this leads to social isolation, which is having a huge negative impact on mental and physical health of people in the U.S. According to a recent study, it was reported that 50% more than the figure that was attained in 1985 complained of having no one they could turn to when personal problems arise. Most people said that their spouses were the only persons they could confide in but if that relationship dies or disintegrates, they are left with absolutely no one to talk to and share their problems with. Family structures have suffered a lot and close relationships have withered because of inflexible working hours. Everyone has the same 9 to 5 schedule, which is not the only time spent at work. Add the time spent in commuting and you will realize how little people have left to enjoy time with their families and parents. It is thus important that an alternative to this is sought. Either people should make a conscious effort to mingle with their neighbors, friends and family or they should be allowed to have flexible hours so they can fit in more time for those who really matter.
By going through the article, 'Social Isolation In U.S.' By Shankar Vedantam, one can conclude that it is certainly the time for the Americans to wake up and evaluate themselves. Striking a balance between personal and professional ambition adds value to ones existence. It is a time to look down with disdain on the ambitious streak of people because sooner or later this workaholic habit is likely to cause excessive loneliness that leads to variety of mental and emotional problems.
My social unit is Canada, which is a sovereign nation. I'm not sure how to redefine it, unless Canada expanded its borders or something. Perhaps by expanding the definition from strict geographic borders to incorporate all Canadians, living anywhere in the world. Canada is one of the most globalized nations in the world. As an immigrant nation, it features cities with some of the highest percentages of foreign-born people. Furthermore, with a large and globalized economy, Canada scores highly on many globalized indexes, and would score higher if those indexes took into account having immigrants from all over the world.
The first article is Zhang & Smith (2012). This article outlines the effects of globalization on workplace performance in Canada. There are a few different dimensions to this paper. The authors make several findings. First, they find that productivity is higher at foreign-owned firms, and productivity is also…
Laroche, M. (2011). Globalization, culture and marketing strategy: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 64 (9) 931-933.
MacDonald, A. (2013). Consideration of identity in teachers' attitudes toward teaching controversial issues under conditions of globalization: A critical democratic perspective from Canada. Ontario Institute for Studies. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/35891/1/MacDonald_Angela_M_201306_PhD_Thesis.pdf
Slaymaker, O. & French, H. (2012). The changing Canadian cryosphere, globalization and global environmental change. Changing Cold Environments: A Canadian Perspective.
Zhang, H. & Smith, M. (2012). Globalization and workplace performance in Canada: Cross-sectional and dynamic analyses of productivity and wage outcomes. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility. Vol. 30 (3) 310-327.
Criminals don't always need to have shotguns and masks to threat and rob money; it only takes a social security number, or a pre-approved credit card application from trash to make things according to their wicked way (ID Theft, 2004).
Some consumers have had credit card numbers and Social Security numbers stolen and used fraudulently or identity theft. By taking reasonable steps to protect your personal information, this can mitigate the chance that it may be stolen (What you should know about internet banking, 2007) by identity thieves.
Identity theft is a term used for serious crimes associated with someone uses your name, address, Social Security number, bank or credit card account number or other identifying information without your knowledge to commit fraud. This fraud may only take setting up accounts in your name and make online transactions without you knowing (Get the Upper Hand on Credit Crime, 2004).
Convenience Factors. (2002). Retrieved March 14, 2007. http://jobfunctions.bnet.com/whitepaper.aspx?docid=50925
Bank Information - Internet and Online Banking. (2005). Retrieved March 14, 2007. http://www.uk-bank-account.co.uk/online.html
Einhorn, Monique F. (2005). Coping with identity theft: imagine discovering that someone has opened credit card accounts or secured a home equity or car loan under an assumed name: yours. Consider receiving an IRS W-2 form reporting wages earned by someone else who has used your name and Social Security number (Cover Story). Partners in Community and Economic Development. Retrieved March 14, 2007. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-132841950.html
Get the Upper Hand on Credit Crime - Protect Your Identity With a Few Simple Tips; Your Credit Card Companies Alerts Consumers About Ways to Fight Back Against Identity Theft Scams. (2004). Retrieved March 14, 2007. http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-893980/Get-the-Upper-Hand-on.html
While he supported me in my endeavors, he raised many questions, >Why do you want to enter social work? How do you think you are going to provide for your family and the lifestyle you are accustomed to?" Deferring to socialization pressures that still impel them to fulfill the "breadwinner" role and avoid feminine characteristics, they may segregate themselves from women in the profession, selecting specialties or positions that society deems as more appropriate for men (Williams, 1995). They too may emphasize the masculine aspects of their jobs to "reduce the dissonance between their professional and gender identities" and to justify their career choices (Christie, 1998, p. 506). Thereby, male social workers adhere more closely to the social definition of masculinity" (ritton, J. & Stoller M., 1998).
The young people who are trying to enter into a social work profession "hope to advance research and social work services for men…
Britton, J. & Stoller M. (Autumn, 1998), Engendered disparity: Males in Social Work, Retrieved December 6, 2006, from The Advocate's Forum, Vol.5, No.1, Web Site: http://www.ssa.uchicago.edu/publications/advforum/v5n1/v5i1a2.html
Chattopadhay, T. (2004), Role of men and boys in promoting gender equality: advocacy brief / Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL), United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok, Retrieved December 6, 2006, at http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/unesco_role_of_men.pdf
Christie, A.(2001), Men and social work, New York, NY USA: Palgrave Publishers, Retrieved December 3, 2006, at http://site.ebrary.com/lib/csueastbay/Doc?id=2002957
Gillingham, P. (January, 2006), Male social workers in child and family welfare: New directions for research, in Social work, Volume 51, number I
Those who predict future behavior and demand for products and services correctly can profit tremendously from their planning; conversely, those who invest in technologies or applications based on assumptions or expectations that never materialize run the risk of losing their entire investment. In that respect, the computer realm is no different from the decisions and projections made in traditional types of businesses. It may just seem different by virtue of the accelerated rate of computer evolution and development and the fact that some of the specific new technologies and capabilities become so widely and rapidly adopted that they can change society practically overnight.
In all likelihood, computers today are similar to paper in the Middle Ages when producing paper was so labor intensive and expensive that very little was available and only to the wealthiest classes. Another analog might be dry cell battery technology around the turn of the 20th…
So to that extent, the choice consumers make is less about product, and more about convenience, and perhaps what the consumer perceives as the necessary choice; meaning they do not have a choice when considering the negative of selecting a different operating system. To this extent, it signifies the extent to which "personal computers" have indeed become very personalized, and consumers cannot risk making changes in the direction of operating systems once they have become accustomed to Microsoft.
The construct of time-style also offers potential for researchers investigating shopping behaviors and styles, for example, in the retail domain (see also Kaufman and Lane 1996). The various dimensions of time-style will likely have an impact on shopping behaviors such as how much pre-purchase planning is undertaken; whether people prefer browsing or "in-and-out" shopping; whether or not shopping lists are made; and whether people prefer to shop alone or with others. In…
Berdayes, V. & Murphy, J.W. (Eds.). (2000). Computers, Human Interaction, and Organizations: Critical Issues. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved February 10, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=71745134 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109763690
Chin, E. (2001). Purchasing Power: Black Kids and American Consumer Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Retrieved February 10, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109763693 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104624583
Lally, E. (2002). At Home with Computers. New York: Berg. Retrieved February 10, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104624585 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020507541
" (Adams et al.)
hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science.
The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. ashington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of alter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror tale character). Around the same time that Eleanor Dwight Jones was striving to preserve the white race, the United States Public Health Service began the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. hat took place was a forty year analysis of the life of syphilis. The two hundred black men who had syphilis were "deliberately denied treatment" (Adams et al.) in what was just one more step in oppression and callous social engineering.
And at the same time the Tuskegee experiment was…
Adams, Myrtle, et al. "Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee."
1996. Web. 8 June 2011.
Cone, James. Risks of Faith. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999. Print.
Dowlings, Keven, and Knightley, Philip. "The Spy Who Came Back from the Grave."
Social System, Institutional Values and Human Needs_
Burton's Deviance, Terrorism, and War redefined the nature of the problem to be discussed and the means to discuss it. Burton's agenda is not about states and state centric dynamics. He constitutes a new definition of the problem and a new definition of the reality (1979). In fact, the subtitle of his book, solving unsolved social and political problems, attests to this. Burton's work is therefore committed to addressing the process as opposed to stasis or structures. The book is committed to solving social and political problems and not their containment, management, or control. It is committed to initiating change not coercion. It is concerned with recurrent patterns of human behavior at all levels of social complexity (Burton, 1979).
Burton (1979) assesses the way society classifies and defines deviance. Structure of freedom underpins a portion of Burtons work. Structure of freedom is recognized…
Burton, J. (1965). International Relations, a General Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Burton, J. (1979). Deviance, Terrorism and War: The Process of Solving Unsolved Social and Political Problems. New York: St. Martin's Press.
...liberty to captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to let the oppressed go free,,: (Luke 4: 18)
Summary & Conclusion
The teaching of the Catholic Church in relation to social rights and responsibilities is quite clear however, it has been noted to be critical by the U.S. ishops that the church teaches these social principles more clearly and more persistently to the church in advancing the Kingdom of God and in fulfillment of the Great Commission.
yron, William J. (1998) Ten uilding locks of Catholic Social Teaching. America - the National Catholic Weekly Vol. 196 No. 3-29, January 29. Online available at http://www.americamagazine.org/articles/catholicsocialteachingbryon.cfm.
Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (2004)) Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church- to Hi Holiness Pope John Paul II Master of Social Doctrine and Evangelical Witness to Justice and Peace. 2004. Libreria Editrice Vaticana
ISN 88-209-7716-8. Online available at: www.vatican.va/roman_curia/p ontifical_councils/justpeace/docum…
Byron, William J. (1998) Ten Building Blocks of Catholic Social Teaching. America - the National Catholic Weekly Vol. 196 No. 3-29, January 29. Online available at http://www.americamagazine.org/articles/catholicsocialteachingbryon.cfm .
Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (2004)) Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church- to Hi Holiness Pope John Paul II Master of Social Doctrine and Evangelical Witness to Justice and Peace. 2004. Libreria Editrice Vaticana
ISBN 88-209-7716-8. Online available at: www.vatican.va/roman_curia/p ontifical_councils/justpeace/docum ents/rc_pc_justpeace_doc_20060526_compendio-dott-soc_en.html#the%20Church,%20the%20Kingdom%20of%20God%20and% 20 the%20renewal%20of%20social%20relations
Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 11: AAS 71 (1979), 276: "The Fathers of the Church rightly saw in the various religions as it were so many reflections of the one truth, 'seeds of the Word', attesting that, though the routes taken may be different, there is but a single goal to which is directed the deepest aspiration of the human spirit" Cited in: Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (2004)) Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church- to Hi Holiness Pope John Paul II Master of Social Doctrine and Evangelical Witness to Justice and Peace. 2004. Libreria Editrice Vaticana
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…
Jacobs, Garry; Cleveland, Harlan. (1 November, 1999) "Social Development Theory" retrieved at http://www.icpd.org/development_theory/SocialDevTheory.htm . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Keirsey, David. (1998) "Parenting and Temperament" retrieved at http://keirsey.com/parent.html . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Lavoie, Rick. "The Teacher's role in developing social skills" Retrieved at http://www.ldonline.org/article.php?max=20&special_grouping=&id=400&loc=22Accessed on 27 February 2005
Moore, Shirley. G. "The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence" ERIC Digest. Retrieved at http://www.fww.org/articles/misc/0628e.html. Accessed on 26 February 2005
Keeping a diverse yet well-focused identity across social media platforms yet tactically choosing those platforms that are of true resource advantage to enterprises is again a complex and continuous process, but one that is vital to modern businesses.
espite the recognized importance of social media marketing and the known difficulties of establishing how to effectively engage in these efforts, many businesses do not even attempt to gauge the effects of their social media marketing efforts (Michaelidou et al., 2011). According to Michaelidou et al. (2011), most SMEs utilizing social media marketing techniques are hoping to increase their numbers of new customers, which is a concrete goal that can be more accurately assessed and even individually tracked (individually both by instance of marketing and by individual consumers) via much social media and can therefore be more accurately measured and assessed than many other social media marketing efforts and goals (Michaelidou et…
Despite the recognized importance of social media marketing and the known difficulties of establishing how to effectively engage in these efforts, many businesses do not even attempt to gauge the effects of their social media marketing efforts (Michaelidou et al., 2011). According to Michaelidou et al. (2011), most SMEs utilizing social media marketing techniques are hoping to increase their numbers of new customers, which is a concrete goal that can be more accurately assessed and even individually tracked (individually both by instance of marketing and by individual consumers) via much social media and can therefore be more accurately measured and assessed than many other social media marketing efforts and goals (Michaelidou et al., 2011). Despite this, many of these companies fail to actually incorporate any metrics measuring, and this has led to an increased reliance on potentially ineffective and inefficient marketing techniques that present a drain on resources and a lack of identification of other more effective social media marketing strategies (Michaelidou et al., 2011). Tactics for such measurement are available and the measuerment itself can be carried out by a number of third-party vendors specializing in such tracking, making it all the more urgent for SMEs to begin a more accurate and effective use of social media marketing if they are to remain/become more competitive (Michaelidou et al., 2011).
The intersection between social media and viral marketing is also of key importance in understanding marketing in the modern era for enterprises of any size; the ability to reach many millions of consumers with a single marketing or advertising instance does not only exist for primetime television and the Super Bowl, any more, but predicting how to take a marketing campaign truly "viral" is all but impossible (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2011). Viral marketing has existed as a concept since the mid-1990s, but only in the past decade and the rise of "Web 2.0" has viral marketing reached its true potential through user sharing on social media sites, where the ability for a marketing message to spread in a truly viral manner -- each new viewer passing the message on to many others resulting in an exponential growth in the number of viewers over a very short period of time -- is a reality for most of the developed world (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2011). This creates many "outside-the-box" marketing opportunities for creative businesses, and yet is also further cause for wariness in resource allocation and can be ineffective if improperly managed and for a variety of other reasons that remain unclear and under-examined in research and practice (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2011)
SMEs have begun to utilize social media marketing more and more extensively, but not necessarily with more substantial effects. The literature shows a significant gap in the knowledge and practice of effective social media marketing techniques amongst all enterprises and researchers. The additional resource gap that SMEs must contend with puts them at a more significant disadvantage and makes the need for cost effective social media marketing all the more pressing.
Identity is often part of a branding strategy: contrast the wholesome, clean-cut image of a wearer of alph Lauren Polo clothing or Abercrombie & Fitch with that of a Hot Topic teen. Consider Coca-Cola's all-American image vs. that of Pepsi's more teen-friendly branding as the drink of the next generation of soda drinkers. Pillsbury's branding of wholesomeness and home-cooked yet fast and easy to prepare meals and the 'cuteness' of the Doughboy, while iconic, does not necessarily stand out in the crowded atmosphere of today's marketplace.
Today's marketing atmosphere is far noisier than ever before and failing to stand out may not entirely be Pillsbury's fault. Developing new, iconic brands is more difficult than in the past, and few have succeeded with the possible exception of Google and Apple. Developing a unique image as an all-American baking company may no longer resonate as well with consumers as it did in…
Duncan Heinz. (2010). Official Website. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://www.duncanhines.com/bakers-club
Pillsbury. (2010). Official website. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://www.pillsbury.com/
Wong, Elaine. (2010, March 24). How Sara Lee beefed up Jimmy Dean brand.
Ad Week. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://www.adweek.com/aw/content_display/news/strategy/e3id51767e5e16b09798d71a9cec1e8d434
They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].
The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:
The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal
Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.
It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did
James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at http://www.spcollege.edu/Central/libonline/path/shortstory.pdf .
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.
December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.
Social Web and Technology: Moving Humans Into Uncharted Territory
The internet has changed the way humans interact with each other in every way. It has helped shape an entire generation of social interactions as well as helped people learn in ways that were not possible before. Within these interactions, the very roots of society are created. S these interactions have changed media and shape, the preferences and habits of socialization have changed as well. As a technology, social web has given people the ability to connect with other people and places that were at one time inaccessible. It also gives people unfettered access to information through first hand reports and stories. This access to information on a global scale is also changing the way socialization occurs.
Human beings have always had a certain access to information, whether within a small group or over technologies like TV, radio, or printed media.…
Blossom, J. (2009). Content nation: surviving and thriving as social media technology changes our lives and our future. Social Media: New York.
Dorfman, L., Martindale, C., Gassimova, V., & Vartanian, O. (2008). Creativity and speed of information processing: A double dissociation involving elementary vs. inhibitory cognitive tasks. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 44, No. 6, April 2008, 1382-1390.
Postman, N. (2001). Deus Machina. Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology, Vol.
10, No. 27. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002395759 .
Most Elizabethans believed their self-identity was wrapped up in a cosmic paradigm of fate and destiny, and were somehow controlled by the stars and planets and had a power over the baser side of man -- tools of God, but with certain amounts of free will. Thus, a very central idea in Shakespeare is this central view that an individual's identity is set by God, the Planets, the Universe, the Gods, and Nature. But in contrast, the idea of free will for the individual -- or even a single utterance or decision, can change forever the destiny of the individual. A superb example of this is in Romeo and Juliet.
Fate and chance surround the identities of the major and minor characters in RJ almost from the opening scene. Because the audience already believed that their destiny was predetermined, they saw the characters as having very little choice in their…
Therefore, today's society in the United States is diverse, which is something a social worker needs to understand and know how to deal with each diverse group. Furthermore, through research, it has been discovered most ethnic groups that live in the United States consist of young people, which means by staying in this country, they grow accustom to their surroundings. Once they have grown accustom to living here, they feel like this is their home to start a life with their own families. This continues the growing number of ethnic groups in this country.
Due to the educational accommodations that schools and college campuses make for students that have ethnic backgrounds, there is not enough prejudice of one group to let a Holocaust to occur in the United Stated. Furthermore, this country believes in freedom of speech to allow one ethnic to be isolated from the rest and condone any…
Dennen, Johan. THE 'EVIL' MIND: PT. 3. CRUELTY AND 'BEAST-IN-MAN' IMAGERY. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://rechten.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/departments/Algemeen/overigepublicaties/2005enouder/EVIL_CRU/EVIL_CRU.pdf
Citrome, Lesilie,. (2007). Aggression. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3005.htm
Hall, Kathy Jo. (1997). Carl Rogers. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=Throughout+this+Jim+knocks+the+clay+figurines+head+of+and+crushes+the+body+while+shouting&invocationType=spelling
Seal, B., A. Bradford, and C. Meston. 2009. The Association Between Body Esteem and Sexual Desire Among College Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38, no. 5, (October 1): 866-72. http://www.proquest.com.library.capella.edu / (accessed April 1, 2010).
Lack of rewards for individuals, unintended rewards for loafing: Having some individuals who are collectively-minded paired with workers with a 'what's in it for me' attitude can result in the more generously spirited workers' good will being relied up, while others take credit.
A five best practices
1. Create a common work culture: Friends are often less likely to 'socially loaf' on work teams (Kunishima & elte 2004).
2. Using dispersed teams with a lack of social facilitation factors can be undercut by increasing levels of difficulty and responsibility "As tasks become more difficult and participants perceive they can make a unique contribution to the task, social loafing decreases" (Kunishima & elte 2004).
3. Task uniqueness -- by ensuring members of the work teams have specifically defined roles, there is less of a chance to feel as if others can pick up the slack (Kunishima & elte 2004).
Bansal, Pratima & Sonia Kandola. (2004, March/April) Corporate social responsibility: why good people behave badly in organizations. Business Journal Online. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/117189488.html
Big Brother eyes 'boost honesty' (2006, June 28). BBC News. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/5120662.stm
Coleman, Andrew. (2001). Social loafing. The Encyclopedia of Psychology. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O87-socialloafing.html
Kunishima, Jill & Kasi Welte. (2004, March) Effects of punishment threats on social loafing
Psychological studies have confirmed 'altruistic behavior' can be elicited in people. 'Peer Pressure' could also be utilized as an effective psychological tool in reducing resource consumption and in promoting other healthy environmental practices. [Center for Naturalism] A case in point is the Chinese governments 'Grain to Green' Program that offered cash incentives to farmers to convert marginal farmlands to forests. As Alan Tessier, program director in the National Science Foundation (NSF) says, "Much of the marginal cropland in rural communities has been converted from agriculture to forests through the Grain-to-Green Program, one of the largest 'payment for ecosystem services' programs in the world," "Results of this study show that a community's social norms have substantial impacts on the sustainability of these conservation investments." [ScienceDaily] uilding this collective self-control at the community, national and international level holds the key to the success of an environmentally sustainable future. Motivated and environmentally conscious…
1) Su-Houn Liu, Yu-Hsieh Sung & Hsiu-Li Liao (2006), 'Developing Sustainable Digital Opportunity: The Case of Lalashan DOWEB Model', Issues in Information Systems,
Volume VII, No. 1, 2006, retrieved Dec 30th 2009, from http://www.iacis.org/iis/2006_iis/PDFs/Liu_Sung_Liao.pdf
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hen a Social Security number is stolen, contacting the Social Security Administration can help to place a watch on its use as well (SSA 2009). This particular problem can lead to many complications, as obtaining a new Social Security Number can create many difficulties for the victim while keeping the old number might allow the thief to continue using the victim's identity (SSA 2009). Generally, though, a new number is not necessary to stop most identity thieves.
The government also plays a major role both in preventing identity theft and in addressing both the victims and the thieves after the crime has been committed. The Social Security Administration has set limits on the number of replacement cards an individual may obtain, as well as new and more stringent methods of identity verification when fulfilling a request for replacement cards (SSA 2009). Though this can also make things more difficult for…
FTC. (2009). "About Identity Theft." Federal Trade Commission. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/microsites/idtheft/consumers/about-identity-theft.html#shouldyoufileapolicereportifyouridentityisstolen
ITRC. (2009). Identity Theft Resource Center. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://www.idtheftcenter.org/index.html
SSA. (2009). "Identity Theft." Social Security Administration. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://ssa-custhelp.ssa.gov/cgi-bin/ssa.cfg/php/enduser/std_alp.php?p_lva=&p_li=&p_accessibility=0&p_redirect=&p_page=1&p_cv=2.35&p_pv=&p_prods=&p_cats=16%2C35&p_hidden_prods=&cat_lvl1=0&p_search_text=&p_new_search=1&p_search_type=answers.search_nl
USDOJ. (2009). "Identity Theft." United States Department of Justice. http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/fraud/websites/idtheft.html#whatdoing
The system that Networks Update critiques is IMAG ("Identity Managed Access Gateway") by Apere, Inc.
The way it works is by an innovative way of permitting or denying access to applications that are critical to a business; the IMAG systems knows who should and who should not have access to those critical files and applications because it has "auto discovery capabilities" that immediately click into place when any attempt is made to enter into privileged files.
But what makes this system unique - in an IT world that already has firewalls and other seemingly effective preventative measures - is that, according to the Mark Rhodes-Ousley, author of the book Network Security, The Complete Reference, IMAG automatically creates and manages "...access policies based on all sources of identity information in the network," and avoids wasteful use of IT resources "for manual network access provisioning and policy management."
hile the future success…
Congress Daily. (2006). Reid Becomes Victim Of Identity Theft. Retrieved 29 August, 2006 from http://www.congressdaily.com.
Foust, Dean; & Ryst, Sonja. (2006). ID Theft: More Hype Than Harm. Business Week, Issue
3991, p. 34-36.
Kiernan, Vincent. (2006). New Center at Utica College will Study Identity Theft. Chronicle of Higher Education, 52(45).
In essence I am a very gregarious person with many friends. I enjoy the company of others and I am especially devoted to my family. I feel that family life is the core of the positive aspects of modern civilization. On the other hand I am also very concerned about social ills, homelessness and the contravention of basic human rights that occur daily in our word. Another area of concern that defines me as a person is my concern for the environment and the damage that has been done to our ecosystems by what I see as the exploitation and greed of a few.
In short, I am a concerned individual who views personal growth and identity as something that carries with it a responsibility towards others and the world around us. I feel that while it is important to be personally ambitious, success should not come at the expense…
Identity quotes. Retrieved from http://thinkexist.com/quotations/identity/
Sebald, H. (1977). A Social Psychological Analysis.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
In other words, "the acquisition and transmission of imaginations of the past follows patterns that are specific to the respective generation." (Welzer, 2010, p.5) This is exemplified by the experience of the Sabbateans during the transition of Turkey into a modern nation after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1920. Traditionally the Sabbateans had followed their religious beliefs in private while maintaining a Moslem facade in public. But after the fall of the Ottomans, and the modernization programs enacted by its new leader Mustafa Kemal, there was enormous social pressure for the Sabbateans to conform to the new ideals of the modern Turkish state by discarding their Sabbatean religious traditions. In other words, the Turks were creating a new social memory that was based on abandoning traditional activities, like practicing Sabbateanism, and embracing the new, progressive activities of the modern Turkish state: exemplified by citizenship. But this new social…
Allan, Diana (2007). "Chapter 10: The Politics of Witness: Remembering and Forgetting 1948 in Shatila Camp," in Nakba: Palestine, 2948, and the Claims of Memory. Eds. Ahmad E. Sa'di and Lila Abu-Lughod.
New York: Columbia UP: 254-282. Print.
Cenarro, Angelo. (2002). "Memory Beyond the Public Sphere: The Francoist
Repression Remembered in Aragon." History and Memory 14(1/2): 165-176
Social workers try to help people make the most of their environment, their relationships, and any struggles they might have with money or family. A lot of social workers deal with people who face life-threatening circumstances, such as criminal activity or substance abuse. Other issues that social workers try to tackle are inadequate housing, unemployment, illness, disability, or difficulties around childbirth (Social Work Professions: Summary of the Social Worker Fields, 2010).
There are various social work specializations, but the larger categories include child, family, and school social workers, who provide social services and assistance to children and their families; medical and public health social workers who provide support for people with illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer, or AIDS; mental health and substance abuse social workers who deal with people who struggle with psychological issues; and social workers who deal with the intricacies of social policy and planning (Social Work…
Social Work Practice. (n.d.). Retrieved August 31, 2010, from Web site:
Social Work Professions: Summary of the Social Worker Fields. (2010). Retrieved August 31,
2010, from Education Portal Web site: http://education-
Social Media and the ed Shirt evolution
Most scholars are in conflict with regard to the subject of revolution in the age of social media. Until now, revolution has been considered a top-down process. In Thai situation, things might have been different. The ed Shirt evolution in Thailand was one of the first of the "Twitter" revolutions, that is one that was fueled by social media and Web 2.0 technology. Since then, other revolutions have come as well. The lone citizen is now no longer on their own. The dissident in Chiang Mai now can commiserate with their brother or sister in Tahrir Square and plan revolution on a country to country or even on a global basis. Even as this writer types up a dissertation proposal, demonstrators coordinate strategy on a global basis to protest corporate greed. It is with this in mind that this study looks back at…
Bailey, M and Labovitz C (2011). Censorship and Co-option of the Internet Infrastructure. Ann Arbor,
MI: University of Michigan. p1-14.
Bajpai, K and Jaiswal, A (2011). A Framework for Analyzing Collective Action Events on Twitter.
Lisbon, Portugal: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference. p1-10.
Social Work has often been criticized as being a non-Intellectual discipline and yet much of this work requires strenuousness that other professions lack.
Social work requires the creativity and willingness of being able to see and craft a story from various angles. As Fook (2002) discusses, the social worker has to have the capacity of being able to frame the situation in various ways, which match the discourse of the group to whom the problem applies. Each of the various members see, and experience, the problem in a different way, and the social worker has the challenging task of having to step into each of these perspectives and craft the story form his or her vantage point. This means letting go of power and assuming willingness to adopt a new language, and identity that echoes that of the other. By doing so, the worker changes from one who recommends and…
Social Significance of Food in Early Modern Europe (c.1350 -1800)
Today's society is bombarded with mass produced food competitions and cooking shows. Restaurants and food carts pop-up at every corner, and grocery shops are constantly stacked with most everything that one could imagine. Exotic foods are available year-round, and some are even affordable. Food is truly everywhere in this country, and everybody is trying to cook the latest experience. As one of the most basic of human necessities, food has become part of an expanding "material culture" and, in some instances, part of a luxury culture (van der Veen 003, 405).
Yet this basic human necessity, this basic experience, was not always readily available and, hard as it may be to believe, many people still cannot afford to eat well, even in this country. Just as it did in Ancient Rome, different societal status often means better food, even today.…
2. Ken Albala, Food and Class: Eating Right in the Renaissance (Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002), 184-216.
3. Marijke van der Veen, When is Food a Luxury? (London: Routledge, 2003), 405-427.
4. Massimo Montanari, The Culture of Food (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1996), 68 -- 97.
Aspects of identity that might have been denied or denigrated because of colonial mentalities can resurface and be admired. Discourse on gender and social class has also deepened and enabled identity constructions to flourish outside the confines of proscribed gender roles. Culture changes, and so too does identity. The values placed on identity aspects like religion have shifted too, making religion a less salient part of people's identity. On the other hand, sexual orientation and gender identity have both become more important. Gender roles have changed to such a great degree as to transform the definition and meaning of family, love, or sex.
Therefore, a number of issues affect the way we understand and create identities. Academia reflects broader changes in social values and norms. In some cases, academia inspires those social and political transformations. Regardless of the directions of the relationship between academia and social values, the two interact…
It is also referred to as luminal stimulus or limen. However the irritability of the population in our case is different, they will react to the slightest provocation of their egos. The isolation formats them to such a sensitive being that they react with very minimum provocation.
Effectiveness of management of excessive stimulus input- the population in study more often will not know the difference between the general pathogenic influences and the and adverse trauma, they may end up treating the two in similar manner since they are not in a position to manage or put under effective control the stimulus they react to nor the stimuli they send out. This is due to isolation which makes then non-interactive for a long time hence cannot use exposure to others to learn the trick.
Generally isolation due to disruption of the cultural system imposed on a population by poverty can…
Bruce et.al, (2000). Neighborhood Poverty and the Social Isolation of Inner-City African
American Families. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-66274514.html
Encyclopedia.com (2005). Ego Functions. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3435300417.html
Henderson David, (2010). Hispanic Poverty and Social Isolation Effects on Low-Income People.
By improving their self knowledge, leaders can change and develop as leaders of people. Clinical supervision for leaders is sometimes called administrative clinical supervision. This is managerial clinical supervision with a focus on problems related to leadership and organization of work, particularly human relations issues. Administrative clinical supervision makes use of experiential learning focused on oneself and one's work (Sirola-Karvinen and Hyrkas, 2008).
Administrative clinical supervision means clinical supervision for leaders that address leadership issues in order to achieve set goals. Supervision promotes cohesion within the organization and is directed at change. Administrative clinical supervision is the examination of leadership in which leaders have the chance to reflect upon the quality of their decisions and share their feelings. In terms of action, administrative clinical supervision involves process-like support and mentoring, which boost the leader's confidence in coping with leadership duties and changes associated with it. Administrative clinical supervision addresses issues…
Clinical supervision 'can inoculate staff against stress'. (2010). Mental Health Practice. 13(7),
Clinical Supervision. (2009). Retrieved June 27, 2010, Australian College of Mental Health
Nurses Web site: http://www.acmhn.org/career-resources/clinical-supervision.html
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…
Of course, most people will call their banks, credit card companies, and other institution at the first sign that identity theft has occurred, but what happens to those victims who do not realize it immediately?
People need to be aware of what identity theft is, how it is committed, what can happen when such information is stolen, and what should be done when identity theft has occurred. It is not a bunch of hype and it does cause a lot of harm, not only to the victims, but also to the victim's family. Evidently, Foust is trying to calm the reader by saying that most information that is stolen is never used. Rather it is used or not, the fact that someone has or can be a victim of identity theft is cause for concern.
Dean Foust is correct in saying that most information is not ever turned into financial…
Foust, Dean. (7/3/2006). ID Theft: More Hype than Harm. Business Week Magazine.
This leads one to believe that they are not very well off financially and the mother has not real education in order to obtain employment since she is currently attaining administrative assistant training. Antonio also has issues with controlling his behavior when in the daycare environment, as he frequently has violent outbursts and crying spells.
If one were to assess Antonio from an Eco-Feminist perspective one would be better able to understand Antonio and his present behavior. Ecofeminism is the social movement that regards the domination of women and nature as unified. It is one of the few movements and analyses that in fact connect the two movements. Lately, ecofeminist theorists have extended their analyses to reflect on the interconnections flanked by sexism, the domination of nature, and also racism and social dissimilarities (What is Ecofeminism, n.d.). Daniel spent a lot of time suppressing Hilda in his behavior that he…
"Neil Adger on Social Resilience." (2010). Retrieved December 2, 2010, from Ecological
Sociology Web site: http://ecologicalsociology.blogspot.com/2010/05/neil-adger-on-social-resilience.html
Kendall, Diana. (2008). Sociology in our Times. Belmont: Thompson Wadsworth.
Mannelli, Sandra. (n.d.). What Are Defense Mechanisms Anyway? Retrieved December 3, 2010,
Student Social Identity Development
How and hy Students Develop a Social Identity
hat is meant by Student Development?
Author Nancy J. Evans notes that the phrase "Student Development" too often becomes simply a vague catchphrase that has little application to college students' lives and learning. Student Development embraces the psychosocial, cognitive-structural, and social identity of students in postsecondary settings (Evans, et al., 2009).
In the quest for self-direction, students universally seek a social identity as well as an education that can propel them into meaningful, successful careers.
Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., Guido, F.M., Patton, L.D., and Renn, K.A. (2009). Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice.
Introduction to Training Session
Clearly college and university students already have an identity when they enroll in classes, although their more mature individual identity in the social milieu will evolve with time. This training session embraces the question of how and why a…
Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., Guido, F.M., Patton, L.D., and Renn, K.A. (2009). Student
Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Hanson, C. (2014). In Search of Self: Exploring Student Identity Development: New
Directions for Higher Education, Number 166. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Prejudice and social psychology
Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society
Cultural impact of host cultures
The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.
Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28.
Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481.
Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ).
Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549.
Rather, Paul sees all human beings as one, part of his conception of the Christian world: "For we were all baptized by one Spirit into one body -- whether Jews or Greeks, slave or free -- and we were all given the one Spirit to drink" (1 Corinthians 12:13). This new unity is radical and transforming: when an individual, regardless of who he or she was comes to accept Christ he or she can say: "Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; the old has gone, the new has come! (2 Corinthians 5:17). Paul believes external social roles and identities like keeping to Jewish Mosaic law or marriage laws are relatively unimportant -- the real change comes from within the believer, and enables him to shine with Christ's light in his or her new identity. Changes in specific ritual actions are not as significant, because they…
New International Version. Bible Gateway. July 31, 2010
A widely quoted and interesting functioning definition has been provided by Geert Hofstede who suggests that culture should be considered as software of a person's mind. He is reported to have said that each individual possesses certain patterns and forms of contemplation, emotions and possible acting that they have probably acquired during their life (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).
Most of these patterns have been obtained through their early childhood experiences as those are the time when an individual is most likely to acquire learning and build on it. Just the way a computer regards its "thought processes" and functioning as its software, the patterns or formations of thinking, experiencing and carrying out psychological processes in an individual can be referred to as the software program of the mind (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).
However, this does not imply, most definitely that individuals are supposed to function or behave as a computer…
Valentine, V. (1995). Opening up the Black Box: Switching the Paradigm of Qualitative Research. ESOMAR Seminar, Paris, 6-8th December, 25-47. Corbu, N. (2010). Cultural Identity as a System: Toward the Crystallization of a European Cultural Identity. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 12(1), 121-132.
Waterman, a.S. (1999). Identity, the identity statuses, and identity status development: A contemporary statement. Developmental Review, 19, 591 -- 621. Taken from SETH, J.H., et al. (2010). The Relationships of Personal and Cultural Identity to Adaptive and Maladaptive Psychosocial Functioning in Emerging Adults. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(1), 1 -- 33
Williams, R. (1976), Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Fontana, London. Corbu, N. (2010). Cultural Identity as a System: Toward the Crystallization of a European Cultural Identity. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 12(1), 121-132.
Each outside label has an affect on that individuals own conception of them, effectively rising or lowering self-image. These categories allow individuals of the same label to sometimes band together in order to further develop their own unique identities away from the labeling and discrimination from the larger group who may view them as abnormal, (Oxoby & McLeish, 2007: 13). Once inside a more specific group, these individuals have the capacity to flourish, and gain more and more self-esteem, (Handler, 1991: 223). However, when placed outside of these smaller groups into the larger population, this identity is once again viewed in a discriminatory manner, (Taylor & Moghaddam, 1994: 134). This occurs mainly due to the xenophobia each group portrays towards other groups, which then creates a hostile environment for the establishment of strong individual identities.
One way to examine the formations of deaf and queer identities using the Social Identity…
Adam, B. 2000. "Love and Sex in Constructing Identity Among Men Who Have Sex
With Men." International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies 5(4).
Barry, P. (2002). Lesbian and gay criticism. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J.-C. (1977) Reproduction in Education, Culture and Society,