Social Learning Theory Essays (Examples)

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Social Learning

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46171577

Social Learning Theory emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Albert andura (1925-

Canadian born Stanford psychologist, is the leading proponent of the theory, which is also sometimes called Social Cognitive Theory.

According to the Social Learning Theory, the human personality and the learning process is the result of interaction between three things -- the environment, behavior, and the person's psychological processes. (oeree) While ehaviorism emphasizes learning through personal experimentation by focusing on variables that can be observed, measured and manipulated, andara has based his theory on the premise that "most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others." (andura, 1977. p.22) andura is of the view that "learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do." (Ibid)

andura developed his…… [Read More]


Bandura, A. (1997). "Self-efficacy: The exercise of control." New York: W.H. Freeman.

Boeree, Dr. C. George. (1998). "ALBERT BANDURA (1925 - present)." [Available online]. Retrieved on April 23, 2003 at

Social Learning Theory." (2000) from Keith Rutledge's notes on Ormond's Psychology of Learning. Available online]. Retrieved on April 23, 2003 at

Social Learning
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Learning Theory Researchers Have Suggested

Words: 2770 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26487229

A dog hits a lever when it sees a light that signifies that it will be shocked. A person takes medicine before having certain foods that he or she knows will cause a stomachache (Sidman, 2006, p. 136).

Above, the differences between operant and classical conditioning were noted. However, sometimes the distinction is blurred. In biofeedback, for instance, psychologists feed back information to the patients regarding their physiologic processes, which gives them the opportunity to gain operant control over autonomic responses, such as heart rate, body temperature and blood pressure (Larkin et. al., 1992). or, in normal life situations, learning may include both classical and operant conditioning. A person who has had a skiing accident may acquire a fear of skiing, or classical conditioning; that same individual may begin to avoid skiing, or avoidance learning, because it is an aversive experience.

The concept of operant learning began to bring in…… [Read More]


Bandura, a. (1967) the role of modeling personality development. In C.Lavatelli & F.

Stendler (Eds.)., Readings in childhood and development (pg. 334-343). New York: Harcourt Brace./

____ (1971) Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Berstein, I.L. (1991). Aversion conditioning in response to cancer and cancer treatment.
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Learning Theories to the Current Educational Environment

Words: 2351 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80578201

Learning Theories to Current Education

In psychology and education, learning is normally described as a process that brings together cognitive, emotional, and influences of the environment being experienced for obtaining, enhancing, or enacting changes in an individual knowledge, values, skills, and views of the world. Learning as a process put their center of attention on what takes place during learning. Explanations of what takes place forms learning theories. A learning theory is an effort to express how people and animals learn; thus assist us understand the essentially complex learning process. Learning theories have two main values. The first one is in offering us with conceptual and vocabulary framework for interpreting the instance of learning that we survey. The second one is suggesting places to search for answer to practical problems. The theories never provide us with solutions, but they do direct our concentration to those variables that are vital in…… [Read More]


Cameron, J., Pierce, W.D., Banko, K.M., & Gear, A. (2005). Achievement-based rewards and intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive mediators. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 641 -- 655.

Cognitivism Theories:

Conway, Judith (1997).Educational Technology's Effect on Models of Instruction.

Furth, H.G., & Wachs, H. (1975). Thinking goes to school: Piaget's theory in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press
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Learning Theories With a Focus

Words: 1869 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69860866

The author agrees that learners are most influenced in their learning process by behaviors that arte modeled for them. The author uses this belief within the classroom by setting the environment up so that learning is encouraged and desired as an outcome of attendance and participation.

The theory of Bandura most closely fits this author's approach as the classroom is cleared of distractions. This will help the student pay attention. Any unnecessary noise is eliminated and the windows are covered with artwork to allow light in but not distract students to watch outside. The students are taught the lessons using various imagery and other elements to help students retain what they have learned.

They are motivated to learn and retain the information by the reward and incentive system set up. Those who do well on the lessons and the tests are provided choices of extra computer time, ice cream passes…… [Read More]


Bandura (Accessed 10-17-06) (

Developmental Learning Theory (Accessed 10-17-06)

Social Learning Theory (a. Bandura) (Accessed 10-17-06)
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Artist Frida Kahlo Cognitive Social Learning

Words: 456 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72010679

Cognitive Social Learning and Artist Frida Kahlo
It is important to note, from the onset, that social-cognitive learning theory could be defined as “a theory of personality that features cognition and learning, especially from the social environment, as important sources of individual differences in personality.”1  Although Kahlo was married to Diego Rivera, their relationship was, from time to time, rocked by extramarital affairs emanating from both parties.  According to Tempesta2, Diego had earlier on had an affair with Kahlo’s sister.  This betrayal hurt her deeply and it could be speculated that her own extramarital affairs commenced as a consequence of this single act and were sustained by Diego’s playboy behaviors.  This is consistent with social learning theory whereby individuals model their behaviors along those of others.  Kahlo’s early childhood exposure to family life could also have ingrained in her specific familial values and belief systems especially with regard to her…… [Read More]


Cacioppo J, Freberg L. Discovering Psychology: The Science of Mind. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning; 2018.

Kettenmann A. KAHLO. Buffalo, NY: TASCHEN; 2003.

Tempesta E. My Whole Being Opened For You\\': Intimate Details of Artist Frida Kahlo\\'s Passionate Affair With Secret Lover Revealed In Romantic Love Letters. Accessed May 6, 2018.

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Observational Learning

Words: 1205 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37901378

Observational learning is a form social leaning where learning occurs by observing the behavior of others. This is a powerful method for learning and most of what children learn is by observing their parents or other adults (Fryling, Johnston, & Hayes, 2011). Observational learning can take place at any time in a person's life, but it mostly tends to be the most common learning method during childhood. It also plays a vital role in the socialization process, as children will learn how to behave and respond by observing their parents. The articles selected comprise of 7 primary sources and 3 secondary sources, which means that the 7 articles are all research articles. The other 3 comprise of 1 literature review, and 2 practice articles. The content covered is mostly on behavioral learning and how it can be used to change behavior or learn new behavior. The research is not only…… [Read More]


Ashuri, T., Dvir-Gvisman, S., & Halperin, R. (2018). Watching Me Watching You: How Observational Learning Affects Self-disclosure on Social Network Sites? Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 23(1), 34-68.

Bem, T., Jura, B., Bontempi, B., & Meyrand, P. (2018). Observational learning of a spatial discrimination task by rats: learning from the mistakes of others? Animal Behaviour, 135, 85-96.

Brown, A. M. (2016). A comparison of two imitation training protocols to teach independent play skills and promote observational learning in children with autism spectrum disorder. University of Kansas.

Cordovani, L., & Cordovani, D. (2016). A literature review on observational learning for medical motor skills and anesthesia teaching. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 21(5), 1113-1121.

Dunne, S., D\\'Souza, A., & O\\'Doherty, J. P. (2016). The involvement of model-based but not model-free learning signals during observational reward learning in the absence of choice. Journal of neurophysiology, 115(6), 3195-3203.

Fryling, M. J., Johnston, C., & Hayes, L. J. (2011). Understanding observational learning: An interbehavioral approach. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 27(1), 191-203.

Grierson, L. E., Roberts, J. W., & Welsher, A. M. (2017). The effect of modeled absolute timing variability and relative timing variability on observational learning. Acta psychologica, 176, 71-77.

Harris, D. J., Vine, S. J., Wilson, M. R., McGrath, J. S., LeBel, M.-E., & Buckingham, G. (2017). The effect of observing novice and expert performance on acquisition of surgical skills on a robotic platform. PLoS ONE, 12(11), e0188233.

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Learning Theory and Grief

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18936593

Operant Conditioning and Grief

Because grief is an emotional process, many people are reluctant to believe that grief can, in many ways, be explained through operant or classical conditioning principles. However, the biochemical underpinnings of many type of love relationships serve as reward systems that can actually condition a person to feel love, which can result in grief when the object of affection is no longer available. In both sexual relationships and parent-child relationships, the body releases chemicals at certain times during the relationship- sexual intercourse, nursing, holding an infant, and hugging are all related to the body's release of hormones. Classical or operant conditioning principles suggest, then, that the presence of the loved one will, eventually be sufficient to stimulate the release of those hormones. If the loved one resides with the person who has done the learning or spends sufficient time with them, then it seems clear that…… [Read More]

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Describing How a Selected Learning Theory Impacts Curriculum Design

Words: 1786 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89200484

Learning theories play a large role in the cultivation of curriculum within the realm of education. The purpose of this discussion is to describe how a selected learning theory influences curriculum. For the purposes of this discussion, we will focus on Social learning theory. Our research will contain a discussion of the learning theory, a description of how it affects curriculum design, and thoughts on the use of the theory in the 21st century schools.

Discussion of Social Learning Theory

There are many different learning theories that exist and are used to shape what students learn in the classroom. According to an article in the Journal of Youth and Adolescence, social learning theory asserts, "behaviors modeled by others may be imitated in other relationships. Specifically, behaviors of higher status individuals are more likely to be imitated by individuals of lower status (eese-Weber, 2000)." In other words, this theory asserts that…… [Read More]


Ewen, R.B. (1998). An Introduction to Theories of Personality (5th ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Horner, S.L. (2001). The Effects of Observational Learning on Preschoolers' Book-Related Behaviors and Alphabet Knowledge. Child Study Journal, 31(1), 1. Retrieved October 25, 2004, from Questia database,

Blackhurst, A.E. Keel, M.C., & Slaton, D.B.(2001). Acquisition of Content Area Vocabulary for Students with Learning Disabilities. Education & Treatment of Children, 24(1), 46.

Observational (Social) Learning: An Overview. Retrieved October 23,2004 from;
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Virtual Child and Learning Theories Application

Words: 920 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10725657

Social Learning Theory and Parenting Skills

The most applicable and relevant philosophy in parenting particularly of the preschool years children is the social learning theory that was proposed and developed by Albert Bandura. The social learning theory is widely seen as the bridge between the cognitive learning and behaviorism, and it is this combination of two theories or approaches to learning that makes it most applicable for my parenting approach. This approach concentrates on attention, motivation as well as memory. This theory indicates that people learn through seeing the behaviors of others, their attitudes and the result of their behaviors. In this sphere, learning is continuous and involves the reciprocation of the behavior of the individual, the environmental influences, the cognitive influences that models the individual (Albert Bendura, 1971:Pp3). In a nut shell, the individual is aware of the relationship between his behavior and the consequences, and he learns these…… [Read More]


Albert Bendura, (1971). Social Learning Theory. Stanford University. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from 

Johansson T., (2012). Preschool teachers view on learning in preschool in Sweden and Denmark. European Early Childhood Education Research. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from Journal

Serve (2014). Preschool: Thinking and learning. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from
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Respondent Learning Theory and the

Words: 2048 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77575647

An article in the Journal of Sex Research brings attention to operant conditioning by juxtaposing - comparing and contrasting - it with the social learning theory that Julian P. Rotter developed. Social learning in fact embraces aspects of operant conditioning (which is also known as "radical behaviorism"), and Rotter assumed that "behavior is goal directed and emphasized expectations of reward and perceived values of rewards." Those rewards are the basis for a person to model his or her behavior after the behavior of others. "Rewards for desired behavior are presumed to reinforce that behavior," (Hogben, et al., 1998) Rotter asserted, and that part of his model matches up pretty closely with operant conditioning.

OPERANT THEORY IS the MOST PRACTICAL, APPLICABLE in EXPLAINING DEVIANT BEHAVIOR: In this scholarly article, the authors are alluding to behaviors related to sexual dynamics, in this case spousal abuse. For example, the reward that a deviant…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hogben, Matthew; & Dyme, Donn. (1998). Using Social Learning Theory to Explain

Individual Differences in Human Sexuality. The Journal of Sex Research 35(1), 58-72.

Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; & Hayes, Linda J. (1998). The Operant-Respondent Distinction

Revisited: Toward an Understanding of Stimulus Equivalence. Psychological Record, 48(2),
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Social Science Theory and Methodology

Words: 1830 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55985580

Social Science Theory & Methods

MAIN STUDY QUESTION: What role does digital deception play in the establishment of trust, confidence and authenticity regarding the use of graphics and images in the online media sources we use?

The world is getting more and more comfortable with the integration of technology into our lives. While we often pay attention to this in the way that we use certain types of equipment or access portals (such as cell phones or websites), in reality there are a great deal of other types of digital integration that can be just as important. For example, there may be growing levels of falsified graphics or manipulated images in the communications and news postings that we are exposed to in the various kinds of sites we use online.

What does it mean when we see and accept false or altered pictures and information online as being true in…… [Read More]

Johnston, C. (2003). Digital Deception. American Journalism Review. Viewable at

Loftus, G. (1991). On the tyranny of hypothesis testing in the social sciences. Book review of The Empire of Chance: How probability changed science and everyday life by Gerd Gigerenzer, Zeno Swijink, Theodore Porter, Lorraine Daston, John Beatty, and Lorenz Kruger, Cambridge University Press, 1989.

MailOnline (2009). Ban airbrushing in magazines and posters that ruins teen self-esteem, says Liberal Democrats. Viewable at .
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Learning Theory The Process Through Which Humans

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41878380

Learning Theory:

The process through which humans learn has been an issue of significant concern since the emergence of formal education thousands of years ago. In attempts to understand the process of human learning, there have been several theories and concepts that have been developed from time to time. These concepts and theories have particularly been a reflection of the various paradigm shifts in thought and practice. The most significant shift or event that contributed to understanding the process of human learning took place in the past century. This shift resulted in the development of a plethora of ideas regarding the most appropriate practices for encouraging learning. Notably, the shift led to the development of learning theory because of the extensive considerations by early educators and philosophers.

Learning theory is centered on identifying the best practices for encouraging learning since it traces the roots of learning and how the process…… [Read More]


Edgar, D.W. (2012). Learning Theories and Historical Events Affecting Instructional Design in Education: Recitation Literacy Toward Extraction Literacy Practices. SAGE Open, 2(4). Retrieved from 

Knowles, M.S., Holton, E.F. & Swanson, R.A. (2011) The Adult Learner., Oxford, UK: Elsevier,

Retrieved from
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Learning Theory and Its Implications for the

Words: 1769 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78224639

Learning Theory and Its Implications for the Theory and Practice of Instructional Design Paradigm Shift in Instructional Learning Theory


ecause of the global changes transforming every aspect of life there is a need to transform traditional instruction into learner-centered instruction. This requires a re-thinking of the roles played by the teacher and the students in the learning process which involves a major change in one's basic assumption on how people learn.

According to Chickering and Gamson (1987 p. 3) "learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much by just sitting in a class listening to teachers memorizing prepackaged assignments and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, related it to past experiences, apply it to their lives."

Research on cognition reveals that students who reflect on their learning are better learners than those who do…… [Read More]


Reigeluth, Charles M. 1999. Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory. Vol. II. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

ERIC Digest. A Paradigm Shift from Instruction to Learning. What Is the New Paradigm of Instructional Theory by Reigeluth, Charles M. Indiana University . Instructional Design Theories and Models. Vol II by Charles M. Reigeluth, Editor. 1999. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Social Influence Theory Marketing Message Description for Real

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1171849

Social Influence Theory Marketing

Message/Description for Real Miracle of Nature' "Little Siva"

on the Facebook and other social media pages:

For centuries, the people of India have used the nuts and flowers of the Sapindus tree as a universal washing detergent. This tree has amazing powers and produces a substance to help it keep insects away called saponin. This fully biodegradable and 100% natural soap can be found exclusively in the flowers and nut shells. This Real Miracle of Nature?

offers you a detergent that is 100% natural. hen the nut shell is in contact with the water, it releases a soapy liquid that makes little foam. The saponin is a surfactant (detergent) that removes grease and cleans and protects your skin. hen the nut shell is in contact with the water, it releases a soapy liquid that makes little foam. The saponin is a surfactant (detergent) that removes grease…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dholakia, Utpal M., Bagozzi, Richard P., & Pearo, Lisa Klein. (2004). A social influence model of consumer participation in network- and small-group-

based virtual communities. International Journal of Research in Marketing,
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Social Bonding Theory

Words: 1686 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14253591

Travis Hirschi's Social Bonding Theory

The theorist, Hirschi, asserts that those who exhibit deviant behavior desire to do so and that criminal behavior is seen among people with weak social bonds. In his social bonding model, he delineated four elements which make up social bonds, namely, attachment to partner/spouse, engagement in conforming behaviors, holding conventional beliefs and values, and dedication to conventionality (Wolfzorn, Heckert & Heckert, 2006). The theorist indicates that with increased attachment of a person to fellow human beings, their belief in conformist social values will increase. Furthermore, with increased investment and involvement in conventional activity, their propensity to deviate will decrease (Chriss, 2007).

Four Elements of Social Bonding Theory

Social bonding has four elements, namely: attachment, involvement, belief, and commitment.

The first component -- attachment -- denotes individuals' ties to their spouses or partners, and other members of the family. This aspect encompasses the extent of…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Social Learning and Related

Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71709233

These include observable characteristics (Nathan, 1985, p.169) such as specific effects of drinking, quantities and lengths of time people drink, and environmental factors.

The article also emphasizes the degree in which this particular theory considers the very root cause of alcoholism. It discusses historical reasons attributed to the etiology of alcoholism, such as a stress reducer, and details some of the positive projections people associate alcohol consumption with. One of the most important points considered is the diagnosis of alcoholism, in which the author advocates a transactional diagnosis.

The article written by Kathryn Coronges et al., "Social network influences of alcohol and marijuana cognitive associations" discusses a research study designed to discern the influence of socialization on the consumption of mind altering substances. The study involved presenting a number of continuation high school students surveys to fill out during and upon the completion of a drug education program. The research…… [Read More]


Coronges, K., Stacy, a.W., Valente, T.W. (2011). "Social network influences of alcohol and marijuana cognitive associations." Addictive Behaviors. 36: 1305-1308.

Nathan, P.E. (1985). "Alcoholism: a cognitive social learning approach." Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2: 169-173.

Niaura, R. (2000). "Cognitive social learning and related perspectives on drug craving." Addiction. 95: S155-S163.
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Cognitive Learning Theory Presents a

Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62422328

Through both observation and formal instruction, a child acquires new knowledge that determines how he/she behaves. Furthermore, the child's behavior is strengthened or transformed by the outcomes of his/her actions and the reaction of other people (Aldinger & Whitman, 2003).

Cognitive Behavioral Theory:

As the second theory of cognitive learning perspective, the behavioral theory explains the role of knowing in determining and foretelling an individual's behavioral pattern. The cognitive behavioral theory implies that people tend to formulate self-concepts that influence the behavior they display. The formulated self-concepts can either be positive or negative depending on the individual's environment resulting in either good or bad behavior respectively. This theory also explains individuals' learning and behavior through the cognitive triad i.e. The self, the world, and the future.

Cognitive Model of Learning:

The first step in the cognitive model of learning is comprehension, which depends on an individual's prior knowledge and reading…… [Read More]


Aldinger, C. & Whitman, C.V. (2003, April 22). Skills for Health. Retrieved August 30, 2011,


"Chapter 5 -- Learning Theories." The Learning Domain. Retrieved August 30, 2011, from 

Cherry, K. (n.d.). Social Learning Theory: An Overview of Bandura's Social Learning Theory.
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Social Issue Alcohol Drugs Consider a Social

Words: 1118 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83850354

Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.

Social issue: Drug abuse

The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…… [Read More]


Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.

Retrieved at:

Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
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Learning Reinforcement for Learning to Effectively Take

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81873442

Learning Reinforcement

For learning to effectively take place, a number of concepts must be brought together and these include but are not in any way limited to environmental, emotional as well as cognitive influences. One of the most prominent learning theories is the social learning theory whose fronting was most prominently done by Albert andura amongst others.

The Social Learning Theory

The social learning theory is founded on the view that most learning is undertaken within the social context. However, according to Ronald L. Akers, the social learning theory must not only be taken to be a theory of peer influence.

With that in mind, the key concepts in this case include; modeling, imitation as well as observational learning. The social learning theory has four basic principles with the first principle stating that most of the learning is informed by an observation of behavior. Here, the reasoning is that the…… [Read More]


Akers, Ronald. Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance. Transaction Publishers, 2009

Griffin, Ricky Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Cengage Learning, 2009

Sarafino, Edward. Self-Management: Using Behavioral and Cognitive Principles to Manage Your Life. John Wiley and Sons, 2010

Ronald Akers, Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance (Transaction Publishers, 2009), 25.
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Social Psychology Social Beliefs and

Words: 2534 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79190155

I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.

Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…… [Read More]


David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Social Nature of Learning for

Words: 2453 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 695551

Some jobs will require that a person continue his college education and some will require learning that can take place on the job in order to acquire the needed skills.

on-the-job training can take place in several forms. An outside training firm can be brought in to the company to hold seminars on a relevant topic for the employees. In this environment, the social nature of learning could be one of camaraderie or competitiveness among the adult employees. The adult employee wanted to get ahead may try to excel and outperform his coworkers to increase his chances of advancing. On the other hand, the environment could be more of a friendly social nature while everyone is learning. They may be asked to work in groups, much like in a college classroom setting. This will allow them to collaborate and perhaps learn about new skills they can acquire from their coworkers.…… [Read More]


Cameron, David. (2010). Adult learning and the way it inspires people is crucially important. Adults Learning, 21(9), 16-17.  (Accessed on June 22, 2010).  (Accessed on June 22, 2010).

Schmidt, Laurel. (2008). How we don't learn. Leadership, 38(2), 10-14.
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Social construction theories on'serial killers

Words: 938 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44015896

Criminology researchers usually draw on multiple sociological theories for understanding crime and offenders. Certain elements of serial-killing research continue to be a subject of speculation and exploration, on account of the numerous preconceptions and myths surrounding the crime. The significance of establishing a theoretic basis to explain sociological factors proves crucial to distinguishing between fact and fiction (Hickey, 2013).

Social Structure Theory

This class of theories concentrates on the socioeconomic status of a person and suggests that the poor perpetrate more offenses owing to their struggle to achieve social or monetary success. They are, particularly owing to their subcultural, racial, or ethnic status, restricted in several ways from lawfully attaining the great “American Dream\". Thus, they resort to deviant techniques to succeed. Structural theories provide convincing justifications for numerous offenses, with the exception of serial killing. Normally, serial killers lack financial or social motivation, and aren’t members of any specific…… [Read More]

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Social Contexts of Development the

Words: 3669 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39089120

(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)

ole of Workplaces:

espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…… [Read More]


Jacobs, Garry; Cleveland, Harlan. (1 November, 1999) "Social Development Theory" retrieved at . Accessed on 26 February 2005

Keirsey, David. (1998) "Parenting and Temperament" retrieved at Accessed on 26 February 2005

Lavoie, Rick. "The Teacher's role in developing social skills" Retrieved at on 27 February 2005

Moore, Shirley. G. "The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence" ERIC Digest. Retrieved at Accessed on 26 February 2005
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Social Dimensions of Crime the

Words: 1050 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27384933

I find this very surprising because I thought that social learning and incorporation of operant conditioning as part of the social learning theory plays a preeminent role in influencing criminality.

I think that the theories that explain best the findings of the articles are the sociological and theories. Psychological and biological theories are not suitable for support. I chose from the sociological theories the "Social Disorganization Theory" emanating from the Chicago School research of Shaw and McKay. According to this theory's general hypothesis "low economic status, ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility, and family disruption lead to community social disintegration, which in turn increases crime and delinquency rates" (Sampson, .J. & Groves, W.B., Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory, p. 774.) The Social Disorganization Study is the theory that by virtue of the article's title actually underlies the research of Triplett & Gainey. But in large parts it also mirrors the…… [Read More]


Monahan, J. (19 February 2010). The Causes of Violence. Derived 15 August 2011 from

Sampson, R.J. & Groves, W.B. (1989). Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory. AJS Volume 94 Number 4 (January 1989): 774-802, derived 15 August 2011 from RJ Sampson… - American Journal of Sociology, 1989 -- JSTOR.
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Social Work Is an Important

Words: 2884 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78986634

The stopping of treatment is the primary reason for this early intervention. This tactic has been extremely successful for many years and should be

Once the induction interviews are complete, the client and the social worker can move on to treating the patient. Once the treatment has started it is vitally important that the social worker pay careful attention to eliminating communication patterns that are counterproductive. Social workers have to be careful not to get stuck in unproductive type of communication that serve no purpose and do nothing to assist the client.

In addition if a social worker must examine the family functioning and diverse family and cultural contexts. This simply means that the social worker is responsible for examining the home situation of the client and assisting the client based on this environment. There are several different family structures that may be present including single family homes, blended families…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Glossary. Retrieved November 24, 2009 from: http: / / www. cmpmhmr. / glossary.html

Hardcastle, David A. (2004) Community Practice: Theories and Skills for Social Workers. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press

Hepworth, DH Rooney, R.H., Rooney, G.D., Strom-Gottfried K., Larsen J. (2009) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills. Cengage Learning, 2009

Ogrodniczuk, J.S., Joyce, A.S., and Piper W.E. (2005) Strategies for Reducing Patient-Initiated Premature Termination of Psychotherapy. Harvard Review Psychiatry Vol. 13 Issue 2, p57-70, 14p. March/April 2005
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Cognitive Learning Theory

Words: 357 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89592014

Psychology - Cognitive

Cognitive Learning Theory


Info: Write a paragraph (1) in which you identify one principle from cognitive learning theory and discuss two implications of the theory for instruction or assessment. . (The implications you discuss should be your ideas and not ones that are discussed in the textbook.)

Exemplary Response:

• Accurate statement of a principle of cognitive (constructivist) learning theory

• Discusses two original, reasonable implications which follow logically from the theory

Cognitive learning theory has as one of its principles "Learners construct knowledge and understandings within a social context." In other words, students should learn in a group setting. Interaction, discussion, and collaboration with fellow students are a way to engage the pupil in active, rather than passive learning. Further, knowledge is constructed from the setting itself. Teamwork and effective communication techniques are developed as a result of the setting.

Constructing knowledge and understandings within…… [Read More]

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Theories of Psychology in Group Work

Words: 1268 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79630563

Psychology in Group Work

Learning Theory

There are many theories that describe the process of human development. Most of us have identified with the learning theory. The learning theory has been given credit because it makes sense. In this article, we shall discuss one theory, which the author developed in an educational setting. The focus is on Bandura who is the key theorist in his learning theory (Agnew, 2007). Behaviors are taken into focus in Bandura's learning theory. The theory is significantly useful offering techniques of teaching and modifying of behavior. In the following sections, examples are going to be provided. This study will begin with clarification of the basic concept of the specified theory. This will be followed with a discussion of the theory's practical use: both classroom and clinical application (Bandura, 2006).

The learning theory of Bandura

The learning theory of Bandura provides that we learn from one…… [Read More]


Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strained theory of delinquency. Social Forces 64 (1): 151-167. doi:


Bandura, A. (2006). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
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Learning Ethical Issues in Observational

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53612894

It is fairly clear that there was learning going on when the children observed aggressive behavior, but leaping immediately to the conclusion that what was learned was aggression, and not the specific behaviors exhibited by the adult models and repeated by the children, seems at least a little presumptive. If it can be assumed that the children in the experiment had never witnessed the specific behaviors of the models prior to the experiment (which would have been necessary to establish for the experiment itself to be valid), then the behavior might have been simply frightening to them, and acting out the behaviors might have been a method of familiarizing themselves with the behavior so as to understand it and make it less frightening. Though the end result would be the same desensitization to aggression, the possibility of this mechanism is important.

This possibility, and the construction and results of the…… [Read More]


Isom, M. (1998). "Albert Bandura: The social learning theory." Florida State University. Accessed 29 August 2009.

Van Wagner, K. (2009). "Social learning theory." Accessed 29 August 2009.
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Theory and Criminal Behavior

Words: 847 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25165465


Skinner's radical behaviorism has been used to provide explanations for a number of behavioral phenomenon including criminal behavior (Skinner, 1966). For instance, the crime of burglary offers an example of how antisocial behaviors are learned through reinforcement. Members of society that commonly engage in theft or burglary learn their trade via the reinforcing aspects of stealing. The need to steal may be initially activated by means of some form of need or desire to have material gain; however, for many individuals who habitually engage in thievery repeated stealing is positively reinforced by the tangible acquisition of goods provided by these activities. For many of these individuals this behavior is reinforced by the notion that it is easier to steal from others then to apply oneself, work hard, and take the chance on getting the lees than desired rewards. However, many habitual criminals actually put in as much effort into…… [Read More]


Andrews, D.A. & Hoge, R.D. (1999). The psychology of criminal conduct and principles of effective prevention and rehabilitation. Forum on Corrections Research. Special Edition. 12 -- 14. Retrieved on April 1, 2013 from

Bandura, A. (1977). Social leaning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime:Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.

Skinner, B.F. (1966). The phylogeny and ontogeny of behavior. Science, 153, 1204 -- 1213.
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Theory Explaining Crime in Gender Specific Approach

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59154268

Gender-Specific Theory of Delinquency

Several theories have strived to explain delinquency and crime within the society, most of which center around the individual and the personal make up or biology, yet others focus on the surrounding that the individual grows up in and the people they interact with. There are theories that are gender specific in that they tend to explain how the fact that an individual is of a given gender is a predisposition to get involved in some given crime or delinquency within the society, one of such theories which will also form the focus of the paper is the social learning theory.

The society often ascribe gender specific roles that the girls and the boys are implicitly expected to adhere to. The girls are often expected to take up some form of behavior, often subtle, though effective way of perpetuating the responsibilities and characters that are deemed…… [Read More]


Albert Badnura, (1971). Social Learning Theory. Stanford University. Retrieved June 4, 2015 from 

Smith M. & Berge Z., (2009). Social Learning Theory in Second Life. Retrieved June 4, 2015 from
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Personal Learning Theory The Author

Words: 2003 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88212585"

Experiential education comes in many shapes and sizes

Experiential education is widely implemented across a range of topics and mediums - for example, outdoor education, service learning, internships, and group-based learning projects. Many educational projects are experiential, but don't refer to themselves as such (e.g., excursions, physical education, manual arts, drama, art, and so on)."

The value of experiential education is instrumental to my learning theory. I remember the first time I assisted in a classroom and saw how valuable it is when utilized correctly.

I was helping with a math lesson in a first grade classroom. The teacher had drawn an equation the board of 2 plus 3 equals 5. She had the students first discuss the equation and talk about things that could be added. The list was endless and fun and included pet dogs, cats, little sisters and brothers. It had the students laughing and paying…… [Read More]


Albert Bandura

Passages by Albert Bandura (

Bandura: Beliefs, Bobo, and Behavior
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Dispositional and Learning Theory

Words: 1143 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37398491

Dispositional and Learning Theory

The objective of this study is to describe the role of personality in affecting situational behavior and examine the personality characteristics attributed to each of the theories. This work will additionally explain the interpersonal relational aspects associated with the theories selected.

Personality is defined by Gordon Allport as the "dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine a person' behavior and thought." (Psychological Musings, 2011, p.1) Dispositional theory is reported to be such that "holds an optimistic view of human nature and believes healthy people are consciously motivated, maintain healthy relationships, and relate realistically to their environment." This theory is reported to be such that provides a description of personality traits referred to as 'dispositions'. It was theorized by Allport that "central traits from the fundamental structure of individual personalities and secondary traits contribute to less important characteristics." (Psychological Musings, 2011, p.1) Allport…… [Read More]


Critique of Learning Perspectives on Personality (2003) Wilderdom. 29 Sept 2003. Retrieved from: 

Introduction to Learning Perspectives on Personality (2003) Wilderdom 29 Sept 2003. Retrieved from: 

Introduction to Personality (2011) Psychological Musings. 8 May 2011. Retrieved from: 

Personality Analysis: Humanist/Existential and Learning Theories (2011) Psychological Musings. 27 May 2011. Retrieved from:
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Examining Different Learning Theories

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50408198

Dominant Learning Theories

Excellence in the field of pedagogy depends on an understanding of the major learning theories and models along with an ability to use them when appropriate. Even if one doesn't agree with these major learning theories, it's still important to be aware of them as a professional. A strong comprehension of the major learning theories can also help to guide one's actions and choices as an educator, scholar or general pedagogue.

Behaviorism, for example, is a major learning theory which asserts that the bulk of learning that occurs in human beings is done through conditioning. This is important as it puts a lot of focus on the power of the environment and how the environment can shape a person's behaviors through the stimuli acquired. Behaviorism is a school of learning which pays very little attention to mental states, finding things like moods and emotions to be too…… [Read More]


Cherry, K. (2014). What Is Behaviorism? Retrieved from (2013). Behavioral, cognitive, humanist approaches. Retrieved from 

Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from
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Traditional Learning Theories Behavioral Constructivism and Cognitive

Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19191460

learning theories, and apply them to the adult learning environment. Specifically behavioral, constructivist, and cognitive learning theories are examined.

Behavioral Learning Theories

This approach to learning suggests that learning is the result of external stimulus and response to stimulus, thus the learner's environment is the primary factor influencing learning (Hergenhahn & Olson, 1997). The focus of the behavioral learning model is changes in behavior facilitated by stimuli provided by the learner's environment; not stimuli produced by the learner. einforcement of stimuli in the environment are thought to effect change and therefore become critical to the learning process in this learning theory model. The learner's responses to stimuli can be strengthened depending on how one is conditioned to respond; meaning, in the behavioral model, positive reinforcement can serve to enforce positive learning.

Also important to the behavioral model is repetition and generalization of important learning concepts (Hartley, 1998). These serve to…… [Read More]


Bruner, J.S. (1966). Toward a theory of instruction. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.

Bruner, J.S. (1996). The culture of education. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.

Hartley, J. (1998). Learning and studying. A research perspective. London: Routledge.

Huang, Hisu-Mei. (2002). Toward constructivism for adult learners in online learning environments. British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol 33, No. 1, 27-37.
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Cognitive Theory

Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13935781

Social Cognitive Theory

First promoted by Albert Bandura, the principles of social-cognitive theory stemmed from the social learning theory, both of which can be blanketed under behaviorism. Based on the principle that people are motivated primarily by reward or punishment, social-cognitive theory builds upon the basic tenets of behaviorism by focusing on the ways individuals learn by observing others and modeling their behavior. Therefore, social-cognitive theory suggests that both human cognition and social interaction play key roles in the stimulus-response process.

Social-cognitive theory offers a well-rounded approach to basic behaviorism and can be a useful approach to understanding individual and group behaviors. Moreover, social-cognitive theory can help researchers postulate motivations for certain behaviors. The theory is useful in helping psychologists understand how to promote behavioral change in their clients. The theory is therefore useful in both clinical and counseling psychology, as it has potential uses for research as well as…… [Read More]

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Transformational Learning Theory in the Context of Adult Learning

Words: 2173 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90860423

Transformational Learning

More than twenty-five years ago, Jack Mezirow initiated a profound movement in the field of adult education, that of transformative learning theory. Since this time, the concept of transformative learning has been a topic of much research and theory building in the field of adult education as described in more detail in this research paper. Although Mezirow is considered to be the major developer of transformative learning theory, other perspectives about transformative learning have emerged and are still emering, indicating that Mezirow's work was just a beginning.

Today there are four major models of transformative learning: the cognitive-rational approach of Mezirow, Freire's social transformation, the concept of development by Daloz and spirituality dimensions advocated by Dirkx and Healey. And, critics such as oyd, and Clark and Wilson have criticized Mezirow's theory as too rationally driven. Even so, Merizow's theory still serves as a widely-used foundation to explain or…… [Read More]


Boyd, R.D., and Myers, J.G..(1988, October-December). Transformative education. International Journal Of Lifelong Education 7, no. 4, 261-284.

Clark, M.C., & Wilson, A.L. (1991). Context and rationality in Mezirow's theory of transformational learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 41(2), 75-91.

Cranton, P.(1994). Understanding and promoting transformative learning: a guide for educators of adults. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Daloz, L. (1986). Effective teaching and mentoring. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
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Behavioral Changes and Learning

Words: 3052 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80939334

Social learning theory states that an individual will learn from others through observation, modeling, and imitation (Bandura & McClelland, 1977). A person's behavior is dependent on the environment they come from and the models they grew up observing. Learning is believed to be a cognitive process that will take place in a social context. The social learning theory is often referred to as a bridge between cognitive and behaviorist learning theories because it covers memory, attention, and motivation. Albert Bandura proposed the theory, and it is one of the most influential development and learning theory. Bandura held to the belief that learning could not be fully accounted for by direct reinforcement. The theory proposed by Bandura was rooted in the traditional learning theory, but it added a social element. He argued that individuals could learn new behaviors and information by observing other individuals. Observational learning is the term he used,…… [Read More]


Akers, R.L. (2011). Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. Piscataway Township, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Akers, R.L., & Jensen, G.F. (2011). Social learning theory and the explanation of crime (Vol. 1). Piscataway Township, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Bandura, A., & McClelland, D.C. (1977). Social learning theory.

Cherry, K. (2011). Social Learning Theory an Overview of Bandura's Social learning Theory. The New York Times Company.(online article).
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Brain-Based Learning Theory

Words: 4565 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6664845

rain-ased Learning Theory

Learning does not only bring enlightenment to the weary souls but it also helps us learn, grow and be what we are potentially able to become. Therefore education plays a vital role in inculcating a sense of responsibility in children and to assist them in learning other highly important social skills. Thus through adequate instructional framework and effective and logical application of the learning theories, both educators and learners can considerably reap benefits of teaching and learning respectively. The purpose of this analytical research paper is to apply brain base learning theory in the most effective manner to the instructional design. The passages below will aim at the accomplishment of six distinct goals. We begin with the comprehension of the theory and principles of instructional design thereby defining it in detail.

GOAL I: Understand the Theoretical Foundations and Principles of Instructional Design

The term instructional design is…… [Read More]


Berger C. & Kam R (1996). Definitions of Instructional designs. Adopted from "training and instructional design," applied research lab, Penn State University. Retrieved February 15, 2003 at 

Smith, P. & Ragan, T.(1993). Instructional design. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Leigh D. A Brief History of Instructional Design. Retrieved February 16, 2003 from:

Dorin, H., Demmin, P.E., Gabel, D. (1990). Chemistry: The study of matter. (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Cooperative Learning Iterations Across Reforms

Words: 1949 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38328456

Learning Environments

Educators as far back as Aristotle have attempted to determine the most optimal approach to teaching and learning. Any theory of learning must take a constellation of factors into consideration. Evidence-based research on the different components of learning theory, effective instruction, and learning environments abound, yet the one commonality is that individual differences are pivotal to the success of any approach. Additionally, even if perfect learning environments could be created, learning must be applicable to the world outside of the classroom. Indeed, that it its ultimate purpose. In this paper, this author will explore the characteristics of the backwards mapping, or designing for understanding, Common Core State Standards, both of which are integrative frameworks that promote efficient learning and effective teaching.

Learning Theory and Its Importance

A primary consideration of learning theorists is how to effectively address individual differences. Consider that from the 18th century and earlier, learning…… [Read More]


Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annuals Rev. Psychology, 51(2), 1-26. Retrieved from

Brown, D. (2014). Opening classroom doors to collaborative learning. The Education Digest, 79(7), 19-22. Retrieved from

Fine, L., & Myers, J.W. (2004). Understanding students with Asperger's syndrome. Phi Delta Kappa Fastbacks, (520), 3-39. Retrieved from

Griswold, D.E., Barnhill, G.P., Brenda, S.M., Hagiwara, T., & Simpson, R.L. (2002). Asperger syndrome and academic achievement. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(2), 94. Retrieved from
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Forced Religion or Spiritualism on Academic and Social Learning in Adolescents

Words: 2899 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18245781

They do this without paying attention to the person that undergoes difficulties in their lives and are simply certain that religion is the only way through which one will no longer find life problematical. Religious tutors believe that religion is the best method of assisting adolescents who come across an impediment at a certain moment. Most are actually determined to force religion into teenagers, with the confidence that it is the only solution. As a result, numerous adolescents believe that religion is indeed the answer to their problems (Craigen & Foster, 2009).

Adolescence is a difficult period, with young people being confused with the purpose of life and with what options they have to make. Emotional experiences are more intense in adolescents and a large number of teenagers resort to attempting to commit suicide, considering that such an act would benefit them. Religion is used as a way to guide…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Craigen, L.M. And Foster, V. "It Was like a Partnership of the Two of Us against the Cutting": Investigating the Counseling Experiences of Young Adult Women Who Self-Injure," Journal of Mental Health Counseling 31.1 (2009).

2. Hamburg, D.A. And Hamburg, B.A. Learning to Live Together: Preventing Hatred and Violence in Child and Adolescent Development (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).

3. Mcinerney, D.M. Davidson, N. Rosemary Suliman, and Tremayne, B. "Personal Development, Health and Physical Education in Context: Muslim and Catholic Perspectives," Australian Journal of Education 44.1 (2000).

4. Patton, L.D. And McClure, M.L. "Strength in the Spirit: a Qualitative Examination of African-American College Women and the Role of Spirituality during College," The Journal of Negro Education 78.1 (2009).
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Hirschis Social Bond Theory and Its Impact on the Juvenile Justice System

Words: 947 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58417535

Hirschi's Social Bond Theory

Hirschi's social bonding theory argues that those persons who strong and abiding attachments to conventional society are less likely to deviate than persons who have shallow or weak bonds (Smangs, 2010). These bonds come in four interrelated forms, the first of which is attachment. Attachment, refers to the level of psychological affection one has for pro-social others and institutions. Parents and schools are of critical importance in this regard. Youths who form close attachments to their parents1 and schools will, by extension, experience greater levels of social control. The second type of bond is referred to as commitment. Commitment stresses the importance of the social relationships that people value, which they would not want to risk jeopardizing by committing criminal or deviant acts. People are less likely to misbehave when they know that they have something to lose. For juveniles, this could mean not wanting to…… [Read More]


"Key idea: Hirschi's social bond/social control theory." (NDI). Sage Publications. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from

Smangs, M. (2010, December) Delinquency, social skills, and the structure of peer relations: Assessing criminological theories by social network theory. Social Forces, Vol. 89, Issue 2, 609-631. University of North Carolina Press. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from
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Looking Into Theory on Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 1872 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64006820

Theory on Juvenile Delinquency

Interventions that involve life-course unrelenting offenders should place emphasis on remedial social abilities, for them to have a chance to decrease their frequency of offending in future, and to tackle conduct disorder problems. Interventions involving teenage-onset offenders should, wherever applicable, tackle issues relating to parenting, alcohol/drug misuse, and anti-social cronies. Keane, Krull and Phythian (2008) define self-control as the extent to which a person is susceptible to temptation. According to them, lack of self-restraint or self-control is a fairly universal and stable characteristic, accounting for individual discrepancies in deviant, reckless, and criminal conduct. Youngsters' parents are usually blamed for their kids' delinquent behavior. Some courts go as far as penalizing parents for their kids' antisocial actions. It is believed that weak self-control develops during early childhood, when one's family is the most central socializing agent. Hence, lack of self-restraint and the resultant deviant behavior result from…… [Read More]


Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory.

Burfeind, J. W., & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Demuth, Stephen and Susan L. Brown. 2004. "Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.

Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
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Looking Into Social Cognitivism

Words: 2452 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68552322

Social Cognitivism: Viewpoint Synthesis

Literature eview on Social Cognitivism

Social Cognitivism

Theoretical Paper: Social Cognitive Theory of Personality by Albert Bandura

The core of the social cognitive theory is that through observation, learning occurs. This theory has several premises forming its foundation. Human beings are seen to learn when they participate in the observation process. A person who is a model, demonstrates a behaviour while the observer picks up this behaviour or learns it by seeing the model doing it. Albert Bandura, in his Social Cognitive Theory on personality, which is now known as the Social Learning Theory, states that there are many interactions of various elements such as people, the environment and behaviours when learning is taking place. Thus it takes place within a social setting (Bandura, 1999).

Purpose of the study

Bandura pursued various aims in this study. He looked at the behaviour of groups and individuals and…… [Read More]


Bandura A. (1989) Social Cognitive Theory. IN: Annals of Child Development (Vol 6, p1

60. (Vasta R, ed). Greenwich, CT: Jai Press LTD.

Bandura, A. (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Multiple Discipline Learning Theories

Words: 1286 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69966553

Integrated Lesson Plan

MATH Lesson Plan

Grade Level:



Activity Name:

Addition is fun!

Learning Domain Addition

Overview & Purpose Students will learn the basic concept of addition. Addition is useful because it provides a foundation for other aspects of arithmetic.

What will be learned and why it is useful.

Education Standards Addressed

If your state has early learning standards, please identify and list the standards that this lesson addresses

(Specify skills/information that will be learned.)

The objective is for students to learn to add.

Materials Needed:


Candy (Skittles)

(Specific skill / concept being taught in lesson)

The content is that students can combine objects to get more of them.


Addition, plus, equals.

Other esources:

(e.g. Web, books, etc.)

Procedure/s: (List of steps in lesson delivery) Include as applicable and in order of delivery:

Examine and Talk, Demonstrate, Model, Plan, Guide, ecord, Describe, Explore, Acquire, Practice, etc.…… [Read More]


Bandura, A. (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. John (Ed.), Handbook of personality (2nd ed., pp. 154-196). New York: Guilford Publications. (Reprinted in D. Cervone & Y. Shoda [Eds.], The coherence of personality. New York: Guilford Press.)

Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective. Asian Journal of Social Psychology. 2(1), 21-41.

Frith, C.D., Singer, T. (2008). "The role of social cognition in decision making." Retrieved from
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Social Cognitive and Behavioral Drinking

Words: 1217 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36859638

Social Cognitive, Behavioral Drinking

Social Cognitive/behavioralist Drinking

Drinking behavior provides informative demonstration of how social cognitive and behavioralist theories provide complementary rather than competing explanations of human agency. Bandura (1999) casts social cognitive theory against various determinist and materialist theories on the assertion humans are "sentient agents of experiences rather than simply undergoers of experiences" because people explore, manipulate and influence the environment they discover (p. 4). This contrasts against "automaticity," habit, "tendencies to repeat responses given a stable supporting context" (Oullette and Wood, 1998, p. 55). Oullette & Wood (1998) compare habit learning to skill development, where practice can lead to "nonvolitional, frequent, and consistent experiences in a given context" but new situations require deliberation (p. 55). Wood and Neal (2007) largely reiterate this summary as repeated learned behavior (843). The present inquiry is particularly interested in how and why particular behaviors become repeated after negative consequences have been…… [Read More]


Bandura, A. (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. John (Ed.),

Handbook of personality (2nd ed., pp. 154-196). New York: Guilford Publications. (Reprinted in D. Cervone & Y. Shoda [Eds.], The coherence of personality. New York: Guilford Press.)

Ouellette, J. & Wood, W. (1998). Habit and intention in everyday life: The multiple processes by which past behavior predicts future behavior. Psychological Bulletin 124(1), 54-74.

Wood, w. & Neal, D.T. (2007). A new look at habits and the habit -- goal interface. Psychological Review 114(4), 843 -- 863. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.114.4.843
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Social Loafing A Plan for

Words: 1978 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7012080

Lack of rewards for individuals, unintended rewards for loafing: Having some individuals who are collectively-minded paired with workers with a 'what's in it for me' attitude can result in the more generously spirited workers' good will being relied up, while others take credit.

A five best practices

1. Create a common work culture: Friends are often less likely to 'socially loaf' on work teams (Kunishima & elte 2004).

2. Using dispersed teams with a lack of social facilitation factors can be undercut by increasing levels of difficulty and responsibility "As tasks become more difficult and participants perceive they can make a unique contribution to the task, social loafing decreases" (Kunishima & elte 2004).

3. Task uniqueness -- by ensuring members of the work teams have specifically defined roles, there is less of a chance to feel as if others can pick up the slack (Kunishima & elte 2004).

5. Punishment…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bansal, Pratima & Sonia Kandola. (2004, March/April) Corporate social responsibility: why good people behave badly in organizations. Business Journal Online. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at

Big Brother eyes 'boost honesty' (2006, June 28). BBC News. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at 

Coleman, Andrew. (2001). Social loafing. The Encyclopedia of Psychology. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at

Kunishima, Jill & Kasi Welte. (2004, March) Effects of punishment threats on social loafing
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Social Cognition Is the Study

Words: 1991 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72025607

Since we observe the responses of our peers and friends, we are very much attuned to how we interact with others, and how their succeed or fail. The theory of self-efficacy is fundamental to understanding social cognitive learning, because it implies that the process of using this theory creates greater confidence. Since individuals learn from their cultural environment, it is imperative to construct a positive enforcing messages through the educational process to ensure that individuals feel that they can accomplish any and all given tasks.

A contextual example of the social cognitive learning model can be seen in the case of student as in the provided example. As is a student who feels no self-efficacy when it comes to mathematics, despite numerous opportunities to learn from math, he has taken no opportunities to improve himself. When questioned he clearly asserts that he cannot learn math, something that appears counterintuitive from…… [Read More]

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Social Biases A Continuing Societal

Words: 1559 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29182202

(2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice esearch, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database

Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis evisited. Status Bias in the eduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database

Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. esearch Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database

Pearson, A., Dovidio, J., & Pratto, F. (2007).acial Prejudice, Intergroup Hate, and Blatant and Subtle Bias of Whites toward Blacks in Legal Decision Making in the United States. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p145-158, 14p. etrieved July 8, 2009 from EBSCO online database Full Text

amasubramanian, S. &…… [Read More]


Faxed material

Fiske, S. (2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice Research, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database

Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis Revisited. Status Bias in the Reduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database

Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. Research Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database
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Social Work Internship Experience With Alzheimer Patients

Words: 1397 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19889572

Social Work Internship Experience With Alzheimer Patients

My service learning experience was a positive one. I had the opportunity to work at an Alzheimer's care facility, with patients exhibiting various stages of Alzheimer's disease. I learned through my interactions with older adults at the clinic that much like anyone else, Alzheimer's patients need stimulation, warmth, compassion and an environment that encourages interaction and relationship building.

My views of older adults have changed significantly since working with patients at the care center. Whereas in the past I might have assumed that all older adults were mentally less cognizant of their emotions and feelings and 'numb' to the world around them, I learned instead that many have a great compassion for caring, and many desire simply to enjoy much of the same things than anyone else would at their age. My experiences are described in greater detail below.

Summary of Experiences

My…… [Read More]


Gebo, L. "Biological Systems and their Impacts on Later Adulthood." Chapter 14. New

York, Thompson Brooks Cole: 2004.
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Learning Styles and Learning Practices in General

Words: 315 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3539771

Learning Styles and Learning Practices

In general, psychological theorists and educators acknowledge that learning occurs quite differently in different individuals. Some people learn best by observing, whereas others learn best by listening, and still others learn best by participating or experiencing something more tangible in connection with the subject matter (Akkoyunlu, & Soylu, 2008). There are numerous theories about how people learn, and one of the most commonly used is Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI), that categorizes learning according to the following broad distinctions: Concrete Experience or considering things substantially the way they are presented; Abstract Conceptualization or considering things as ideas and theories that represent or incorporate what is represented; Active Experimentation or forming conclusions based on what is represented and conducting experiments to confirm those conclusions; and eflective Observation or determining…… [Read More]


Akkoyunlu, B., & Soylu, M.Y. (2008). A Study of Student's Perceptions in a Blended

Learning Environment Based on Different Learning Styles. Educational Technology & Society, 11 (1), 183-193.

Chickering, A.W. & Gamson, Z.F. (1991). Applying the Seven Principles for Good

Practice in Undergraduate Education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 47.
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Learning Complex Tasks Like Driving

Words: 552 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21767364

There are some indications that observational learning might be genetic; animals teaching their young to hunt and the discovery of mirror neurons -- brain cells that fire when emotions/behaviors are observed in others -- both point to a biological basis for this type of learning. This learning is far more likely to occur if observed behaviors are met with rewards, however. Observational learning is also at the heart of the controversy concerning violence in the media, which some believe leads to more violent behavior in real life as individuals observe and learn from "fake" violent depictions.

Pages 203-204

There is growing evidence that violent media does in fact lead to increased real-world violence, both with "copy-cat" crimes and simply with violence generally. Exposure to violence lowers inhibitions against violence and possibly alters perceptions about the meanings and intentions behind others' behaviors, as well, causing nonviolent acts to be perceived as…… [Read More]

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Social Work Macro Social Intervention

Words: 1411 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75262864

The GEMS effort was to create a social environment that encouraged healthy eating and exercise, and expanded health literacy in a fun manner, and was accessible to young girls.

It is easier to change health-related behaviors in the young, and the program tried to address the unique and often more acute problem of obesity in African-American young girls. The entire community and family units were incorporated into the program effort. Positive aspects of the African-American community, such as strong social support, were used by the study designers, also in line with social cognition theory. Existing support structures and social learning were combined: for example, the families in question were often not educated in how to properly read food labels, but once they were, the desire to help their daughters become healthier would hopefully reinforce the need to engage in proactive steps to improve dietary health. During Family Nights, families of…… [Read More]


Marvella E. Ford, Barbara C. Tilley, & Patricia E. McDonald. (1998). Social support among

African- American adults with diabetes. Journal of American Medicine. 90 (6) 361-365.

Retrieved July 9, 2010 at 

Story, Mary, et al. (2003, Winter). "An after-school obesity prevention program for African-