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Ain't No Makin' It
In this article, the author talks of two different groups of young men who live in an area where they see little chance for advancement and have relatively poor economic and educational opportunities. One group, dubbed the "Hallway Hangers," thinks that they will not be able to get ahead in school or life no matter what they do, so they do not make any effort. They do not care about much, and they will not take classes that could prepare them for college or good jobs when they graduate. Many of them do not attend the classes that they are supposed to, and those that do are failing them. They believe that who they know is what matters, not what they know, and so education will not help them to do anything with their lives, get good jobs, or be anything more than they…
Cultural Capital, Gender, and School Success
This is one of very few articles that discusses the role that habitus plays in who people are and who they become as they grow and change during their school years. It looks at eighth-graders, both male and female, and studies their participation in various aspects of culture, whether something that is attributed to the school or their peers at the school. The author also gives a good model of how habitus can be incorporated into the equation involving culture and school success, so that it can be seen that there is the possibility that habitus should be studied more thoroughly. Even though cultural capital and educational success have both been studied quite thoroughly, many of the studies have reached conclusions that differ from one another. Because of this, there have been no truly definitive answers found on this subject. With the…
In the 1830s-1850s, Irish-Americans, simply because they were Catholic and "peasants," were discriminated against at every turn and in every way. They were always placed in the lowest skilled jobs, lived in the worst areas, and were paid less than any other worker. This went on for all of the middle 19th century until attention was turned to the Italians, or Greeks, or Polish immigrants (Doran, 2005, p. 3).
And the key to this social inequality is that the "discrimination" is always based on something the minority can't change. Think about it. Blacks have been discriminated against because of the color of their skin, not because they are less intelligent, less educated, less skillful, or less talented. Native American Indians felt social inequality due also to the color of their skin, but as well to the fact that they fought back against those who were invading their land. Could they…
Arrighi, B. (2001). Understanding inequality: the intersection of race/ethnicity, class, and gender. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Doran, a. (2005, December 20). The self-perpetuation of social inequality in America. Retrieved September 9, 2009, from Associated Content: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/16712/the_selfperpetuation_of_social_inequality.html
Kozol, J. (1996). Amazing Grace; the lives of children and conscience of a nation. New York: Harper Perennial.
Office of Diversity and Inclusion. (2009, September 11). Glossary: Minority. Retrieved September 11, 2009, from U.S. Dept. Of Veterans Affairs: http://www.diversity.hr.va.gov/glossary.html
The lowest-ranking had to jingle a little bell in warning of their polluting approach. In much of India, Dalits were prohibited from entering temple" (India Caste system, ancient India Caste System)
There have been indications since 1450 of changes and a questioning of the caste system. For example, in 1469, the guru Nanak, 1st guru of Sikhs, "...refused to accept the caste system and the supremacy of the Brahmanical priests and forbade magic, idolatry and pilgrimages." (The Fifteenth Century 1450-1475)
It was however in the colonial period of the British rule of India that the caste system was extensively critiqued and efforts made to create a more equal society. This was largely due to the influence of the new norms and values brought by the colonizers.
During this period there was also the beginning of various reform movements. These criticized and questioned "...the rigidities of the caste system, the degraded…
Civil Society And Governance. An Overview Of Issues And Trends In India.
February 18, 2007. http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:pBULlPS5oUMJ:nt1.ids.ac.uk/ids/civsoc/docs/India2.doc+INdia+Caste+System+1450&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=26&gl=za
India Caste system, ancient India Caste System. February 18, 2007. http://www.indianchild.com/caste_system_india.htm
India Caste System Discriminates. February 18, 2007. http://aad.english.ucsb.edu/docs/georgesept62001.html
hile war is often a major factor in changing the nature of property ownership, much as major depressions, such as that of 1920 to 1940, another factor can be large increases in competition, such as that in industrial production that has risen in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan since the Vietnam ar (Capitalism pp). All such developments "put stresses on the ability of individuals to finance and mange their operations (Capitalism pp).
Relationships between capitalistic economic enterprise and government are different in different countries (Capitalism pp). hile the United States was trying to limit the size of industrial organizations in an effort to encourage competition, Germany was encouraging combination (Capitalism pp). The French government seized control of all means of communication and kept it (Capitalism pp). Today, the Japanese government maintains close relations with large corporations, "helping to set priorities in production and development, and in deciding who gets to borrow…
Capitalism as a Social System. Retrieved July 30, 2005 at http://www.gwu.edu/~edpol/manuscript/Chap2-3.htm
Harris, Richard L. (1997 June 01). Capital, inequality and injustice in Latin
America. International Journal of Comparative Sociology. Retrieved July 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Smiley, David H. (1995 October 01). Problems with development economics.
Those individuals that are at the low end of the spectrum when it comes to earning wages would be happy to see more money in their paychecks as well, and many of the women that were in the workforce during that time were able to perform the jobs just as well as the men could but they were generally not allowed the opportunity (Frager & Patrias, 2006). Even for the women that were allowed to 'compete' with the men, they were still paid significantly less than the men were paid for the same kind of work (Frager & Patrias, 2006).
Paying women more money and paying them equally with men helps out the entire economy for a while because the individuals that have more money are more likely to spend it rather than save it for a time when they may need it most (Frager & Patrias, 2006). A raise…
Canada & the World Backgrounder. 1996. A learned behavior. Canada & the World Backgrounder, 61(6): 4.
Dobbins, J.E. & Skillings, J.H. 2000. Racism as a clinical syndrome. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(1).
Frager, Ruth a. & Patrias, Carmela K. 2006. Discounted labour: Women workers in Canada, 1870-1939 (Themes in Canadian history). Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
Glover, R.J. 1999. Using moral and epistemological reasoning as predictors of prejudice. Journal of Social Psychology, 134(5).
'" (Voltair, Ch. 1) This is a perspective which seems
increasingly ludicrous in the face of war, carnage, inequality and
exploitation, and indeed, encounters with such extreme pessimists as Martin
do reveal this to be something of a farce. To the point, we come to view
this as something of a template for the complacency which had allowed the
inequality of feudalism to persist. The notion that there was some
connection between a divine abolutism and the order of man would allow for
a deeply unequal system to persist.
It is not far into the novella though that a sense of discontent
begins to emerge over the way of things and over the ideas provided by
Pangloss. Guided by the desire throughout his life to be reunited with
Cunegande, with whom he falls in love as a child, Candide is shown many of
the worst miseries which the world can…
Center for History and New Media (CHNM). (2005). Monarchy Embattled.
George Mason University. Online at
Voltaire. (1950). Candide. Penguin Classics Reissue Edition.
Social Inequality in Trifles
Literary works of fiction are common modes of presenting social issues. For instance, Susan Glaspell's play, Trifles, examines gender issues in society, presenting a story of a woman who killed her husband as a result of her decision to end the mental and physical abuse she suffered at his hand. Through the symbolic use of physical elements, such as the canary and the cage, the quilt, and half-finished tasks, as well as non-physical elements of speech, Glaspell presents a feminist viewpoint that social inequality allows women to be dominated by men, and suffer from isolation and abuse as a result.
Symbolism to demonstrate gender inequality is evident in Trifles through the display of half-finished tasks in the right home. The story opens with reference to the kitchen, where there are "unwashed pans under the sink, a loaf of bread outside the breadbox, a dishtowel on the…
Angel, Marina. "Teaching the Short Story A Jury of Her Peers and the Play Trifles." Temple
University School of Law. Retrieved 18 Feb. 2004. http://www.aals.org/profdev/women/angel.html
Glaspell, Susan. Trifles. 1916. Barnet, Sylvan, Burto, William, & William E. Cain, Eds.
Introduction to Literature. 13th Ed. New York: Pearson Longman, 2004, 971-980.
Crime is the breaking of rules or laws for which a legal system can provide a conviction (Darrow & Baatz, 2009). Historically, individual human societies have defined crimes differently. Crimes can be considered local, state, or international and can occur in several stages such as planning, disclosure, and intent (Darrow & Baatz, 2009). Many crimes are often unreported, not recorded, not followed through on, and unable to be proved.
According to professors Lawrence Cohen, James Kluegel, and Kenneth Land "the relationships of social inequality to criminal behavior and to the arrest, prosecution, and sentencing of alleged criminal offenders are among the most frequently studied topics in American criminology (1981, p. 505). Cohen, Kluegel, and Land also report that "many citizens and criminologist alike believe that the disadvantaged are less adequately insulted than the advantage from conditions that stimulate crimes and that the disadvantaged receive less favorable treatment…
Barrow, D., & Baatz, S. (2009). Crime: its cause and treatment. New York, NY: Kaplan, Inc.
Cohen, L.E., Kluegel, J.R., & Land, K.G. (1981). Social inequality and predatory criminal victimization: An exposition and test of a formal theory. American Sociological Review, 46(5), 505-524.
Farrington, D.P., & Welsh, B.C. (2007). Saving children from the life of crime. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Sacco, V., & Kennedy, L. (2011). Criminal event: an introduction to criminology. Canada: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
There are a number of different causes of social inequality, and the sociological perspective allows for the understanding of how social inequality came about, and why it continues to persist. Social inequality is a basic starting point for organized society in the sense that as society became organized, a miniscule class of landowners held all of the wealth. As society has moved away from that highly inequitable starting position, the manner in which this has happened has promoted certain forms of inequality.
Inequality is partially economic, and partially social, but the two are linked. Economic and social power often go hand-in-hand, because control over wealthy allows for control over the means of survival. In our society, wealth was initially held by a small class of landowners. Changes to the political system spread some social power -- and through that some wealth -- to all white men.…
Crossman, A. (2015). Sociology of social inequality. About.com. Retrieved July 2, 2015 from http://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Social-Inequality.htm
Observers of discrimination may not always recognize what is going on either. If they are not directly affected by the discrimination they may not be in the best position to identify the discrimination and challenge it. It can also be difficult for observers to notice patterns of discrimination between groups. Studies have shown that only when these differences where pointed out did they observers notice what was going on and then attempt to make amends (Iyer, 2007).
In looking at the composite of voters for the state of Colorado, those most likely to vote for the End Affirmative Action measure would be: white women that are between the age 30-64, who hold post graduate degrees. Those that would be most likely to vote against it would be: white males who are between the ages of 45-64, who have college degrees. In looking at the composite of voters for the state…
Iyer, Aarti. "Affirmative Action: Psychological Data and Policy Debates." 2007. University of Exeter. 15 March 2009. www.ercomer.eu/downloads/seminars/2007may.ppt
Dimensions of Social Inequality
ace, Class, Sex, Marriage, Gender: Social Scholars' Dimensions of Social Equity and Inequality
ace, Class, Sex, Marriage, Gender: Social Scholars' Dimensions of Social Equity and Inequality
ace, Gender, Sex, Marriage, and Class
ace, Gender, Sex, Marriage, and Class are themes that are socially and historically constructed by the society and operate on an individual and social level. Academics and social scholars emphasize these dimensions are interdependent, and define social boundaries. In this manner, social studies that investigate these dimensions use them as boundaries that define social inequality and equity. In effect, social scholars limit and restrict people while privileging others by defining social inequality and equity in these dimensions. However, interdisciplinary studies like the multicultural, women studies and geographical studies identify these dimensions as the cause of social stratification. In effect, many college courses address the multiple dimensions of social inequality in terms of race, gender,…
Amy, L.W. (2007). Engines of inequality: Class, race, and family structure. Family Law Quarterly, 41(3), 567-599.
Blackburn, R.M. (2008). What is social inequality? The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 28(7), 250-259.
Carroll, S. & Frank, M. (1996). Law and Inequality: Race, Gender,… and, of Course Class. Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 187-212.
Inaki, P. (2010). The measurement of multidimensional gender inequality: Continuing the debate. Social Indicators Research, 95(2), 181-198.
On the contrary, he uses the pretext of working as a male nurse on trading ships of the Argentine national shipping-company to travel to several countries of Latin America, such as Brazil and Venezuela. During one of his voyages he meets two people who would change his views and ultimately, his entire life: Doctor Hugo Pesce in Peru and Fidel astro who shares he's revolutionary vision. Upon graduating from Medical School, influenced by the widespread poverty and social decay affecting Latin America, he devotes himself to the profound study of Marxism, political economy and other related disciplines; it is precisely during this stage in he's life that he realizes his vocation had shifted from medical to revolutionary.
he Guevara. he Guevara Politics. The ommunist Party. Online. Available from the Internet:
http://www.thechestore.com/he-Guevara-politics.php, accessed 6 September 2007.
Books and Writers. he Guevara. Online. Available from the Internet: http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/guevar.htm, accessed 7 September 2007.…
Che Guevara Politics, the Communist Party. http://www.thechestore.com/Che-Guevara-politics.php
Che Guevara. http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/guevar.htm
Che Guevara Politics, Marxist-Leninist Education. http://www.thechestore.com/Che-Guevara-politics.php
Social Order and Inequalities
Social order and inequality
Ideas, beliefs, values, norms, roles, statuses, organizations and social class may have impact on an individual's life directly or indirectly. This can be in form of gender and social inequality. The life of my friend Jane who is a woman is an example of how these phenomenon impacts the life of individuals.
Gender inequalities rise from deepening division in the roles that are assigned to men and women, especially in the political, economic and educational sphere. When my friend Jane could not make it to the leadership of their community despite various attempts, it showed that women are always underrepresented in political activities as well as decision making processes. This is brought by the ever existing beliefs that men are better leaders than women. As a woman she is subjected to institutional discrimination where they face problem of accessing education which has…
Social Stratification and Social Mobility
Systems of social stratification
The systems refer to the manner that the society utilizes in ranking individuals in a hierarchy. Undeniably, the classifications suffice the reality that some groups of individuals possess greater wealth, power, and status compared to others. Differences in the groups of individuals describe the nature of social stratification. Social inequality occurs as a significant aspect of the society as it facilitates the smooth operation of the society. For example, high rewards lure and motivate highly talented individuals to perform involving tasks such as brain surgery. On the other, most individuals can perform blue-collar jobs such as cleaning toilets and mowing grass thereby limiting its level of returns.
The open class system allows social interactions between classes that rely on achievements, prevalent in industrialized nations. On the other hand, the closed class system confirms on the social status of individuals and ancestral…
Gane, Nicholas (2005). Max Weber as Social Theorist 'Class, Status, Party'. European Journal of Social Theory, 8(2):211-226
Resnikoff, Ned (2014, November 11). Global inequality is a rising concern for elites. Aljazeera America. Retrieved from http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/11/11/global-inequalityisarisingconcernforelites.html
Teachers will continue to lead the educational process, but they need to be very sensitive about the issues facing the society as a whole and the children as individuals in this society. Then, education becomes a means of identifying the issues in the life of the students and gaining knowledge and understanding about them. Education in this global society also has to acknowledge that cultural diversity is valued and preserved (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 190). Teachers have to ensure that their students are taught in ways that respond to cultural groups without bias (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 420). In education, there is a responsibility for students to gain a respect for other races, religions and gender that are different from their own. This is the only way that a diverse society can successfully survive.
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New…
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New York, the Guilford Press.
Byrne, a. (1998). Interpretivism. In Roberto Casati (ed.), European Review of Philosophy. Stanford: CSLI Publications
Dewey, J. (1997). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone Books.
Giroux, H. (1997) 'Crossing the Boundaries of Educational Discourse: Modernism, post-modernism, and Feminism' in a.H. Halsey, H. Lauder, P. Brown and a.S. Wells (eds.) Education: Culture, Economy, and Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Social Marginalization by Race: Economic Deprivation and White American Resistance in the allot or the ullet by Malcolm X
The rigorous history of African-Americanism and their emancipation within the American society reflects the struggles and perpetuation of discrimination among black Americans even during the 20th century. Malcolm X, considered one of the most radical and influential leader of the black American civil rights movement, centers on the issues of discrimination and white American resistance among the blacks in his famous discourse, The allot or the ullet, delivered in April 3, 1964.
The relevance and significance of Malcolm X's discourse must be put into context in the events happening during his time. Historically, the socio-political landscape of the United States during the 1960s is characterized by the emergence and development of the civil rights movement for the marginalized sectors of the society, such as the youth, women, poor, and particularly, African-Americans.…
Malcolm X (1964). The Ballot or the Bullet. Available at: http://www.indiana.edu/~rterrill/Text-BorB.html .
Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and he can feed himself for life. How could you put this principle into practice through the development of a social entrepreneurship venture?
Development of Social Entrepreneurialism
Corporate Social Responsibility
Social Entrepreneurship and Food
Social entrepreneurship was introduced in the 1970s to address the issue of social sustainably and the term "social entrepreneur." This analysis will begin by providing a brief history as well as a working definition for the concept of social entrepreneurialism. It will also discuss some of the related movements that have been working towards some of the same goals, albeit, from different directions to address various challenges in society and the environment. Furthermore, a more detailed overview of the exact challenges that are present in society that social entrepreneurialism can work to address will…
Abu-Saifan, S., 2012. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries. [Online]
Available at: http://timreview.ca/article/523
[Accessed 28 April 2016].
Ashoka, N.d.. Vision and Mission. [Online]
This leads one to believe that they are not very well off financially and the mother has not real education in order to obtain employment since she is currently attaining administrative assistant training. Antonio also has issues with controlling his behavior when in the daycare environment, as he frequently has violent outbursts and crying spells.
If one were to assess Antonio from an Eco-Feminist perspective one would be better able to understand Antonio and his present behavior. Ecofeminism is the social movement that regards the domination of women and nature as unified. It is one of the few movements and analyses that in fact connect the two movements. Lately, ecofeminist theorists have extended their analyses to reflect on the interconnections flanked by sexism, the domination of nature, and also racism and social dissimilarities (What is Ecofeminism, n.d.). Daniel spent a lot of time suppressing Hilda in his behavior that he…
"Neil Adger on Social Resilience." (2010). Retrieved December 2, 2010, from Ecological
Sociology Web site: http://ecologicalsociology.blogspot.com/2010/05/neil-adger-on-social-resilience.html
Kendall, Diana. (2008). Sociology in our Times. Belmont: Thompson Wadsworth.
Mannelli, Sandra. (n.d.). What Are Defense Mechanisms Anyway? Retrieved December 3, 2010,
Inequalities in Mental Health
Over the last several years, different theories have been utilized to explain the societal factors in the quality of mental health. The basic idea is to understand which variables will have the greatest impact on the person's ability to contribute to society. The social structure theory is taking a unique perspective in studying the problem. To fully understand its importance requires looking at the main ideas and why it was chosen. Together, these elements will illustrate how this influences mental health and the effects it is having on contemporary thinking. (Gabbidon, 2005) (Cole, 2013)
The social structure theory believes that the economic class will have a direct impact on the quality of care, treatment options and the effects on society itself. This is because poor neighborhoods face greater amounts of strain, frustrations, reduced opportunities and disorganization. These variables will influence how someone sees their surroundings and…
Cole, G. (2013). Survey of Criminal Justice. Mason, OH: Southwestern.
Gabbidon, S. (2005). Race, Crime and Justice. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Smith, D. (1988). "Social Structure and Criminal Victimization." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 25 (1), 27-52.
In today's modern world, organizations have become global, where people from different countries and cultures come together to work for common and shared organizational goals. Several cultural issues arise when employees from distinct backgrounds are in the same place. Religion is one of the most critical ones since it is the set of spiritual beliefs and values that individuals follow in their daily lives. They expect their organizations to give them leverage for following their religion as this provides for their personal development. Enhancement in personal self would support bettering individual and group performance; hence, upgrading in organizational competitiveness would be observed.
Hofstede said that the religion practiced in a certain region is the result of cultural values that were followed previously by the ancestors in the same area (Mazur, 2010). The existing cultural strength is increased when people follow a religious guideline as they can with themselves…
Mazur, B. (2020). Organizational culture under religious influence. Intech Open. Retrieved from https://www.intechopen.com/online-first/organizational-culture-under-religious-influence
Nandi, A. & Platt, L. (2018). The relationship between political and ethnic identity among UK ethnic minority and majority populations. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 46(5), 957-979. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2018.1539286
Raday, F. (2003). Culture, religion, and gender. Oxford University Press and New York University School of Law, 1(4), 663-715. http://arabic.musawah.org/sites/default/files/Culture%2C%20Religion%20and%20Gender.pdf
Ramos, M.R., Massey, D., Bennett, M. & Hewstone, M. (2019). Social diversity is initially threatening, but people do adapt over time- new research. The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/social-diversity-is-initially-threatening-but-people-do-adapt-over-time-new-research-118066
Seyranian, V., Atuel, H. & Crano, W.D. (2008). Dimensions of majority and minority groups. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 11(1), 21-37. DOI: ff10.1177/1368430207084843ff.
Winkel, H. (2019). Religious cultures and gender cultures: Tracing gender differences across religious cultures. Journal of Contemporary Religion, 34(2), 241-251. https://doi.org/10.1080/13537903.2019.1621540
Education system a "ladder of opportunity" or does it simply reflect, reinforce and reproduce existing class differences?
The education system in Britain currently exists as a hierarchical system enabling class differences to continue to persist despite some policy changes that would help facilitate a more equitable program for all involved. Is the educational system a ladder of opportunity? A ladder of opportunity should be considered something that facilitates achievement for all individuals irrespective of their race, national origin or social class. Many consider the educational system a "ladder of opportunity" because education can facilitate achievement and professional growth and wealth for those that pursue it to its highest levels. However, within the UK the education system is not equitably accessible to all levels of the population, and because of this the system actually reinforces and perpetuates existing class differences that already exist within the country.
Within the UK the educational…
Ball, S., Maquire, M. & Macrae, S. (2000). Choice, pathways and transitions post 16:
New youth, new economies in the global city. London: Routlege Falmer.
Hayton, A. & Leathwood, C. (2002). "Educational inequalities in the United Kingdom: A
critical analysis of the discourses and policies of new labour." Australian Journal of Education, 46(2): 138
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…
Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.
Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.
Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.
Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.
Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…
David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Social workers often have commitments to specific policies, laws, or funding of programs that are vital to the population they serve or an issue that they strongly support. Such commitments often lead social workers to become involved in political issues and the campaigns of specific candidates. Being a social worker, such campaign experiences, the outcomes of your efforts, and how effective you felt you were may affect your view of the political process and the likelihood of becoming involved in similar campaigns in the future. Social workers' involvement in political advocacy is usually influenced by the impact of politics on social work practice. Through advocacy and lobbying in the political arena, social workers seek to promote changes in legislation and policy to enhance social conditions and promote social justice towards meeting basic human needs. In essence, social workers' participation in political advocacy is geared towards protecting individuals' rights and enhancing…
Franklin's autobiography demonstrates a truly American kind of businessman, because he so neatly embodies all of the assumptions and logical fallacies that American capitalism depends on in order to justify its dominance in an ostensibly equitable and representative society.
Where Franklin's autobiography demonstrates the peculiar appeal to divine right that is used to justify the inequity of American capitalism, Herman Melville's Bartleby the Scrivener demonstrates the almost willful obtuseness necessary for any apologists of capitalism who must interact with the exploited lower classes on a regular basis. The narrator of Bartleby the Scrivener is entirely unaware of anything outside the extremely limited range of his own preconceived ideas, which is both why Bartleby's passive resistance stuns him so much and he is ultimately unable to come to terms with Bartleby's death. He practically admits as much when he says "the easiest way of life is the best," because the easiest…
Franklin, B. (2008). Autobiography of benjamin franklin. New York: Forgotten Books.
Melville, H. (1856). Bartleby the scrivener. New York: Plain Label Books.
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…
Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.
Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…
Baker, David P. And Deborah Perkins Jones. 1993. "Creating Gender Equality: Cross-national Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance." Sociology of Education 66:91-103.
Bassili, J.N. (2008). Attitude strength. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin, (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change, Frontiers of social psychology. New York, NY; Psychology Press, pp. 261-286.
Cialdini, R.B. 2001. Influence: Science and Practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Social Order in Public Spaces
Every society has certain rules and regulations that help people live together harmoniously. Some of these rules are explicit and are openly known. Other rules are implicit and therefore subtle. Both implicit and explicit rules and regulations govern a society. However, when a person moves away from one particular society to another, he or she has difficulty in adjusting to the norms of that new society.
Social order is considered to be the method of explaining such rules and regulations so that we live in a society along with its members. Social order is very essential for organizing everyday social life.
When a particular group of people engage in a social activity, their social behavior may seem to threaten others. For example, when a group of people shout and scream in a street, the onlookers might find that their life, their neighborhood and society in…
Bromley, S. Hinchliffe S. & Taylor S., 2009. Making Social Lives. Open University.
" (Adams et al.)
hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science.
The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. ashington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of alter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror tale character). Around the same time that Eleanor Dwight Jones was striving to preserve the white race, the United States Public Health Service began the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. hat took place was a forty year analysis of the life of syphilis. The two hundred black men who had syphilis were "deliberately denied treatment" (Adams et al.) in what was just one more step in oppression and callous social engineering.
And at the same time the Tuskegee experiment was…
Adams, Myrtle, et al. "Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee."
1996. Web. 8 June 2011.
Cone, James. Risks of Faith. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999. Print.
Dowlings, Keven, and Knightley, Philip. "The Spy Who Came Back from the Grave."
A nation faithful to democracy is blessed and called to spread this "good news" throughout the nations "(Withrow,2007, p.15 ).
Coupled with this "gospel" was the support and verification of major scientific theories during this period. Social Darwinism was derived from Darwin's work on the evolution of the species. In essence, Darwin's theory of human evolution refers to the principle of the 'survival of the fittest," on which the ideal of human progress becomes possible. Therefore, taking this principle into account, Social Darwinism attempt to explain and justify the social and economic inequalities in society in terms of those who are the strongest and fittest in the society i.e. those who are the most prosperous and who accumulate the most. Therefore, the vision that this theory produced was one that favored and justified the strongest and most successful in society.
In order to understand the impact of Social Darwinism one…
Carnegie a. The Gospel of Wealth Reflection Questions. Excerpts of an essay written by Carnegie in 1889. Retrieved from http://learningtogive.org/resources/stories/gospelofwealth/
De Santis, V. The American Gilded Age Revisited. Australian Journal of Politics & History, 29
(2), pp. 354 -- 367. Available from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119538983/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
Withrow L. Success and the Prosperity Gospel: from Commodification to Transformation a Wesleyan Perspective. Journal of Religious Leadership, 6(2). Available from http://arl-jrl.org/Volumes/Withrow07.pdf.
Vatican II, officially known as the Second Vatican Council, was a meeting of many leaders of the Catholic Church to discuss both theological and social issues pertaining to the Church in the modern era. Convened by Pope John XXIII in the 1960s and continued by his successor Paul VI, the main goal of the Second Vatican Council was to establish the Church's role and meaning in the modern world, which it recognized as fundamentally changed from the role of the Church in previous eras. Many different topics of concern were examined during the many phases of Vatican II, and the Council produced a number of documents on these varying subjects that help to define Church doctrine and perspectives on the modern world. When it comes to the social thought and action of the Catholic Church following Vatican II, one of the most important documents produced by the Council…
(2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice esearch, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis evisited. Status Bias in the eduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. esearch Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Pearson, A., Dovidio, J., & Pratto, F. (2007).acial Prejudice, Intergroup Hate, and Blatant and Subtle Bias of Whites toward Blacks in Legal Decision Making in the United States. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p145-158, 14p. etrieved July 8, 2009 from EBSCO online database Full Text http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=27747337&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
amasubramanian, S. &…
Fiske, S. (2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice Research, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis Revisited. Status Bias in the Reduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. Research Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
While he supported me in my endeavors, he raised many questions, >Why do you want to enter social work? How do you think you are going to provide for your family and the lifestyle you are accustomed to?" Deferring to socialization pressures that still impel them to fulfill the "breadwinner" role and avoid feminine characteristics, they may segregate themselves from women in the profession, selecting specialties or positions that society deems as more appropriate for men (Williams, 1995). They too may emphasize the masculine aspects of their jobs to "reduce the dissonance between their professional and gender identities" and to justify their career choices (Christie, 1998, p. 506). Thereby, male social workers adhere more closely to the social definition of masculinity" (ritton, J. & Stoller M., 1998).
The young people who are trying to enter into a social work profession "hope to advance research and social work services for men…
Britton, J. & Stoller M. (Autumn, 1998), Engendered disparity: Males in Social Work, Retrieved December 6, 2006, from The Advocate's Forum, Vol.5, No.1, Web Site: http://www.ssa.uchicago.edu/publications/advforum/v5n1/v5i1a2.html
Chattopadhay, T. (2004), Role of men and boys in promoting gender equality: advocacy brief / Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL), United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok, Retrieved December 6, 2006, at http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/unesco_role_of_men.pdf
Christie, A.(2001), Men and social work, New York, NY USA: Palgrave Publishers, Retrieved December 3, 2006, at http://site.ebrary.com/lib/csueastbay/Doc?id=2002957
Gillingham, P. (January, 2006), Male social workers in child and family welfare: New directions for research, in Social work, Volume 51, number I
Social Contract, Rousseau argues that we are all born free and equal, yet do not live either freely or equally. Rousseau then goes on to argue that the construction of the General Will is the means by which people can achieve freedom. The General Will is the social contract where all members of society agree to obey the General Will to be part of society. Rousseau argues that by this General Will, the separate wills of each member of society converge into one. Freedom is achieved because every citizen is equal, each being a single unit of the General Will and having the same amount of influence over it. Rousseau argues that this General Will is the way individuals in society retain their equality and find freedom. Further consideration of the implications of the General Will and the social contract will show that Rousseau's version of freedom and equality may…
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Social Contract. Trans. Maurice Cranston. New York: Penguin, 1987.
When food insecurity is therefore effectively addressed, minority communities can be uplifted to become part of the American way of life in a sustainable and viable way. he statistics demonstrate the demographic inequalities: According to the Food Research and Action Center (hereafter referred to as FRAC), as of 2005, 35.1 million people in the U.S. - over 10% of the population - were experiencing "food insecurity." Among African-Americans and Hispanic populations, this percentage is considerably higher, at 22.4% and 17.9% respectively (Adach-Vollinger, 2006). According to FRAC, the ten states where food insecurity is most likely include the West and South: New Mexico, Mississippi, exas, South Carolina, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Utah, Idaho, North Carolina and ennessee. Clearly, if the American Government were to be truly concerned with creating prosperity for all its citizens, these communities and their needs should be urgently addressed with sustainable programs.
In the light of the above,…
The demographics related to the problem are significant in demonstrating the specific poverty levels and racial discrepancies within the country. When food insecurity is therefore effectively addressed, minority communities can be uplifted to become part of the American way of life in a sustainable and viable way. The statistics demonstrate the demographic inequalities: According to the Food Research and Action Center (hereafter referred to as FRAC), as of 2005, 35.1 million people in the U.S. - over 10% of the population - were experiencing "food insecurity." Among African-Americans and Hispanic populations, this percentage is considerably higher, at 22.4% and 17.9% respectively (Adach-Vollinger, 2006). According to FRAC, the ten states where food insecurity is most likely include the West and South: New Mexico, Mississippi, Texas, South Carolina, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Utah, Idaho, North Carolina and Tennessee. Clearly, if the American Government were to be truly concerned with creating prosperity for all its citizens, these communities and their needs should be urgently addressed with sustainable programs.
In the light of the above, it is the objective of this document to propose ways in which a sustainable solution can be created for food insecurity, particularly in communities where this problem manifests itself most prominently. With sufficient funding, such a program can be greatly successful in addressing the problem of food insecurity in a targeted and effective manner. As such, the objective of the program (to be known as DEAL - DEcentralize and Localize) is to make low SES communities more self-sufficient. The ideal is to create ways in which such communities can cultivate a large amount of their own food products - particularly vegetable-based foods - by means of cooperative gardens and "mini-farms." These will exist in and around urban and suburban areas, with land provided through the program. The ideal is that such programs will be funded by direct grants to the communities that are affected. Initial seeds and equipment are provided, as well as an advisor/support person, who is trained in agricultural and environmental science, for each community. Such a program will have several benefits. In addition to the environmental benefits already mentioned, communities will be uplifted by a sense of self-sufficiency and the concomitant power of caring for themselves. This will have a tremendous impact not only upon the general outlook of such communities, but also upon their sense of self-worth and motivation. In this way, while directly providing employment and lowering unemployment levels, the program can also do so indirectly by motivating community members to start their own businesses - whether food related or not. Furthermore, cultivating land will result in rising natural resources and a sustainable way of providing communities with food. In general, the program can
Therefore, today's society in the United States is diverse, which is something a social worker needs to understand and know how to deal with each diverse group. Furthermore, through research, it has been discovered most ethnic groups that live in the United States consist of young people, which means by staying in this country, they grow accustom to their surroundings. Once they have grown accustom to living here, they feel like this is their home to start a life with their own families. This continues the growing number of ethnic groups in this country.
Due to the educational accommodations that schools and college campuses make for students that have ethnic backgrounds, there is not enough prejudice of one group to let a Holocaust to occur in the United Stated. Furthermore, this country believes in freedom of speech to allow one ethnic to be isolated from the rest and condone any…
Dennen, Johan. THE 'EVIL' MIND: PT. 3. CRUELTY AND 'BEAST-IN-MAN' IMAGERY. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://rechten.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/departments/Algemeen/overigepublicaties/2005enouder/EVIL_CRU/EVIL_CRU.pdf
Citrome, Lesilie,. (2007). Aggression. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3005.htm
Hall, Kathy Jo. (1997). Carl Rogers. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=Throughout+this+Jim+knocks+the+clay+figurines+head+of+and+crushes+the+body+while+shouting&invocationType=spelling
Seal, B., A. Bradford, and C. Meston. 2009. The Association Between Body Esteem and Sexual Desire Among College Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38, no. 5, (October 1): 866-72. http://www.proquest.com.library.capella.edu / (accessed April 1, 2010).
Effects of social advertising on the American society
Having seen that the society at large is highly dependent on the social media, and it is on these social networks that the social advertising has turned to, it is necessary to look at the extent to which the society today has been affected by the medium of transmission and the content of the social advertising.
The underlying fact about the social advertising is that they want to make a positive impact on the society in general, it is the drive to see a better society that makes the foundation and core business of the organizations involved in social advertisements.
It has been seen that the same techniques used in promoting profitable goods and services can as well be used for information purpose, educate and motivational aspect to the public about the non-profitable issues like HIV / AIDS, the energy conservation, politics…
AAF (2011), About AAF. Retrieved March 1, 2011 from http://www.aaf.org/default.asp?id=24
B&T, (2003). Advertising road safety. Retrieved March 1, 2011 from http://www.bandt.com.au/news/advertising-road-safety
Barrie G, et al. (2005). Advertising to children on TV: content, impact, and regulation. (pp 104).
New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Publishers.
Concluding in Political moderation, in "A Theory of Justice," and in later works, John awls explains a comprehensive, as well as influential theory, which is on the subject of, presenting a theory of justice in concurrence with the liberal-democratic passion that relates to the rights and freedoms of individuals in society. It entails that the rights of the individuals ought to be moderated by various types of clauses, making certain that no social or natural eventualities are overlooked. The theory declares that no inborn benefits of political authority, substance riches or natural capability should irreversibly or overpoweringly establish life chances. Furthermore, more distinctively, these morally subjective issues should not establish the value of political liberties to moral persons (1).
In 1971, awls's explains his first articulation of his theory of justice which highlights on individual abilities that he entitles the "Original Position" and in addition, a model of…
1). Macedo, Stephen. April 1995. Liberal Civic Education and Religious Fundamentalism: the Case of God v. John Rawls. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pp.468 -496.
2). Carter, Stephen. 1987. Evolutionism and Treating Religion as a Hobby. Duke Law Journal.
3). Rawls, John. 1993. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.
4). Kenneth Baynes. 1992. The Normative Grounds of Social Criticism: Kant, Rawls, Habermas, Albany. Suny Press.
Social Problem Related to Human Services
Social justice implies citizens’ equal entitlement to the self-same services and rights. In this paper, the inequalities in providing various human services to different societal groups in the nation will be addressed.
Beginning with education, a fundamental human service, it is a highly concerning fact that the nation’s educational system continually fails unwanted, abused and neglected children. Also, foster children totally at society’s mercy for survival are largely ignored. As children don’t have any avenue for voicing their views and demands, and cannot finance political campaigns, protest for improved services, or lobby elected representatives in order for being heard, it is the responsibility of society’s adults to speak for this faction of society. Attempts at organizing an effective child welfare system can be traced back to the late nineteenth century, when the nation’s contemporary system of foster care was established and Charles Loring Brace…
In complex societies such as the United tates, few things happen in isolation. When the country sets national policies into effect, those policies ripple throughout the population and affect other features of the society in dynamic ways. One such public policy is the "war on drugs." The war on drugs has rippled through society and affected other policies, such as racial profiling. Those two policies have become tied to urban poverty, tying all three together.
Profiling, or determining a set of characteristics a group of criminals are likely to share, has been justified by police forces as a way to fight the war on drugs. However, all too often the profiles are not terribly accurate and applied unfairly to one group over another. A detailed study in New Jersey done in 2001 showed that state troopers were pulling over more Blacks than whites or Hispanics, and then asking…
Muschick, Paul. 2001. "Black Prisoners Increase While Population Stays Steady; Poverty, Racism and the Drug War all May be Putting more Blacks into Jail, Legal Experts Say." The News & Record (North Carolina), August 12.
Snow, Tony. 2001. "Police Still Using Racial 'Profiling': Whites carry more drugs, but blacks are stopped more often." The Voice, April 9.
By improving their self knowledge, leaders can change and develop as leaders of people. Clinical supervision for leaders is sometimes called administrative clinical supervision. This is managerial clinical supervision with a focus on problems related to leadership and organization of work, particularly human relations issues. Administrative clinical supervision makes use of experiential learning focused on oneself and one's work (Sirola-Karvinen and Hyrkas, 2008).
Administrative clinical supervision means clinical supervision for leaders that address leadership issues in order to achieve set goals. Supervision promotes cohesion within the organization and is directed at change. Administrative clinical supervision is the examination of leadership in which leaders have the chance to reflect upon the quality of their decisions and share their feelings. In terms of action, administrative clinical supervision involves process-like support and mentoring, which boost the leader's confidence in coping with leadership duties and changes associated with it. Administrative clinical supervision addresses issues…
Clinical supervision 'can inoculate staff against stress'. (2010). Mental Health Practice. 13(7),
Clinical Supervision. (2009). Retrieved June 27, 2010, Australian College of Mental Health
Nurses Web site: http://www.acmhn.org/career-resources/clinical-supervision.html
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
Systems of Power and Inequality
In early March of 2012, a 28-minute video on the plight of African children received more than 21 million YouTube views. The video vividly depicts how the guerilla warlord Joseph Kony, leader of the Lords esistance Army (LA), reportedly abducted over 60,000 children who were subsequently forced to become child soldiers or sex slaves over the course of the civil war. Captured children who did not cooperate as said to have been mutilated and murdered. Production and dissemination of the video was a result of the efforts of an American charity called Invisible Children. In interviews with the press following the viral reception of the video, Invisible Children campaigner Jason ussell stressed the importance of the video as an example of how social media allows people all over the world to actually see other people -- see, as in the struggles, challenges, plights, and victories…
Anderson, M.L. And Hill Collins, P. (2009). Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology (7th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing.
Christie, D.J., Wagner, R.V., and Winter, D.D. (2001). Peace, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Thorton, B. (2006). Critical consciousness and liberal education, In Watson, B. (2006) Civic Education and Culture.
Wilkerson, M. (2012, March 8). Kony 2012 campaign: Oprah and bracelets won't solve problem. The Guardian.
elationships and Social Lives
This is the hierarchical way in which large social groups based on their control over basic resources. A key characteristic of stratification systems is the extent to which the structure is flexible. Slavery, a form of stratification in which people are owned by others, is an extreme type. In a caste system, people's status is determined at birth based on their parents' position in society
The class system, which exists in the United States, is a type of stratification based on ownership of resources and on the type of work people do. Functionalist perspectives on the U.S. class structure view classes as broad groupings of people who share similar levels of privilege based on their roles in the occupational structure. According to the Davis-Moore thesis, positions that are most important within society, requiring the most talent and training, must highly rewarded. Many people define classes as…
1. Eichar, Douglas (1989). Occupation and Class Consciousness in America. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
2. Gilbert, Dennis (1998). The American Class Structure. New York: Wadsworth Publishing.
3. Thompson, William; Joseph Hickey (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson.
4. Levine, Rhonda (1998). Social Class and Stratification. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Prejudice and social psychology
Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society
Cultural impact of host cultures
The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.
Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28.
Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481.
Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ).
Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549.
ichard Mitchell and Professor Daniel Dorling from the University of Leeds and Dr. Mary Shaw from the University of Bristol on the parliamentary constituencies of Britain revealed a number of social policy scenarios. The study traced the impact of the variations to society that might be brought through the effective execution of three social and economic policies. Firstly, they examined the efficacy of the policy of modest redistribution of wealth to counteract the health inequalities. During the decades 1980s and 1990s there were a considerable variation in the wealth possessions of rich and poor reflected in the major variations in their health enumerated by mortality rates. The study revealed that by returning to the inequalities in wealth of 1983 about 7500 deaths annually could have been prevented. (educing health inequalities in Britain)
The study assessed the impact of such policy to be most effective in the Birmingham Ladywood constituency in…
Health inequalities kill thousands" (27 September, 1999) Retrieved at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/456807.stm . Accessed 3 September, 2005
Introduction to health inequalities" Retrieved at http://www.dh.gov.uk/PolicyAndGuidance/HealthAndSocialCareTopics/HealthInequalities/HealthInequalitiesGeneralInformation/HealthInequalitiesGeneralArticle/fs/en-CONTENT_ID=4079644&chk=8WiiZg. Accessed 3 September, 2005
Link BG; Phelan JC. (May, 2005) "Fundamental Sources of Health Inequalities" Policy
Challenges in Modern Health Care. pp: 71-84. Retrieved at http://www.rwjf.org/research/researchdetail.jsp?id=1944&ia=141 . Accessed 4 September, 2005
ecent proposals to privatize Social Security and cut Medicaid funding would thus exacerbate the equity gaps that already exist." (Center for American Progress, 2004)
When a young black man is accepted into a university-based wholly on quota requirements even though he may have had less success in High School compared to a young white man, then we must again redefine our word - inequality. Who is worse off in this case? Consider that in this scenario, it may in fact be an advantage for a person to be young and black but as the scale tips with age, that same advantage becomes a liability. The answer to our question then, at least for this example, is maybe.
Economic independence may be the outcome when wage work is an option. but, there are many scenarios where wage work puts people into an even worse economic setting. Consider that minorities…
Carden, William Art (2003). What is Wealth Inequality? Ludwig von Mises Institute, May 22, 2003,. Retrieved March 16, 2005, from Ludwig von Mises Institute Web Site: http://www.mises.org/fullstory.aspx?control=1229
Center for American Progress. (2004, March 26). Inequality in America. Retrieved March 16, 2005, at http://www.americanprogress.org/site/pp.asp?c=biJRJ8OVF&b=40526
Politics Predominate in Advanced Industrial Societies? Advanced Capitalism, Social Differentiation, and Politics
The focus of this work is to examine the question asking why it is that class politics fail to be predominant in advanced industrial societies. Towards this end, this work will review the work of Karl Marx entitled "Classes" (1867) and the work of Calhoun, et al. (2012) entitled "Contemporary Sociological Theory."
Summary of the Theories
The work of ourdieu (1976) entitled "Outline of a Theory of Practice" demonstrated the development of the core of his theory as an effort to "understand the clash between enduring ways of life and larger systems of power and capital, the ways in which cultural and social structures are reproduced even amid dramatic change, and the ways in which action and structure are not simply opposed but depend on each other." (Calhoun, et al., 2012, p.325-26) In addition, ourdieu is reported to…
Calhoun, Craig, et al. (2012) Contemporary Sociological Theory. 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Marx, Karl (1867) Classes. Chapter 14.
Weber, Max (1914) The Distribution of Power within the Political Community: Class, Status, Party. Chapter 22.
Political, Social and Economic Plan
Our country has the potential of becoming one of the most important nations of the world since it has all the resources that few others have been blessed with. We have countless mineral reserves, a rich soil and a supportive climate that makes it ideal for agriculture.
Most of all, we have a young and talented population that is a priceless resource. In order to transform this undoubted potential into a concrete reality, however, we need to adopt the right policies. We are passing through a critical phase of not just our own history but also the history of the entire mankind in which we have the choice of either seizing the moment or missing the opportunity. The 'opportunity' is offered by the unprecedented technological developments in communication technologies and the lowering of trade barriers around the world.
Our failure in the past has been…
Khan, Imran. (1999) "The Case for a Reform Government." Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf Web site. Retrieved on January 14, 2003 at http://www.insaf.org.pk/articles/the_case_reform_govt.htm
Samuelson, Robert J. (2002). "Deflation: The Global Economy's Downside." Washington Post, September 4, 2002. Retrieved on January 14, 2003 at http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/econ/2002/0904deflation.htm
Knowledge of avenues for community support as well as for physical aid such as shelter and food are vital to providing help, both immediate and long-term, to discriminated populations. I have confidence that between my studies and real-life experiences such as internships and work, that I can gain this knowledge and disperse it amongst clientele.
The fourth role a therapist ought to play is as a "consultant helping clients (and others in their life) find ways to work toward reducing discriminatory practices in the community" (Atkinson, et.al., 1993, pp. 264-270, cited in Cooper and Lesser, 2005, p. 67). This role dovetails with the second role above of being an advocate oneself.
If one is successfully filling the role of advocate, then sharing information on how to participate in the local community, to contact one's officials, and to agitate for change is not a large step. Teaching clients how to successfully…
Atkinson, D.R., Thompson, C.E. And Grant, S.K. 1993. "A three-dimensional model for counseling racial/ethnic minorities," in The Counseling Psychologist, 21(2), 257-277.
Babakan, H. And Gopalkrishan, N. "Posttraumatic experiences of refugee women," in Rabin, C. ed., Understanding Gender and Culture in the Helping Process. Sydney, Thomson Wadsworth.
Banks, J. 2004. "Approaches to Multicultural Curriculum Reform," in Banks,.J and Banks, C., eds. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Massachusetts, Wiley.
Banks, J. 2004. "Multicultural Education: Characteristics and Goals," in Banks, J and Banks, C., eds. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Massachusetts, Wiley.
Education Inequality: A Sociological Perspective
One of the most important aspects of life today is probably education. Without a high quality of education, especially on the tertiary level, it is very difficult to find gainful employment or to advance in one's chosen career. For this reason, one of the great tragedies in the world today is social inequality and the educational inequality that goes along with it. Even if "jobs" were provided for every single homeless or unemployed individual in the country, this would be little more than a band aid; it would be hopeless inadequate to address the larger and longer-term problem, which is a basic inequality in education. Starting at the primary level, children whose parents can afford to place them in private schools receive a far better education than those in the public school system. When they have completed primary and secondary education, there is again income-related…
Sociological Perspectives on Education. (2015). Retrieved from: https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_sociology-understanding-and-changing-the-social-world-comprehensive-edition/s19-02-sociological-perspectives-on-e.html
In order to reduce the negative implications of social inequality, based on race, ethnicity or even economic features, researcher James Jackson promotes three broad recommendations. They are as follows:
development of a sustained, comprehensive focus by government and private and public organizations on providing greater economic opportunities in education, employment and intergenerational transfer of wealth enforcement of existing Civil ights legislation and regulations to eliminate continuing, persistent racial and ethnic discrimination in housing, employment, schooling and the criminal justice system, and identification of common objectives among racial and ethnic minority groups to produce workable, long-lasting coalitions" (Jackson)
The past century has witnessed improvements in the conditions of the white immigrants to the United States and this has materialized in reduced crimes and punishments within the Chinese and Japanese communities. The improvements in their situation have been based on increasing socioeconomic status. The same cannot however be said about…
Hawkins, D.F., Herring, C., Race, Crime and Punishment: Old Controversies and New Challenges
Jackson, J.S., African-American Prospects in the 21st Century: A Framework for Strategies and Policies
Educational Inequality Along acial Lines
The role of education in the American society cannot be overemphasized. Education plays an important role in equipping students with knowledge and skills for transforming their life and the society at large. Also, the education system instills appropriate values, behaviors, and attitudes in students, making them useful members of the society. Nonetheless, while education is important, it tends to reinforce the existing social inequality, particularly along racial lines. Funding inequalities and learning outcomes between schools from privileged backgrounds and those from unprivileged backgrounds attest to this. This paper examines inequality in education along racial lines. The paper specifically focuses on four aspects: the role of education from two sociological perspectives; the role of funding in producing educational inequality along racial lines; America's cultural diversity (in terms of race, gender, ethnicity and class) and the educator's role in promoting cultural diversity; as well as an anti-racist…
Duncan, G., & Murnane, R. (2014). Restoring opportunity: the crisis of inequality and the challenge for American Education. Boston: Harvard Education Press.
Farley, J. (2012). Majority-Minority Relations. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: theory, research, and practice. 2nd ed. New York: Teachers College Press.
Parrillo, V. (2009). Diversity in America. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Pine Forge Press.
Thee ae also a multitude of pespectives concening which social wok appoach is best suited fo a given cultual venue and most social wokes ae ill pepaed by thei educational backgound fo coss-cultual pactise (Williams et al. 1998). Despite these constaints, thee is a gowing consensus among social wok pactitiones of the need fo a moe enlightened appoach to intenational social wok that will help infom futue pactise as pat of a set of lage best pactices in this aea.
Topic 10 Anti-acist social wok
Since social wokes ae pimaily involved in helping the disadvantaged and maginalized membes of society, it is not supising that a lage pecentage of these clients will also be the victims of acism, anging fom employment discimination to moe widespead institutionalised acism. These ae paticulaly salient issues in Austalia whee acism has been a pevasive poblems with espect to the teatment of indigenous peoples, a…
references? A Three-Cohort Study.' Journal of Social Work Education, vol. 41,
no. 1, pp. 29-31.
'What is the WTO?' 2011 World Trade Organisation. [online] available: http://www.wto.org / english/thewto_e/whatis_e/whatis_e.htm.
Williams, C.., Soydan, H. & Johnson, M.R. 1998 Social Work and Minorities: European
Perspectives. London: Routledge.
Kant and David on Causality; Rousseau and Adam Smith on Social Order
Compare and contrast Rousseau and Adam Smith, on the importance of economic or political mark in their account of social order.
Rousseau saw the development of organized political life as synonymous with generating social inequality. As "individuals have more contact with one another and small groupings begin to form, the human mind develops language, which in turn contributes to the development of reason" (Discourse on inequality, Spark Notes, 2012). This development of reason, although it seems like a positive advancement for the species, also enables human beings to compare their lot with others. As institutions are drawn up to govern the new society, persons with greater political and economic strength (generated through holding political or leadership positions or private property) come to dominate over other citizens. The more complex societies become, the more they necessitate divisions of labor,…
"Causality." New World Encyclopedia. [18 Apr 2012]
Discourse on inequality. Spark Notes. [18 Apr 2012]
trade also has contributed to the economic exploitation of women, as the
textile industry for example, which is predominantly women has seen jobs
lost and wages cut. Women are often forced to be teachers or work in day-
care centres, but not on equal footing with men. Women are victims as are
ethnic minorities, and they are forced into hourly jobs with low salaries,
high unemployment, and little unionization or official organization.
Furthermore, women are dependent on household duties, and through
mechanical technological improvements in household work, women have been
able to work more. This means that women are in fact tied to the family,
and that the family dictates that women's economic needs are of secondary
concern. As the household labourer, traditional duties are a priority, and
this notion of women contributing to the workforce as secondary to
household duties has contributed to women being treated as secondary…
it's aspect of social capital: survival.
Chapter 8: Children of middle class parents (like the Marshall family) can freely express themselves without worry of being punished; children of low income families usually are told what to do and only say what won't get them into trouble. Skills are passed along to children through parents' "overseeing, criticizing, and intervening in [children's] institutional lives.
Chapter 9: Not much social capital is achieved in the Handlons' home as mother and daughter battle over Melanie's homework; Ms. And Mr. Handlon both complain about homework and how long it takes (and the fights it creates); but it seems the family is making it more difficult than it should be; Melanie may have a learning disability but the family is in denial.
Chapter 10: endy's mother in a working class family doesn't work with endy to develop language; and there is no attempt to have endy…
Lareau, Annette. (2003). Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life. Berkeley, CA:
technology and social change, and discusses how they are related.
Ever since the prehistoric eras, technology has had a role to play in the lives of human beings. Mankind has invented and perfected means of communicating, traveling, manufacturing goods, curing ailments, growing food, constructing edifies and meeting other requirements using technology. Thus, one may claim that by means of technology, we have transformed our world (ITEA, 1996; ITEA, 2006). At present, all human activities are reliant on different machines with technological dominance being at a record level in the current era. For instance, automobiles have transformed how and where individuals live, and a colossal infrastructure encompassing roads, service stations, bridges, rules and insurance policies has developed. Technology impacts individual participation in the democratic process and successively impacts what must be taken into account for preparing pupils to actively participate in democratic societies (Crowe, 2006).
Most specifically, social change implies the…
Crowe, A. R. (2006). Technology, citizenship, and the social studies classroom: education for democracy in a technological age. International Journal of Social Education, 21(1), 111-121.
Howard, P., Busch, L., & Sheets, P. (2010). Comparing Digital Divides: Internet Access and Social Inequality in Canada and the United States. Canadian Journal of Communication, 109-128.
International Technology Education Association. (1996). Technology for All Americans. Reston, VA: Author.
International Technology Education Association. (2006). Technological Literacy for All (2nd Ed.). Reston, VA: Author
Ecological-Evolutionary Theory (EET)
Evolution and evolution: Comparative History of Social Change
In understanding the evolution of human societies in the course of history, it is best traced and determined through the different states of economic development that humanity has experienced. Humanity's evolution from being a hunting and gathering to an industrial society can be pointed to numerous variables that served as catalysts that eventually made the conditions suitable for the nature of societies at present, which are mainly industrialized or heading towards industrialization. Tracing the history of social change is tracing the catalysts that led to the following stages of economic development in human societies over time: from hunting and gathering, to simple horticultural, eventually to advanced horticultural, developing to simple agrarian, then to advanced agrarian, and ultimately, to industrial societies.
This transition from different levels of economic development could have been spurred by population growth, wherein the need more…
Nielsen, F. (2003). "The ecological-evolutionary typology of human societies and the evolution of social inequality." Sociological Theory.
Nolan, P. (2003). "Toward an ecological-evolutionary theory of the incidence of warfare in post-industrial societies." Sociological Theory, Vol. 21, No. 1.