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SOCIAL MOVEMENTS & INTELLIGENCE
On a basic or fundamental level, social movements are changes made mostly by the people and not a government or law enforcement agency. Social movements are not immediate and take years and often decades to yield results. Social movements are often but not always a response to unfairness, injustice, intolerance, and imbalance within a culture and/or society. In recent global history, the decade that saw a great deal of change due to social movements was the 1960s. In the 21st century, greatly in part to the advent of certain forms of digital technology, social movements are on the rise and grassroots activism has dispersed to deeper levels around Earth. Social movements are forms of organized actions usually taken by those who are disenfranchised, marginalized, or otherwise isolated or oppressed by the mainstream culture in which the social movement takes place. Social movements can enact a…
King called upon Black churches to challenge the status quo and to change the pervasively oppressive social order. acism, economic and labor exploitation and war were named by King as the three greatest evils of American society and they needed to be fully eradicated to resolve social disparity.
King's idea of integration was complex; he struggled to eliminate or reduce poverty by linking political power, wealth, and poverty...."King's unfinished search for more radical reforms in America may have been the central reason he was killed."..."Martin Luther King and Malcolm X were both assassinated," Allen (1983: 322) writes, "at precisely the point at which they began working actively and consciously against the racism and exploitation generated by the American capitalist system..." (Jalata, 2003, p. 67)
The value of understanding the issue of class had been one that was a significant aspect of social reform research, since the post war period. One…
Curran, L. (2003). The Culture of Race, Class, and Poverty: The Emergence of a Cultural Discourse in Early Cold War Social Work. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 30(3), 15.
Hon, L.C. (1997). To Redeem the Soul of America: Public Relations and the Civil Rights Movement. Journal of Public Relations Research, 9(3), 163-212.
Howe, B., & Pidwell, R. (2002). Poverty Research and Social Policy. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 37(2), 113.
Jalata, a. (2003). Comparing the African-American and Oromo Movements in the Global Context. Social Justice, 30(1), 67.
The perspectives presented in the first instance by the two main candidates for the Democrat nomination is essential. Their presence of the ballots raises serious questions that in the end target defining issues for the American society. On the one hand, Hilary Clinton addresses the issue of women in the society and in the political and civil arena; on the other hand, Obama underlines the existence of the African-American community, the issue of discrimination, and the need for emancipation in this sense. Although these matters have been discussed along the decades, their importance is greater at this point because these problems and issues are raised at the highest level.
The other dimension of the idea that the current electoral campaign is labeled "a social movement" is the actual electoral platforms the two candidates have. Indeed, both Clinton and Obama are running for the same nomination and one of them will…
Bibliography: Hilary Clinton. 2005. 24 March 2008. http://www.firstladies.org/biographies/firstladies.aspx?biography=43
The New York Times. Politics. Issues. 2008. 24 March 2008 http://politics.nytimes.com/election-guide/2008/issues/index.html#/context=detail/issue=immigration/candidateA=obama/candidateB=allDem
Women's health, sexuality, motherhood, and other issues became of real importance. They were talked about instead of just hushed. Both men and women benefited from the women's movement. Society, however, was the major benefactor, as women's perspectives were able to influence everything from government to entertainment.
The continuation of the women's movement would have a similarly strong impact. This movement would encourage the complete equality of men and women in the home, instead of just in the workplace. The impact of this would be great on the American family. For the first time, many American children would be raised to understand that supporting a family, maintaining a house, and caring for a family is the job of both men and women. This would lead to the eradication of stereotypes. Furthermore, the continuation of the women's movement must address the inequality in contributions from women to many disciplines before the women's…
Social Work as a Social Movement
During the early part of the 20th century, social work was a way of helping individuals, but did little to question the status quo of larger groups of people. However, beginning in the 1950s, broad-based social movements began to challenge relationships that had previously been seen as private. While the underpinnings of these movements began in the 1950s, they became prominent in the 1960s. These movements made issues that had previously been considered private, such as the relationship between the sexes, public issues. In fact, it is fair to say that social movements politicized previously private issues, bringing broader attention to certain inequities. This led to some change, though not as much change as movement-leaders sought. Galeano and Klein both discuss the idea of social work as a social movement, and the relationship between the everyday work of helping individual people and the larger-concept…
1. One of the first strategies that the Sentinels employed with the purpose of being heard was to relate to early twentieth century gender concepts that would provide political voice to women. Also, by emphasizing that they were an active part of the American society, they insisted that they should receive equal democratic recognition from the masses. Lastly, they took advantage of President Wilson's militaristic doctrine to turn their fight into a greater conflict that involved women everywhere who needed to be freed from being persecuted as a result of their gender.
2. Susan B. Anthony used the Fourth Amendment as a tool to demonstrate that she was right in lobbying in regard to women suffrage. "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and of the state wherein they reside" and "No state shall…
The post-colonial state in Egypt was shaped by nationalism and nationbuilding, regionalism (pan-Arabism and pan-Islamism), contestations over legitimacy and interest-based and populist corporatism (Ayubi, 1991). More recently the focus shifted to discussions about civil society and democratization (Al-Sayyid, 1993; S. Ibrahim, 1995; S. Ibrahim (ed.), 1993; Norton (ed.), 1995; Zaki, 1995). In these works special attention has been given to Islamist organizations and their role in Egypt's 'civil society' associations (Kepel, 1985; Marty & Appleby (eds.), 1991; Stowasser (ed.), 1987; Zaki, 1995; Zubaida, 1992). Zaki, for example, contrasts the general weakness and political ineffectiveness that he attributes to the overwhelming majority of associations to the overall strength of Islamic associations (Al-Ali 2000:53)."
Feminist politics is somewhat subversive then, working through and against the state in a very candid way, but in a way that self-polices (54). That is to say in a way that remains respectful of Islamic law, which…
Al-Ali, Nadje. 2000. Secularism, Gender, and the State in the Middle East: The Egyptian Women's Movement. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105452622.Internet . Accessed 5 May 2008. Ganji, Manouchehr. 2002. Defying the Iranian Revolution: From a Minister to the Shah to a Leader of Resistance / . Westport, CT: Praeger, Questia. 20 Nov. 2006 http://questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102106483 . http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001188974
Gole, Nilufer. 2000. Snapshots of Islamic Modernities. Daedalus 129, no. 1: 91. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001188974.Internet . Accessed 5 May 2008. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001228850
Humphrey, Michael. 2000. Violence, Voice and Identity in Algeria. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 22, no. 1: 1. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001228850.Internet . Accessed 5 May 2008. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102504005
Policy reforms split movement coalitions, and fracture and demobilize movements. Because participating groups enter social movements with a range of goals, it is not surprising that they would view acceptable outcomes differently. Coalition dynamics are inherently unstable, as participants are constantly aware of the changing viability and value of particular alliances. In liberal polities, where political institutions are relatively permeable, coalitions are particularly fluid. A very recent example illustrates this point. Whereas laboratory research on the human genome rarely gets much public attention or understanding, periodic decision windows offer an invitation for concerned groups to weigh in. The decision about whether to fund research on human stem cell lines revisits, and reconfigures, old coalitions from the abortion debate. Research scientists, absent en bloc from the abortion debate, weighed in heavily on the question of stem cell research, mobilizing in their behalf, victims of a range of diseases that might be…
Empowering the population through universal education and health care. India needs to improve its HDI rank, as at 127 it is way below many other developing countries' performance. The UPA government is committed to furtering economic reforms and developing basic infrastructure to improve lives of the rural poor and boost economic performance. Government had reduced its controls on foreign trade and investment in some areas and has indicated more liberalization in civil aviation, telecom and insurance sector in the future (India Economy).
Along with that, "within the limit of governmental institutions, we tend to see even less when our rhetoric tends to elbowout what does not appeal to the short-run, efficiency concerns of the middle manager. The median voters -- "the paying customers -- "of PAeducational institutions (students) and professional organizations (members) tend to gain the scope they want. I feel military and knitting examples coming on. That is like directing all one's teaching at the sergeant level and ignoring all issues of strategy or even large-scale tactics. That is like learning how to knit only socks, just because I am now employed as a sock maker"(Farmer, 2002). With that, public policy can change from a rhetorical structure, which a social movement can influence in a positive manner.
Social Philosophy of Martin Luther King Jr.
Like most modern day nations, the United States has been heavily influenced by the social philosophies of past leaders. Our nation's founders (Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, etc.) espoused the ideas of democracy and civil liberty, and their philosophy led to the free nation we live in today. The likes of Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglas believed in freedom for all, and their philosophy gave way to the end of slavery. Similarly, Martin Luther King Jr. believed in the equality of man, civil rights, and most importantly, peaceful means in achieving those ends. For the purposes of this paper, I will evaluate King's values, his rational, and his means of achieving his objectives using two pieces of documentation -- a letter written to fellow ministers from a Birmingham, Al. Jail, and a speech given to striking workers entitled, "I've Been to the Mountaintop." In…
King Jr., Martin Luther. 1963. "Letter From Birmingham Jail." Almaz Website.
King Jr., Martin Luther. 1968. "I've Been to the Mountaintop." Afscme.org.
BLM and Covid 19 The U S at a Critical Crossroads
During the mid-1960s, the United States faced an existential threat when the combination of growing civil unrest over America’s military involvement in Southeast Asia in general and Vietnam in particular and pressure from a wide array of civil rights groups demanded equal treatment as well as their full complement of constitutional rights. The face that the republic survived this severe test to its viability underscores the strength of the U.S. Constitution as a living document, capable of responding to changes in prevailing social views and innovations in technology. Today, the nation is once again being sorely tested by a global coronavirus pandemic and a corresponding unprecedented economic downturn, but this time the demands for civil rights are far more broad-based and potentially disruptive to business as usual for mainstream politicians in the United States. The purpose of this paper…
About BLM. (2020). Black Lives Matter. Retrieved from https://blacklivesmatter.com/about/.
Da Silva, C. (2020, July 17). BLM co-founder: ‘The entire world is saying black lives matter now.\\' Newsweek, 175(1), 37.
Harris, S. M. (2020, July). Black lives matter to systemic family therapists. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 46(3), 383.
O’Hara, M. E. (2020, July 27). Black-owned businesses see gains. Adweek, 61(16), 5.
Solomon, D., Maxwell, C. & Castro, A. (2019, August 7). Systematic inequality: Displacement, exclusion, and segregation. Center for American Progress. Retrieved from https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/race/reports/2019/08/07/472617/systemic-inequality-displacement-exclusion-segregation/ .
People use various rhetorical techniques in order to have an impact on their audience. Four of these are: (a) conveying a sense of their own reality by invoking ideals (b) reverting to cultural norms to teach a lesson / persuade; (c) a transcendent appeal and (d) the moral arena of have or have not. Each of these can be exemplified in the attached essays.
TEACHING EALITY/INVOKING IDEALS
It seems to me that Cathcart"s essay best signifies this. The author discusses when and when not a movement can be described as confrontational. He goes into great lengths discussing the terms confrontational against other realistic terms and arguing where or not it can be accurately used in this sense. The author tries to get to the pith of the sense of the movement -- to touch at its reality. Man he says acts as 'symbol makers'. We often attach symbols to things…
Beasly VB Engendering democratic change
Cathcart, RS: Movements as confrontational form
Pauley, GE LYNDON B. JOHNSON, "WE SHALL OVERCOME" (15 MARCH 1965) Voices of Democracy 3 (2008): 17-33
There are definitely similarities between the two works. They are each a collection of essays that cover a multitude of complicated topics and opinions within the redefinition of modern social movements. The idea that social movements and political power are continuing to change is the main concern of both works. For ose, it is the advanced liberal that is molding social movements and political discourse within the Western world, whereas for Wignaraja, it is showing how the social movements of the past in places like Africa simply were not effective enough and need to evolve into more sympathetic movements designed for the people, not the ruling parties alone. Modern theories and discourse must be able to adapt with these changes.
Almond, Gabriel Abraham & Verba, Sidney. 1989. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Sage Publications.
Calhoun, Craig. 1994. "Social Theory and the Politics of Identity."…
Almond, Gabriel Abraham & Verba, Sidney. 1989. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Sage Publications.
Calhoun, Craig. 1994. "Social Theory and the Politics of Identity." In Social Theory and the Politics of Identity. P. 9-36. Wiley-Blackwell.
Chandhoke, Neera. 2002. "The Limits of Global Civil Society." Global Civil Society. Centre for the Study of Global Governance. P 35-53.
Rose, Nikolas S. 1999. Powers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Role of Social Media in Social Movements
The rapid technological advancements have played a major role in shaping today’s society, especially in terms of communication and information sharing. Technological developments have contributed to the emergence of social media, whose use has grown rapidly over the last decade (Anderson et al., 2018). Currently, many people across the globe including in the United States are using a wide range of social networking sites to get news and information. As a result, social media has become a key avenue for public discourse on various issues as people engage in civic-related discussions and activities. For many people, social media allows them to obtain more secure and reliable information or knowledge on various issues including civic-related issues (Balci & Golcu, 2013). By providing avenues for people to get more secure and reliable information and enhancing communication, social media has played a critical role in recent…
Anderson, M., Toor, S., Rainie, L. & Smith, A 2018. Public Attitudes Toward Political Engagement on Social Media. Pew Research Center. Viewed November 26, 2020,
Balci, S. & Golcu, A 2013. The Role and Impacts of Social Media in Social Movements: “Example of the Arab Spring.” The Asian Conference on the Social Sciences, pp.269-281.
Breuer, A 2012. The Role of Social Media in Mobilizing Political Protest. German Development Institute. Viewed November 26, 2020,
Brown, H., Guskin, E. & Mitchell, A 2012. The Role of Social Media in the Arab Uprisings. Pew Research Center. Viewed November 26, 2020,
Cammaerts, B 2015. Social Media and Activism. LSE Research Online. Viewed November 26, 2020,
Clark, E 2012. Social Movement & Social Media: A Qualitative Study of Occupy Wall Street. Sodertorn University. Viewed November 26, 2020,
Elshahed, H 2020. Social Media Mobilization and Political Activism in Egypt. Global Media Journal, vol. 18, no. 34. Viewed November 26, 2020,
Granillo, G 2020. The Role of Social Media in Social Movements. Portland Monthly. Viewed November 26, 2020,
Social Marketing Plan
Stop Crime, Be a Human first
Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).
According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar…
SouthAfrica.info, (2011). South Africa's population. Available at http://www.southafrica.info/about/people/population.htm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
BBC (2003). Xenophobia in South Africa. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3153461.stm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
Beggs, John J., and Wayne J. Villemez. (2001). Regional Labor Markets. Sourcebook of Labor
Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes, edited by Ivar Berg and Arne L. Kalleberg. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. (503-29).
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…
Baker, David P. And Deborah Perkins Jones. 1993. "Creating Gender Equality: Cross-national Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance." Sociology of Education 66:91-103.
Bassili, J.N. (2008). Attitude strength. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin, (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change, Frontiers of social psychology. New York, NY; Psychology Press, pp. 261-286.
Cialdini, R.B. 2001. Influence: Science and Practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Social media is a big boom when it comes to business, entertainment, and media. It has crossed over from something the youth use to something everyone uses. Many people do not understand how much of an impact social media has on people from their employability to how the public views them. This example essay will show social media’s influence and how it has come to be what it is today.
Social Media: Then and Now Social Media and it’s Impact on Business Social Media as a Social Movement Social Media and it’s influence on our Lives Social Media: Changing the Way People Communicate
Social Media Platforms The Impact of Twitter and Facebook on Business The Rise of YouTube Difference Between Social Media Platforms How Social Media is used to Communicate Social Media Effects on Society
a. Social media has transformed the ways people communicate and…
Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and he can feed himself for life. How could you put this principle into practice through the development of a social entrepreneurship venture?
Development of Social Entrepreneurialism
Corporate Social Responsibility
Social Entrepreneurship and Food
Social entrepreneurship was introduced in the 1970s to address the issue of social sustainably and the term "social entrepreneur." This analysis will begin by providing a brief history as well as a working definition for the concept of social entrepreneurialism. It will also discuss some of the related movements that have been working towards some of the same goals, albeit, from different directions to address various challenges in society and the environment. Furthermore, a more detailed overview of the exact challenges that are present in society that social entrepreneurialism can work to address will…
Abu-Saifan, S., 2012. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries. [Online]
Available at: http://timreview.ca/article/523
[Accessed 28 April 2016].
Ashoka, N.d.. Vision and Mission. [Online]
This leads one to believe that they are not very well off financially and the mother has not real education in order to obtain employment since she is currently attaining administrative assistant training. Antonio also has issues with controlling his behavior when in the daycare environment, as he frequently has violent outbursts and crying spells.
If one were to assess Antonio from an Eco-Feminist perspective one would be better able to understand Antonio and his present behavior. Ecofeminism is the social movement that regards the domination of women and nature as unified. It is one of the few movements and analyses that in fact connect the two movements. Lately, ecofeminist theorists have extended their analyses to reflect on the interconnections flanked by sexism, the domination of nature, and also racism and social dissimilarities (What is Ecofeminism, n.d.). Daniel spent a lot of time suppressing Hilda in his behavior that he…
"Neil Adger on Social Resilience." (2010). Retrieved December 2, 2010, from Ecological
Sociology Web site: http://ecologicalsociology.blogspot.com/2010/05/neil-adger-on-social-resilience.html
Kendall, Diana. (2008). Sociology in our Times. Belmont: Thompson Wadsworth.
Mannelli, Sandra. (n.d.). What Are Defense Mechanisms Anyway? Retrieved December 3, 2010,
The Cold War of the communist and the capitalist countries gay way to spying worldwide, together with the political and military meddling in the inside matters of the poor countries. Some of these developments led to a negative consequence which called for much of the distrust and uncertainty towards the government that came after the cold war. Examples of these outcomes are the serious reaction of the Soviet Union towards the famous uprising against communism, which included the Hungarian evolution of 1965, also the invasion in 1961 of the Cuban Bay of Pigs by the U.S. And the Czechoslovakia's Prague Spring in 1968. The lie of Dwight D. Eisenhower, president of the U.S. In 1960, about the extent of the U2 episode led to an even greater distrust amongst the public against the government (Eisenstadt, 1956).
The establishment in the U.S. was disintegrated into political and military framework after…
Bellah, Robert. "New Religious Consciousness and the Crisis of Modernity." In The New Religious Consciousness, edited by Charles dock and Robert Wuthnow, 1976.
Braungart, Margaret M. And Richard C. Braungart. "The Life-Course Development of Left- and Right-Wing Youth Activist Leaders from the 1960s." Political Psychology, 1990, 11:243-82.
DeMartini, Joseph R. "Social Movement Participation, Political Socialization, Generational Consciousness, and Lasting Effects." 1983, Youth atul Society 15:195-223.
Dunham, Charlotte Chorn, and Vern L. Bengtson, "The Long-Term Effects of Political. Activism on Intergenerational Relations." Youth and Society, 1992, 24:31-51.
Economic Changes in the North and Social Reform Movements
The years between 1820 and 1860, also known as the pre-Civil War years or the antebellum years, were the most chaotic in American History (Dudley 2003). During this time, significant changes took place in the United States. The nation saw a transformation from a largely undeveloped nation of farmers and frontiersmen into an urbanized and economic powerhouse. This essay will explore how these economic changes in the North are linked to the social reform movements of the time.
The North was completely transformed by the Market Revolution, that is, a shift from an agricultural-based economy to one based on wages and the exchange of goods and services (Dudley 2003). A contributing factor was a manufacturing boom in the North which was created by the invention of the cotton gin. Infrastructure began to improve along with modes of transportation, such as the…
Dudley, William. American History by Era: Antebellum America 1784-1850. New York: Cengage Gale, 2003.
Competitor products and their equivalent prizes, this is so that after establishing our break-even analysis it can act as a guiding line to set the best price. (Tao 2008)
The survey should enable one establish the best marketing strategies and anticipate any future contingencies.
Entrepreneurship development services
This service will target individuals who wish to start business on their own or in a group it will mainly involve
Training on how to originate business ideas. It is said that if you feed a man you have only feed him a day, a long-term problem in a short-term way. If you show the man how to fish then you have feed him and his family for life and I add that if you show the man how to run a fish business you will have feed the society too. In his book ich Dad Poor Dad, Kiyosaki explains that the most…
Adaman F., Keyder C., Mudderrisoglu S., Yukseker D. (2009) Poverty and Social Exclusion in the Slum Areas of Large Cities in Turkey. European Commission on Employment, SocialAffairs and Equal Opportunities Development Goal. European Union, Luxenbourg, Europe.
Agbola T., Agunbiade E. (2009) Urbanization, Slum Development and Security of Tenure: The Challenges of Meeting Millennium Development Goal 7 in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Camur E. (2003) What are the Social, Physical and Economic Problems of Slums and their Expectations from the Urban City? Sage books.New York.
Dumashie a. (2004) Informal Housing in East Africa: Lessons Learned From Cross Country Borders (Part II). Journal, FIG Working Week, May 22-27, United Kingdom.
57). This makes the idea that the minority communities that are using the community as a "springboard" for assimilation because there are less of the domestic non-Hispanic whites in the areas in which immigrants would typically assimilate.
There has even been the development of what is referred to as planned communities. Irvine California serves as a good example of such a development. Irvine was developed from ranch lands from a single developer that constructed "urban villages" in Orange County (Maher, 2004, p. 782). The particular site selected for this 1-997 study was in many ways a "typical" Irvine neighborhood. A planned community developed in the mid-1970s, Ridgewood comprised 246 single-family homes on a collection of cul-de-sacs connected by three public through streets: on average, residents were highly educated- 39% had graduate or professional degrees- and most of those who were employed worked in professional, managerial, technical, or sales positions (Maher,…
Maher, K. (2004). Borders and Social Distinction in the Global Suburb. American Quarterly, 781-806.
Zhou, M., Tseng, Y., & Kim, R. (2008). Rethinking Residential Assimilation: The Case of a Chinese Ethnoburb in the San Gabriel Valley, California. Amerasia Journal, 55-83.
Social Marketing Dragonfly Effect
Social Marketing and the Dragonfly Effect: The Case of Barack Obama
"All of this happened because of you. Thanks, Barack," that was the message Barack Obama sent to all of his many online supporters on the night he won the historic presidential election (Chang & Aaker 2010 p 20). Part of Obama's success was his ability to capitalize on the emerging trends of social media. In his teams' efforts, the dragonfly model was implemented seamlessly, allowing him to gather a specific focus, grab attention, engage and finally empower his audience.
In his first run for president, Barak Obama implemented new and innovative strategies utilizing tenants of social media to help spread the message of his campaign. Not only did Obama utilize existing social networking platforms, but he also hired a team to create his own that was featured on his campaign website. Here, the research states…
Chang, Victoria & Aaker, Jennifer. (2010). Obama and the power of social media and technology. The European Business Review, 16-24.
Green, Douglas W. (2011). The dragonfly effect. DrDougGreen.com. Web. http://www.drdouggreen.com/wp-content/Dragonfly-Effect.pdf
The Dragonfly Effect. (2012). How Obama won with social media. Case Studies. Web. http://www.dragonflyeffect.com/blog/dragonfly-in-action/case-studies/the-obama-campaign/
Social Upward Mobility
Explain how the economic system in the United States can be used both to allow upward social mobility and trap others in lower status levels.
America is known as the land of opportunity. This is because no matter where someone comes from, their racial group, nationality or economic class everyone has the chance to be successful. If they have a good idea and are willing to work at it, they will realize their long-term goals. Throughout the course of U.S. history, this has been the case. As innovators from across the world can start out with nothing and earn a fortune during the course of their lifetimes. (Cullen 2004) (Henslin 2013)
This is because the economic system enables upward mobility by encouraging the free flow of ideas through a culture of acceptance and understanding. At the same time, the movement of working capital and people from one…
Cullen, Jim. 2004. The American Dream. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
DeParle, Jason. 2012."Harder for Americans to Rise." Retrieved July 21, 2013 ( http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/05/us/harder-for-americans-to-rise-from-lower-rungs.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 )
Henslin, James. 2013. Essentials of Sociology. New York, NY: Pearson Education.
What is meant by the term 'social enterprise' and what do social enterprises contribute to society and the economies in which they operate?
The acceleration with which the world is changing day by day is continuous. A majority of organizations that have a motto of 'not-for-profit' are looking out for prospects with the help of which they can begin or widen their projects in order to get their missions fulfilled and offer the needy the earned profits. Thus, any organization or scheme that brings about the mentioned twofold objectives is considered a social enterprise. Social enterprises sell mission-related goods or services and by doing so they try to create a more impartial and fair environment through specific market-based strategies (Bornstein & Davis 2010).
In other words, a business is regarded as a social enterprise when the main objective is to cope up with the prevailing societal problems and…
Baptiste, T. (2009). Being a Leader and Making Decisions. 1st. ed. New York: Chelsea House.
Beerel, A. (2009). Leadership and Change Management. 1st. ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Bornstein, D. & Davis, S. (2010). Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to Know. 1st. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Borzaga, C. & Defourny, J. (2001). The Emergence of Social Enterprise. 1st. ed. London: Routledge.
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia: How the Social Media Affect the E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia
SOCIAL COMMECE IN SAUDI AABIA
Conceptual Framework Model
Psychological Aspect and Theories
Digital Divide in Saudi Arabia
Ethos, eligious conviction, and Government in E-commerce Adoption
The ise of the P Industry in Saudi Arabia
Conceptual Model and esearch Hypothesis (Drawing)
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia
Modern Saudi Arabia today actually represents an exceptional and convergent mixture of social conservatism and technological ability, a wonderful alteration from a remote, desert land that it was just something like 50 years ago. As social media is turning out to be increasingly prevalent in Saudi Arabia, online marketers are starting capitalizing in methods that service social media and include online customers. In Saudi Arabia Online marketers' adoption of new online marking trends is being prompted by discoveries that show individuals are spending great amounts…
Anderson, M. (2013). Turning "like" to "Buy" Social Media Emerges as a Commerce Channel. Booz & Company, 23-56.
Assad, S.W. (2009). The rise of consumerism in saudi arabian society. International Journal of Commerce & Management,, 73-104.
Bahaddad, A.A. (2013). Attracting customer in saudi arabia to buy from your business online. . International Journal of Business and Management, 65-81.
Brock, C. (2014). F-COMMERCE AND THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF TRUST. Online Communities and Digital Collaborations, 1-11.
Social Equity Public Administration
Emergence as Concern in Field of Public Administration
Social equity has always been an important aspect of public administration, though only recently is it receiving much attention in the press. Whereas in times of old social equity concerned itself primarily with issues of fairness and equality in the public workplace, today social equity is emerging as a field encompassing many different aspects of administration.
Among these include public education, policy development, hiring and promotional practices, public welfare and even transportation. In modern public administration, all of these issues are applied to the field in order to establish fairness, justice and equality for all. Social equity in the field of public administration has emerged as a response to consumer demands for equitable policy making and fairness in governance.
Public administration as a whole may be defined as the management of "matters which have principally to do with…
Frederickson, G. (1986). "New public administration." Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Rice, M.F. (2003). "Organizational Culture, Social Equity & Diversity: Teaching Public
Administration." Texas A& M. University, Bush School Working Paper #314. 14, November, 2004: http://bush.tamu.edu/content/research/working_papers/mrice/teach-post-modern.pdf
Christopher, G.C., Rutledge, P.J. (2001). "Reinvigorating the Social Equity Debate."
Social trends in Education / the next 5 years
With societal establishments and school structures, we can carry the most important task of providing youths with the necessary education which will provide them opportunities to thrive in our community. A simple casual glance at the comparative mode of lifestyle in our country would make it obvious that these establishments performed in an excellent manner for the greater part of this century. But the universe is transforming in manners that radically remodels the suppositions, customs and guiding principles, which catered the American people earlier. Besides, the pace of transformation is gearing up at an amazing speed, requiring in many customs and establishments the need to progress in certain spheres. To look forward to modifications, to a certain extent than acting in response to it, schools are spotting developments and scrutinizing their probable connotations.
ather than guessing what the coming years has…
Anglin, John. S. Educational Trends for the Future. Handbook of Theory and Research in Higher Education: Volume: 8; pp. 115-121. New York: Agathon, 2002
Carter, Holly. Implementation of International Competence Strategies: Faculty. In Bridges to the Future: Strategies for Internationalizing Higher Education, pp.191-203. Ed. Charles Klasek, Carbondale, Illinois: Association of International Education Administrators, 1992.
Corson, David. Language Diversity and Education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001.
Morrison, J.L. Higher-Education Trends and Indicators. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Volume: 46, No: 3; September 10, 1999; p. A54
Addams included a large amount of environmental reforms in her program for Hull House. One of the most prominent incorporated her labors to address the unhealthful heaps of garbage in immigrant areas because of a lack of public interest. The mayor of Chicago ultimately appointed Addams garbage inspector for her region a job that she took very seriously. Addams managed garbage collectors and took violators of garbage policies to court. Even though Addams and her associates frequently started reforms, the immigrants had a dynamic role as well, helping in knowledge gathering and its communication to their neighbors (Settlement House Movement, 2011).
ichmond's devotion and professionalism, along with her scientific charity has been documented and developed over the years. Her casework practice, managerial talents, research, and stress on social work education fashioned a professional environment in what was beforehand thought to be just charity work. This professionalized social work permitted philanthropic…
Settlement House Movement. (2011). Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
Smith, Mark K. (2002). Casework and the Charity Organization Society. Retrieved March 23,
2011, from Web site: http://www.infed.org/socialwork/charity_organization_society.htm
His painting (social realism) called "Approaching Storm" is a remarkable portrayal of a man walking up a hill with a bucket of water and two donkeys waiting to be told what to do. In the distance is a menacing storm. The website (Twecht.tripod) says that this farm could possibly have been a beautiful place to live at one point in time…but now it is gray and windy…all life in the painting ceases to exist" (www.twecht.tripod.com).
Dorothea Lange is among the best known of all the photographers and artists that contributed to the social realism movement during the Great Depression. Lange's most famous photograph, "Migrant Mother," shows a worried woman with two "tousle-haired children clinging to her, their faces turned away from the camera" (u, 2010, p. 1). A third child is asleep in the woman's arms. That photo -- taken in a migrant camp in California -- is…
Archives. "Portfolio: Dorothea Lange." Retrieved Dec. 7, 2010, from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/picturing_the_century/text/port_lange_text.html .
Illinois State Museum. "The Federal Art Project (FAP)" Retrieved Dec. 8, 2010, from http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/art/htmls/de_FAPhist.html . (2010).
The History Place. "Migrant Farm Families." Retrieved Dec. 8, 2010, from http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/lang/index.html. (2010).
Twecht Tripod. "Thomas Hart Benton: Approaching Storm, 1938." Retrieved Dec. 8, 2010,
They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].
The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:
The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal
Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.
It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did
James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at http://www.spcollege.edu/Central/libonline/path/shortstory.pdf .
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.
December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.
" (Adams et al.)
hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science.
The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. ashington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of alter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror tale character). Around the same time that Eleanor Dwight Jones was striving to preserve the white race, the United States Public Health Service began the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. hat took place was a forty year analysis of the life of syphilis. The two hundred black men who had syphilis were "deliberately denied treatment" (Adams et al.) in what was just one more step in oppression and callous social engineering.
And at the same time the Tuskegee experiment was…
Adams, Myrtle, et al. "Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee."
1996. Web. 8 June 2011.
Cone, James. Risks of Faith. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999. Print.
Dowlings, Keven, and Knightley, Philip. "The Spy Who Came Back from the Grave."
As recent events in the Middle East have clearly demonstrated, Facebook is more on the side of the politically disadvantaged and the poor as they have increasingly embraced Facebook and other social media while the governments in the region tried to ban them. Many governments such as that of China do not allow Facebook primarily because they want to avert scenarios they have seen in the Middle East.
It was in the wake of 2008 when Oscar Morales, a young man in Columbia, decided that he had had enough of FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a Marxist group which routinely kidnaps people, keeping them as hostages for months or years, while many of the hostages die in captivity. Angry and depressed by the actions of FARC, one night he turned to Facebook which he had been using to connect with his friends and high school classmates. He…
Alexanian, Janet A.. "Eyewitness Accounts and Political Claims: Transnational Responses to the 2009 Postelection Protests in Iran." Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 31.2 (2011): 425-442. Project MUSE. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. .
Burns, Alex and Ben Eltham, "Twitter free Iran: an evaluation of twitter's role in public diplomacy and information operations in Iran's 2009 election crisis," in Papandrea, Franco & Armstrong, Mark (Eds.). Record of the Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009. Sydney: Network Insight Institute. Web. 26 Nov. 2011 .
China, Walid. "The Facebook Revolution." New African 503 (2011): 24. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Eltahawy, Mona. "The Middle East's Generation Facebook." World Policy Journal 25.3 (2008): 69-77. Academic Search Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Social work history displays that the desire of social justice is both a task and a myth for employees and their immediate predecessors in organizations. This study provides a critical analysis of Janet Finn's and Maxine Jacobson's work titled "Just Practice." The great focus is on the first and the third chapter where their contributions and critical omissions are identified. Finn and Jacobson have worked hard to illustrate the historical development of social work, which was largely premised on charity for the poor (Finn, & Jacobson, 2003). In both chapters, they have elaborated in length on how social work came into being. Ideally, social work history revolves around the industrial revolution and the way the rise of capitalism created a gap between the rich and the poor. In the first chapter, the role of Charity Organization Societies and Settlement House Movement as the pioneers of social work has been elucidated…
Barusch, A.S. (2009). Foundations of social policy: Social justice in human perspective. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Finn, J.L., & Jacobson, M. (2003). Just practice: a social justice approach to social work. Peosta, Iowa: Eddie Bowers Pub. Co..
Leiby, J. (1978). A history of social welfare and social work in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lundy, C., & Lundy, C. (2011). Social work, social justice, & human rights: A structural approach to practice. North York, Ont: University of Toronto Press.
Social Partnership' And
The Implications for Trade Unions
This report attempts to explain what is meant by the term social partnership and it also evaluates some implications of social partnerships on trade unions. Social Partnerships have been elevated to be more of the foundation of industrial relations policies. Industrialized nations in these highly global, competitive and technologically advanced economic situations have all new social demands and issues. Labor parties and management teams today have come to realize and understand that if there are going to be economic success stories in their future, then both sides will be required to put emphasis on the importance of partnerships in the workplace. These partnerships entail new methods for problem solving, quality control and productivity. Today, both sides must understand that partnership agreements will help produce more socially adept workers who are well trained, prepared and competitive. Labor and management must come to a…
Baccaro, Lucio, et al. (1999). "The Brave New World of European Labor: European Trade Unions at the Millennium." Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Boucher, Gerry, & Collins, Grainne (2003). Having One's Cake and Being Eaten Too: Irish Neo-Liberal Corporatism. Review of Social Economy, Vol. 61.
Ferner, A. And Hyman, R. (eds) (1998) "Changing Industrial Relations in Europe." Oxford: Blackwell.
Guest, D.E. And Peccei, R. (2001) "Partnership at work: mutuality and the balance of advantage" British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 399 no.2 pp.207-236
Vatican II, officially known as the Second Vatican Council, was a meeting of many leaders of the Catholic Church to discuss both theological and social issues pertaining to the Church in the modern era. Convened by Pope John XXIII in the 1960s and continued by his successor Paul VI, the main goal of the Second Vatican Council was to establish the Church's role and meaning in the modern world, which it recognized as fundamentally changed from the role of the Church in previous eras. Many different topics of concern were examined during the many phases of Vatican II, and the Council produced a number of documents on these varying subjects that help to define Church doctrine and perspectives on the modern world. When it comes to the social thought and action of the Catholic Church following Vatican II, one of the most important documents produced by the Council…
Those who predict future behavior and demand for products and services correctly can profit tremendously from their planning; conversely, those who invest in technologies or applications based on assumptions or expectations that never materialize run the risk of losing their entire investment. In that respect, the computer realm is no different from the decisions and projections made in traditional types of businesses. It may just seem different by virtue of the accelerated rate of computer evolution and development and the fact that some of the specific new technologies and capabilities become so widely and rapidly adopted that they can change society practically overnight.
In all likelihood, computers today are similar to paper in the Middle Ages when producing paper was so labor intensive and expensive that very little was available and only to the wealthiest classes. Another analog might be dry cell battery technology around the turn of the 20th…
So to that extent, the choice consumers make is less about product, and more about convenience, and perhaps what the consumer perceives as the necessary choice; meaning they do not have a choice when considering the negative of selecting a different operating system. To this extent, it signifies the extent to which "personal computers" have indeed become very personalized, and consumers cannot risk making changes in the direction of operating systems once they have become accustomed to Microsoft.
The construct of time-style also offers potential for researchers investigating shopping behaviors and styles, for example, in the retail domain (see also Kaufman and Lane 1996). The various dimensions of time-style will likely have an impact on shopping behaviors such as how much pre-purchase planning is undertaken; whether people prefer browsing or "in-and-out" shopping; whether or not shopping lists are made; and whether people prefer to shop alone or with others. In…
Berdayes, V. & Murphy, J.W. (Eds.). (2000). Computers, Human Interaction, and Organizations: Critical Issues. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved February 10, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=71745134 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109763690
Chin, E. (2001). Purchasing Power: Black Kids and American Consumer Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Retrieved February 10, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109763693 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104624583
Lally, E. (2002). At Home with Computers. New York: Berg. Retrieved February 10, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104624585 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020507541
This implies that through this study, the educators can get some assistance while they make the decision of retaining or promoting the failing students by considering the effects of both in detail. Since this is a qualitative study and not a quantitative one, from the data that is collected, it will be possible for us to build up a theory and then further studies can be conducted to confirm the theory about the effects of social promotion or retention and about the alternative ways that can be adopted to counter these effects. It should be made sure that information is given in a natural setting and the data is allowed to flow in any time. Once the information is collected it will be analyzed and compared with other studies of the same sort (Leedy and Ormod, 2010).
As mentioned earlier in the paper, the main purpose of this…
Aldridge, J. And Goldman, R. (2007).Current Issues and Trends In Education. p. 140-144.
Denton, D. (2001). Finding alternatives to failure: Can states end social promotion and reduce retention rates- http://www.sreb.org/programs/srr/pubs/alternatives/AlternativesToFailure.pdf
Greene, Jay (2008). Pro-con On Social Promotion.The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
Hager, Lindsay (2013).Pros and Cons of Social Promotion.Social Promotion vs. Retention.
Social ork History
Like America, Canadian social work has always been about helping the poor and distressed citizens of the nation. The ideas from England had migrated to America and Canada. Both countries are based on migrants from other countries. There were many movements that developed and promoted social work and the ways that social work was implemented. The industrial revolution had left many unemployed without proper job training for the new work. Migrants were migrating from country to country and from rural areas to the cities causing cities to be overcrowded with unemployment, low wages, and homelessness.
One area that differed from American social work and Canadian social work was the way the poor and disadvantaged were viewed and the systematic investigation approach in Canada. The poor were viewed negatively by other citizens. It was felt the problems the poor had were a result of a weakness of character.…
Directory M. Articles. (n.d.). Retrieved from History of Social Work: http://articles.directorym.com/History_of_Social_Work-a1069936.html
Drover, G. (n.d.). Social Work. Retrieved from The Canadian Encyclopedia: http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/social-work systematic. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Free Dictionary: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/systematic
In March of 1921, with the help of her husband Humphrey Roe, she opened the first birth control clinic in England (riant, 1962). It was located in North London and remained open until 1977 (Rose, 1992). The only reason that it was closed down then was because reproductive health care in England was nationalized. One thing that helped Stopes, however, was that she had many political connections with upper-class individuals and she was able to create and enforce a number of very strict rules regarding her clinic so that she did not experience the kinds of problems that were seen in clinics of the same type in other countries such as the United States (riant, 1962). One of the main rules of Stopes' clinic was that she would not offer birth control to anyone who could not prove that she had already born at least one child. Not everyone liked…
Briant, Keith. Marie Stopes: A Biography. London: Hogarth, 1962.
Hall, Ruth. Passionate Crusader: The Life of Marie Stopes. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977.
Maude, Aylmer. The Authorized Life of Marie C. Stopes. London: Williams & Norgate, 1924.
Rose, June. Marie Stopes and the Sexual Revolution. London: Faber and Faber, 1992.
(Huff, Social ork, 2000, Chapter 1, p.3)
Private efforts were not enough to treat the ills caused by the unchecked capitalism of the Gilded Age, however, an age that brought tremendous wealth to some Americans and tremendous poverty to others. During the first depression occasioned by this split between the haves and the have-nots in 1890, private relief organizations could not cope. "In Mulberry Bend, the heart of the Italian district, one-third of all babies born in 1888 died before their first birthdays. Traditional agencies such as the Children's Aid Society and the Salvation Army were overwhelmed, incapable of meeting the demands placed on their services." (Huff, Social ork, 2000, Chapter 1, p.4) "The old shibboleths commonly accepted as the major causes of poverty, low character, indolence, and intemperance, were replaced with more systemic theories," that sought economic and social causes as the cure, rather than moral reform. (Huff, Social…
Murray, Jill. (1996) "The Social Work History Online Time-Line." The School of Social Work. Retrieved 10 Nov 2005. http://www.gnofn.org/~jill/swhistory/
Huff, Dan. (2000) Social Work: Progress and Reform. A Cyberhistory of Social Work's Most Formative Years. Retrieved 10 Nov 2005 http://www.idbsu.edu/socwork/dhuff/history/central/tc.htm
Northrop Frye recognized this fact but believed that the satire missed its mark:
It completely misses the point as satire on the ussian development of Marxism, and as expressing the disillusionment which many men of good-will feel about ussia. The reason for that disillusionment would be much better expressed as the corruption of expediency by principle (Frye 1987, p. 10).
What links 1984 and Animal Farm most directly is that both are anti-utopian in nature, for Orwell had developed a certainty that government in a utopian society would always be corrupted and would lose sight of its principles because of expediency.
Animal Farm was written during World War II. There is evidence that he was planning a novel that would become 1984 even before he wrote Animal Farm, and there is a relationship between the two books that is not often noted:
The form each book took was very different,…
Brander, L. (1954). George Orwell. New York: Longmans, Green and Co.
Crick, B. (1986). The making of Animal Farm. In Critical Essays on George Orwell, B. Oldsey and J. Browne (eds.). Boston: G.K. Hall.
Frye, N. (1987). In George Orwell, H. Bloom (ed.). New York: Chelsea House.
Green, T.H. (1995). Liberal legislation and freedom of contract. In Sources of the Western Tradition, M. Perry, J.R. Peden, and T.H. Von Laue (eds.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
By the 1980s, theories had begun to swing the other way again, with doubts being cast on the relevance of aggregate social strain theories (Bernard 1987). Even social strain theorists were finding new and more individualistic and specific features within the theory (Agnew 1985).
In the past two decades, social strain theory has continued to be attacked by some as an antiquated and invalidated method for explaining subversive and criminal behavior, with some theorists stating outright that the empirical evidence supports alternative explanations far better than it supports traditional social strain theories (Burton et al. 1994). Other researchers have found evidence that in their view directly refutes certain aspects of social strain theory while seeming to support certain other conclusions and hypotheses that are a part of the overall explanation for criminality (De Clercq & Dakhil 2009). Ultimately, all of the problems and discrepancies that have been found with social…
Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strain theory of delinquency. Social forces 64(1): 151-67.
Bernard, T. (1987). Testing social strain theories. Journal of research in crime and delinquency 24(4): 262-80.
Burton, V., Cullen, F., Evans, T. & Dunaway, R. (1994). Reconsidering strain theory: Operationalization, rival theories, and adult criminality. Journal of quantitative criminology 10(3): 213039.
De Clercq, D. & Dakhil, M. (2009). Personal strain and ethical standards of the self-employed. Journal of business venturing 24(5): 477-90.
Social Marginalization by Race: Economic Deprivation and White American Resistance in the allot or the ullet by Malcolm X
The rigorous history of African-Americanism and their emancipation within the American society reflects the struggles and perpetuation of discrimination among black Americans even during the 20th century. Malcolm X, considered one of the most radical and influential leader of the black American civil rights movement, centers on the issues of discrimination and white American resistance among the blacks in his famous discourse, The allot or the ullet, delivered in April 3, 1964.
The relevance and significance of Malcolm X's discourse must be put into context in the events happening during his time. Historically, the socio-political landscape of the United States during the 1960s is characterized by the emergence and development of the civil rights movement for the marginalized sectors of the society, such as the youth, women, poor, and particularly, African-Americans.…
Malcolm X (1964). The Ballot or the Bullet. Available at: http://www.indiana.edu/~rterrill/Text-BorB.html .
Social Media and the ed Shirt evolution
Most scholars are in conflict with regard to the subject of revolution in the age of social media. Until now, revolution has been considered a top-down process. In Thai situation, things might have been different. The ed Shirt evolution in Thailand was one of the first of the "Twitter" revolutions, that is one that was fueled by social media and Web 2.0 technology. Since then, other revolutions have come as well. The lone citizen is now no longer on their own. The dissident in Chiang Mai now can commiserate with their brother or sister in Tahrir Square and plan revolution on a country to country or even on a global basis. Even as this writer types up a dissertation proposal, demonstrators coordinate strategy on a global basis to protest corporate greed. It is with this in mind that this study looks back at…
Bailey, M and Labovitz C (2011). Censorship and Co-option of the Internet Infrastructure. Ann Arbor,
MI: University of Michigan. p1-14.
Bajpai, K and Jaiswal, A (2011). A Framework for Analyzing Collective Action Events on Twitter.
Lisbon, Portugal: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference. p1-10.
Social Problem Related to Human Services
Social justice implies citizens’ equal entitlement to the self-same services and rights. In this paper, the inequalities in providing various human services to different societal groups in the nation will be addressed.
Beginning with education, a fundamental human service, it is a highly concerning fact that the nation’s educational system continually fails unwanted, abused and neglected children. Also, foster children totally at society’s mercy for survival are largely ignored. As children don’t have any avenue for voicing their views and demands, and cannot finance political campaigns, protest for improved services, or lobby elected representatives in order for being heard, it is the responsibility of society’s adults to speak for this faction of society. Attempts at organizing an effective child welfare system can be traced back to the late nineteenth century, when the nation’s contemporary system of foster care was established and Charles Loring Brace…
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.
The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).
There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…
Marco-Barba, J., Mesquita-Joanes, F., & Miracle, M. (2013). Ostracod palaeolimnological analysis reveals drastic historical changes in salinity, eutrophication and biodiversity loss in a coastal Mediterranean lake. Holocene, 23(4), 556-567.
Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Liancourt, P., Gross, N., & Straile, D. (2012). Indirect facilitation promotes macrophyte survival and growth in freshwater ecosystems threatened by eutrophication. Journal Of Ecology, 100(2), 530-538.
Riplett, L., Engstrom, D., & Conley, D. (2012). Changes in amorphous silica sequestration with eutrophication of riverine impoundments. Biogeochemistry, 108(1-3), 413-427.
Gareca, E.E., Vandelook, F., Fernandez, M., Hermy, M., & Honnay, O. (2012). Seed
" In addition, Manz reports that, "It took more than a decade after the worst of the violence, but eventually the Catholic Church, the United Nations, and the president of the United States rendered a verdict about the horrors suffered by villagers in Santa Mar'a Tzeja and the rest of Guatemala." In fact, the verdict charged Guatemalan authorities with outright genocide, and the author emphasizes that, "No other country in the hemisphere has been charged with genocide."
To their credit, the people of Guatemala have managed to overcome this violent legacy and stand poised to become part of the international community in substantive ways, due in large part to the findings of this report. As Manz points out, "This judgment was of great moral importance to the people of Santa Mar'a Tzeja and so many others like them who had suffered grievously at the hands of the military. No longer…
Bolivia. (2008). U.S. government: CIA World Factbook available at
The Effect of the Flappers on Today's Women
The 1920's in the U.S. And UK can be described as a period of great change, both socially and economically. During this period the image of the women completely changed and a "new women" emerged who appears to have impacted social changes occurring in future generations of both men and women. This new symbol of the women was the Flapper. The Flapper was a new type of young woman that was rebellious, fun, bold and outspoken (Zeitz, 2006). This research paper explains the rise and fall of the Flapper in the 1920's, explores its historical and current impact on women in terms of culture, work, gender and social behavior and reflects on its long-term impact of the position of today's women.
Evolution of the Flapper
Flappers, most often characterized as the "New Woman," originally emerged in the 1920s in the…
Allen, F.L. (1957). Only yesterday: An informal history of the nineteen-twenties. New York:
Harper and Row.
Baughm J.S. (1996). American decades: 1920-1929. New York: Manly.
Bliven, B. (1925, September 9).FlapperJane. New Republic, pp. 65-67.
American Labor Movement
The "labor question," its origins, components, and whether or not it is still relevant.
The "labor question" is the foundation of the American Labor Movement. Drawing from our classwork and paraphrasing Rosanne Currarino's modern restatement of the "labor question(s)": "hat should constitute full participation in American society? hat standard of living should citizens expect and demand?" (Currarino 112). Concerned with the ideal of an industrial democracy, including a more equitable society with social and financial betterment of working class people, the "labor question" arose during and in response to America's 19th Century (Second) Industrial Revolution. America's Industrial Revolution occurred within the "Gilded Age," named by Mark Twain (Mintz), and lasting roughly from the end of the U.S. Civil ar until the beginning of orld ar I (D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services). Fueled in part by refined coal and steam power, the American Industrial Revolution transformed America from…
AFL-CIO. Samuel Gompers (1850-1924). 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.
Currarino, Rosanne. The Labor Question in America: Economic Democracy in the Gilded Age. Urbana, Chicago and Springfield, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2011. Print.
D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services. "The Gilded Age - Industrial Revolution in America." 2011. Raken.com Web site. Web. 7 February 2012.
Dictionary.com, LLC. Xenophobia. 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.
New Religious Movements
Of the myriad new religious movements which have arisen over the course of the twentieth century, only a few have resorted to violence and mass suicide as a course of action. Perhaps the most famous of these, the so-called Jonestown Massacre, resulted in the deaths of over nine hundred people, and serves as the basis for John Hall's examination of the particular preconditions and precipitating factors which lead one cult or new religion to violence instead of another. Hall's theory is applicable beyond the case of Jonestown, and in fact may be used to better understand the motivating factor behind the mass murder/suicides committed by the Order of the Solar Temple in the 1990s. In particular, by considering Hall's theory in conjunction with the analysis of the Solar Temple deaths given by Jean-Francois Mayer, it will become clear that each of the six preconditions and three precipitating…
Hall, John R. "The Apocalypse at Jonestown." Cults and New Religious Movements. Malden,
MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2003. Print.
Mayer, Jean-Francoise. "Our Terrestial Journey is Coming to an End': The Last Voyage of the Solar Temple." Cults and New Religious Movements. Malden, MA: Blackwell
Publishing, 2003. Print.
Popular Film Cultures Have Propelled Civil and Social Rights
Culture is referred as shared interaction, patterns, cognitive constructs, behaviors as well as effective understanding learned through socialization and transferred from one generation to the other. In the United States and outside the United States, films have become a powerful tool to transmit cultures. In 2009, there were more than 6.8 billion films released compared to the world population that was roughly the same number. Moreover, films have produced revenue of more than $30 billion annually, and its impact on films on people's behaviors is staggering. For example, many people across the world are imitating American culture by watching their movies. Moreover, films have become a powerful tool for propelling civil and social rights.[footnoteRef:1] The social civil rights are the class of rights and freedoms people demand from the government, private individuals or social organizations. Civil rights movements protect people from…
The hierarchical society, which characterized the new nation, was another aspect, which would soon be transformed. "The political rulers had come largely from the social elites. The churches were supported by those elites. and, in most cases, the churches had been officially sanctioned by the political structures of the states. Social, political, and religious authority had been tightly interwoven in the same small group of elite leaders." [
Ira Chernus] the Electoral voting system and the cultural changes initiated by the new political situation created a new wave of social and moral reforms.
Another major social change that started to happen was the dissolution of apartheid. Though it must be understood that racial segregation continued in existence much long after the abolition of slavery, the cause for desegregation was initiated in the 1830's. Oberlin College, started in 1833, became the first ever College in the U.S. To admit…
Howard Cincotta, "An Outline of American History," USIA, May 1994, http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch6_p4.htm
Bonnie Eisenberg & Mary Ruthsdotter, "Living the Legacy: The Women's Rights Movement 1848-1998," Accessed Sep 10th 2006, available at http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html
James Brewer Stewart, 'Abolitionist Movement', Accessed Sep 9th 2006, available at http://afgen.com/abmovement.html
NPS, 'National Abolitionist Movement', Accessed Sep 9th 2006, available at http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/amistad/connecticutabolitionists.htm
The Rastafarian Movement started as a religion in the 1930s in amaica and the spread of the Reggae music in the 1070s transformed it into a political manifest as well as a social movement among those who were underprivileged young people who found in the Rastafari not just a way of life, but also a mean the express themselves in the a world that was governed by the rules set up by a society they felt neglected them.
Sheila Kitzinger write in 1966 an article on the Rastafarians based on her own research results, after personally interviewing some Rastafarians from amaica. She considered them a "social problem for amaica" (Kitzinger, 1966). According to Kitzinger, the "members of the movement worship the emperor Haille Selassie of Ethiopia, and insist that, as their African ancestors were brought unwillingly to amaica as slaves, it is now time to be "repatriated" to…
Johnson-Hill, J.A. 1995. I-Sight: The World of Rastafari: An Interpretive Sociological Account of Rastafarian Ethics. Evanston Kitzinger, S. 1996. The Rastafarian Brethren of Jamaica. Comparative Studies in Society and History. Vol. 9. No. 1. (Oct, 1966). Pp. 33-39
Savishinsky, N.J. 1994. Rastafari in the Promised Land: The Spread of the Jamaican Socioreligious Movement Among the Youth of the West Africa. African Studies Review, Vol. 37, No. 3. (Dec. 1994) pp. 19-50
Simpson, G.E. 1985. Religion and Justice: Some Reflections on the Rastafari Movement. Phylon (1960-), Vol. 46, No. 4 (4th Qtr., 1985), pp. 286-291
Progressivism began as a social movement and evolved into a political movement, according to materials published by George Washington University (www.gwu.edu). Early in the social movement progressives were concerned about poverty, racism, greed and "class warfare," and they believed that those problems could be best addressed through education, a safer environment, and a workplace that was fair and safe (www.gwu.edu). Who were those considered to be progressives? The George Washington University narrative explains that they live "mostly in the cities," they had graduated from colleges and universities, and their beliefs included the belief that "…government could be a tool for change" -- and among the most vocal and visible social reformers / progressives were Jane Addams and journalists Jacob Riis and Ida Tarbel (www.gwu.edu).
Progressive journalists wrote investigative pieces that exposed "the evils of corporate greed" and they presented a balanced view of immigration and ethnicities, all the time "…urging…
21, 388). Steinbeck's tone throughout is one of the owners' impending doom. ut their violent and cruel methods keep them in control.
The labor perspective is posed against this. Tom angrily mentions a strike. He says, "Well, s'pose them people got together an' says, 'Let 'em rot.' Wouldn't be long 'fore the price went up, by God!" (ch. 20, 336). He is told that the owners find out who the labor movement leaders are and jail or kill them. y the end of the novel, there is not much redeeming. The workers are exploited. The closest they come to organizing in unions is in the migrant camps. This does not help them overcome the powerful owners. Strikes are broken up because there are just too many people who are desperate for anything. Yet the Joad family falls into luck with cotton picking. This is symbolized in chapter twenty-eight with their…
Denning, Michael. The Cultural Front: The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century. London: Verso, 1996.
Kannenberg, Lisa. "Great Depression: 1930s." In Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working-Class History, ed. Eric Arnesen, vol. 2: G-N, 542-547. New York: Routledge, 2006.
Levant, Howard. "The Fully Matured Art: The Grapes of Wrath." In John Steinbeck's the Grapes of Wrath, ed. Harold Bloom (Modern Critical Interpretations), 17-44. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988.
Pizer, Donald. "The Enduring Power of the Joads." In John Steinbeck's the Grapes of Wrath, ed. Harold Bloom (Modern Critical Interpretations), 83-98. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988.
Corporate Social esponsibility
I attaching assignment paper write essay CS.
Given the heightened level of international operations and globalization, pressure is mounting for corporations to behave ethically. Corporations are forced to developing standards, policies and behaviors as a demonstration of their sensitivity to concerns of stakeholder. The policies behaviors and standards are what a European commission called corporate social responsibilities. The Commission defined corporate social responsibility (CS) as "a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis" Commission, 2001.
Complementing this definition, McWilliams and Siegel. (2001)
, said CS include all actions that are intended to forge, beyond the firm's interest, a social good, and is a requirement in law.
Composition Corporate Social esponsibility
Corporate social responsibility entails coming up with solutions specific to a society. The corporation is however, not forcefully charged with an…
Balmer, John M.T., & Dinnie, K. (1999). "Corporate identity and corporate communications: the antidote to merger madness," Corporate Communications: . An International Journal,, 4, 68-86.
Balmer, J.M.T. (2001). Corporate Identity, Corporate Branding and corporate marketing European Journal of Marketing 34(4), 248-291.
Buckley, P.J., & Ghauri, P.N. (2004). Globalisation, Economic Geography and the Strategy of Multinational Enterprises. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(2), 81-98.
Commission, E. (2001). Promoting a European Framework for Corporate Social Responsibility.' Green Paper, 264.
Tourism in Thailand
Economic, Social, Cultural and Environmental Impacts of Tourism in Thailand
Urban and rural tourism in Thailand accounts for around 7% of the total GDP. There are various factors, social, economic, environmental and cultural factors which affect the tourism industry in Thailand. Also, the rural tourism in Thailand needs more work. This report has some strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Thailand's tourism industry. In the end, recommendations are given on how to improve the tourism industry in Thailand.
Tourism in Thailand
Impact of Environmental, Economical, Social and Cultural Factors on Tourism in Thailand
Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries, and this industry has been identified as a means of generating national income (Pender, & Sharpley, 2005). Thailand, a beautiful country at the heart…
Chon, K, Singh, A, & Mikula, J. (1993). Thailand's tourism and hotel industry. The Cornell hotel and restaurant administration quarterly, 34(3), 43-49.
Elliot, J. (1983). Politics, power, and tourism in Thailand. Annals of tourism research, 10(3), 377-393.
Forsyth, T, (2002). What happened on the "the beach"? social movements and governance of tourism in Thailand. International journal of sustainable development, 5(3), 326-337.
Gold, J, & Revill, G. (2004). Representing the Environment. Routledge, London
The topic for this paper is to determine what is meant by social change from the perspective of graduate students today. The paper is organized into four parts. The first part presents a background statement concerning the issue of interest and the gap in the existing body of knowledge the study intends to address. A description concerning the role of the researcher is provided in the second part and an explanation concerning the process of gathering, organizing, and analyzing data to form the basis of the methods used in this study are presented in part three followed by the analysis and interpretation of those data. Finally, a discussion concerning the trustworthiness of the findings that emerged from this analysis and a summary of the research are presented in part four.
What you have learned about social change as a social issue. Because the historical record confirms that…