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Bandura's theories can be applied to a number of fields other than the clinical setting.
Social Learning and Social Work
In the field of social work, Bandura's theory has sweeping consequences for workers and the clients that they serve. In the age of standardized tests, teachers must constantly struggle to understand the real meaning of assessment practices. With recent emphasis on assessment and standards-based instruction, it is important to keep the motivational constructs of Bandura in mind. According to motivational theory, testing and assessment can have a negative consequence on a child's concept of self-efficacy (Shephard, 2000). This could decrease their motivation to learn and to attempt to do well on tests in the future.
This same concept applies to juveniles and adults. The social worker must realize that harsh criticisms and continual punishment can lead to reduced self-efficacy. If this happens, the client may be set up for future…
Akers, R. & Jensen, G. (Forthcoming). Social Learning Theory and Crime: A Progress Report. Advances in Criminological Theory. To be published in Volume 15.
Boeree, G. (2006). Albert Bandura. Personality Theories. Retrieved November 11, 2008 at http://webspace.ship.edu /cgboer/bandura.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Firstly, there is exposure to a model, which however does not necessarily facilitate learning. This is followed by knowledge of the model's behavior and the results of that behavior and finally the acceptance or rejection of the model by the individual as a guide to his or her actions (Weiner, 1980, p. 230). In this regard one can refer back as well to the work of Tarde who suggested that "society is imitation" (Jackson, 1988, p. 16).
The work of Bandura should be expanded on in this regard. One of the most well-known illustrations of the importance of observation in the learning process is Bandura's 'Bobo Doll' experiment. In this study a group of children were shown short films which depicted various aggressive responses to toys -- including the hitting of a Bobo doll. The experiment was conducted according to three determined conditions. In the first condition a child actor…
Bandura, a. (1973). Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, a. ( 1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social
Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Barkley, J.M. (2006). Reading Education: Is Self-Efficacy Important?. Reading
Domestic Violence and Social Learning Theory
Domestic Violence on Children and Social Learning Theory
Domestic Violence on Children, Juvenile Delinquency and Social Learning Theory
Domestic Violence on Children and Juvenile Delinquency in the light of Social Learning Theory
This research paper includes and talks about the global issue of family or domestic violence experienced and observed by children. The first part defines and explains the domestic violence and child abuse. The second part explains the various forms of domestic violence that are prevalent in the society. Physical, emotional, economical and psychological abuses witnessed and experienced by the children are discussed in detail. Later, explanation of perilous physical and emotional effects of domestic violence on children has been given to understand their subsequent behaviors. The paper then talks about the factors relating to the juvenile delinquency in violence-affected children. In the last part of the paper, the principles and postulates of…
(2009). Child Abuse. In The Columbia Encyclopedia (Vol. 1, p. 10170). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved June 9, 2011, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117011183
Aichhorn, A. (1955). The Meaning of the Reality Principle in Social Behavior. Wayward Youth: A Psychoanalytic Study of Delinquent Children, Illustrated by Actual Case Histories (p. 144+). New York: Meridian Books. Retrieved June 14, 2011, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6006235
Baker, L.L., & Jaffe, P.G. (2003). Youth Exposed to Domestic Violence. London: Centre for Children & Families in the Justice System. Retrieved June 14, 2011, from http://www.lfcc.on.ca/Youth_Justice_Handbook.pdf
Davis, R.L. (1998). Introduction. Domestic Violence: Facts and Fallacies (p. 2). Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved June 15, 2011, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26288369
Social Learning Theory and My Personality
Social Learning Theory suggests that behaviors are learned by observing and imitating others, whether they be persons who are one's peers, persons in a social group, role models, family members, celebrities, characters on TV, etc. The theory suggests that since behavior is learned from watching, one's behavior can be changed if one modifies or changes the surroundings. It asserts that individuals accept as normative behavior that which they see and can rationalize it to themselves even if the behavior does not initially appear to be normative. . This theory is used by Grusec (1992) as support for the claim that "children are socialized to accept the standards and values of their society" (p. 785). Here, Grusec illustrates the fundamental perspective of the theory, which is that individuals accept and imitate what they perceive to be norms around them and these become the normal standards…
Ahrons, C. (2007). Family Ties after Divorce: Long-Term Implications for Children.
Family Process 46(1): 53-65.
Grusec, J. (2006). Social Learning Theory and Developmental Psychology: The
Legacies of Robert Sears and Albert Bandura. Developmental Psychology 28(5): 776-786.
Juvenile Sexual Assault and Social Learning Theory
This research paper encompasses and discusses the juvenile sexual offenders and their ill-fated victims. The first part explains how the misfortunate occurrence of sexual molestation affects the overall behavior of the child victim. The second parts talks about various forms of sexual delinquencies and the characteristics of sexual assaulters. Later, explanation of different behavioral models has been given to understand the psychology of the juvenile sexual assaulters. Each model is discussed in the light of the Social Learning Theory. Origins and reasons of the particular nature of sexual assailants have also been discussed. In the last part, the Social Learning Theory is used to provide suggestions for the treatment and improvement of the sexual offenders so that they can become fruitful citizens of society.
Juvenile Sexual Assault and Social Learning Theory
Juvenile sexual assault or child sexual abuse is a type of abuse…
Martin, Earl F., Pruett, Marsha Kline. (1998). The Juvenile Sex Offender and the Juvenile Justice System. American Criminal Law Review, 35(2), Retrieved from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001336166
Child Sexual Abuse. (2008, May). Facts for Families, Retrieved from http://www.aacap.org/galleries/FactsForFamilies/09_child_sexual_abuse.pdf
Social Learning Theory. teachnet.edb.utexas.edu. Retrieved May 04, 2011, from http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~Lynda_abbot/Social.html
Child Sexual Abuse. karisable. Retrieved May 04, 2011, from http://karisable.com/sash2.htm
Download the case study outline from Content -- you are to complete the outline form using complete sentences and correct grammar. You will use this outline to prepare your final Case Study. All areas of the outline need to be completed with specific detail for points to be given. Submit the Case Study Outline through the drop box in Blackboard using the correct submission title:
Last name_Soc.490_case study outline
Case Study Outline
Building social skills and character in young children of all ages, genders and socioeconomic backgrounds through junior golf programs.
Agency: South Carolina Junior Golf Association/Piedmont Junior Golf Association (PJGA)
Purpose of your case study: To identify how social learning develops from participation in a junior golf program and what beneficial behaviors and attitudes come from active participation.
Goals, purpose and potential significance of your research: The first goal is to identify the connection between sports and social learning…
Eime, R., Young, J., Harvey, J., Charity, M., & Payne, W. (2013). A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 10(1), 98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-10-98
Koon-Magnin, S., Bowers, D., Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., & Arata, C. (2016). Social Learning, Self-Control, Gender, and Variety of Violent Delinquency. Deviant Behavior, 37(7), 824-836. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2016.1147798
Lonsdale, C., Rosenkranz, R., Peralta, L., Bennie, A., Fahey, P., & Lubans, D. (2013). A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in school physical education lessons. Preventive Medicine, 56(2), 152-161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.12.004
Rotter, J. (1982). The development and applications of social learning theory. New York, N.Y.: Praeger.
Social Learning Theory
Paragraph 1 (Summary of the Lessons Learnt from the eading Material and Two Peer eviewed Journal Articles Discussing (the Social Learning Theory) One Theory)
When we are born into the world, we simply come here not knowing how to act or behave. Throughout my readings, in the textbook, Essential Criminology, and scholarly journal articles, I have found that the social learning theory explains how humans learn to behave by observing those around them or what is in their environment. Parents, family members, teachers, friends, or any individual that is observed can be a "role model" children can imitate. There are also the television or video game characters, where behavior is observed. Children can then choose which pattern of behavior to imitate. Positively speaking, children from healthy environments that emulate positive behaviors modeled around them (e.g. kindness, love, empathy, sharing, and integrity), will have them positively reinforced for…
McLeod, S. (2011). Albert Bandura -- Social Learning Theory -- Simply Psychology.
Retrieved February 08, 2016, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/bandura.html
BREWER, K. R., & WANN, D. L. (1998). OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
EFFECTIVENESS AS A FUNCTION OF MODEL CHARACTERISTICS: INVESTIGATING THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL POWER. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 26(1), 1-10. doi:10.2224/sbp.1922.214.171.124
articles in the field of psychology, specifically in theories of social cognition and social learning. Each theory may be related in theme and theory, yet they vary in application and context. One article focuses upon the small group or team. Another article's focus is upon the individual, the team, and the organization. The context within which each study is performed as well as considered varies as well. This demonstrates the flexibility of this theory to be applied in various situations, contexts, and levels.
Cognitive Social Learning Theory -- Article Summaries
The piece by Kirschner et al. (2006) is an intriguing attempt to make some critical observations and analyses regarding areas such as social cognition, team building, and perceptions. The article is concerned with how teams establish and maintain mutually shared social cognition. They note that currently there is a relative increase in attention and research into areas such as social…
Dweck, C.S., & Leggett, E.L. (1998). A Social-Cognitive Approach to Motivation and Personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256 -- 273.
Gibson, S.K. (2004). Social Learning (Cognitive) Theory and Implication for Human Resource Development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 6(2), 193 -- 210.
Van de Bossche, P., Gijselaers, W.H., Segers, M., & Kirschner, P.A. (2006). Social and Cognitive Factors Driving Teamwork in Collaborative Learning Environments: Team Learning Beliefs and Behaviors. Small Group Research, 37(5), 490 -- 521.
Social Learning Theory emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Albert andura (1925-
Canadian born Stanford psychologist, is the leading proponent of the theory, which is also sometimes called Social Cognitive Theory.
According to the Social Learning Theory, the human personality and the learning process is the result of interaction between three things -- the environment, behavior, and the person's psychological processes. (oeree) While ehaviorism emphasizes learning through personal experimentation by focusing on variables that can be observed, measured and manipulated, andara has based his theory on the premise that "most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others." (andura, 1977. p.22) andura is of the view that "learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do." (Ibid)
andura developed his…
Bandura, A. (1997). "Self-efficacy: The exercise of control." New York: W.H. Freeman.
Boeree, Dr. C. George. (1998). "ALBERT BANDURA (1925 - present)." [Available online]. Retrieved on April 23, 2003 at http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html
Social Learning Theory." (2000) from Keith Rutledge's notes on Ormond's Psychology of Learning. Available online]. Retrieved on April 23, 2003 at http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~lynda_abbott/Social.html
Learning Theories to Current Education
In psychology and education, learning is normally described as a process that brings together cognitive, emotional, and influences of the environment being experienced for obtaining, enhancing, or enacting changes in an individual knowledge, values, skills, and views of the world. Learning as a process put their center of attention on what takes place during learning. Explanations of what takes place forms learning theories. A learning theory is an effort to express how people and animals learn; thus assist us understand the essentially complex learning process. Learning theories have two main values. The first one is in offering us with conceptual and vocabulary framework for interpreting the instance of learning that we survey. The second one is suggesting places to search for answer to practical problems. The theories never provide us with solutions, but they do direct our concentration to those variables that are vital in…
Cameron, J., Pierce, W.D., Banko, K.M., & Gear, A. (2005). Achievement-based rewards and intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive mediators. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 641 -- 655.
Cognitivism Theories: http://web.syr.edu/~walker/COGNITIVISMTHEORIES.htm
Conway, Judith (1997).Educational Technology's Effect on Models of Instruction. http://copland.udel.edu/~jconway/EDST666.htm#cogapp
Furth, H.G., & Wachs, H. (1975). Thinking goes to school: Piaget's theory in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press
A dog hits a lever when it sees a light that signifies that it will be shocked. A person takes medicine before having certain foods that he or she knows will cause a stomachache (Sidman, 2006, p. 136).
Above, the differences between operant and classical conditioning were noted. However, sometimes the distinction is blurred. In biofeedback, for instance, psychologists feed back information to the patients regarding their physiologic processes, which gives them the opportunity to gain operant control over autonomic responses, such as heart rate, body temperature and blood pressure (Larkin et. al., 1992). or, in normal life situations, learning may include both classical and operant conditioning. A person who has had a skiing accident may acquire a fear of skiing, or classical conditioning; that same individual may begin to avoid skiing, or avoidance learning, because it is an aversive experience.
The concept of operant learning began to bring in…
Bandura, a. (1967) the role of modeling personality development. In C.Lavatelli & F.
Stendler (Eds.)., Readings in childhood and development (pg. 334-343). New York: Harcourt Brace./
____ (1971) Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Berstein, I.L. (1991). Aversion conditioning in response to cancer and cancer treatment.
Imagery and other techniques can assist in this happening (Bandura (http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html)."
eproduction. One must be able to reproduce the learned material in some manner (Bandura (http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html)."
Motivation. There are many thing that learners are motivated by including past motivation, promises of reinforcement or incentives or vicarious reinforcements, seeing that in the model incentives were provided (Bandura (http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html)."
THE AUTHO'S THEOY and TEACHING PACTICES
While the author incorporates many different elements into the teaching style he will use within the classroom the most important influence on that practice is that of Albert Bandura.
The author agrees that learners are most influenced in their learning process by behaviors that arte modeled for them. The author uses this belief within the classroom by setting the environment up so that learning is encouraged and desired as an outcome of attendance and participation.
The theory of Bandura most closely fits this author's approach as the…
Bandura (Accessed 10-17-06) ( http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html )
Developmental Learning Theory (Accessed 10-17-06)
Social Learning Theory (a. Bandura) (Accessed 10-17-06)
Cognitive Social Learning and Artist Frida Kahlo
It is important to note, from the onset, that social-cognitive learning theory could be defined as “a theory of personality that features cognition and learning, especially from the social environment, as important sources of individual differences in personality.”1 Although Kahlo was married to Diego Rivera, their relationship was, from time to time, rocked by extramarital affairs emanating from both parties. According to Tempesta2, Diego had earlier on had an affair with Kahlo’s sister. This betrayal hurt her deeply and it could be speculated that her own extramarital affairs commenced as a consequence of this single act and were sustained by Diego’s playboy behaviors. This is consistent with social learning theory whereby individuals model their behaviors along those of others. Kahlo’s early childhood exposure to family life could also have ingrained in her specific familial values and belief systems especially with regard to her…
Cacioppo J, Freberg L. Discovering Psychology: The Science of Mind. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning; 2018.
Kettenmann A. KAHLO. Buffalo, NY: TASCHEN; 2003.
Tempesta E. My Whole Being Opened For You\\': Intimate Details of Artist Frida Kahlo\\'s Passionate Affair With Secret Lover Revealed In Romantic Love Letters. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-3024627/Intimate-details-artist-Frida-Kahlo-s-passionate-affair-secret-lover-revealed-romantic-love-letters.html. Accessed May 6, 2018.
Observational learning is a form social leaning where learning occurs by observing the behavior of others. This is a powerful method for learning and most of what children learn is by observing their parents or other adults (Fryling, Johnston, & Hayes, 2011). Observational learning can take place at any time in a person's life, but it mostly tends to be the most common learning method during childhood. It also plays a vital role in the socialization process, as children will learn how to behave and respond by observing their parents. The articles selected comprise of 7 primary sources and 3 secondary sources, which means that the 7 articles are all research articles. The other 3 comprise of 1 literature review, and 2 practice articles. The content covered is mostly on behavioral learning and how it can be used to change behavior or learn new behavior. The research is not only…
Ashuri, T., Dvir-Gvisman, S., & Halperin, R. (2018). Watching Me Watching You: How Observational Learning Affects Self-disclosure on Social Network Sites? Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 23(1), 34-68.
Bem, T., Jura, B., Bontempi, B., & Meyrand, P. (2018). Observational learning of a spatial discrimination task by rats: learning from the mistakes of others? Animal Behaviour, 135, 85-96.
Brown, A. M. (2016). A comparison of two imitation training protocols to teach independent play skills and promote observational learning in children with autism spectrum disorder. University of Kansas.
Cordovani, L., & Cordovani, D. (2016). A literature review on observational learning for medical motor skills and anesthesia teaching. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 21(5), 1113-1121.
Dunne, S., D\\'Souza, A., & O\\'Doherty, J. P. (2016). The involvement of model-based but not model-free learning signals during observational reward learning in the absence of choice. Journal of neurophysiology, 115(6), 3195-3203.
Fryling, M. J., Johnston, C., & Hayes, L. J. (2011). Understanding observational learning: An interbehavioral approach. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 27(1), 191-203.
Grierson, L. E., Roberts, J. W., & Welsher, A. M. (2017). The effect of modeled absolute timing variability and relative timing variability on observational learning. Acta psychologica, 176, 71-77.
Harris, D. J., Vine, S. J., Wilson, M. R., McGrath, J. S., LeBel, M.-E., & Buckingham, G. (2017). The effect of observing novice and expert performance on acquisition of surgical skills on a robotic platform. PLoS ONE, 12(11), e0188233.
Ethical Issues, Criminological Theories, and Public Policy
Removing children from the home for a single instance of domestic violence, abuse, or drug/alcohol offenses committed by the legal guardian is terribly severe. Families face challenges and should be permitted to grow, develop, make changes and take ownership of their issues. People should be permitted to fail, to learn from failure, and to have second chances. It is a cruel society that does not permit moments of imperfection. It is all reminiscent of Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter in which the Puritan society marginalizes the woman who commits adultery and punishes her with ostracism. There is nothing human or even Christian in such an approach, and it is a clear ethical violation of the common good doctrine of utilitarianism. Families that are broken up tend to cause more problems for children than families that stay whole and that are permitted to continue on and…
Siegel, L. (2018). Criminology, 7th Ed. Cengage Learning.
Social Learning Theory and Parenting Skills
The most applicable and relevant philosophy in parenting particularly of the preschool years children is the social learning theory that was proposed and developed by Albert Bandura. The social learning theory is widely seen as the bridge between the cognitive learning and behaviorism, and it is this combination of two theories or approaches to learning that makes it most applicable for my parenting approach. This approach concentrates on attention, motivation as well as memory. This theory indicates that people learn through seeing the behaviors of others, their attitudes and the result of their behaviors. In this sphere, learning is continuous and involves the reciprocation of the behavior of the individual, the environmental influences, the cognitive influences that models the individual (Albert Bendura, 1971:Pp3). In a nut shell, the individual is aware of the relationship between his behavior and the consequences, and he learns these…
Albert Bendura, (1971). Social Learning Theory. Stanford University. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from http://www.jku.at/org/content/e54521/e54528/e54529/e178059/Bandura_SocialLearningTheory_ger.pdf
Johansson T., at.al (2012). Preschool teachers view on learning in preschool in Sweden and Denmark. European Early Childhood Education Research. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from Journalhttp://edu.au.dk/fileadmin/edu/Forskningsprojekter/Science-didaktik/Preschool_teachers_view_on_childrens_learning.pdf
Serve (2014). Preschool: Thinking and learning. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from http://center.serve.org/ss/preactive.php
An article in the Journal of Sex Research brings attention to operant conditioning by juxtaposing - comparing and contrasting - it with the social learning theory that Julian P. Rotter developed. Social learning in fact embraces aspects of operant conditioning (which is also known as "radical behaviorism"), and Rotter assumed that "behavior is goal directed and emphasized expectations of reward and perceived values of rewards." Those rewards are the basis for a person to model his or her behavior after the behavior of others. "Rewards for desired behavior are presumed to reinforce that behavior," (Hogben, et al., 1998) Rotter asserted, and that part of his model matches up pretty closely with operant conditioning.
OPERANT THEORY IS the MOST PRACTICAL, APPLICABLE in EXPLAINING DEVIANT BEHAVIOR: In this scholarly article, the authors are alluding to behaviors related to sexual dynamics, in this case spousal abuse. For example, the reward that a deviant…
Hogben, Matthew; & Dyme, Donn. (1998). Using Social Learning Theory to Explain
Individual Differences in Human Sexuality. The Journal of Sex Research 35(1), 58-72.
Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; & Hayes, Linda J. (1998). The Operant-Respondent Distinction
Revisited: Toward an Understanding of Stimulus Equivalence. Psychological Record, 48(2),
Travis Hirschi's Social Bonding Theory
The theorist, Hirschi, asserts that those who exhibit deviant behavior desire to do so and that criminal behavior is seen among people with weak social bonds. In his social bonding model, he delineated four elements which make up social bonds, namely, attachment to partner/spouse, engagement in conforming behaviors, holding conventional beliefs and values, and dedication to conventionality (Wolfzorn, Heckert & Heckert, 2006). The theorist indicates that with increased attachment of a person to fellow human beings, their belief in conformist social values will increase. Furthermore, with increased investment and involvement in conventional activity, their propensity to deviate will decrease (Chriss, 2007).
Four Elements of Social Bonding Theory
Social bonding has four elements, namely: attachment, involvement, belief, and commitment.
The first component -- attachment -- denotes individuals' ties to their spouses or partners, and other members of the family. This aspect encompasses the extent of…
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…
Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.
Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
For learning to effectively take place, a number of concepts must be brought together and these include but are not in any way limited to environmental, emotional as well as cognitive influences. One of the most prominent learning theories is the social learning theory whose fronting was most prominently done by Albert andura amongst others.
The Social Learning Theory
The social learning theory is founded on the view that most learning is undertaken within the social context. However, according to Ronald L. Akers, the social learning theory must not only be taken to be a theory of peer influence.
With that in mind, the key concepts in this case include; modeling, imitation as well as observational learning. The social learning theory has four basic principles with the first principle stating that most of the learning is informed by an observation of behavior. Here, the reasoning is that the…
Akers, Ronald. Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance. Transaction Publishers, 2009
Griffin, Ricky Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Cengage Learning, 2009
Sarafino, Edward. Self-Management: Using Behavioral and Cognitive Principles to Manage Your Life. John Wiley and Sons, 2010
Ronald Akers, Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance (Transaction Publishers, 2009), 25.
I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.
Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…
David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Some jobs will require that a person continue his college education and some will require learning that can take place on the job in order to acquire the needed skills.
on-the-job training can take place in several forms. An outside training firm can be brought in to the company to hold seminars on a relevant topic for the employees. In this environment, the social nature of learning could be one of camaraderie or competitiveness among the adult employees. The adult employee wanted to get ahead may try to excel and outperform his coworkers to increase his chances of advancing. On the other hand, the environment could be more of a friendly social nature while everyone is learning. They may be asked to work in groups, much like in a college classroom setting. This will allow them to collaborate and perhaps learn about new skills they can acquire from their coworkers.…
Cameron, David. (2010). Adult learning and the way it inspires people is crucially important. Adults Learning, 21(9), 16-17.
http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html (Accessed on June 22, 2010).
http://webspace.ship.edu /cgboer/bandura.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Criminology researchers usually draw on multiple sociological theories for understanding crime and offenders. Certain elements of serial-killing research continue to be a subject of speculation and exploration, on account of the numerous preconceptions and myths surrounding the crime. The significance of establishing a theoretic basis to explain sociological factors proves crucial to distinguishing between fact and fiction (Hickey, 2013).
Social Structure Theory
This class of theories concentrates on the socioeconomic status of a person and suggests that the poor perpetrate more offenses owing to their struggle to achieve social or monetary success. They are, particularly owing to their subcultural, racial, or ethnic status, restricted in several ways from lawfully attaining the great “American Dream\". Thus, they resort to deviant techniques to succeed. Structural theories provide convincing justifications for numerous offenses, with the exception of serial killing. Normally, serial killers lack financial or social motivation, and aren’t members of any specific…
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…
Jacobs, Garry; Cleveland, Harlan. (1 November, 1999) "Social Development Theory" retrieved at http://www.icpd.org/development_theory/SocialDevTheory.htm . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Keirsey, David. (1998) "Parenting and Temperament" retrieved at http://keirsey.com/parent.html . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Lavoie, Rick. "The Teacher's role in developing social skills" Retrieved at http://www.ldonline.org/article.php?max=20&special_grouping=&id=400&loc=22Accessed on 27 February 2005
Moore, Shirley. G. "The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence" ERIC Digest. Retrieved at http://www.fww.org/articles/misc/0628e.html. Accessed on 26 February 2005
I find this very surprising because I thought that social learning and incorporation of operant conditioning as part of the social learning theory plays a preeminent role in influencing criminality.
I think that the theories that explain best the findings of the articles are the sociological and theories. Psychological and biological theories are not suitable for support. I chose from the sociological theories the "Social Disorganization Theory" emanating from the Chicago School research of Shaw and McKay. According to this theory's general hypothesis "low economic status, ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility, and family disruption lead to community social disintegration, which in turn increases crime and delinquency rates" (Sampson, .J. & Groves, W.B., Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory, p. 774.) The Social Disorganization Study is the theory that by virtue of the article's title actually underlies the research of Triplett & Gainey. But in large parts it also mirrors the…
Monahan, J. (19 February 2010). The Causes of Violence. Derived 15 August 2011 from www.sodahead.com/united-states/the-causes-of.../blog-263921
Sampson, R.J. & Groves, W.B. (1989). Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory. AJS Volume 94 Number 4 (January 1989): 774-802, derived 15 August 2011 from RJ Sampson… - American Journal of Sociology, 1989 -- JSTOR.
The stopping of treatment is the primary reason for this early intervention. This tactic has been extremely successful for many years and should be
Once the induction interviews are complete, the client and the social worker can move on to treating the patient. Once the treatment has started it is vitally important that the social worker pay careful attention to eliminating communication patterns that are counterproductive. Social workers have to be careful not to get stuck in unproductive type of communication that serve no purpose and do nothing to assist the client.
In addition if a social worker must examine the family functioning and diverse family and cultural contexts. This simply means that the social worker is responsible for examining the home situation of the client and assisting the client based on this environment. There are several different family structures that may be present including single family homes, blended families…
Glossary. Retrieved November 24, 2009 from: http: / / www. cmpmhmr. cog.pa.us / glossary.html
Hardcastle, David A. (2004) Community Practice: Theories and Skills for Social Workers. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press
Hepworth, DH Rooney, R.H., Rooney, G.D., Strom-Gottfried K., Larsen J. (2009) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills. Cengage Learning, 2009
Ogrodniczuk, J.S., Joyce, A.S., and Piper W.E. (2005) Strategies for Reducing Patient-Initiated Premature Termination of Psychotherapy. Harvard Review Psychiatry Vol. 13 Issue 2, p57-70, 14p. March/April 2005
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…
Psychology in Group Work
There are many theories that describe the process of human development. Most of us have identified with the learning theory. The learning theory has been given credit because it makes sense. In this article, we shall discuss one theory, which the author developed in an educational setting. The focus is on Bandura who is the key theorist in his learning theory (Agnew, 2007). Behaviors are taken into focus in Bandura's learning theory. The theory is significantly useful offering techniques of teaching and modifying of behavior. In the following sections, examples are going to be provided. This study will begin with clarification of the basic concept of the specified theory. This will be followed with a discussion of the theory's practical use: both classroom and clinical application (Bandura, 2006).
The learning theory of Bandura
The learning theory of Bandura provides that we learn from one…
Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strained theory of delinquency. Social Forces 64 (1): 151-167. doi:
Bandura, A. (2006). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
It is fairly clear that there was learning going on when the children observed aggressive behavior, but leaping immediately to the conclusion that what was learned was aggression, and not the specific behaviors exhibited by the adult models and repeated by the children, seems at least a little presumptive. If it can be assumed that the children in the experiment had never witnessed the specific behaviors of the models prior to the experiment (which would have been necessary to establish for the experiment itself to be valid), then the behavior might have been simply frightening to them, and acting out the behaviors might have been a method of familiarizing themselves with the behavior so as to understand it and make it less frightening. Though the end result would be the same desensitization to aggression, the possibility of this mechanism is important.
This possibility, and the construction and results of the…
Isom, M. (1998). "Albert Bandura: The social learning theory." Florida State University. Accessed 29 August 2009. http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/bandura.htm
Van Wagner, K. (2009). "Social learning theory." Accessed 29 August 2009. http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/sociallearning.htm
Skinner's radical behaviorism has been used to provide explanations for a number of behavioral phenomenon including criminal behavior (Skinner, 1966). For instance, the crime of burglary offers an example of how antisocial behaviors are learned through reinforcement. Members of society that commonly engage in theft or burglary learn their trade via the reinforcing aspects of stealing. The need to steal may be initially activated by means of some form of need or desire to have material gain; however, for many individuals who habitually engage in thievery repeated stealing is positively reinforced by the tangible acquisition of goods provided by these activities. For many of these individuals this behavior is reinforced by the notion that it is easier to steal from others then to apply oneself, work hard, and take the chance on getting the lees than desired rewards. However, many habitual criminals actually put in as much effort into…
Andrews, D.A. & Hoge, R.D. (1999). The psychology of criminal conduct and principles of effective prevention and rehabilitation. Forum on Corrections Research. Special Edition. 12 -- 14. Retrieved on April 1, 2013 from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/pblct/forum/special/espe_b-eng.shtml
Bandura, A. (1977). Social leaning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime:Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
Skinner, B.F. (1966). The phylogeny and ontogeny of behavior. Science, 153, 1204 -- 1213.
Gender-Specific Theory of Delinquency
Several theories have strived to explain delinquency and crime within the society, most of which center around the individual and the personal make up or biology, yet others focus on the surrounding that the individual grows up in and the people they interact with. There are theories that are gender specific in that they tend to explain how the fact that an individual is of a given gender is a predisposition to get involved in some given crime or delinquency within the society, one of such theories which will also form the focus of the paper is the social learning theory.
The society often ascribe gender specific roles that the girls and the boys are implicitly expected to adhere to. The girls are often expected to take up some form of behavior, often subtle, though effective way of perpetuating the responsibilities and characters that are deemed…
Albert Badnura, (1971). Social Learning Theory. Stanford University. Retrieved June 4, 2015 from http://www.jku.at/org/content/e54521/e54528/e54529/e178059/Bandura_SocialLearningTheory_ger.pdf
Smith M. & Berge Z., (2009). Social Learning Theory in Second Life. Retrieved June 4, 2015 from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol5no2/berge_0609.pdf
Dominant Learning Theories
Excellence in the field of pedagogy depends on an understanding of the major learning theories and models along with an ability to use them when appropriate. Even if one doesn't agree with these major learning theories, it's still important to be aware of them as a professional. A strong comprehension of the major learning theories can also help to guide one's actions and choices as an educator, scholar or general pedagogue.
Behaviorism, for example, is a major learning theory which asserts that the bulk of learning that occurs in human beings is done through conditioning. This is important as it puts a lot of focus on the power of the environment and how the environment can shape a person's behaviors through the stimuli acquired. Behaviorism is a school of learning which pays very little attention to mental states, finding things like moods and emotions to be too…
Cherry, K. (2014). What Is Behaviorism? Retrieved from about.com: http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/f/behaviorism.htm
Euromedinfo.eu. (2013). Behavioral, cognitive, humanist approaches. Retrieved from euromedinfo.eu: http://www.euromedinfo.eu/behavioral-cognitive-humanist-approaches.html/
Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from about.com: http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm
learning theories, and apply them to the adult learning environment. Specifically behavioral, constructivist, and cognitive learning theories are examined.
Behavioral Learning Theories
This approach to learning suggests that learning is the result of external stimulus and response to stimulus, thus the learner's environment is the primary factor influencing learning (Hergenhahn & Olson, 1997). The focus of the behavioral learning model is changes in behavior facilitated by stimuli provided by the learner's environment; not stimuli produced by the learner. einforcement of stimuli in the environment are thought to effect change and therefore become critical to the learning process in this learning theory model. The learner's responses to stimuli can be strengthened depending on how one is conditioned to respond; meaning, in the behavioral model, positive reinforcement can serve to enforce positive learning.
Also important to the behavioral model is repetition and generalization of important learning concepts (Hartley, 1998). These serve to…
Bruner, J.S. (1966). Toward a theory of instruction. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.
Bruner, J.S. (1996). The culture of education. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.
Hartley, J. (1998). Learning and studying. A research perspective. London: Routledge.
Huang, Hisu-Mei. (2002). Toward constructivism for adult learners in online learning environments. British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol 33, No. 1, 27-37.
Social Cognitive Theory
First promoted by Albert Bandura, the principles of social-cognitive theory stemmed from the social learning theory, both of which can be blanketed under behaviorism. Based on the principle that people are motivated primarily by reward or punishment, social-cognitive theory builds upon the basic tenets of behaviorism by focusing on the ways individuals learn by observing others and modeling their behavior. Therefore, social-cognitive theory suggests that both human cognition and social interaction play key roles in the stimulus-response process.
Social-cognitive theory offers a well-rounded approach to basic behaviorism and can be a useful approach to understanding individual and group behaviors. Moreover, social-cognitive theory can help researchers postulate motivations for certain behaviors. The theory is useful in helping psychologists understand how to promote behavioral change in their clients. The theory is therefore useful in both clinical and counseling psychology, as it has potential uses for research as well as…
Social learning theory states that an individual will learn from others through observation, modeling, and imitation (Bandura & McClelland, 1977). A person's behavior is dependent on the environment they come from and the models they grew up observing. Learning is believed to be a cognitive process that will take place in a social context. The social learning theory is often referred to as a bridge between cognitive and behaviorist learning theories because it covers memory, attention, and motivation. Albert Bandura proposed the theory, and it is one of the most influential development and learning theory. Bandura held to the belief that learning could not be fully accounted for by direct reinforcement. The theory proposed by Bandura was rooted in the traditional learning theory, but it added a social element. He argued that individuals could learn new behaviors and information by observing other individuals. Observational learning is the term he used,…
Akers, R.L. (2011). Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. Piscataway Township, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Akers, R.L., & Jensen, G.F. (2011). Social learning theory and the explanation of crime (Vol. 1). Piscataway Township, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Bandura, A., & McClelland, D.C. (1977). Social learning theory.
Cherry, K. (2011). Social Learning Theory an Overview of Bandura's Social learning Theory. The New York Times Company.(online article).
Educators as far back as Aristotle have attempted to determine the most optimal approach to teaching and learning. Any theory of learning must take a constellation of factors into consideration. Evidence-based research on the different components of learning theory, effective instruction, and learning environments abound, yet the one commonality is that individual differences are pivotal to the success of any approach. Additionally, even if perfect learning environments could be created, learning must be applicable to the world outside of the classroom. Indeed, that it its ultimate purpose. In this paper, this author will explore the characteristics of the backwards mapping, or designing for understanding, Common Core State Standards, both of which are integrative frameworks that promote efficient learning and effective teaching.
Learning Theory and Its Importance
A primary consideration of learning theorists is how to effectively address individual differences. Consider that from the 18th century and earlier, learning…
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annuals Rev. Psychology, 51(2), 1-26. Retrieved from http://moodle2.cs.huji.ac.il/nu14/pluginfile.php/179670/mod_resource/content/1/Bandura_2001.pdf
Brown, D. (2014). Opening classroom doors to collaborative learning. The Education Digest, 79(7), 19-22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1506936575?accountid=12085
Fine, L., & Myers, J.W. (2004). Understanding students with Asperger's syndrome. Phi Delta Kappa Fastbacks, (520), 3-39. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203654515?accountid=12085
Griswold, D.E., Barnhill, G.P., Brenda, S.M., Hagiwara, T., & Simpson, R.L. (2002). Asperger syndrome and academic achievement. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(2), 94. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205061045?accountid=12085
Hirschi's Social Bond Theory
Hirschi's social bonding theory argues that those persons who strong and abiding attachments to conventional society are less likely to deviate than persons who have shallow or weak bonds (Smangs, 2010). These bonds come in four interrelated forms, the first of which is attachment. Attachment, refers to the level of psychological affection one has for pro-social others and institutions. Parents and schools are of critical importance in this regard. Youths who form close attachments to their parents1 and schools will, by extension, experience greater levels of social control. The second type of bond is referred to as commitment. Commitment stresses the importance of the social relationships that people value, which they would not want to risk jeopardizing by committing criminal or deviant acts. People are less likely to misbehave when they know that they have something to lose. For juveniles, this could mean not wanting to…
"Key idea: Hirschi's social bond/social control theory." (NDI). Sage Publications. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/36812_5.pdf
Smangs, M. (2010, December) Delinquency, social skills, and the structure of peer relations: Assessing criminological theories by social network theory. Social Forces, Vol. 89, Issue 2, 609-631. University of North Carolina Press. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=a9dcb4b0-c42c-4f64-8b67-c1a089b82105%40sessionmgr110&hid=108
Theory on Juvenile Delinquency
Interventions that involve life-course unrelenting offenders should place emphasis on remedial social abilities, for them to have a chance to decrease their frequency of offending in future, and to tackle conduct disorder problems. Interventions involving teenage-onset offenders should, wherever applicable, tackle issues relating to parenting, alcohol/drug misuse, and anti-social cronies. Keane, Krull and Phythian (2008) define self-control as the extent to which a person is susceptible to temptation. According to them, lack of self-restraint or self-control is a fairly universal and stable characteristic, accounting for individual discrepancies in deviant, reckless, and criminal conduct. Youngsters' parents are usually blamed for their kids' delinquent behavior. Some courts go as far as penalizing parents for their kids' antisocial actions. It is believed that weak self-control develops during early childhood, when one's family is the most central socializing agent. Hence, lack of self-restraint and the resultant deviant behavior result from…
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory.
Burfeind, J. W., & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Demuth, Stephen and Susan L. Brown. 2004. "Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.
Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
Social Cognitivism: Viewpoint Synthesis
Literature eview on Social Cognitivism
Theoretical Paper: Social Cognitive Theory of Personality by Albert Bandura
The core of the social cognitive theory is that through observation, learning occurs. This theory has several premises forming its foundation. Human beings are seen to learn when they participate in the observation process. A person who is a model, demonstrates a behaviour while the observer picks up this behaviour or learns it by seeing the model doing it. Albert Bandura, in his Social Cognitive Theory on personality, which is now known as the Social Learning Theory, states that there are many interactions of various elements such as people, the environment and behaviours when learning is taking place. Thus it takes place within a social setting (Bandura, 1999).
Purpose of the study
Bandura pursued various aims in this study. He looked at the behaviour of groups and individuals and…
Bandura A. (1989) Social Cognitive Theory. IN: Annals of Child Development (Vol 6, p1
60. (Vasta R, ed). Greenwich, CT: Jai Press LTD.
Bandura, A. (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Integrated Lesson Plan
MATH Lesson Plan
Addition is fun!
Learning Domain Addition
Overview & Purpose Students will learn the basic concept of addition. Addition is useful because it provides a foundation for other aspects of arithmetic.
What will be learned and why it is useful.
Education Standards Addressed
If your state has early learning standards, please identify and list the standards that this lesson addresses
(Specify skills/information that will be learned.)
The objective is for students to learn to add.
(Specific skill / concept being taught in lesson)
The content is that students can combine objects to get more of them.
Addition, plus, equals.
(e.g. Web, books, etc.)
Procedure/s: (List of steps in lesson delivery) Include as applicable and in order of delivery:
Examine and Talk, Demonstrate, Model, Plan, Guide, ecord, Describe, Explore, Acquire, Practice, etc.…
Bandura, A. (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. John (Ed.), Handbook of personality (2nd ed., pp. 154-196). New York: Guilford Publications. (Reprinted in D. Cervone & Y. Shoda [Eds.], The coherence of personality. New York: Guilford Press.)
Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective. Asian Journal of Social Psychology. 2(1), 21-41.
Frith, C.D., Singer, T. (2008). "The role of social cognition in decision making." http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org Retrieved from
Social Cognitive, Behavioral Drinking
Social Cognitive/behavioralist Drinking
Drinking behavior provides informative demonstration of how social cognitive and behavioralist theories provide complementary rather than competing explanations of human agency. Bandura (1999) casts social cognitive theory against various determinist and materialist theories on the assertion humans are "sentient agents of experiences rather than simply undergoers of experiences" because people explore, manipulate and influence the environment they discover (p. 4). This contrasts against "automaticity," habit, "tendencies to repeat responses given a stable supporting context" (Oullette and Wood, 1998, p. 55). Oullette & Wood (1998) compare habit learning to skill development, where practice can lead to "nonvolitional, frequent, and consistent experiences in a given context" but new situations require deliberation (p. 55). Wood and Neal (2007) largely reiterate this summary as repeated learned behavior (843). The present inquiry is particularly interested in how and why particular behaviors become repeated after negative consequences have been…
Bandura, A. (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. John (Ed.),
Handbook of personality (2nd ed., pp. 154-196). New York: Guilford Publications. (Reprinted in D. Cervone & Y. Shoda [Eds.], The coherence of personality. New York: Guilford Press.)
Ouellette, J. & Wood, W. (1998). Habit and intention in everyday life: The multiple processes by which past behavior predicts future behavior. Psychological Bulletin 124(1), 54-74.
Wood, w. & Neal, D.T. (2007). A new look at habits and the habit -- goal interface. Psychological Review 114(4), 843 -- 863. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.114.4.843
Lack of rewards for individuals, unintended rewards for loafing: Having some individuals who are collectively-minded paired with workers with a 'what's in it for me' attitude can result in the more generously spirited workers' good will being relied up, while others take credit.
A five best practices
1. Create a common work culture: Friends are often less likely to 'socially loaf' on work teams (Kunishima & elte 2004).
2. Using dispersed teams with a lack of social facilitation factors can be undercut by increasing levels of difficulty and responsibility "As tasks become more difficult and participants perceive they can make a unique contribution to the task, social loafing decreases" (Kunishima & elte 2004).
3. Task uniqueness -- by ensuring members of the work teams have specifically defined roles, there is less of a chance to feel as if others can pick up the slack (Kunishima & elte 2004).
Bansal, Pratima & Sonia Kandola. (2004, March/April) Corporate social responsibility: why good people behave badly in organizations. Business Journal Online. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/117189488.html
Big Brother eyes 'boost honesty' (2006, June 28). BBC News. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/5120662.stm
Coleman, Andrew. (2001). Social loafing. The Encyclopedia of Psychology. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O87-socialloafing.html
Kunishima, Jill & Kasi Welte. (2004, March) Effects of punishment threats on social loafing
Since we observe the responses of our peers and friends, we are very much attuned to how we interact with others, and how their succeed or fail. The theory of self-efficacy is fundamental to understanding social cognitive learning, because it implies that the process of using this theory creates greater confidence. Since individuals learn from their cultural environment, it is imperative to construct a positive enforcing messages through the educational process to ensure that individuals feel that they can accomplish any and all given tasks.
A contextual example of the social cognitive learning model can be seen in the case of student as in the provided example. As is a student who feels no self-efficacy when it comes to mathematics, despite numerous opportunities to learn from math, he has taken no opportunities to improve himself. When questioned he clearly asserts that he cannot learn math, something that appears counterintuitive from…
Learning Styles and Learning Practices
In general, psychological theorists and educators acknowledge that learning occurs quite differently in different individuals. Some people learn best by observing, whereas others learn best by listening, and still others learn best by participating or experiencing something more tangible in connection with the subject matter (Akkoyunlu, & Soylu, 2008). There are numerous theories about how people learn, and one of the most commonly used is Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI), that categorizes learning according to the following broad distinctions: Concrete Experience or considering things substantially the way they are presented; Abstract Conceptualization or considering things as ideas and theories that represent or incorporate what is represented; Active Experimentation or forming conclusions based on what is represented and conducting experiments to confirm those conclusions; and eflective Observation or determining…
Akkoyunlu, B., & Soylu, M.Y. (2008). A Study of Student's Perceptions in a Blended
Learning Environment Based on Different Learning Styles. Educational Technology & Society, 11 (1), 183-193.
Chickering, A.W. & Gamson, Z.F. (1991). Applying the Seven Principles for Good
Practice in Undergraduate Education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 47.
(2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice esearch, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis evisited. Status Bias in the eduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. esearch Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Pearson, A., Dovidio, J., & Pratto, F. (2007).acial Prejudice, Intergroup Hate, and Blatant and Subtle Bias of Whites toward Blacks in Legal Decision Making in the United States. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p145-158, 14p. etrieved July 8, 2009 from EBSCO online database Full Text http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=27747337&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
amasubramanian, S. &…
Fiske, S. (2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice Research, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis Revisited. Status Bias in the Reduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. Research Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Social Work Internship Experience With Alzheimer Patients
My service learning experience was a positive one. I had the opportunity to work at an Alzheimer's care facility, with patients exhibiting various stages of Alzheimer's disease. I learned through my interactions with older adults at the clinic that much like anyone else, Alzheimer's patients need stimulation, warmth, compassion and an environment that encourages interaction and relationship building.
My views of older adults have changed significantly since working with patients at the care center. Whereas in the past I might have assumed that all older adults were mentally less cognizant of their emotions and feelings and 'numb' to the world around them, I learned instead that many have a great compassion for caring, and many desire simply to enjoy much of the same things than anyone else would at their age. My experiences are described in greater detail below.
Summary of Experiences
Gebo, L. "Biological Systems and their Impacts on Later Adulthood." Chapter 14. New
York, Thompson Brooks Cole: 2004.
There are some indications that observational learning might be genetic; animals teaching their young to hunt and the discovery of mirror neurons -- brain cells that fire when emotions/behaviors are observed in others -- both point to a biological basis for this type of learning. This learning is far more likely to occur if observed behaviors are met with rewards, however. Observational learning is also at the heart of the controversy concerning violence in the media, which some believe leads to more violent behavior in real life as individuals observe and learn from "fake" violent depictions.
There is growing evidence that violent media does in fact lead to increased real-world violence, both with "copy-cat" crimes and simply with violence generally. Exposure to violence lowers inhibitions against violence and possibly alters perceptions about the meanings and intentions behind others' behaviors, as well, causing nonviolent acts to be perceived as…
The GEMS effort was to create a social environment that encouraged healthy eating and exercise, and expanded health literacy in a fun manner, and was accessible to young girls.
It is easier to change health-related behaviors in the young, and the program tried to address the unique and often more acute problem of obesity in African-American young girls. The entire community and family units were incorporated into the program effort. Positive aspects of the African-American community, such as strong social support, were used by the study designers, also in line with social cognition theory. Existing support structures and social learning were combined: for example, the families in question were often not educated in how to properly read food labels, but once they were, the desire to help their daughters become healthier would hopefully reinforce the need to engage in proactive steps to improve dietary health. During Family Nights, families of…
Marvella E. Ford, Barbara C. Tilley, & Patricia E. McDonald. (1998). Social support among
African- American adults with diabetes. Journal of American Medicine. 90 (6) 361-365.
Retrieved July 9, 2010 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2568240/pdf/jnma00165-0047.pdf
Story, Mary, et al. (2003, Winter). "An after-school obesity prevention program for African-
Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and he can feed himself for life. How could you put this principle into practice through the development of a social entrepreneurship venture?
Development of Social Entrepreneurialism
Corporate Social Responsibility
Social Entrepreneurship and Food
Social entrepreneurship was introduced in the 1970s to address the issue of social sustainably and the term "social entrepreneur." This analysis will begin by providing a brief history as well as a working definition for the concept of social entrepreneurialism. It will also discuss some of the related movements that have been working towards some of the same goals, albeit, from different directions to address various challenges in society and the environment. Furthermore, a more detailed overview of the exact challenges that are present in society that social entrepreneurialism can work to address will…
Abu-Saifan, S., 2012. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries. [Online]
Available at: http://timreview.ca/article/523
[Accessed 28 April 2016].
Ashoka, N.d.. Vision and Mission. [Online]
Educational Theories Guiding Educational Experience
Description of an education event experienced
I am a dentist, and I have started a course on teaching dentistry. My experience with education was never a particularly encouraging one as my teacher was always absent. When I was at school, the teachers went on strike, and that left us with no attention from them. We had to do much of the studying alone, and all required research lay squarely on our shoulders in the absence of teachers for as long as they were striking. Whenever the teachers came around school, they applied a work to rule strategy and that was extremely devastating. Lecturers were never available for any extra consultation, and we had to take our learning as individual responsibilities instead of waiting for support or guidance from lecturers. Any difficulties, which we may have faced during the study never, had a chance in the…
Annand, D. (2011). Social presence within the community of inquiry framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(5), 40-56. Aristotle.
(2002). Aristotle nicomachean ethics. (J. Sachs, Trans.). Newburyport, MA: Focus
Publishing/R. Pullins Co.
Baker, C. (2010). The impact of instructor immediacy and presence for online student affective learning, cognition, and motivation. The Journal of Educators online, 7(1), 1-30.
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…
Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).
Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.
Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.
Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…
It may be necessary to start with continuous conditioning and gradually increase the fixed number of responses necessary for a reinforcer to be delivered. The nature of this schedule "produces a high rate of responding, with a pause after the reinforcer is delivered" (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219), and then another burst of responses.
ith a variable-ratio schedule, responses follow a steady pattern, with few pauses after the reinforcer is delivered. Here, reinforcement follows an average number of responses that is varied between trials (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219). A participant may need to respond 25 times in one trial to receive reinforcement, whereas the second trial will require 20 responses for the delivered reinforcer. hile each trial is unpredictable, more trials bring the ratio of response to reinforcement to a predetermined average (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219).
Interval schedules use time to determine the delivery of the reinforcer. ith a fixed-interval schedule,…
Wiley & Sons.
Wilmore, J.H., Costill, D.L., & Kenney, W.L. (2008). Physiology of sports and exercise (4th
ed.). Champaigne, IL: Human Kinetics.
Humans Innately Aggressive?
Aggression is "an action…intended to harm someone in a verbal sense (sarcasm, insults, threats or playing out "nasty motives" -- and it can be a physical act, pushing, hitting, shooting at another person or otherwise aiming to do harm to someone (McCawley, 2001, p. 1). According to a definition from Shippenburg University aggression is any form of human behavior "…directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such harm." Still another definition of aggression (Buss) is found in an essay by Bushman and Anderson: Aggression is "…a response that delivers noxious stimuli to another organism" (Bushman, et al., 1998). But the question that has been asked through the years is -- are people aggressive innately or do people learn to be aggressive? This paper delves into the issue, presents both sides (through the literature), and offers a conclusion.
Hess, Nicole H., and Hagen, Edward H. (2005). Sex differences in indirect aggression/
Psychological evidence from young adults. Evolution and Human Behavior, vol. 27,
McCawley, Sarah. (2001). The Nature of Aggression (or is it Nurture?). Bryn Mawr College.
There's an understood supposition of opposing causal agency at work. No matter what pressures and factors came to bear, the addict could have done something else, but simply decided not to (Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction, 2010).
A more behavioral approach to understanding addiction is the social learning model, which suggests that people learn how to behave by watching others in their environment and by duplicating actions that create affirmative consequences. One learns to take drugs or alcohol through ones connections with family, friends, or even popular media. And through personal experimentation with drugs or alcohol, one learns that they like the way drugs make them feel. Whether it is the elation of a high, the augmented confidence they feel while intoxicated, or a reduced sense of social nervousness, intoxication can be a positively reinforcing state of being.
As one discovers how much they like…
Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction. (2010). Retreived from http://www.addictioninfo.org/articles/4173/1/Choice-and-Free-Will-Beyond-the-Disease -
Drug Addiction. (2006). Retreived from http://www.flyfishingdevon.co.uk/salmon/year3/psy337DrugAddiction/theorydrugaddiction.htm
Drug and Alcohol Information - Disease Model of Addiction-. (2011). Retreived from http://www.egetgoing.com/drug_addiction/addiction_disease_model.asp
Although it is controversial to say so, it does appear that early childhood exposure to media violence can precipitate aggressive behavior and violence in adulthood. In a longitudinal study that actually was able to determine causality in the same population sample, Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podolski & Eron (2003) show that there is a connection between media violence exposure and violent behavior. The type of violent behavior differed, largely due to gender. For example, men in the study were more likely to use physical aggression and violence but females were more likely to use other forms of aggression like verbal abuse. Regardless, the study should alert parents about how to monitor their children and how to talk to children about the violence they see. It is not simply the exposure to the violence, but the duration of exposure or frequency of viewing. Other factors that impact violence and aggression include personality…
"Evaluate sociocultural explanations of the origins of violence," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.appsychology.com/IB%20Psych/IBcontent/Options/Humanrelationships/Rel9.htm
Huesmann, L. R., Moise-Titus, J., Podolski, C., & Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children's exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992. Developmental Psychology, 39, 201-221.
Gushue, Clarke, Pantzer, et al., (2006) examine the application of social cognitive theories to career counseling, reporting that self-efficacy is a pertinent issue in this process. In particular, these authors report that:
Career decision making self-efficacy refers to the degree to which individuals feel confident in their ability to successfully engage in tasks associated with making a career choice and with commitment to a career. It has also been observed that career-related self-efficacy in general may prove to be an important element in formulating a model of career development...(p. 308).
Gushue and coworkers go on to argue that when career self-efficacy is high, individuals are more assertive in the career counseling process. Thus, by developing career self-efficacy, career counselors can effectively improve interactions with clients and facilitate a greater understanding of client needs with respect to career decision making.
Applying this to the larger context of social learning theory, it…
Arbona, C. (2000). Practice and research in career counseling and development -- "1999. Career Development Quarterly, 49(2), 98-134.
Flores, L.Y., Scott, a.B., Wang, Y.W., et al., (2003). Annual review: Practice and research in career counseling and development -- "2002. Career Development Quarterly, 52, 98-131.
Germeijs, V., Verschueren, K., Soenens, B. (2006). Indecisiveness and high school students' career decision making process: Longitudinal associations and the mediational role of anxiety. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(4), 397-410.
Giannantonio, G.M., & Hurley-Hanson, a.E. (2006). Applying image norms across Super's career development stages. Career Development Quarterly, 54(4), 318-330.
Social learning theory views education as an inculcation in social norms. Sexuality education requires the individual to learn the biological mechanics of sexuality, but also to understand the social assumptions connected to this facet of human life. Sexuality is not acquired instinctively, even though puberty is a biological phenomenon all adolescents experience. Sexuality is also about acquiring social norms and knowledge. Learning never takes place in isolation. Sexual norms are not learned simply through formal sex education, but also from peers and the media. However, sexual education must strive to counteract misinformation and negative stereotypes, empowering students with facts. Sexual education in the classroom must counteract some of the negative misinformation students will learn, and better equip them to make intelligent decisions.
Because a principle of social learning theory is that it takes place all of the time, adult role models are important for…
Cherry, Kendra. (2011). Moral development. Retrieved:
Social learning theory. (2009). National Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention.
cognitive psychology, learning theories are significant in both their variety and the different ways in which researchers approach "knowing." Within the sphere of cognitive psychology the cognitive learning theory is among the most popular areas of study. The cognitive learning theory suggests that learning is a behavioral change based on the acquisition of information about the environment. Bandura (1986) suggested that what individuals think and feel about themselves necessarily impacts subsequent individual behaviors. As a theory of learning, social cognitive theory is based on the notion that individual's learn by watching others perform and that the internal thought processes people have are critical for a proper understanding of the individual (Santrock, 2008).
The two theories I choose to research for this assignment are Albert Bandura's observational learning theory and B.F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. While both theories involve theories of learning, the differences between the two theories are significant.…
Bandura, A. (1986). "Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory." Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Miller, N.E., & Dollard, J. (1941). Social Learning and Imitation. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. Retrieved from http://www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/mfp/eff.html
Santrock, J.W. (2008). A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development (M. Ryan, Ed., 4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (Original work published 2002), pgs. 26, 30, 478
(1996) that do not this particular element as a deciding factor in the procedures (e.g., Meltzoff, 1988).
esearch Question will explore the dimension and effect of vicarious learning and its importance in today's world at a very early stage of a person's life: school life. Does vicarious behavior and observance or peer pressure/influence have an effect on the viewer or observer's behavior? Is this effect long-term or short-term, good or bad? How do the students adopting the behaviors and others around react to these changes?
In order to see the practical implications of vicarious learning in students, we will observe them in strict everyday curriculum and extra curricular activities that are interlinked with their school activities. Even though they will be observed in familiar surroundings, the influence or modeling will be coming from both familiar and unfamiliar people and fellow students whether in the same age group or not…
Bandura, a. (1965). Influence of models' reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 589-595.
Bandura, a. (1971). Vicarious -- and self-reinforcement processes. In R. Glaser, (Ed.) the nature of reinforcement (pp. 228-278). New York: Academic Press.
Bandura, a. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Barr, R., Dowden, a., & Hayne, H. (1996). Developmental changes in deferred imitation by 6- to 24-month-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 19, 159-170.