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Social Order and Inequalities
Social order and inequality
Ideas, beliefs, values, norms, roles, statuses, organizations and social class may have impact on an individual's life directly or indirectly. This can be in form of gender and social inequality. The life of my friend Jane who is a woman is an example of how these phenomenon impacts the life of individuals.
Gender inequalities rise from deepening division in the roles that are assigned to men and women, especially in the political, economic and educational sphere. When my friend Jane could not make it to the leadership of their community despite various attempts, it showed that women are always underrepresented in political activities as well as decision making processes. This is brought by the ever existing beliefs that men are better leaders than women. As a woman she is subjected to institutional discrimination where they face problem of accessing education which has…
Social Order in Public Spaces
Every society has certain rules and regulations that help people live together harmoniously. Some of these rules are explicit and are openly known. Other rules are implicit and therefore subtle. Both implicit and explicit rules and regulations govern a society. However, when a person moves away from one particular society to another, he or she has difficulty in adjusting to the norms of that new society.
Social order is considered to be the method of explaining such rules and regulations so that we live in a society along with its members. Social order is very essential for organizing everyday social life.
When a particular group of people engage in a social activity, their social behavior may seem to threaten others. For example, when a group of people shout and scream in a street, the onlookers might find that their life, their neighborhood and society in…
Bromley, S. Hinchliffe S. & Taylor S., 2009. Making Social Lives. Open University.
If the public trusts the judges and believes that they are administering justice equally among all people, then there appears to be a mutual respect atmosphere, in which the public adheres to the law willingly. However, if there is distrust of the administration, violence and criminal behavior becomes more prevalent, as the people resist unequal administration of the law.
Moe .C., Gilmour .S. (1995). ediscovering principles of public administration: the neglected foundation of public law. Public Administration eview, Vol. 55. etrieved November 13, 2007 at http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5001645731.
Monahan, J. (1984).The prediction of violent behavior: toward a second generation of theory and policy. Am J. Psychiatry. Vol. 141:10-15 etrieved November 13, 2007 at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/141/1/10.
Osborne, D. And Gaebler, T. (1992). einventing Government. New York, NY: Penguin Press.
Paulozzi, L.J.; Spengler, F, and Gower, MA. (1992). An evaluation of the Vermont worksite smoking law.Public Health ep. Nov-Dec 1992. 107(6) 724-726.
Moe R.C., Gilmour R.S. (1995). Rediscovering principles of public administration: the neglected foundation of public law. Public Administration Review, Vol. 55. Retrieved November 13, 2007 at http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5001645731 .
Monahan, J. (1984).The prediction of violent behavior: toward a second generation of theory and policy. Am J. Psychiatry. Vol. 141:10-15 Retrieved November 13, 2007 at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/141/1/10 .
Osborne, D. And Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing Government. New York, NY: Penguin Press.
Paulozzi, L.J.; Spengler, RF, and Gower, MA. (1992). An evaluation of the Vermont worksite smoking law.Public Health Rep. Nov-Dec 1992. 107(6) 724-726.
Tzu argues that strategy is important in that a successful general or leader can and will adapt to changing conditions on the battlefield, and that the art of war is more about adaptability and the risks and opportunities that come with the constant and dynamic nature of warfare than it is about careful planning and preparation. This is not to say that the latter two actions are useless, by Tzu sees more value in flexibility and cunning than he does in immobility and inflexibility.
Both works illustrate how personal and social justice differ from each other. They also point out that personal order is often a concept that lacks true definition, at least as time goes by. A successful person, whether in war or in their family life, learns to adapt to changing situations and scenarios, putting aside social order and justice in favor of a much more relevant, functional…
Sophecles. (458 BC). Electra.
Tzu, Sun. (5th century BC). The Art of War.
Social Order: Institutions, Socializations, And the Performance of Social Roles
Erving Goffman dramaturgical theory is a seminal theory in the field of sociology. An example of "micro-sociological analysis," it forced sociological analysis back into the examination of things which actually exist, individual behavior, instead of mere concepts. Goffman demonstrated that the examination of real things can not only clarify existing lines of thought, but open up new avenues for the study of social behavior. Thesis: Through his emphasis on the individual's performance of social roles, Goffman demonstrates that, although social organization and dynamics do influence individual behavior, it is the individual herself who determines the final shape of this behavior.
Summary of the Theory
Erving Goffman's work, often classified as "symbolic interactionism," is highly valuable for the study of socialization and the performance of social roles. Erving studied how individuals used symbols in the performance of their social roles and…
Calhoun, C.J. (2002). Contemporary sociological theory. Oxford: Blackwell
Kant and David on Causality; Rousseau and Adam Smith on Social Order
Compare and contrast Rousseau and Adam Smith, on the importance of economic or political mark in their account of social order.
Rousseau saw the development of organized political life as synonymous with generating social inequality. As "individuals have more contact with one another and small groupings begin to form, the human mind develops language, which in turn contributes to the development of reason" (Discourse on inequality, Spark Notes, 2012). This development of reason, although it seems like a positive advancement for the species, also enables human beings to compare their lot with others. As institutions are drawn up to govern the new society, persons with greater political and economic strength (generated through holding political or leadership positions or private property) come to dominate over other citizens. The more complex societies become, the more they necessitate divisions of labor,…
"Causality." New World Encyclopedia. [18 Apr 2012]
Discourse on inequality. Spark Notes. [18 Apr 2012]
Sumptuary Laws in the Roman Empire
The Roman Republic and the Roman Empire were both grandiose and both are a major part of the history of the world. However, they were quite different in many significant ways but they were also similar in some ways as it relates to social structure, the way people dressed and how society proceeded and developed. The major difference between the two was that the Senate and people had a lot of power in the Republic while the Emperor reigned supreme in the Roman Empire. However, the differences are a lot deeper than that in some ways. hile some people conflate the Roman Empire and Roman Republic, there is a lot more than meets the eye when it comes to Roman History.
The main differences between the Roman Empire and the Roman Republic are fairly easy to list. hen it came to the Roman…
Encyclopedia.com,. 'Sumptuary Laws Facts, Information, Pictures | Encyclopedia.Com
Articles About Sumptuary Laws'. Encyclopedia.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 27 Apr.
Fashion Encyclopedia,. 'Sumptuary Laws Regulate Luxury - Fashion, Costume, And
Crime and Justice DQ
Comparison and Contrast
Governments around the globe have adopted different approaches to combating crime and delivery of justice to their citizens. The issue of liberal and conservative approaches to crime and justice are more vivid in Canada. The Canadian government had earlier favored liberal approach before 2006 when the approach changed back to conservative due to the Conservative government taking over (Phillips 2012).
The two approaches differ due to their contrasting views of human nature, moral values nature and the cause of criminal activity. They also contrast on the treatment of the criminals due to their differences. Liberals are based on the belief that man is naturally good. Evidently, there is no absolute standard of morality to be taught or adhered to by the citizens. They claim that crime is a product of deprivation due to poverty, and the society is responsible for criminal behavior as…
Lakoff G. (2010). Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think, Second Edition. New York: University of Chicago Press
Neubauer, D. W. & Fradella, H. F. (2015). America's Courts and the Criminal Justice System. New York: Cengage Learning
Phillips S.A. (2012). Operation Fly Trap: L. A. Gangs, Drugs, and the Law. New York: University of Chicago Press
Tyler, T. R. (2006). Psychological Perspectives on Legitimacy and Legitimation. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 375-400.
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…
Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.
Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.
Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.
Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
This in turn generates a kind of societal morality. As a consequence, social order becomes an incorporated trait of everyday life. According to the theory, what people see as standards are indirect behavioral rules. Infringements of the standard lead to diverse amounts of punishment depending on how common the standard may be. Chastisements can come in the shape of being disqualified from one's social group, critical looks, or imprisonment in the case of harsh infringements like killing or assault (Jeanty, 2010).
As sociologists and historians examine social work, they often see a profession the spirit of which is social control. For them the language of therapy, assisting, or even empowerment masquerades a coercive center. Various recent literature of the vocation, conversely, has confronted the attitude of those researchers who depend on case reports as proof of what social workers in fact do in the field has highlighted empowerment in the…
Burford, Gale and Adams, Paul. (2010). Restorative justice, responsive regulation and social work. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
Chapter 4: The role of the social worker. (2006). Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
" (Adams et al.)
hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science.
The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. ashington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of alter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror tale character). Around the same time that Eleanor Dwight Jones was striving to preserve the white race, the United States Public Health Service began the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. hat took place was a forty year analysis of the life of syphilis. The two hundred black men who had syphilis were "deliberately denied treatment" (Adams et al.) in what was just one more step in oppression and callous social engineering.
And at the same time the Tuskegee experiment was…
Adams, Myrtle, et al. "Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee."
1996. Web. 8 June 2011.
Cone, James. Risks of Faith. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999. Print.
Dowlings, Keven, and Knightley, Philip. "The Spy Who Came Back from the Grave."
Social Partnership' And
The Implications for Trade Unions
This report attempts to explain what is meant by the term social partnership and it also evaluates some implications of social partnerships on trade unions. Social Partnerships have been elevated to be more of the foundation of industrial relations policies. Industrialized nations in these highly global, competitive and technologically advanced economic situations have all new social demands and issues. Labor parties and management teams today have come to realize and understand that if there are going to be economic success stories in their future, then both sides will be required to put emphasis on the importance of partnerships in the workplace. These partnerships entail new methods for problem solving, quality control and productivity. Today, both sides must understand that partnership agreements will help produce more socially adept workers who are well trained, prepared and competitive. Labor and management must come to a…
Baccaro, Lucio, et al. (1999). "The Brave New World of European Labor: European Trade Unions at the Millennium." Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Boucher, Gerry, & Collins, Grainne (2003). Having One's Cake and Being Eaten Too: Irish Neo-Liberal Corporatism. Review of Social Economy, Vol. 61.
Ferner, A. And Hyman, R. (eds) (1998) "Changing Industrial Relations in Europe." Oxford: Blackwell.
Guest, D.E. And Peccei, R. (2001) "Partnership at work: mutuality and the balance of advantage" British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 399 no.2 pp.207-236
Teachers will continue to lead the educational process, but they need to be very sensitive about the issues facing the society as a whole and the children as individuals in this society. Then, education becomes a means of identifying the issues in the life of the students and gaining knowledge and understanding about them. Education in this global society also has to acknowledge that cultural diversity is valued and preserved (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 190). Teachers have to ensure that their students are taught in ways that respond to cultural groups without bias (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 420). In education, there is a responsibility for students to gain a respect for other races, religions and gender that are different from their own. This is the only way that a diverse society can successfully survive.
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New…
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New York, the Guilford Press.
Byrne, a. (1998). Interpretivism. In Roberto Casati (ed.), European Review of Philosophy. Stanford: CSLI Publications
Dewey, J. (1997). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone Books.
Giroux, H. (1997) 'Crossing the Boundaries of Educational Discourse: Modernism, post-modernism, and Feminism' in a.H. Halsey, H. Lauder, P. Brown and a.S. Wells (eds.) Education: Culture, Economy, and Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Social Significance of Food in Early Modern Europe (c.1350 -1800)
Today's society is bombarded with mass produced food competitions and cooking shows. Restaurants and food carts pop-up at every corner, and grocery shops are constantly stacked with most everything that one could imagine. Exotic foods are available year-round, and some are even affordable. Food is truly everywhere in this country, and everybody is trying to cook the latest experience. As one of the most basic of human necessities, food has become part of an expanding "material culture" and, in some instances, part of a luxury culture (van der Veen 003, 405).
Yet this basic human necessity, this basic experience, was not always readily available and, hard as it may be to believe, many people still cannot afford to eat well, even in this country. Just as it did in Ancient Rome, different societal status often means better food, even today.…
2. Ken Albala, Food and Class: Eating Right in the Renaissance (Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002), 184-216.
3. Marijke van der Veen, When is Food a Luxury? (London: Routledge, 2003), 405-427.
4. Massimo Montanari, The Culture of Food (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1996), 68 -- 97.
There is also real indication to depict that declining supply and drinking time could assist in solving the binge drinking, as resulted in Finland, Sweden and Norway. (Lords Hansard text, 2005) Moreover, the Interim Analytical eport indicates that increasing amounts of consumption has been coupled with the increase during the last 25 years in accessibility. It continues to visualize that applications for on-licenses of alcohol have enhanced by 145% over the last two decades. The connection between enhanced accessibility and harm is in someway recognized. But despite suggesting for the regulations on this enormous expansion in supply, the 2003 Act makes the alcohol industry depend on a 'voluntary social responsibility scheme'. The Government is profoundly pressurized by the alcohol industry that promotes income as well as jobs. Therefore, any approaches that are not agreeable to or threat the profit of the alcohol industry have been discarded. Those related to the…
Drummond, Colin. D.2004. An Alcohol Strategy for England: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly.
Alcohol & Alcoholism, 39(5), pp.377-379.
Goodacre, S. 2005. The 2003 Licensing Act: an act of stupidity? Emergency Medicine Journal, 22(1), p.682.
Ghodse, Hamind G. 2005. Addiction at Work: Tackling Drug Use and Misuse in the Workplace.
Therefore, the person who chooses to suspend his interests to comply with those artificial externally-imposed social values for the benefit of others will ultimately always suffer disadvantage because others cannot be counted upon to do so consistently and in a meaningful way, at least not beyond the ability of the state to control and ensure.
To Freud, modern civilization provides various tangible benefits to the individual but only at a tremendous cost. While living in society and with the benefits of government protection against the uncontrolled expression of the selfish will of others is a benefit, the fact that our goals and values, and the component elements of our psychological personas are determined and shaped to such a great extent by external society generates much if not all of the psychological pain and trauma experienced by individuals.
Personal Response and Conclusion
There is substantial value as well as inherent weaknesses…
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…
Social Media Has Had on Society
Social Media has had a particularly influential power over society during recent years as more and more individuals start to guide themselves in accordance with principles put across by such devices. However, it is difficult to determine whether social media has had a positive influence or a negative influence on the social order, taking into account that many are unable to filter information they are bombarded with and end up having a distorted understanding of the world as a whole.
Internet has revolutionized the way information is being sent across the world and this means that it would be impossible for particular events happening in the past to happen in the contemporary society. By simply looking at how the radio and the television have brought significant change to particular environments, one is more likely to understand the degree to which internet can bring change…
Blossom, John, "Content Nation: Surviving and Thriving as Social Media Changes Our Work, Our Lives, and Our Future," (John Wiley & Sons, 14.09.2011)
Duhe, Sandra C., "New Media and Public Relations," (Peter Lang, 2007)
Nunns, Ales and Idle, Nadia, "Tweets from Tahrir: Egypt's Revolution as it Unfolded, in the Words of the People who Made it," (OR Books, 2011)
Ethics and Best Practices
Social assistance as a tool to combat marital issues
Michelle's former husband would probably be inclined to resort to unorthodox methods of accessing her files. As a consequence, I would get actively involved in providing him with the opportunity to see things from a general perspective. By emphasizing the fact that he risks facing legal problems if he continues to harass his wife, I would attempt to enable him to move on with his life and accept that Michelle does not want to see him anymore. My role is to respect Michelle's position in this situation and this would require that I employ a hostile attitude with regard to showing her husband information concerning the woman.
Michelle is likely to cooperate with me in the process of informing her husband with regard to the condition their relationship is in. The fact that she has a history…
For example, Krishan Kumar of the University of Kent at Canterbury11 states,... "in sum, a fine piece of properly political sociology, of which there are in truth very few examples. Society gets its due share of attention; but as is fitting and absolutely essential in any discussion of revolution, it is the peculiar nature of and crisis of the state that occupies the centre of the stage."
Similarly, Michael Kimmel of the University of California -- Santa Cruz,12 states that "Theda Skocpol is perhaps the most ambitious and exciting of a new generation of historical-comparative sociologists who have focused their attention squarely on the big issues of social change that once preoccupied the classic sociologists."
The difficulty that some reviewers had about this book is because of some of the misinformation. For example, George Yaney 12 of the University of Maryland states it is based almost entirely on secondary sources…
Kimmel, Michael. "States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China. By Theda Skocpol." http://www.jstor.org.libdb.fairfield.edu/browse/00029602 " the American Journal of Sociology. 86 No.5 (1981): 1145-1154
Kumar, Krishan. States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France,
Russia and China by Theda Skocpol" the British Journal of Sociology. 31, no. 2
social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.
In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…
Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/
Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.
Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.
Corporate Social esponsibility
Today's society is very much a corporate society where power is centered at many of corporate centers. Corporations are seen more than just tools and methods of living, but rather this way of life dictates the lives of millions as this system provides jobs and employment as an outlet of societal contribution. As a result of the deep and profound impact on society, many wonder what is the long-term effects of a corporate society and what benefits, if any, are available?
This line of questioning eventually leads to the idea of corporate social responsibility and the ethical and moral approach of the corporation within the human culture. The purpose of this essay is to describe the idea of corporate responsibility and examine it through the use of corporate philanthropy as a useful and practical method of success and benefit. The profitability, both long-term and short-term, will be…
Karnani, Aneel, (2010). The Case Against Corporate Social Responsibility. The Wall Street Journal, 23 Aug 2010. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052748703338004575230112664504890
McKee, Steve, (2012). Corporate Social Responsibility: Distinction or Distraction? Bloomberg Businessweek, 9 Aug 2012. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-08-09/corporate-social-responsibility-distinction-or-distraction
Thorpe, Devon. (2013). Corporate Philanthropy Programs are Diverse and Creative. Forbes, 10 Oct 2013. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/devinthorpe/2013/10/10/corporate-philanthropy-programs-are-diverse-and-creative-get-ideas-here/
In preparation for this paper, I reviewed all class notes and lectures. I also referred to Schriver's (2011) Human Behavior and the Social Environment and also Payne's (2005) Modern Social Work Theory. I also reviewed several websites in preparation for a thorough community analysis, while also evaluating my own notes and photographs from assessing the community. My analysis of a specific community is based on several interrelated theories of social work and sociology including conflict theory, systems theory, and functionalism.
In light of what I have read, and based on my observations and interviews with locals, Downtown Indianapolis has undergone major restoration, gentrification, and revival since the 1990s. Issues like empowerment, advocacy, cultural diversity, and conflict theory all come to mind as I evaluate the community by applying theories of social work. I would like to focus in particular on the positive changes that have taken place,…
Arndt, R. (n.d.). Functionalist theory background. University of North Carolina: Pembroke. Retrieved online: http://libguides.uncp.edu/content.php?pid=315635&sid=2582715
Friedman, B.D. & Allen, K.N. (n.d.). Systems theory. Retrieved online: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/32947_Chapter1.pdf
Payne, M. (2005). Modern social work theory, 3rd Ed. London: Lyceum Books.
Schriver, J. (2011). Human behavior and the social environment, 5th Ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Internet is a significantly essential research place for sociologists examining hypothesis of technology transmission, as well as, media effects. The reason for this critical importance is because it is a channel exclusively competent of putting together ways of communication and structures of substance. This paper tends to highlight and analyze various researches conducted on the Internet's implications in the realm of societal psychology, as well as, community capital.
The word, "Internet," actually refers to the electronic network of networks that connects people, as well as, information through computers and other digital devices permitting person-to-person communication, as well as, information recovery. Even though the late 1960s witnessed the commencement of an inherited network devoted to scientific (as well as, subsequent to 1975, military) communication, the Internet did not materialize until 1982; it started its quick gradient only in the early 1990s, when graphical boundaries turned out to be extensively obtainable and…
Abbate J. 1999. Inventing the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Agre P. 1998b. Presentation in Proceeding of a Congressional Breakfast Seminar on Information Technology and Community Change, pp. 14-19. Washington, DC: Consortium of Soc. Sci. Assoc.
Bogart L. 1956. The Age of Television: A Study of Viewing Habits and the Impact of Television on American Life. New York: Ungar
Castells M. 2001. Internet Galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, Business and Society. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
Education system a "ladder of opportunity" or does it simply reflect, reinforce and reproduce existing class differences?
The education system in Britain currently exists as a hierarchical system enabling class differences to continue to persist despite some policy changes that would help facilitate a more equitable program for all involved. Is the educational system a ladder of opportunity? A ladder of opportunity should be considered something that facilitates achievement for all individuals irrespective of their race, national origin or social class. Many consider the educational system a "ladder of opportunity" because education can facilitate achievement and professional growth and wealth for those that pursue it to its highest levels. However, within the UK the education system is not equitably accessible to all levels of the population, and because of this the system actually reinforces and perpetuates existing class differences that already exist within the country.
Within the UK the educational…
Ball, S., Maquire, M. & Macrae, S. (2000). Choice, pathways and transitions post 16:
New youth, new economies in the global city. London: Routlege Falmer.
Hayton, A. & Leathwood, C. (2002). "Educational inequalities in the United Kingdom: A
critical analysis of the discourses and policies of new labour." Australian Journal of Education, 46(2): 138
Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second orld ar, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…
Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Penguin Books, 2006.
Cooper, S. "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30, 2006.
Ewen, Stuart. PR!: A Social History of Spin. NY: Basic Books, 1996.
Feenstra, Jennifer. Introduction to Social Psychology. Bridegeport Education, Inc., 2011.
I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.
Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…
David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Social Psychology Concept Matrix
Social Psychology Concept
Application to Society
Application to the Individual
The researcher selects a certain number of people from the population that he/she wants to study and presents them with a list of questions on the topic asking them to respond in order to elicit their opinion.
The survey can be conducted in writing, over the phone, as face-to-face interview, or in a small-group oral format
The survey can be used to, for instance, discover the expectations that citizens wish from their new president.
The citizens of the country can be polled and asked what they wish the president to accomplish for them / their country in the new term. Results can tell the government what the citizens most wish to be implemented in their country.
Tjaden and Thoennes (2000) surveyed men and women to find their comparable…
This is as also known as the knew-it-all-along effect or creeping determinism. It refers to the situation where the individual is inclined to see events that occurred as events that were predictable all along. This may result in memory distortion where a person's memory of the past is slanted by after-effects
Hindsight bias can interfere with the judicial system in that judges and jurors presented with the case a given often judge defendants as being capable of preventing the bad outcome (Starr & McCormick, 2001). This may be erroneous since many times defendant may not have known the outcome. This also extends tot the plaintiff, where, sometimes, jurors may determine that, based on the outcome, the plaintiff should have been more aware of the
Keeping a diverse yet well-focused identity across social media platforms yet tactically choosing those platforms that are of true resource advantage to enterprises is again a complex and continuous process, but one that is vital to modern businesses.
espite the recognized importance of social media marketing and the known difficulties of establishing how to effectively engage in these efforts, many businesses do not even attempt to gauge the effects of their social media marketing efforts (Michaelidou et al., 2011). According to Michaelidou et al. (2011), most SMEs utilizing social media marketing techniques are hoping to increase their numbers of new customers, which is a concrete goal that can be more accurately assessed and even individually tracked (individually both by instance of marketing and by individual consumers) via much social media and can therefore be more accurately measured and assessed than many other social media marketing efforts and goals (Michaelidou et…
Despite the recognized importance of social media marketing and the known difficulties of establishing how to effectively engage in these efforts, many businesses do not even attempt to gauge the effects of their social media marketing efforts (Michaelidou et al., 2011). According to Michaelidou et al. (2011), most SMEs utilizing social media marketing techniques are hoping to increase their numbers of new customers, which is a concrete goal that can be more accurately assessed and even individually tracked (individually both by instance of marketing and by individual consumers) via much social media and can therefore be more accurately measured and assessed than many other social media marketing efforts and goals (Michaelidou et al., 2011). Despite this, many of these companies fail to actually incorporate any metrics measuring, and this has led to an increased reliance on potentially ineffective and inefficient marketing techniques that present a drain on resources and a lack of identification of other more effective social media marketing strategies (Michaelidou et al., 2011). Tactics for such measurement are available and the measuerment itself can be carried out by a number of third-party vendors specializing in such tracking, making it all the more urgent for SMEs to begin a more accurate and effective use of social media marketing if they are to remain/become more competitive (Michaelidou et al., 2011).
The intersection between social media and viral marketing is also of key importance in understanding marketing in the modern era for enterprises of any size; the ability to reach many millions of consumers with a single marketing or advertising instance does not only exist for primetime television and the Super Bowl, any more, but predicting how to take a marketing campaign truly "viral" is all but impossible (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2011). Viral marketing has existed as a concept since the mid-1990s, but only in the past decade and the rise of "Web 2.0" has viral marketing reached its true potential through user sharing on social media sites, where the ability for a marketing message to spread in a truly viral manner -- each new viewer passing the message on to many others resulting in an exponential growth in the number of viewers over a very short period of time -- is a reality for most of the developed world (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2011). This creates many "outside-the-box" marketing opportunities for creative businesses, and yet is also further cause for wariness in resource allocation and can be ineffective if improperly managed and for a variety of other reasons that remain unclear and under-examined in research and practice (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2011)
SMEs have begun to utilize social media marketing more and more extensively, but not necessarily with more substantial effects. The literature shows a significant gap in the knowledge and practice of effective social media marketing techniques amongst all enterprises and researchers. The additional resource gap that SMEs must contend with puts them at a more significant disadvantage and makes the need for cost effective social media marketing all the more pressing.
Social Marketing Dragonfly Effect
Social Marketing and the Dragonfly Effect: The Case of Barack Obama
"All of this happened because of you. Thanks, Barack," that was the message Barack Obama sent to all of his many online supporters on the night he won the historic presidential election (Chang & Aaker 2010 p 20). Part of Obama's success was his ability to capitalize on the emerging trends of social media. In his teams' efforts, the dragonfly model was implemented seamlessly, allowing him to gather a specific focus, grab attention, engage and finally empower his audience.
In his first run for president, Barak Obama implemented new and innovative strategies utilizing tenants of social media to help spread the message of his campaign. Not only did Obama utilize existing social networking platforms, but he also hired a team to create his own that was featured on his campaign website. Here, the research states…
Chang, Victoria & Aaker, Jennifer. (2010). Obama and the power of social media and technology. The European Business Review, 16-24.
Green, Douglas W. (2011). The dragonfly effect. DrDougGreen.com. Web. http://www.drdouggreen.com/wp-content/Dragonfly-Effect.pdf
The Dragonfly Effect. (2012). How Obama won with social media. Case Studies. Web. http://www.dragonflyeffect.com/blog/dragonfly-in-action/case-studies/the-obama-campaign/
What is meant by the term 'social enterprise' and what do social enterprises contribute to society and the economies in which they operate?
The acceleration with which the world is changing day by day is continuous. A majority of organizations that have a motto of 'not-for-profit' are looking out for prospects with the help of which they can begin or widen their projects in order to get their missions fulfilled and offer the needy the earned profits. Thus, any organization or scheme that brings about the mentioned twofold objectives is considered a social enterprise. Social enterprises sell mission-related goods or services and by doing so they try to create a more impartial and fair environment through specific market-based strategies (Bornstein & Davis 2010).
In other words, a business is regarded as a social enterprise when the main objective is to cope up with the prevailing societal problems and…
Baptiste, T. (2009). Being a Leader and Making Decisions. 1st. ed. New York: Chelsea House.
Beerel, A. (2009). Leadership and Change Management. 1st. ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Bornstein, D. & Davis, S. (2010). Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to Know. 1st. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Borzaga, C. & Defourny, J. (2001). The Emergence of Social Enterprise. 1st. ed. London: Routledge.
Situation: My male roommate was late to work and in a hurry. When he went to start his car he realized the battery was dead. He said, "I knew this would happen! Why do the car gods always do this to me? I'm supposed to know about these car things, all the other guys do!"
This situation clearly illustrates three principles of social psychology: hindsight bias, external locus of control, and social comparison. If I knew the reasons why my roommate was running late, there would be even more principles of social psychology to discuss. As it was, my roommate claimed to "know" that his car would not start. He assumed that he knew such a thing would happen. If he had really known it would happen, however, he might not have left on his lights or done whatever he could to prevent the battery from dying. This…
A proposal to change the program
educing Benefits: This can be done in various ways. Monthly benefits can be reduced by minimizing cost of living adjustments or by minimizing the primary insurance amount (PIA) for a certain average indexed monthly earnings (AIME). Other proposals include targeting reductions towards high-income retirees. Benefits can also be reduced by increasing the retirement age or imposing full taxes on social security benefits. These benefit reduction proposals are some of the simplest and cheapest to implement. If future clients expect lower benefits, they are expected to save more or work longer; all of which will have a positive effect on the economy (Midgley, 2006).
Complete privatization: one of the radical proposals is to erase the social security system and encourage individuals to save in their accounts held by private investment companies. Owners of accounts will have great discretion over their decision of investment…
Brown, J., Liebman, J., & Wise, D. (2009). Social Security Policy in a Changing Environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cross, T.E. (2010). Social security: Capital markets & educational issues associated with individual accounts. S.l.: Diane Pub Co.
Midgley, J. (2006). Challenges to social security: An international exploration. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Auburn House.
Social Security was instituted with the passage of the Social Security Act of 1935. It was signed into law by President oosevelt as a means of providing a social safety net for retirees. The passage of Social Security occurred during the depths of the Great Depression. Prior to this, the concept of social security did not exist in the U.S. -- you either worked until you died, or you retired when you were wealthy enough to do so. Social Security is run by the Social Security Administration, which also administers Medicare as part of the system. Social Security is theoretically self-funding. In 1937, the first taxes were collected to finance the Social Security system. Workers pay into the Social Security system via a payroll tax. According to the SSA's website, general tax revenues have never funded Social Security to any meaningful extent, implying that the program is self-funding through these…
Autor, D. & Duggan, M. (2006). The growth in social security disability rolls: A fiscal crisis unfolding. NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://cid.bcrp.gob.pe/biblio/Papers/NBER/2006/Agosto/w12436.pdf
Biggs, A. (2011). Means testing and its limits. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://www.aei.org/article/economics/retirement/means-testing-and-its-limits/
SSA.gov. (2014). FAQs. Social Security Administration. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://www.ssa.gov/history/hfaq.html
Templin, B. (2006) Full funding: The future of social security. Thomas Jefferson School of Law. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://drupaldev.tjsl.edu/sites/default/files/files/Full_Funding-The_Future_of_Social_Security.pdf
Social workers often have commitments to specific policies, laws, or funding of programs that are vital to the population they serve or an issue that they strongly support. Such commitments often lead social workers to become involved in political issues and the campaigns of specific candidates. Being a social worker, such campaign experiences, the outcomes of your efforts, and how effective you felt you were may affect your view of the political process and the likelihood of becoming involved in similar campaigns in the future. Social workers' involvement in political advocacy is usually influenced by the impact of politics on social work practice. Through advocacy and lobbying in the political arena, social workers seek to promote changes in legislation and policy to enhance social conditions and promote social justice towards meeting basic human needs. In essence, social workers' participation in political advocacy is geared towards protecting individuals' rights and enhancing…
According to Freud, human societies require people to give up many of their most natural instincts and to replace their natural desires with the need to satisfy the "false standards of measurement" such as the "power, success and wealth [that they seek] for themselves and admire & #8230; in others, and that [as a result,] they underestimate what is of true value in life." Fred suggested that the need to live up to the standards and expectations set by society causes "too many pains, disappointments and impossible tasks" and that "to bear it we cannot dispense with palliative measures." By that, Freud meant that all of the psychological mechanisms, substitutions, and escapes that cause psychological problems and that often prevent human happiness. These ideas introduced by Freud about the psychological price paid by people living in society would later be part of the views of several other 20th century sociological…
Statement of the Issue
Beginning with a discussion of Social Darwinism's inherent logical fallacy, this study examines whether or not wealthy industrialists of the nineteenth century actually practiced what Social Darwinism called for. By considering the history of the concept and its relation to capitalism, it becomes clear that not only did wealthy industrialists practice Social Darwinism, but that they embraced it precisely because it provided a justification for the unethical business practices they were already engaged in.
Statement of the Issue
Social Darwinism was a major force in the political, economic, and social landscape of the nineteenth and early twentieth century, but it represents something of a conundrum for the historian attempting to determine whether or not the wealthy industrialists who were proponents of Social Darwinism actually practiced what they preached. The difficulty stems from the fact that Social Darwinism is itself an example of a formal…
Bannister, R. (1993). Social darwinism: Science and myth in anglo-american social thought.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Klein, S. (2003). The natural roots of capitalism and its virtues and values. Journal of Business
Ethics, 45(4), 387-401.
Social Implications of Sexual Identity Formation and Coming Out Process
Chad Mosher's article, "The social implications of identity formation and the coming-out-process: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature" provides a fairly comprehensive look at the theories and realities of individuals asserting their homosexual tendencies to the world. The article is widely written as a source of material and instruction for psychologists who are employed in a therapeutic or counseling capacity with such individuals, as there are implications for them to incorporate into their practice in the article's conclusion. In addition to discussing the two principle theories regarding coming out, essentialism and social constructionism, the author discusses aspects of the theories that are integrated as well as the effect of coming out on both the audience and the homosexual perception. Audiences are stratified into three distinct categories: family members, heterosexuals, as well as homosexuals and those somewhere in between…
Mosher, C. (2001). The social implications of identity formation and the coming-out-process: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature. The Family Journal. 9 (2): 164-173.
Social Media etailing Applications: Opportunities and Threats
How Has Social Media Developed and What are the Benefits and Downsides of Using Social Media for etailers Today?
This study examines social business in general, how it developed and the benefits of using social media in particular. Second, this study provides a discussion concerning the potential positive as well as the effects of social business in the retail sector which is followed by a description of optimal business strategies for social media applications, the pros/cons of using these tools in the industry, and some representative case studies concerning companies that succeeded and some that recently failed in their use of social media. Finally, the study provides a summary of the research and important findings is followed by a series of recommendations concerning how retailers should use social media technologies in their own businesses in the concluding chapter.
Social Media Business Applications
About Honda. (2013). Honda. Available: http://corporate.honda.com/america/philanthropy.aspx?id=philanthropy_overview . Last accessed 1 November 2013.
About Virgin. (2013). Virgin America. Available: http://www.virginamerica.com/about/airline-company.html.
Baumann, M. (2010, June). @Twitter Discloses Business Model #Promotedtweets RT.
Information Today, 27 (6) 1-5.
Social psychology view: What ensures that women are treated fairly in office settings in the United States?
One of the most prudent applications of social psychology within contemporary settings are those that relate to gender. Gender issues can become exacerbated when they are viewed within particular social constructs, such as the work environment. Due to the fact that the majority of the world was initially a patriarchal society (particularly in the United States) before modern conceptions of gender became prevalent, the role of women within the work environment is one which is certainly worthy of investigation in terms of how women are treated, what sorts of issues they must contend with, and how others (men) consider working women. The principle difference between contemporary and most historic notions of gender pertaining to women in the workplace is that in modern times, there is supposed to be a substantial greater amount of…
Bisika, T. (2008). Do social and cultural factors perpetuate gender-based violence in Malawi?.Gender & Behaviour, 6(2), 1884-1896. doi:10.4314/gab.v6i2.23426
Cikara, M., Rudman, L., & Fiske, S. (2012). Dearth by a Thousand Cuts?: Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology. Journal Of Social Issues, 68(2), 263-285. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2012.01748.x
Gilbert, D.G., Fiske, S.T. & Lindzey G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Huerta, M. (2007). Intersections of race and gender in women's experiences of harassment. (Order No. 3253291, University of Michigan). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 110-110 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304848503?accountid=25340 . (304848503).
Franklin's autobiography demonstrates a truly American kind of businessman, because he so neatly embodies all of the assumptions and logical fallacies that American capitalism depends on in order to justify its dominance in an ostensibly equitable and representative society.
Where Franklin's autobiography demonstrates the peculiar appeal to divine right that is used to justify the inequity of American capitalism, Herman Melville's Bartleby the Scrivener demonstrates the almost willful obtuseness necessary for any apologists of capitalism who must interact with the exploited lower classes on a regular basis. The narrator of Bartleby the Scrivener is entirely unaware of anything outside the extremely limited range of his own preconceived ideas, which is both why Bartleby's passive resistance stuns him so much and he is ultimately unable to come to terms with Bartleby's death. He practically admits as much when he says "the easiest way of life is the best," because the easiest…
Franklin, B. (2008). Autobiography of benjamin franklin. New York: Forgotten Books.
Melville, H. (1856). Bartleby the scrivener. New York: Plain Label Books.
My social unit is Canada, which is a sovereign nation. I'm not sure how to redefine it, unless Canada expanded its borders or something. Perhaps by expanding the definition from strict geographic borders to incorporate all Canadians, living anywhere in the world. Canada is one of the most globalized nations in the world. As an immigrant nation, it features cities with some of the highest percentages of foreign-born people. Furthermore, with a large and globalized economy, Canada scores highly on many globalized indexes, and would score higher if those indexes took into account having immigrants from all over the world.
The first article is Zhang & Smith (2012). This article outlines the effects of globalization on workplace performance in Canada. There are a few different dimensions to this paper. The authors make several findings. First, they find that productivity is higher at foreign-owned firms, and productivity is also…
Laroche, M. (2011). Globalization, culture and marketing strategy: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 64 (9) 931-933.
MacDonald, A. (2013). Consideration of identity in teachers' attitudes toward teaching controversial issues under conditions of globalization: A critical democratic perspective from Canada. Ontario Institute for Studies. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/35891/1/MacDonald_Angela_M_201306_PhD_Thesis.pdf
Slaymaker, O. & French, H. (2012). The changing Canadian cryosphere, globalization and global environmental change. Changing Cold Environments: A Canadian Perspective.
Zhang, H. & Smith, M. (2012). Globalization and workplace performance in Canada: Cross-sectional and dynamic analyses of productivity and wage outcomes. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility. Vol. 30 (3) 310-327.
Social Equity Public Administration
Emergence as Concern in Field of Public Administration
Social equity has always been an important aspect of public administration, though only recently is it receiving much attention in the press. Whereas in times of old social equity concerned itself primarily with issues of fairness and equality in the public workplace, today social equity is emerging as a field encompassing many different aspects of administration.
Among these include public education, policy development, hiring and promotional practices, public welfare and even transportation. In modern public administration, all of these issues are applied to the field in order to establish fairness, justice and equality for all. Social equity in the field of public administration has emerged as a response to consumer demands for equitable policy making and fairness in governance.
Public administration as a whole may be defined as the management of "matters which have principally to do with…
Frederickson, G. (1986). "New public administration." Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Rice, M.F. (2003). "Organizational Culture, Social Equity & Diversity: Teaching Public
Administration." Texas A& M. University, Bush School Working Paper #314. 14, November, 2004: http://bush.tamu.edu/content/research/working_papers/mrice/teach-post-modern.pdf
Christopher, G.C., Rutledge, P.J. (2001). "Reinvigorating the Social Equity Debate."
Social Engineering Attacks Counter Intelligence
Social Engineering Counter Intelligence
Describe what social engineering and counterintelligence are and their potential implications to our national security in regard to the leaked Afghan War Diary and the Iraq War Logs.
Social engineering is the theft of classified information. Then, using it to change everyone's opinions and perceptions about what is happening. Counter intelligence is preventing hostile enemies or organizations from obtaining access to sensitive material. These areas are viewed from two different perspectives. The first one is that of more liberal attitudes. They believe that any kind of secret files, are allowing the U.S. government to hide the truth. This is when it has no accountability for engaging in different actions. These voices, feel any kind of disclosures of classified information, is critical to understanding the larger issues and letting the public (i.e. world) know what they are up to. (Mulrine, 2013) (Harding,…
Wiki Leaks. (2010). ABC News. Retrieved from: http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wikileaks-109000-deaths-iraq-war/story?id=11949670
Wiki Leaks Releases. (2010). VOA News. Retrieved from: http://www.voanews.com/content/wikileaks-releases-400000-classified-us-military-files-105568738/128719.html
Fowler, A. (2011). The Most Dangerous Man in the World. Carlton: University of Melbourne Press.
Harding, L. (2011). Wiki Leaks. New York, NY: Public Affairs.
(2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice esearch, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis evisited. Status Bias in the eduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. esearch Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Pearson, A., Dovidio, J., & Pratto, F. (2007).acial Prejudice, Intergroup Hate, and Blatant and Subtle Bias of Whites toward Blacks in Legal Decision Making in the United States. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p145-158, 14p. etrieved July 8, 2009 from EBSCO online database Full Text http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=27747337&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
amasubramanian, S. &…
Fiske, S. (2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice Research, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis Revisited. Status Bias in the Reduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. Research Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
The participants should be able to rate their performance both in the experimental situation involving a small audience and in that involving a large audience.
This is also a measure of their self-efficacy prior to exposure to the audiences. The purpose of this act is to see whether the change in their self-evaluation is due to exposure to the audiences. The self-evaluation is done by using a self-administered questionnaire. The second stage is the exposure to the two types of audience. After performing in front of the two types of audiences, the group of gymnasts is asked to rate themselves using the same self-administered questionnaire. Using the subjects' self-evaluation it is possible to identify the changes. And by taking into consideration the changes it would be possible to decide whether the size of the audience had any impact on the performance. However, in such a study it is possible to…
Presence of others, Retrieved at http://myclassonline.com/pub/content/ad080d01
Lambert, a.J., Payne, B.K., Jacoby, L.L., Shaffer L.M., Chasteen, a. (2003) Stereotypes as Dominant Responses: On the "Social Facilitation" of Prejudice in Anticipated Public Contexts, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 84, No. 2, 277-295
Social Facilitation, Retrieved at http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/social_facilitation.htm
Since we observe the responses of our peers and friends, we are very much attuned to how we interact with others, and how their succeed or fail. The theory of self-efficacy is fundamental to understanding social cognitive learning, because it implies that the process of using this theory creates greater confidence. Since individuals learn from their cultural environment, it is imperative to construct a positive enforcing messages through the educational process to ensure that individuals feel that they can accomplish any and all given tasks.
A contextual example of the social cognitive learning model can be seen in the case of student as in the provided example. As is a student who feels no self-efficacy when it comes to mathematics, despite numerous opportunities to learn from math, he has taken no opportunities to improve himself. When questioned he clearly asserts that he cannot learn math, something that appears counterintuitive from…
They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].
The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:
The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal
Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.
It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did
James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at http://www.spcollege.edu/Central/libonline/path/shortstory.pdf .
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.
December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.
I find this very surprising because I thought that social learning and incorporation of operant conditioning as part of the social learning theory plays a preeminent role in influencing criminality.
I think that the theories that explain best the findings of the articles are the sociological and theories. Psychological and biological theories are not suitable for support. I chose from the sociological theories the "Social Disorganization Theory" emanating from the Chicago School research of Shaw and McKay. According to this theory's general hypothesis "low economic status, ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility, and family disruption lead to community social disintegration, which in turn increases crime and delinquency rates" (Sampson, .J. & Groves, W.B., Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory, p. 774.) The Social Disorganization Study is the theory that by virtue of the article's title actually underlies the research of Triplett & Gainey. But in large parts it also mirrors the…
Monahan, J. (19 February 2010). The Causes of Violence. Derived 15 August 2011 from www.sodahead.com/united-states/the-causes-of.../blog-263921
Sampson, R.J. & Groves, W.B. (1989). Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory. AJS Volume 94 Number 4 (January 1989): 774-802, derived 15 August 2011 from RJ Sampson… - American Journal of Sociology, 1989 -- JSTOR.
One of the primary concerns was multicultural relationships -- the recognition that ethics were relative to specific cultures and that each culture had to be understood according to its own functions, has to be respected for what it is, and had to be addressed in light of its cultural history and practices so that its people could best be helped. Social work had come a long way from attempting to squeeze all citizens of America in the model of the 'perfect American' as it had done in the 1920s. Nowadays, it is well-recognized that immigrants have many problems that deter them from receiving the rights that all Americans should receive optimal beneficial medical care and healthy living accommodations. Suffering from handicapped language skills and ignorance about the ways of their new land, immigrants are often exploited by an unjust and insensitive system as well as by willful individuals. This is…
Chesney, A.P., Chavira, J.A., Hall, R.P., & Gary, H.E. (1982). Barriers to medical care of Mexican-Americans: the role of social class, acculturation, and social isolation. Med. Care 20, 883 -- 91
Raemer, F. (1998) The evolution of social work ethics Nat. Assoc. Of Social Workers.
Social Web and Technology: Moving Humans Into Uncharted Territory
The internet has changed the way humans interact with each other in every way. It has helped shape an entire generation of social interactions as well as helped people learn in ways that were not possible before. Within these interactions, the very roots of society are created. S these interactions have changed media and shape, the preferences and habits of socialization have changed as well. As a technology, social web has given people the ability to connect with other people and places that were at one time inaccessible. It also gives people unfettered access to information through first hand reports and stories. This access to information on a global scale is also changing the way socialization occurs.
Human beings have always had a certain access to information, whether within a small group or over technologies like TV, radio, or printed media.…
Blossom, J. (2009). Content nation: surviving and thriving as social media technology changes our lives and our future. Social Media: New York.
Dorfman, L., Martindale, C., Gassimova, V., & Vartanian, O. (2008). Creativity and speed of information processing: A double dissociation involving elementary vs. inhibitory cognitive tasks. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 44, No. 6, April 2008, 1382-1390.
Postman, N. (2001). Deus Machina. Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology, Vol.
10, No. 27. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002395759 .
More current research in this field uses an even more analytical approach. King and Covi (1995) studied the use of electronic journals, and their effect on scholarly communications. ather than just examining the effect of those journals, the researchers also took into consideration variables such as design layout and speed of content updates. What they found was that these journals did play a role in scholarly communication, and each of the different variables had an effect on how well the journal faired (King and Covi, 1995). It is precisely this type of analytical, integrated research that is useful to the field of social informatics, but is generally lacking.
While studies such as that above show clearly the value of social informatics research, done in a systematic, empirical way, the field in and of its self is still too non-integrated and unorganized. In order for the field to be truly beneficial…
Attewell, P. (1987). The deskilling controversy. Work and Occupation, 14(3), 323-346.
King, J.L. (1983). Centralized vs. decentralized computing: organizational considerations and management options. Computing Surveys, 15(4), 320-349.
Kling, R. (1999, January). What is social informatics and why does it matter? D-Lib Magazine, 5(1). Retrieved July 6, 2005, from D-Lib Magazine. Web site: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january99/kling/01kling.html#Kling95 .
Kling, R. And Covi, L. (1995). Electronic journals and legitimate media in the systems of scholarly communication. The Information Society, 11(4), 261-271.
Thus, many firms rely not on spam but on opt-in e-mail promotions. One of the primary ways of having customers volunteer their e-mail addresses is through mandatory registration on a Web site. Firms that rely on registrations can cull their customers' e-mail address and send direct promotional materials to them. Targeted to the customer's interests, the e-mail flyers and brochures have the potential to bring in consumer traffic to Web sites or in some cases to brick-and-mortar stores. The disadvantage with using e-mail as a means of direct promotion is that many consumers do not provide a valid e-mail address or reserve a spare, hardly used e-mail address specifically for Web site registrations.
Viral marketing has become a potentially robust form of Web-based promotion. Including cleverly placed press releases, articles, and blog entries, viral marketing allows customers to come to the company rather than vice-versa. Word-of-mouth marketing empowers the consumer,…
Social Innovation Workplace
The role that social innovation plays in the global marketplace
It is clear that online marketing is becoming popular in all global corporations. Just as most things in life have shown significant progress, companies such as Wal-Mart and Apple are seeking for convenience. Wal-Mart and Apple have taken note of this and are offering online marketing and display of products. While marketers have an option of making sales through online-based infrastructures such YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter, they have a wide range of variety in the market place. This makes us wonder about the pros and cons of online media (oberts, 2007).
Marketers with busy schedules throughout the day are able to continue with their sales and marketing efforts through online strategies. Here, customers are potential customers can log onto such as Facebook and Twitter at their convenient time and bump into adverts selling products and services. egular…
Cassin, R.L. (2008). Bribery abroad: Lessons from the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Morrisville, N.C: Lulu.com.
Mulgan, G., Tucker, S., Ali, R. & Sanders, B. (2009). Social innovation What it is, Why it matters and how it can be accelerated. London: Kogan Page.
Roberts, J. (2007). Stanford Social Innovation Review. What's Next Let's Play Microloan. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press.
Saul, J. (2011). Social innovation, Inc.: 5 strategies for driving business growth through social change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
ational choice theory can in fact encompass the other two previously mentioned theories of criminal behavior due to the fact that acting rational may include conflicting with common culture or joining the neighborhood gang to eventually escape the ghetto.
Of all the theories of criminal behavior studied so far, rational choice theory is the most applicable to the current state of society in my opinion. Much too often criminals are often dismissed for their faults, when in actuality they are truly acting rational and within their known boundaries of experience. Blanket laws do little good when examining them under this theory. Followers of rational choice theory would agree that changes within the criminal justice system should be made to expose the relative circumstances surrounding each case and not assuming that common punishments meet the required solution for the problem. Warner tended to agree: "building stronger communities will require not…
Kurbin (nd). "Sociological Theories of Criminal Behavior II."
Warner, B. (2003). The role of attenuated culture in social disorganization theory. Criminology, 41(1), 73 -- 98.
oger Plachy's 1986 book When I Lead, Why Don't They Follow? distinguishes the difference between a manager and a leader. The book also offers specific tools and techniques to improve effectiveness at being both a manager and a leader. A core tenet of When I Lead, Why Don't They Follow is that leadership entails the expression of values. Leaders inspire because they mirror the values held by their followers. Plachy suggests that when followers subsequently empower leaders to advocate on their behalf, the leader becomes a "leader-manager." Similarly, when a person in a designated managerial role begins to express the values held by subordinates or colleagues, that person becomes a leader-manager. The hybrid leader-manager role is one that characterizes the social work profession.
Social workers straddle the line between leadership and management because of their role as guides, helpers, and advocates. These multiple roles make some social workers…
Plachy, R. When I Lead, Why Don't They Follow? Bonus Books, 1986.
A nation faithful to democracy is blessed and called to spread this "good news" throughout the nations "(Withrow,2007, p.15 ).
Coupled with this "gospel" was the support and verification of major scientific theories during this period. Social Darwinism was derived from Darwin's work on the evolution of the species. In essence, Darwin's theory of human evolution refers to the principle of the 'survival of the fittest," on which the ideal of human progress becomes possible. Therefore, taking this principle into account, Social Darwinism attempt to explain and justify the social and economic inequalities in society in terms of those who are the strongest and fittest in the society i.e. those who are the most prosperous and who accumulate the most. Therefore, the vision that this theory produced was one that favored and justified the strongest and most successful in society.
In order to understand the impact of Social Darwinism one…
Carnegie a. The Gospel of Wealth Reflection Questions. Excerpts of an essay written by Carnegie in 1889. Retrieved from http://learningtogive.org/resources/stories/gospelofwealth/
De Santis, V. The American Gilded Age Revisited. Australian Journal of Politics & History, 29
(2), pp. 354 -- 367. Available from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119538983/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
Withrow L. Success and the Prosperity Gospel: from Commodification to Transformation a Wesleyan Perspective. Journal of Religious Leadership, 6(2). Available from http://arl-jrl.org/Volumes/Withrow07.pdf.
The reason for this is that the phenomenon generally occurs within groups. Individuals who function in a group often do so differently than when left upon their own. To conduct the study, one individual and one group of people should be observed in two separate rooms.
The individual will be able to observe the group by means of a one-way window. The group will be unaware of the individual. All the group members except one were told to clap their hands in unison when a piece of rhythmic music begins to play. The individual in the adjacent room will observe this behavior as well as be able to hear the music.
As soon as the music begins to play, it is hypothesized that the person without prior coaching will be initially surprised. The other group members will overtly or covertly stare at the person or encourage him or her to…
ChangingMinds.org. (2010). Normative Social Influence. Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/normative_social_influence.htm
Lord, Kenneth R., Myung-Soo Lee, Peggy Choong (2001), "DIFFERENCES in NORMATIVE and INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE," in Advances in Consumer Research Volume 28, eds. Mary C. Gilly and Joan Meyers-Levy, Valdosta, GA: Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 280-285.
McLeod, S.A. (2007) Simply Psychology [Online] UK: Available: http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk / Accessed: March 15, 2010
For this kind of research to be effective, researchers must gain the trust and confidence of these individuals. Careful planning, focus group research, and investigation may help to build this kind of trust, but all of those steps add time (and expenses) to the research process.
c) Use of untested assumptions. Researchers may have their own assumptions about how people react to trauma, and these assumptions may negatively affect their own neutrality. Those assumptions may also impact the design of the study, through the types of questions being asked in the research to the way the researcher interacts with the subjects. Misconceptions about trauma are rampant, and in fact people react very differently to stresses in their lives.
Major Findings: Researchers discovered a great deal of variability in post-traumatic response among individuals in the immediate community where the trauma took place. Many of those closest to the trauma had…
To this reviewer, that is the extent of the author's success in this article, and even that success is not build on a novelty of thought. It is a basic tenet in communication theory that the message sent is not necessarily the message received. Sender and recipient have always had to negotiate a common understanding of shared information, whether the medium of exchange is non-verbal, oral, written, or visual. Similarly, the notion that perception is reality, reflected in the third noted concept, is not new.
This reviewer feels that the author has stumbled into the trap that snares many people who experience a technological revolution in their lifetimes. These people tend to forget or disregard the experiences of those who came before them. Humankind has lived through many technological revolutions that have transformed how we live and how we see ourselves, and have shifted the balance of power and created…
Bunch, B., and Hellemans, a. (2004). The history of science and technology: A browser's guide to the great discoveries, inventions, and the people who made them from the dawn of time to today. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Comments about social engagement through images in the online sphere.