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Social Policy Analysis and Practice
How did Sara help clients to define and resolve their own problems?
Sara became involved in the client's processes or their attempts to do such as apply for food stamps in order to understand the barriers that they were up against. Once the barriers were identified she sought guidance from individuals in high positions within the state in order to identify policy matter and this served as a guide in understanding the best method to use in approaching the problems or points of disconnect within the processes or service provision to clients. Once having identified policy as per state regulations and legislation Sara was diligent in her effort and firm with the agencies from whom the clients sought assistance such as the worker at the food stamp agency and by doing so was able to assist the clients in ensuring that the agencies enacted new…
Public Law 109-2005 (2014) Indiana Government. Retrieved from: http://www.in.gov/sos/elections/2401.htm
Siegel, GL, et al. (1997) Missouri Family Assessment and Response Demonstration. Final Evaluation Report Prepared for Missouri Department of Social Services Division of Family Services. Institute of Applied Research. Retrieved from: http://www.iarstl.org/papers/MO%20FAR%20Final%20Report-for%20website.pdf
Private schools generally do not offer such services, or charge extra fees if they do. They do however feature a smaller teacher to student ratio, which many parents view as a superior element to public schools.
Apart from lobbying, I believe I can meet my clients' needs by ensuring that public policy continues to serve their needs. Working for a government organization will place me in a position to influence law-making parties via documentation and studies related to my clients' needs. In this way, even if I cannot take part in lobbying, I can ensure that the public interest is best served by lobbying efforts, and that tax money is applied in a targeted manner to provide the highest possible quality of education to all children.
Greatchools.net. (1998-2007). "Public vs. Private chools: What's the Difference? http://www.greatschools.net/cgi-bin/showarticlefeature/ca/197
Introduction to ocial Policy. (2007). "Education and ocial Policy. http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/education.htm
GreatSchools.net. (1998-2007). "Public vs. Private Schools: What's the Difference? http://www.greatschools.net/cgi-bin/showarticlefeature/ca/197
Introduction to Social Policy. (2007). "Education and Social Policy. http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/education.htm
Social Policy Making in Social Work
Although social agencies and social work professionals can help shape policies and practices, the nature of the services delivery system and the legitimacy of social work as a profession is established by public social policy. In many ways, the current policy is antithetical to social work values. An understanding of social policy is vital for engaging practically with social work values, dealing with political and ethical questions about responsibility and rights, as a society. Though social justice is a central goal of the social work profession, the actual involvement of social workers in social change is very limited. Moreover, training in social policy and policy practice in schools of social work is minimal. As such, practitioners lack the tools needed to analyze existing social problems and policies and to enable them to intervene in the policy process in order to better serve the needs…
McNutt, J. (2010). Social work and social welfare policy in Canada: a consideration of major Internet resources for research and practice. Journal of Policy Practice, 9(2), 154-159. doi:10.1080/15588741003601124
Weiss, I., Gal, J., & Katan, J. (2006). Social policy for social work: A teaching agenda. British Journal of Social Work, 36(5), 789-806.
Social Policy egarding Sexism
How are sexism and heterosexism are linked?
Sexism basically deals with discrimination related to gender. This can undertake discrimination against just women or even against men too. Sexism implies that there are conventional gender roles that one ought to follow and these roles have an effect on the way people behave in society. Sexism involves the stereotyping of genders and generalizing the way people act (Gotz, 1999). This often has farfetched effects on individuals. Heterosexism on the other hand implies that everyone should be a heterosexual and that is the best form of sexual orientation and is preferred over being an LGBTQ. This implies a form of biased attitude towards those who have a different sexual orientation and this is why they face discrimination and differed attitudes in society. Hence, both sexism and heterosexism are linked as they create differences in society and label gender roles…
Bristow, Edward. (1977). Social Purity Movement. Vice and Vigilance: Purity Movements in Britian since 1700.
Gotz, Ignacio. (1999). The culture of Sexism. Human evolution, behavior and Intelligence. Praeger Publishers.
Hunt, Margaret. (1990). The de-eroticization of women's liberation. Social Purity Movements and the revolutionary feminism of Sheila Jeffery. Feminist Review No. 34.
Kantor, Martin. (1998). Homophobia: Description, development and dynamics of gay bashing.
Certainly, no one can doubt the benefit of government. All of the public benefit for instance from military help in the case of a disaster, such as a storm, etc. Ironically, when this author reads the writings of enator Forsey, it does seem strange for a Labourite to justify the British Queen as head of state. Whenever one walks through a forest, for instance, one is reminded that this Queen owns the forests, supposedly for our benefit. However, the same Queen's representative (the Governor General) can depose Canadian parliaments, not in a time of war as she did on December 8, 2008 to prevent a vote of no confidence in the government. ince when was such an action like a vote of no confidence in any way dangerous, except to excessive state power? What happens when the head of state acts against the elected government for a non-emergency…
Social policy tells us a lot about who we are as Canadians. We like to think of ourselves as taking care of our poor in a more systematic way than U.S. citizens south of the border. The policy evolved out of the Depression of the 1930's and grew into a legacy following World War Two. While neoliberalism has weakened it, it is still our legacy, although it has being weakened, practically speaking. It is still recognized as a principle in the Constitution Act, of 1982.
It is stated there that the Parliament and provincial legislatures and governments, together with the federal institutions, are committed to promoting equal opportunities for the well-being of Canadians. This includes the furthering of economic development to reduce disparity in opportunities and in providing essential public services of reasonable quality to all Canadians (Forsey, 2010, 13-14).
The contrast between the ideal expressed in our constitutional documents and the
In context of the welfare provision in Canada, de-commodification can be described as the degree to which these welfare services are provided to the Canadian inhabitants and are free of the market. De-commodification is an important concept because the states practicing this system provide welfare services like education, jobs and healthcare to all the citizens and this system has no linkage with the processes that prevail in the market. In a society where de-commodification is practiced as a system, all the individuals hold the right to a source of revenue that is not dependable on market. If we talk about the Canadian society, social welfare is indeed a crucial feature which provides for the people who are unable to earn a livelihood in the market place. This has helped the Canadians to replace the pre-industrial, dependable modes of social security from family unit, place of worship or…
Gosta Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Hick, S. (2002). Social Welfare in Canada: Understanding Income Security. (1 ed.). Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
Wharf, B., & McKenzie, B. (1998). Connecting Policy to Practice in Human Services. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
esearch has shown that the government is a payer, regulator as well as, the provider in the health sector. As a result, the federal government should ensure that they exercise caution particularly when attempting to regulate the prescription drug coverage surrounding the importation of drugs from foreign countries. Prescription of drugs for older adults may be difficult and contentious; however, the study shows that most governments are today providing programs and services for the aged to ensure that they respond to the growing number of older Americans and the policy process (Czaja & Shari, 2002). Therefore, the paper will discuss on the government control of prescription medications as well as, examining the government response to the increasing or growing number of older Americans and the policy process.
Many economists argue that the government control of prescription of drug policy may be difficult since it is an industry with…
Czaja, S., & Shari, J. (2002). The Aging of the Population: Opportunities and Challenges for Human Factors Engineering . News Rss. Retrieved December 15, 2013, from http://www.nae.edu/Publications/Bridge/TechnologiesforanAgingPopulation/TheAgingofthePopulation.aspx
Day, T. (2005). About the National Aging Network. Government Programs for Older Americans. Retrieved December 15, 2013, from http://www.longtermcarelink.net/eldercare/area_agencies_on_aging.htm
Hunter, D. (2001). Government Controls on Access to Drugs: What Seniors Can Learn fromMedicaid Drug Policies. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved December 15, 2013, from http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2003/05/government-controls-on-access-to-drugs-what-seniors-can-learn-from-medicaid-drug-policies
Social Policy in Australia
One of the most important tasks that a citizen of any democracy has a duty to undertake is to serve as a watchdog for his or her government. The topic that was selected for this paper - examining the way in which the Australian government has addressed the issue of refugees - is an important one because it allows the "ordinary" person to gain an understanding of the ways in which the government works when it believes that it is not going to be scrutinized by the public.
All governments - including democratic governments like that in Australia - behave differently when they are aware that their actions will be public and when they believe that their actions will be known only to a few people within the government itself. This should not be surprising: This is the way in which people act in general. Many…
hat is the impact on women of health care privatization and downloading?
Pat Armstrong in Chapter Thirteen makes the case for the advantages women had with the Medicare system in tact; healthcare in Canada has been what Armstrong calls "…a shining example of a universal program that has worked to reduce inequalities" in terms of access to care for women (Armstrong, 333). In fact, not only did the Medicare system provide women with excellent access to care, four of five healthcare workers are female, so the system also provides employment for women. But Armstrong (p. 334) reports that "fundamental transformations" in the healthcare system are occurring, which has the effect of "undermining both women's access to care and women's work in care" -- and that is privatization.
Privatization and downloading alludes to policy changes that basically take the public aspect out of healthcare delivery and make it a…
Armstrong, Pat. Health Care "Reform" -- Privatization and Its Impact on Women.
Module 10 -- Health.
Potential Issues Militating against the Continued Use of Affirmative Action
The potential issues militating against continuation of affirmative action initiatives include the fact that they may unfairly discriminate against non-minorities, they ignore the comparable plight of individuals from minorities not officially recognized, and the fact that they may actually undermine the social progress of some of those individuals they are designed to benefit (Halbert & Ingulli, 2007). Paradoxically, the closer that the opportunities available to minorities and non-minorities become in society, the more potentially unfair affirmative action mechanisms are to those excluded from eligibility. That is particularly evident where the specific manifestations of affirmative action take the form of outright racial quotas or comparable preferential eligibility or hiring policies. Notwithstanding general statistical patterns, the continued reliance on rigid eligibility criteria also results in injustice where specific minority individuals happen not to suffer from the disadvantages experienced more generally by members…
Halbert T. And Ingulli E. (2007). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:
West Legal Studies.
Healey JF. (2003). Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict
and Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
War on Drugs
Four decades ago, the American government declared a war on drugs. As has been the case with some other American wars, the battle continues with the American government continuously investing money and resources in the stubborn hope of defeating its enemy. The enemy persists with government and violators playing a cop-robber squall, people continuing to harm themselves, the government raising taxes and steepness of penalties, and the jails and social programs filling -- not emptying -- with substance abusers. This despite a plethora of research, interventions, material on the subject, conventions, legal policies, brainstorming, and so forth
The essay suggests that it may be time to consider a wiser, more effective, strategy.
American Policy on Substance Abuse: History & Scope of Issue
Four decades ago, the American government declared a war on drugs. The initiatus came typically enough with Nixon who still fighting one war decided to…
Bewley-Taylor, David R. & Fazey, S.J. (2003). The Mechanics and Dynamics of the UN System for International Drug Control, Forward Thinking on Drugs, Retrieved March 2, 2011 on from: http://www.aidslex.org/site_documents/J027E.pdf
Dolin, B. (2001). National drug policy: United States of America. Prepared for the Senate Special Committee On Illegal Drugs. Law and Government Division. Retrieved March 2, 2011 on from:
Duncan, David F. & Nicholson, T. (1997). Dutch drug policy: A model for America? Journal of Health and Social Policy, 8, 1-15.
social policy and economic policy?
ocial policy refers to guidelines, principles, legislation and activities that concern the way that humans live and interact. According to the Malcolm Wiener Center for ocial Policy at Harvard University it refers to "public policy and practice in the areas of health care, human services, criminal justice, inequality, education, and labor."
Another way that one can perceive social policy is that it is a cluster of rules and conventions that hedge in society and direct its actions in a certain way as well as direct appropriation of resources amongst the people. Important areas of social policy for instance are the welfare state, social security, unemployment insurance, environmental policy, pensions, health care, social housing, social care, child protection, social exclusion, education policy, crime and criminal justice.
Particularities of these include attitudes towards euthanasia, abortion, and homosexuality, legality of prostitution, drugs, marriage, and divorce.
In all ways,…
Alcock, P. (2006) Understanding Poverty, PalgraveAnnetts, J. (2009) Understanding Social Welfare Movements, Policy Press
Fitzpatrick, T. (2011) Welfare Theory: An Introduction, Palgrave
Hills, J. (2009) Towards a More Equal Society, Policy Press
Hudson, J. And Lowe, S. (2009) Understanding the Policy Process, Policy Press
The relationship of this dynamic system can be seen in the past 9/11 attack at the World Trade Center. All of the three elements, the society, business, and government, were involved and aggravated in the incident. First of all, it was the international relationship and activities of the U.S. government that was the main reason why the attack was committed. To communicate the disagreement of the terrorist party to the government, what they did was to hamper and injure the businesses in U.S., particularly the World Trade Center which is located in the main business district of America. Consequently, from such attack to businesses as the terrorists' way to communicate their anger to the U.S. government, the society was the main element who received and experienced the harm.
Social work history displays that the desire of social justice is both a task and a myth for employees and their immediate predecessors in organizations. This study provides a critical analysis of Janet Finn's and Maxine Jacobson's work titled "Just Practice." The great focus is on the first and the third chapter where their contributions and critical omissions are identified. Finn and Jacobson have worked hard to illustrate the historical development of social work, which was largely premised on charity for the poor (Finn, & Jacobson, 2003). In both chapters, they have elaborated in length on how social work came into being. Ideally, social work history revolves around the industrial revolution and the way the rise of capitalism created a gap between the rich and the poor. In the first chapter, the role of Charity Organization Societies and Settlement House Movement as the pioneers of social work has been elucidated…
Barusch, A.S. (2009). Foundations of social policy: Social justice in human perspective. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Finn, J.L., & Jacobson, M. (2003). Just practice: a social justice approach to social work. Peosta, Iowa: Eddie Bowers Pub. Co..
Leiby, J. (1978). A history of social welfare and social work in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lundy, C., & Lundy, C. (2011). Social work, social justice, & human rights: A structural approach to practice. North York, Ont: University of Toronto Press.
Aging and Social Policy
rends in Aging Social Policy
he Rise of the Contenders
he number of citizens above the age of 65 has expanded dramatically over the past 100 years. In 1900, the average life expectancy was just 47.3 years, but a child born in 2008 can expect to live another 30.8 years on average. From an economic perspective, the seniors alive 100 years ago were largely dependent on others for their survival and this realization triggered policy changes that provided many advantages, including a security net for retirees.
After World War II, the economy became robust enough that the aged began to experience a longer life expectancy and greater economic wealth. his resulted in the emergence of a politically powerful demographic that could begin to influence public policy on its own. his process has been viewed as cyclical, in that public policies strengthened a specific demographic and the…
The expectation is that this trend will put an enormous stress on the U.S. economy. By the time ACA was signed into law by President Obama in 2010, close to 16% of the nation's gross domestic product was being spent on healthcare. By 2035, this percentage is expected to double. As the baby boom generation begins retirement over the next two decades, the public will increasingly shoulder the burden of health care costs for the aged.
The ACA attempts to limit increasing Medicare costs by shifting the focus of providers from generating volume to improving care quality. For example, hospitals will be penalized for preventable hospital readmissions and diseases/injuries acquired during hospital stays. The ACA provisions also reduce payments to Medicare Advantage recipients, who tend to be retirees who want or need more flexibility and protections than standard Medicare coverage provides. By comparison, the most recent federal budget plan proposed by congressional Republicans calls for repeal of the ACA and converting Medicare into a voucher program. The Republican budget also calls for an increase in the retirement age. Although the White House budget plan has yet to be released, the expectations are that Medicare will remain intact as an entitlement program, but the wealthier beneficiaries will be expected to pay more.
The budget battle over federal entitlements is essentially a battle over values. From the Republican perspective, those that have earned their way when young will receive some measure of help when they retire, but there are no guarantees on how much help will be provided. In contrast, the White House and congressional Democrats view Medicare as something earned and therefore inviolate. Viewed another way, the Republicans envision a minimalist government and Democrats see a role for government in easing the fears many face when they become disabled or too old to care for themselves. In view of this perspective, seniors have benefited largely from the latter values for the past 78 years.
Social Policies in Community Agencies
Hall (2013) opines that social workers practicing from a community organizing or development perspective try to tackle systemic problems that lead to negative social issues. Social policy attempts to study how society promotes individual and family welfare. Also, the policies tend to be consistent with what the government of the day views to be the most optimal way to help those who are disadvantaged and can't help themselves. A number of these social policies are incorporated in the works of community agencies. They include availing supportive services to the vulnerable members of society and coming up with long-term policies handling care services so as to help this disadvantaged demographic.
Serving Seniors Agency
Social Problems, Social Policies, Target Population and Services Provided
From 1970, Serving Seniors, a program based in San Diego County, has been one of the leading service providers to seniors with…
Making Sense of Social Policy: Why Social Policy Affects Everyone
Social policy is a rather vague term because the word 'social' can have different meanings for different people (Human Services 311, p. 1). Social policies, in and of themselves, affect individuals at different stages in their lives. They also cover quite a broad range of issues -- ranging from children's issues, family and work issues -- such as retirement/pension policies and unemployment (i.e., social benefits), as well as policies regarding the physically disabled. Perhaps this is the reason that many seem so baffled about the term 'social policy' and what it specifically refers to. There really isn't anything confusing, however, about the term. Social policy can really be thought of simply as a study that has to do with the people's welfare. But to clarify, social policy isn't merely about making people happy, but it is…
Canadian Council of Chief Executives. (2011). Issues. Accessed on 7 December 2011
Human Services 311. (2011). Unit 4. Values and Policy-Making: The What and Who of Social
Policy and Its Definition. Human services 311.
The authors believe that some citizens have become "...socialized into a particular ideological system that molds their values, attitudes, beliefs and/or symbolic predispositions on a wide range of issues, including political parties and the economy." And this article also found that most party interests and self-interests revolve around both ideological considerations and economic considerations; however, those voters who are on the lower rung of the economic ladder tend to be less ideological and more economically-motivated, which makes sense.
Labour...[which is] traditionally welfare state in ideology, was the party that initiated the conversion to neoliberalism" prior to the election of the Alliance in 1999, the article continues. Allen and Ng write that many members of the Labour party "felt confused and betrayed" when the Alliance moved away from the welfare state policies and into neoliberalism. Another result of the Labour Alliance's shift from welfare to neoliberalism was an "increase in poverty…
Allen, Michael W.; & Ng, Sik Hung. (2000). Self-Interest, Economic Beliefs, and Political Party Preference in New Zealand. Political Psychology, 21(2), 323-345.
Blair, Tony. (1998). Tony Blair, the Third Way. Goucher College History Department. Retrieved 9 July 2008, at http://faculty.goucher.edu/history231/blair.htm.
Blair, Tony, & Schroeder, Gerhard. (1999). Europe: The Third Way. Retrieved 9 July, 2008, at http://www.socialdemocrats.org/blairandschroeder6-8-99.html, also available from www.labour.org.uk;produced by Social Democrats.
Giddens, Anthony. (2000). Social Democracy and the Third Way. In the Third Way and Its Critics, Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
social policy related to your Final Project topic. Then explain one theory that supports the creation or reform of this social policy. Be specific, and provide examples.
The image of the "happy hooker" is a delusion which consumers of prostitution and the sex trade have often used as a means for quieting their own consciences and silencing any glimmers of their own personal moral code. Women are often driven to the sex trade via forces like discrimination, extreme economic hardship and domestic violence (Jordan, 2009). Social policies during the Bush administration treated human trafficking as a one-dimensional crime, and sought to punish both the women involved and the clients as a heavy-handed means of abolishing it (Jordan, 2009). This was an overly-simplistic approach which treated human-trafficking as if it were any other illegal trade by punishing all involved -- comparable to the way drug dealers and drug purchasers…
social policy, and explain how this policy impacts individuals and communities. hen explain whether you believe this social policy is for the betterment of individuals and communities. Be specific, and support your answer.
Social policy: Human trafficking
he United States has passed laws at the federal and state levels specifically designed to protect the victims of human trafficking. Persons who are victims can obtain a trafficking visa known as a . visa, which allows them to remain in the U.S., along with certain specific family members, for up to three years. While holding the . visa the victim can obtain legal employment and then apply for permanent residency at the end of three years. However, a requirement to obtain the visa is that the victim must comply with "reasonable requests for assistance in the investigation or prosecution of acts of trafficking" (Dovydaitis 2011). Although this sounds relatively modest, many women…
The U.S. defines its anti-trafficking approach as one of prevention, protection, and prosecution. "Prevention programs have combined public awareness and education campaigns with education and employment opportunities for those at risk of trafficking, particularly women (Siskin & Wyler 2010: 9). Federal agencies spend an estimated $686 million on international anti-TIP (Trafficking in Persons) assistance over the course of a fiscal year (Siskin & Wyler 2010: 8). Critics, however, contend that insufficient time is spent on the three Rs of "rescue, rehabilitation, and reintegration" of victims (Siskin & Wyler 2010: 8). Victims are frightened to come forward, and proactive action must be taken to ensure that they are rescued from their living situations. The laws may not protect them adequately if they fall into a 'grey' area of what constitutes trafficking -- they may have come willingly to the U.S. As illegal aliens, but were lured under false pretences, and found themselves victimized afterward. Although it is tempting to ask 'why doesn't she leave' when a victim goes home to her captor day after day, women perceive themselves as having few options and resources. It is the agencies in charge of policing trafficking that must be aggressive in enforcing the law, and they cannot assume that the victims will 'come to them.'
Fighting human trafficking must also take place globally, not simply locally. Both 'feeder' nations as well as more affluent host nations must be coordinated in their efforts to break down the transportation lines and the barriers of fear and silence that allow trafficking to take place. Despite the passage of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, and its subsequent reauthorizations in the United States, the evidence suggests that worldwide enforcement of trafficking laws is not improving. "The number of prosecutions reported per year worldwide against TIP offenders has declined on average 5.6% per year since 2003 The decline in prosecutions in South and Central Asia has been particularly notable, dropping on average 18.8% per year from a high of 2,805 prosecutions in 2003 to 644 in 2008" (Siskin & Wyler 2010: 11).
The U.S. has made important strides in passing legislation to fight trafficking on the federal level,
U.K. Government: Social Policy Theory & Practice
The objective of this study is to answer all four questions stated as follows: (1) What is the social administrative tradition? (2) What is meant by liberal welfarism? (3) Explain the parliamentary policy- making process? In addition (4) Detail the New Right critique of the welfare state?
Social Administrative Tradition
Grover Starling, administration scholar is reported to have described six characteristics of government's public administrative responsibility: (1) responsiveness; (2) flexibility; (3) competence; (4) due process; (5) accountability; and (6) honestly. (Shiguang, nd) Traditional government responsibility is noted to be that of maintaining public order. (Shiguang, nd) The World Bank identifies four primary administrative traditions as being those of: (1) Anglo Saxon (minimal state); (2) Continental European: Germanic (organicist); (3) Continental European: French (Napoleonic); and (4) Scandanavian: (mixture of Anglo-Saxon and Germanic). The most fundamental difference is reported to be "between the Anglo-Saxon and…
UK Social Policy
Compare and contrast the trends in the 'settling' & 'unsettling' of the political, economic & social settlements for the UK social policies relating to health care and social housing. (Approx 2 pages) Explain and illustrate the broad nature of the UK post-war welfare settlements (namely political, economic, social & organizational) and their reconstruction in the 1980s and 1990s. In what ways has the discourse of management affected the above two areas of social policy (i.e. health care & social housing).
In the United Kingdom, after the destruction weathered by the British populace during orld ar II and the subsequent poverty weathered by so many of the British peoples, the argument for the right of universal public services or the creation of an all-encompassing welfare state became popular. The idea that all British citizens had the innate right to accessible roads and a clean and healthy environment was…
"Health Care." An Introduction to Social Policy Website. Last updated 2005. Retrived 19 Aug 2005 at http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/health.htm#UKH
'Housing and Urban Policy." An Introduction to Social Policy Website. Last updated 2005. Retrived 19 Aug 2005 at http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/housing.htm
'Social Policy." An Introduction to Social Policy Website. Last updated 2005. Retrived 19 Aug 2005 at http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/socpolf.htm
'Social Policy in the United Kingdom." An Introduction to Social Policy Website. Last updated 2005. Retrived 19 Aug 2005 at http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/uk.htm #Welfare%20State%20in%20Britain
Irish Social Policy
The global recession came along with many negative effects to may countries in the world. Coupled with the terror attacks, the global fear increased even more and the situation became worse and worse for asylum seekers in the Western countries. Ireland consequently found itself in a situation that made it awkward for the refugees and other asylum seekers who run there for shelter. The asylum seekers and the refugees found themselves deprived of many basic human provisions and rights that every individual should be allowed to enjoy.
Inequalities of Irish policy
The policies in Ireland are very detrimental to the refugees. For instance with introduction of the Direct Provision policy the adult asylum seekers were entitled to an allowance of €19.10 per week, children €9.60 which are way below what the average Irish earns and is barely enough for any tangible provision for an individual leave alone…
Integrating Ireland, (2009). Direct Provision. Retrieved May 10, 2011 from http://www.integratingireland.ie/direct_provision
Justin Frewel, (2010). The Plight of Asylum Seekers in Ireland. Irish Left Review. Retrieved May 10, 2011 from http://www.irishleftreview.org/2010/02/24/plight-asylum-seekers-ireland/
Mikko Lahteenmaki, (2004). Refugee and Migration Policy in the European Union. International Seminar for Experts in the Series Great Debates organized by the Cicero Foundation, Paris. May 10, 2011 from http://www.cicerofoundation.org/pdf/report_refugee_migration.pdf
The Referendum Commission (2011). Background Information on the Citizenship Referendum.
Family Social Policy
hat are the different ideological approaches to family social policy…how are they different?
Canada has traditionally taken the position that the responsibility for keeping a family intact is a private issue, not a public / governmental issue, according to Module 9. In terms of the ideological approach to families, the Module 9 explains four strategies.
Familialism is the approach taken in Canada for heterosexual family values; this approach supports women staying home to raise children and men getting jobs outside the home. Any struggles the family may have (money, marriage difficulties) are to be kept within the family.
Liberal Feminism differs from Familialism in that men and women have an equal basis for respect, both in the workplace and at home, but especially in the workplace. This ideology does not suggest that women should be raising children, staying home, and being homemakers. That typical role for a…
McDaniel, Susan A. (2007). Families, Feminism, and the State. In Power and Resistance.
Nova Scotia: Fernwood Publishing.
Module 9. Family and child Welfare Policy.
Social policies-Final project
Social policy and recent laws on human trafficking
Currently, under federal law, there are specific protections that are designed to help individuals who have been illegally trafficked to act as slaves in the sex industry or to labor in various occupations as unpaid or underpaid workers. However, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 has been criticized as penalizing victims more than helping them on many occasions. Victims are required to cooperate with authorities, and must show they face demonstrable harm if they return to their home nations to obtain a T. visa. Many victims are too afraid to come forward, and there is a real risk of deportation if they cannot present a strong case that their situation supports all of the required elements of the TVPA (Dovydaitis, 2011).
However, as well as federal legislation, most states of the union have legislation penalizing trafficking.…
Cernansky, Rachel. (2012). New California law combats human trafficking. CS Monitor.
Dovydaitis, Tiffany. (2011). Human trafficking: The role of the health care provider. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, 55 (5): 462-467. Retrieved:
Social Policy Websites Using the CAAP Method: Implications for Human Services Professionals
Human services professionals increasingly obtain information from the internet. Given the critical nature of the human services field, ensuring that information is correct, up-to-date, credible, and verifiable is crucial. The CAAP tool (Currency, eliability, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose) is a useful tool human services professionals may use to achieve this. In this paper, three policy-oriented websites were evaluated using the tool. The selected websites were Aclu.og, ProCon-org, and Vaccineresistancemovement.org. Scoring 11 points in total, ProCon.org was found to be the most useful website. Aclu.org scored slightly lower than ProCon.org, achieving a total score of 10 points. Though ProCon.org and Aclu.org have high scores, it would be prudent to confirm their information with other sources as they did not reach the score for an excellent source of information. Vaccineresistancemovement.org scored the least, with 6 points. This means that it…
Gettysburg College. (2016). How to evaluate resources. Retrieved from https://www.gettysburg.edu/library/research/tips/webeval/index.dot
Qakseclib.weebly.com (n.d.). The C.R.A.P test. Retrieved from http://qakseclib.weebly.com/uploads/2/6/7/8/26787452/webeval.pdf
UK Pensions Policy" - Social Policy Area
The pension policy of the UK is one that is followed as a model by various other parts of the world for its efficient dealing with the problem of pensions for the aged of the UK. The government takes a ken interest in reforms in the area of pensions, and it was for this reason that it announced the latest set of reforms in the year 2000, in its 'pre-budget report' that was released in the month of November of the same year. The report contained a series of reforms and improvements for pensioners. Some of the measures were: increases in the pensions according to the above- inflation rates, above inflation increases in the rates of the 'minimum income guarantee', also known as the MIG, and the introduction of the newly formulated 'pension credit' that was basically a means tested benefit for the…
An Introduction to Social Policy. Social policy in the UK. Retrieved from http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/uk.htm Accessed on 3 November 2004
Clark, Tom. Pensions Policy and pension Credit. The Institute for Fiscal Studies. Briefing Note: No: 17. Retrieved From http://www.ifs.org.uk/pensions/bn17.pdf
Accessed on 3 November 2004
Contractors Face Bleak Retirement. Contractor, UK. Retrieved From
human societies establish laws and social policy: (1) religious, (2) by oligarchy, and (3) by some form of representational government. The source of law, public policy, and (especially) criminal law makes a tremendous difference in the lives of members of the population, because, in principle, it determines whether or not they have any possible input into the rules of society. On a practical level, the source and nature of criminal laws, in particular, can make certain specific behaviors and choices matters that determine liberty and even life or death.
The nation of Iran would be an example of a contemporary nation whose laws and social policies are ruled by religious leaders. The high-ranking ayatollahs have greater authority than the elected leaders and they impose religious rules that determine what behaviors and conduct are acceptable and what behaviors and conduct are criminal. Modern audi Arabia represents a mixture of religious authority…
Dershowitz, A.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Programs and Services
§ Briefly describe the major programs and services, and the population intended to be served.
Before choosing the programs it is pointed out that about three decades ago, the term 'organizational culture', came in vogue. It resulted in a study of the different styles of organizing. Today the organizational change can be achieved easily and the methods of conducting programs themselves can be a part of a project that involves multiple organizations. Non-profits also came into the scrutiny of these concepts. (Wright, 1994)
The theory now is to see that maximum benefits and opportunities are extended to the subjects by the organization in this case the disadvantaged groups, particularly women and children. The programs seem to be created and managed on the general principles that all organizations follow. There does not seem to be any specific study that was done to incorporate the persons who belong to…
Alternativestodv. (2013a) "Administrative Staff" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from http://www.alternativestodv.org/aboutus/staff.html
Alternativestodv. (2013d) "History of the organization" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from http://www.alternativestodv.org/aboutus/advhistory.html
Alternativestodv. (2013c) "Financial Information" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from http://www.alternativestodv.org/aboutus/financials.html
Alternativestodv. (2013b) "ADV Federal 990 form" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from http://www.alternativestodv.org/images/ADV_Federal_990_Form.pdf
As recent events in the Middle East have clearly demonstrated, Facebook is more on the side of the politically disadvantaged and the poor as they have increasingly embraced Facebook and other social media while the governments in the region tried to ban them. Many governments such as that of China do not allow Facebook primarily because they want to avert scenarios they have seen in the Middle East.
It was in the wake of 2008 when Oscar Morales, a young man in Columbia, decided that he had had enough of FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a Marxist group which routinely kidnaps people, keeping them as hostages for months or years, while many of the hostages die in captivity. Angry and depressed by the actions of FARC, one night he turned to Facebook which he had been using to connect with his friends and high school classmates. He…
Alexanian, Janet A.. "Eyewitness Accounts and Political Claims: Transnational Responses to the 2009 Postelection Protests in Iran." Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 31.2 (2011): 425-442. Project MUSE. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. .
Burns, Alex and Ben Eltham, "Twitter free Iran: an evaluation of twitter's role in public diplomacy and information operations in Iran's 2009 election crisis," in Papandrea, Franco & Armstrong, Mark (Eds.). Record of the Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009. Sydney: Network Insight Institute. Web. 26 Nov. 2011 .
China, Walid. "The Facebook Revolution." New African 503 (2011): 24. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Eltahawy, Mona. "The Middle East's Generation Facebook." World Policy Journal 25.3 (2008): 69-77. Academic Search Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Social Order and Inequalities
Social order and inequality
Ideas, beliefs, values, norms, roles, statuses, organizations and social class may have impact on an individual's life directly or indirectly. This can be in form of gender and social inequality. The life of my friend Jane who is a woman is an example of how these phenomenon impacts the life of individuals.
Gender inequalities rise from deepening division in the roles that are assigned to men and women, especially in the political, economic and educational sphere. When my friend Jane could not make it to the leadership of their community despite various attempts, it showed that women are always underrepresented in political activities as well as decision making processes. This is brought by the ever existing beliefs that men are better leaders than women. As a woman she is subjected to institutional discrimination where they face problem of accessing education which has…
This is based on the theory, posed by citizens, that certain individuals afflicted with terminal illnesses should have the legal right to hasten their death.
As a result, individuals that acquire these disabilities often view death as an extremely viable solution.
The target population that the Oregon Death with Dignity statute involves are those that are terminally ill. There are both long and short-term effects of the statute on the rest of the population, as well as the target population. Oregon has the fourth highest rate of elder suicide in the United States, and the statute appears to be a short-term solution to a long-term problem. The statute gives physicians the long-term power to judge whether a particular suicide is rational, based on the physician's evaluation of the individual's quality of life. The short-term effect of the statute is that federal resources previously used to care for the elderly and…
Gil, D. (1976). A Framework and Synthesis of Social Policies. Unraveling Social Policy:
Theory, Analysis, Political Actions towards Social Equality. Cambridge, MA: 31-56.
Gil, D. (1992). Unraveling Social Policy. (5th Ed.) Rochester, VT: Schenkman.
If the public trusts the judges and believes that they are administering justice equally among all people, then there appears to be a mutual respect atmosphere, in which the public adheres to the law willingly. However, if there is distrust of the administration, violence and criminal behavior becomes more prevalent, as the people resist unequal administration of the law.
Moe .C., Gilmour .S. (1995). ediscovering principles of public administration: the neglected foundation of public law. Public Administration eview, Vol. 55. etrieved November 13, 2007 at http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5001645731.
Monahan, J. (1984).The prediction of violent behavior: toward a second generation of theory and policy. Am J. Psychiatry. Vol. 141:10-15 etrieved November 13, 2007 at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/141/1/10.
Osborne, D. And Gaebler, T. (1992). einventing Government. New York, NY: Penguin Press.
Paulozzi, L.J.; Spengler, F, and Gower, MA. (1992). An evaluation of the Vermont worksite smoking law.Public Health ep. Nov-Dec 1992. 107(6) 724-726.
Moe R.C., Gilmour R.S. (1995). Rediscovering principles of public administration: the neglected foundation of public law. Public Administration Review, Vol. 55. Retrieved November 13, 2007 at http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5001645731 .
Monahan, J. (1984).The prediction of violent behavior: toward a second generation of theory and policy. Am J. Psychiatry. Vol. 141:10-15 Retrieved November 13, 2007 at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/141/1/10 .
Osborne, D. And Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing Government. New York, NY: Penguin Press.
Paulozzi, L.J.; Spengler, RF, and Gower, MA. (1992). An evaluation of the Vermont worksite smoking law.Public Health Rep. Nov-Dec 1992. 107(6) 724-726.
Social Partnership' And
The Implications for Trade Unions
This report attempts to explain what is meant by the term social partnership and it also evaluates some implications of social partnerships on trade unions. Social Partnerships have been elevated to be more of the foundation of industrial relations policies. Industrialized nations in these highly global, competitive and technologically advanced economic situations have all new social demands and issues. Labor parties and management teams today have come to realize and understand that if there are going to be economic success stories in their future, then both sides will be required to put emphasis on the importance of partnerships in the workplace. These partnerships entail new methods for problem solving, quality control and productivity. Today, both sides must understand that partnership agreements will help produce more socially adept workers who are well trained, prepared and competitive. Labor and management must come to a…
Baccaro, Lucio, et al. (1999). "The Brave New World of European Labor: European Trade Unions at the Millennium." Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Boucher, Gerry, & Collins, Grainne (2003). Having One's Cake and Being Eaten Too: Irish Neo-Liberal Corporatism. Review of Social Economy, Vol. 61.
Ferner, A. And Hyman, R. (eds) (1998) "Changing Industrial Relations in Europe." Oxford: Blackwell.
Guest, D.E. And Peccei, R. (2001) "Partnership at work: mutuality and the balance of advantage" British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 399 no.2 pp.207-236
In March of 1921, with the help of her husband Humphrey Roe, she opened the first birth control clinic in England (riant, 1962). It was located in North London and remained open until 1977 (Rose, 1992). The only reason that it was closed down then was because reproductive health care in England was nationalized. One thing that helped Stopes, however, was that she had many political connections with upper-class individuals and she was able to create and enforce a number of very strict rules regarding her clinic so that she did not experience the kinds of problems that were seen in clinics of the same type in other countries such as the United States (riant, 1962). One of the main rules of Stopes' clinic was that she would not offer birth control to anyone who could not prove that she had already born at least one child. Not everyone liked…
Briant, Keith. Marie Stopes: A Biography. London: Hogarth, 1962.
Hall, Ruth. Passionate Crusader: The Life of Marie Stopes. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977.
Maude, Aylmer. The Authorized Life of Marie C. Stopes. London: Williams & Norgate, 1924.
Rose, June. Marie Stopes and the Sexual Revolution. London: Faber and Faber, 1992.
history there has been a major hypocrisy when it comes to children and the way they have been treated. On the one hand children are the most precious commodity on earth. They are the future politicians, doctors, and evangelists that will grow up to lead the world. They are the people who will eventually cure disease, invent marvelous contraptions and change the world. By all intents and purposes children are the world's most precious commodity and those in the United Kingdom are included in the lot. However throughout the history of the United Kingdom children for the most part have not had a lot of rights or protections afforded them. In more recent history this pattern began to change and as those changes took place the true nature of the wrongs of the past came to light. As the United Kingdom continued to work toward change the issue of children's…
Graham Hiscott,(2002). UK law on hitting children outdated., Birmingham Post, pp 6.
Author not available (1999). UK GOVERNMENT: UK moves to safeguard children's rights., M2 PressWIRE.
Children's rights in the UK (Accessed 5-5-2003)
Social workers try to help people make the most of their environment, their relationships, and any struggles they might have with money or family. A lot of social workers deal with people who face life-threatening circumstances, such as criminal activity or substance abuse. Other issues that social workers try to tackle are inadequate housing, unemployment, illness, disability, or difficulties around childbirth (Social Work Professions: Summary of the Social Worker Fields, 2010).
There are various social work specializations, but the larger categories include child, family, and school social workers, who provide social services and assistance to children and their families; medical and public health social workers who provide support for people with illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer, or AIDS; mental health and substance abuse social workers who deal with people who struggle with psychological issues; and social workers who deal with the intricacies of social policy and planning (Social Work…
Social Work Practice. (n.d.). Retrieved August 31, 2010, from Web site:
Social Work Professions: Summary of the Social Worker Fields. (2010). Retrieved August 31,
2010, from Education Portal Web site: http://education-
This is evidenced from the fact that in all the 19 studies mentioned above, children from single parent families showed a higher rate of criminal behavior. (Manning and Lamb 2004), one of the studies that used ADD Health data in the survey showed that family consolidation by remarriages has little positive impact for children. "The advantage of marriage appears to exist primarily when the child is the biological offspring of both parents.." [IMAPP] Yet another study, that analyzed 4671 eights grade students representing 35 schools from 10 cities in the nation, revealed that greater exposure to single parent children in a school setting has a negative effect on children irrespective of their own family structure while another study reported that living in an intact family "decreased gang involvement by more than 50%...." [IMAPP] This survey of research had some drawbacks to it in that there was not a uniform criteria…
1)Stephen E. Gilman et.al, May 2003, "Family Disruption in Childhood and Risk of Adult Depression," the American Journal of Psychiatry, 160:939-946, 2) Robert Bauserman, 2002 "Child Adjustment in Joint-Custody vs. Sole-Custody Arrangements: A Meta-Analytic Review,"
Journal of Family Psychology," Vol 16 No 1 91-102, 3) Cynthia C. Harper and Sara S. McLanahan, (Sep 2004) "Father Absence and Youth Incarceration," Journal of Research on Adolescence Vol 14, No 3
Available Online at, http://www.aboutdads.org/reports/Father_Absence_and_Youth_Incarceration.pdf
4) IMAPP, Sep 2005, "Can Married Parents Prevent Crime: Recent Research on Family Structure and Delinquency," available at http://www.marriagedebate.com/pdf/imapp.crimefamstructure.pdf
Social Policy: Child Abuse and Neglect
One of the essential components of the social work profession is safeguarding children from neglect and abuse. Professionals in this field work towards ensuring that children are protected from abuse and neglect in order to promote their development and growth into healthy, well-being adults. To achieve these goals, social work professionals carry out several initiatives including creating, implementing, and evaluating policy initiatives. The various initiatives adopted by social work professionals are targeted towards lessening child abuse and neglect as well as providing necessary resources and support that enhances children's development and well-being. The development of policy initiatives that target reduction of child abuse and neglect is crucial because policies govern the practices of social work professionals when offering support and resources for promoting children's development and well-being.
Given the significance of policies in helping social workers to lessen child abuse and neglect, several policies…
Social equity is a key issue of public administration and forms the basic theme of the 2013 "Social Equity Leadership Conference," in June. This white paper discusses the key goals of the conference based on the conference issue for social equity as global engagement and local responsibility. These are the issue facing social equity among domestic and global public leaders in public and private agencies in the education, immigration, transportation, environmental, policing and corrections sectors. A review of theories on public administration identifies that public leadership networking, collaboration, and cooperation with leaders and agencies is necessary. This is associated with public leadership practices like public policy development, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation, social equity, and public advocacy.
Globally Engaged, Locally esponsible: New Challenges for Social Equity
Emerging Issues in Social Equity and Leadership Covered in the Conference:
2. Policing and corrections
3. At risk communities, which…
Brian, A.E., & Adam, J.N. (2010). Building the reservoir to nowhere: The role of agencies in advocacy coalitions. Policy Studies Journal, 38(4), 653-678.
Buss, T.F. & Morse, R.S. (2008). Innovations in Public Leadership Development. Armonk, New York; M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
Candler, G., & Dumont, G. (2010). The price of citizenship: Civic responsibility as the missing dimension of public administration theory. Public Administration Quarterly, 34(2), 169-201.
Cichocki, D., Laberschek, M., & Rusanowska, M. (2011). Analysis of strategy of culture development in krakow 2010-2014 as an example of public policy implementation. Zarzadzanie Publiczne, 13(1), 103-115.
policy? Why do you agree/Disagree?
The group disagrees with the proposal. The group's decision on the issue is based on the fact that when adult responsibilities and roles are given to the adolescent at an earlier age citing early maturity among the modern adolescents, it might subject the society into all sorts of vices and immoral behaviors. The freedom to assume adult roles at an early age when they are still exploring various aspects of life may break the family bondage and the parental guidance which is crucial at the development stage which helps in transforming and shaping the teenagers into mature and responsible adults. They social policies should not be reviewed so as to let the adolescents pass that stage under proper guidance. It is at this stage when their bodies experience a lot of transformation and seek guidance to make the right choices in life. We should not…
.....fellow colleagues provided a varied and thoughtful perspective on social work professionals and social policy. One thing noted was the lack of available resources for social workers regarding their clients. Often clients may come from a foreign background and require translation. This can be difficult because most people in the United States speak only English with some speaking Spanish and Chinese. Having tools available to make translation easier can lead to more effective communication and ability to help the clients in what they need regardless of potential obstacles like language.
When looking at the entirety of the social work profession, it was built on social change. It has long been the purpose of social workers to ensure everyone has equal access to opportunities and resources that permit them to meet basic needs such as food, shelter, and healthcare. That is why it is important to continue to persist for tools…
To citically investigate the cuent state of intenational business elationship development liteatue.
2. To exploe the chaacteistics that detemines sustainable intenational business elationships within the Libyan business context-fom the Libyan point-of-view.
3. To pesent a model based on the findings fom the two objectives above. This model will seve two main functions: (I). It will help fill in gaps in the cuent liteatue elating to the development and maintenance of business elationships with Libya. (II). It will be of pactical value to foeign businesses wishing to develop elationships with Libyan companies.
1.4.3 Reseach Questions
Fou eseach questions ae fomulated as a means of pusuing the above objectives, these being:
What ae the key vaiables that influence Libyan companies when they intenationalise, and why ae these vaiables so impotant fo Libyan oganisations?
What ae the majo steps/stages that Libyans go though when establishing business elationships?
How can foeign oganisations establish/maintain sustainable…
references and details.
- Retrievability or loopback: can be low.
- Biased selectivity, if collection is incomplete.
- Reporting bias: reflects bias of the author.
- Access: may be deliberately blocked.
Safeguarding the privacy of the respondents is vital. Setting a certain criteria to guarantee the security and privacy of the respondents will be useful like informing the respondents that their names will be kept confidential, their location and company will be mentioned only if they give their consent, participation is completely voluntary, and it cannot be imposed. In any way, no such information will be publicized that can help to identify or recognize the respondent unless the respondent himself ask for publicizing his personal info.
1. How would you describe the current balance of social media vs. traditional advertising and marketing?
2. Are the types of consumers targeted with online vs. traditional advertising different and if so in what way?
3. Have you considered using social media for advertised your business and if so what do you see as some of the benefits?
4. Do you think social…
Bryant, J., & Zillmann, D. (2002). Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research. Mahwah: Lawerence Erlbaum Associate.
Curran, J. (2002). Media and Power. London: Routledge.
Bryant, J., & Zillmann, D. (1994). Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research. Hillsdale: Lawerence Erlbaum Associates.
Franklin, B. (1999). Social Policy, the Media, and Misrepresentation. London: Routledge.
US Mental Health Assistance
Mental health problems or mental illnesses are among the major public health issues in the United States given their prevalence. Mental health illnesses affected nearly all populations in the United States including children and adults. However, the prevalence of mental illnesses among adults is high in comparison to other populations. Mental health problems among adults in the U.S. incorporate many different conditions whose degree of severity varies from mild to moderate to severe (National Institute of Mental Health, 2019). One of the major contributing factors to the prevalence of mental illnesses among adults in America is the rapid growth of the aging population. Adults suffering from mental illness don't always understand they are sick and are difficult to help. Our system puts them out on the street or locks them up. There is need for policy changes to address the prevalence of mental health illnesses among…
UK Children and Families
Homeless families are generally defined as adults with dependent children who are briefly accommodated by voluntary agency, local authority or housing association hostels in the United Kingdom (Vostanis 2002). They are taken in from a few days or several months, often four to six weeks and generally provided with bread and breakfast. Although this broad definition does not include children who have lost homes and live with friends and relatives, it is estimated that there are 140,000 such displaced families in the UK today. The average family consists of a single mother and at least two children. Trends show that these families become homeless again within a year from being housed by agencies. Domestic violence and harassment from the neighborhood are the most frequent cause behind their homelessness. The volume of homeless refugee families among them has dwindled in the late 90s, mostly confined in the…
1. Harrisona C. et al. (2001). Who is failing abused and neglected children? Archives of Disease in Childhood. http://www.fetalneonatal.com/cgi/content/full/85/4/300
2. Jackson, S (2001). Reducing risk and promoting resilience in vulnerable children. IUC Journal of Social Work, Journal Issue 4. Department of Social Relations and Services: Bemidji State University. http://www.bemidji.msu.edu/sw_journal/issue4/articles/jackson.html
3. Jowell, T et al. (1999). Lone parent families: routes to social inclusion. Gingerbread. http://www.gingerbread.org.uk/lprtsi.txt
4. Nixon, P. Family group conference connections: shared problems and joined-up solutions. International Institutes for Restorative Practices. http://iirp.org/library/vt/vt_nixon.html
Holly Sklar writes, "the gulf between the rich and the rest of America will continue to widen, weakening our economy and our democracy. The American Dream will be history instead of poverty."
With the advent of more billions into the ranks of the Fortune 400, so it is; instead of witnessing the booming middle class that marked the Scientific and Industrial evolutions, America is undergoing a transformation that more clearly limns the demarcation between classes than ever before.
With economic segregation an ever more encroaching reality, the distinctions between race, age, and gender come increased under review as Americans are forced to examine the origins of social class, its solidification in early childhood, and its place in the national life.
In academic circles, social class describes the relationships between individual agents and groups as they struggle through social hierarchies. Weber famously defined the social stratification as a three-component theory frequently…
Adair, Vivian C. "Branded with Infamy: Inscriptions of Poverty and Class in the United States." Signs. Vol. 27, No. 2. (Winter, 2002.)
Collins, C. & Yeskel, F. "Economic Apartheid in America: A Primer on Economic Inequality & Insecurity." New York: The New Press, Oct. 31, 2005.
Conley, Dalton. Being Black and Living in the red: Race, Wealth, and Social Policy in America." Berkley: University of California Press, 1999.
Kotlowitz, Alex. There Are No Children Here. New York: Anchor Press, 1992.
The social welfare policy I will describe is Social Security, which is the old age pension plan at the federal level. Social security was originally signed into law as the major component of the Social Security Act of 1935, by Franklin oosevelt.
The objective of this policy is to provide American who are beyond working age with some form of income. The general retirement age is 65, and many people at a certain point in their lives can no longer contribute economically. At such a point, the government takes care of their basic needs through the Social Security Act, by providing a baseline level of income, a sort of a national pension.
There have been many amendments or adjustments to this act that have been signed over the years. The latest was in 2009, when the No Social Security Benefits for Prisoners Act was signed. This act forbids…
Social Security Administration (2016) The Social Security Act of 1935. SSA Retrieved September 22, 2016 from https://www.ssa.gov/ history/35act.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Social liberalism debates that beneficial liberty is indispensable for global human freedom, especially for the poor. Therefore, the government should involve themselves in economic matters for the sake of the unprivileged members of the society (Adams, 2001). Social Liberals equally support the enforcement of agricultural reforms and land leases and are also in favour of a solid and well-controlled state.
Were you surprised by the political ideology to which you belong? Why or why not?
In the United States, the general situation is in conformity to the ideals of social liberalism which I have no problems with, I have no reservations for and may even dare to say, I like.
What are the origins of that political ideology?
The sociologists, economists and philosophers who lived in the 1700s and the early 1800s created a political framework which guided social policy in England, later the United States, then Europe and finally…
Public Administrators in Work First Family Assistance Program
The ole of Public Administrators in Work First Family Assistance Program
Competency 1: Summarize the Findings of the Analytical Framework
Designing an analytical framework is possible and is seen because the Act was passed into law in 1975 by the federal government. The aim of implementing the child support policy in all states was to reduce the expenditure of the public on social welfare. The North Carolina welfare is an example of child support programs where the Division of Social Service disburses funds, and 100 counties use the program. emember, TANF program is a block grant. The assistance provided by the state is for five years only to ensure that the family stays together, and a reduction of teenage pregnancies is adhered to especially because teenagers need their parents guidance and counsel.
TANF program was created after the passing of legislation in…
Ammons, D.N. (2008). Leading Performance Management. Washington, DC: ICMA Press
Ammons, D.N. & Riverbark, W.C. (2008). Factors Influencing the Use of Performance Data to Improve Municipal Services: Evidence from the North Carolina Benchmarking Project. Public Administration Review, 68(2): 304-318.
APHSA. (2010). Temporary Assistance for Needy Families: Recommendations for Reauthorization. Washington, DC: NASTA
The European Union. (2012). Excellence in Public Administration for Competitiveness in the EU Member States. Enterprise and Industry
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…
Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.
Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.
Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.
Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
Social Security was instituted with the passage of the Social Security Act of 1935. It was signed into law by President oosevelt as a means of providing a social safety net for retirees. The passage of Social Security occurred during the depths of the Great Depression. Prior to this, the concept of social security did not exist in the U.S. -- you either worked until you died, or you retired when you were wealthy enough to do so. Social Security is run by the Social Security Administration, which also administers Medicare as part of the system. Social Security is theoretically self-funding. In 1937, the first taxes were collected to finance the Social Security system. Workers pay into the Social Security system via a payroll tax. According to the SSA's website, general tax revenues have never funded Social Security to any meaningful extent, implying that the program is self-funding through these…
Autor, D. & Duggan, M. (2006). The growth in social security disability rolls: A fiscal crisis unfolding. NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://cid.bcrp.gob.pe/biblio/Papers/NBER/2006/Agosto/w12436.pdf
Biggs, A. (2011). Means testing and its limits. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://www.aei.org/article/economics/retirement/means-testing-and-its-limits/
SSA.gov. (2014). FAQs. Social Security Administration. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://www.ssa.gov/history/hfaq.html
Templin, B. (2006) Full funding: The future of social security. Thomas Jefferson School of Law. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://drupaldev.tjsl.edu/sites/default/files/files/Full_Funding-The_Future_of_Social_Security.pdf
Social workers often have commitments to specific policies, laws, or funding of programs that are vital to the population they serve or an issue that they strongly support. Such commitments often lead social workers to become involved in political issues and the campaigns of specific candidates. Being a social worker, such campaign experiences, the outcomes of your efforts, and how effective you felt you were may affect your view of the political process and the likelihood of becoming involved in similar campaigns in the future. Social workers' involvement in political advocacy is usually influenced by the impact of politics on social work practice. Through advocacy and lobbying in the political arena, social workers seek to promote changes in legislation and policy to enhance social conditions and promote social justice towards meeting basic human needs. In essence, social workers' participation in political advocacy is geared towards protecting individuals' rights and enhancing…
Policy and Practice
acial disparity in arrests and convictions in Georgia are is a significant and growing social problem. Yet, legislation and policy seems to be lacking in an attempt to solve or even begin to reverse the increasing trend. Georgia has been a special focus of several human rights organizations for some time with regard to the disparity associated with arrests, convictions and sentencing but especially with those having to do with drug laws. In 1996 Human ights Watch (HW)a nonprofit organization that seeks to bring awareness to legal and policy issues that are applied unfairly to minorities determined that Georgia has one of the worst race records in the nation with regard to new drug enforcement laws as well as extremely disproportionately applied mandatory sentencing laws with regard to those laws.
HW determined through careful examination that between 1990 and 1995 3% of whites who qualified for mandatory…
Georgia's Supreme Court Chief Justice's Commission on Indigent Defense, 2002, www.georgiacourts.org/aoc/press/idc/idchearings/idcreport.doc
Human Rights Watch, 1996 Human Rights Violations in Drug Law Enforcement in Georgia. http://ndsn.org/sept96/hrw.html
Human Rights Watch, 2008, Targeting Blacks: Drug Law Enforcement and Race in the United States. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/us0508_1.pdf
Tonry, Michael. Malign Neglect New York: Oxford University Press. 1996.
Social psychology view: What ensures that women are treated fairly in office settings in the United States?
One of the most prudent applications of social psychology within contemporary settings are those that relate to gender. Gender issues can become exacerbated when they are viewed within particular social constructs, such as the work environment. Due to the fact that the majority of the world was initially a patriarchal society (particularly in the United States) before modern conceptions of gender became prevalent, the role of women within the work environment is one which is certainly worthy of investigation in terms of how women are treated, what sorts of issues they must contend with, and how others (men) consider working women. The principle difference between contemporary and most historic notions of gender pertaining to women in the workplace is that in modern times, there is supposed to be a substantial greater amount of…
Bisika, T. (2008). Do social and cultural factors perpetuate gender-based violence in Malawi?.Gender & Behaviour, 6(2), 1884-1896. doi:10.4314/gab.v6i2.23426
Cikara, M., Rudman, L., & Fiske, S. (2012). Dearth by a Thousand Cuts?: Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology. Journal Of Social Issues, 68(2), 263-285. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2012.01748.x
Gilbert, D.G., Fiske, S.T. & Lindzey G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Huerta, M. (2007). Intersections of race and gender in women's experiences of harassment. (Order No. 3253291, University of Michigan). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 110-110 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304848503?accountid=25340 . (304848503).
Policy Analysis Critique
ationale for the chosen policy
Avian influenza is a virus causing lethal infection in human beings (Sims et al., 2003). It can be transmitted from patients to other human beings. It is a deadly virus with track record of 6 deaths in Hong Kong in 1997. That incident was just the start of this health issue. The virus spread enormously and caused H5N1 infection numerous times in Hong Kong. The dawn of 21st century witnessed multiple instances of H5N1 virus (Ellis et al., 2004).
It was expected that the virus could be found in the poultry animals and was infectious. In order to prove it, there were certain laboratory tests conducted on chickens. These tests helped prove the presence and effects of H5N1 virus (Shortridge et al. 1998). Subsequently, it was proved that the chickens were highly pathogenic (Shortridge et al., 1998). It was also proved that…
Ellis TM, Bousfield RB, Bissett LA, Dyrting KC, Luk GS, Tsim ST, Sturm-Ramirez K, Webster RG, Guan Y, Malik Peiris JS. Investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in Hong Kong in late 2002. Avian Pathol, 2004 Oct; 33(5): 492 -- 505.
Ferguson NM, Fraser C, Donnelly CA, Ghani AC, Anderson RM. Public health risk from the avian H5N1 influenza epidemic. Science 2004; 304:968-9.
Ferguson NM, Galvani AP, Bush RM. Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution. Nature 2003; 422:428-33.
Fielding R, Leung GM, Lam TH, Lam WWT. The use of live animal markets and perception of risk among the Hong Kong population. Department of Community Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, 2004.
Social Media etailing Applications: Opportunities and Threats
How Has Social Media Developed and What are the Benefits and Downsides of Using Social Media for etailers Today?
This study examines social business in general, how it developed and the benefits of using social media in particular. Second, this study provides a discussion concerning the potential positive as well as the effects of social business in the retail sector which is followed by a description of optimal business strategies for social media applications, the pros/cons of using these tools in the industry, and some representative case studies concerning companies that succeeded and some that recently failed in their use of social media. Finally, the study provides a summary of the research and important findings is followed by a series of recommendations concerning how retailers should use social media technologies in their own businesses in the concluding chapter.
Social Media Business Applications
About Honda. (2013). Honda. Available: http://corporate.honda.com/america/philanthropy.aspx?id=philanthropy_overview . Last accessed 1 November 2013.
About Virgin. (2013). Virgin America. Available: http://www.virginamerica.com/about/airline-company.html.
Baumann, M. (2010, June). @Twitter Discloses Business Model #Promotedtweets RT.
Information Today, 27 (6) 1-5.
A proposal to change the program
educing Benefits: This can be done in various ways. Monthly benefits can be reduced by minimizing cost of living adjustments or by minimizing the primary insurance amount (PIA) for a certain average indexed monthly earnings (AIME). Other proposals include targeting reductions towards high-income retirees. Benefits can also be reduced by increasing the retirement age or imposing full taxes on social security benefits. These benefit reduction proposals are some of the simplest and cheapest to implement. If future clients expect lower benefits, they are expected to save more or work longer; all of which will have a positive effect on the economy (Midgley, 2006).
Complete privatization: one of the radical proposals is to erase the social security system and encourage individuals to save in their accounts held by private investment companies. Owners of accounts will have great discretion over their decision of investment…
Brown, J., Liebman, J., & Wise, D. (2009). Social Security Policy in a Changing Environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cross, T.E. (2010). Social security: Capital markets & educational issues associated with individual accounts. S.l.: Diane Pub Co.
Midgley, J. (2006). Challenges to social security: An international exploration. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Auburn House.
When food insecurity is therefore effectively addressed, minority communities can be uplifted to become part of the American way of life in a sustainable and viable way. he statistics demonstrate the demographic inequalities: According to the Food Research and Action Center (hereafter referred to as FRAC), as of 2005, 35.1 million people in the U.S. - over 10% of the population - were experiencing "food insecurity." Among African-Americans and Hispanic populations, this percentage is considerably higher, at 22.4% and 17.9% respectively (Adach-Vollinger, 2006). According to FRAC, the ten states where food insecurity is most likely include the West and South: New Mexico, Mississippi, exas, South Carolina, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Utah, Idaho, North Carolina and ennessee. Clearly, if the American Government were to be truly concerned with creating prosperity for all its citizens, these communities and their needs should be urgently addressed with sustainable programs.
In the light of the above,…
The demographics related to the problem are significant in demonstrating the specific poverty levels and racial discrepancies within the country. When food insecurity is therefore effectively addressed, minority communities can be uplifted to become part of the American way of life in a sustainable and viable way. The statistics demonstrate the demographic inequalities: According to the Food Research and Action Center (hereafter referred to as FRAC), as of 2005, 35.1 million people in the U.S. - over 10% of the population - were experiencing "food insecurity." Among African-Americans and Hispanic populations, this percentage is considerably higher, at 22.4% and 17.9% respectively (Adach-Vollinger, 2006). According to FRAC, the ten states where food insecurity is most likely include the West and South: New Mexico, Mississippi, Texas, South Carolina, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Utah, Idaho, North Carolina and Tennessee. Clearly, if the American Government were to be truly concerned with creating prosperity for all its citizens, these communities and their needs should be urgently addressed with sustainable programs.
In the light of the above, it is the objective of this document to propose ways in which a sustainable solution can be created for food insecurity, particularly in communities where this problem manifests itself most prominently. With sufficient funding, such a program can be greatly successful in addressing the problem of food insecurity in a targeted and effective manner. As such, the objective of the program (to be known as DEAL - DEcentralize and Localize) is to make low SES communities more self-sufficient. The ideal is to create ways in which such communities can cultivate a large amount of their own food products - particularly vegetable-based foods - by means of cooperative gardens and "mini-farms." These will exist in and around urban and suburban areas, with land provided through the program. The ideal is that such programs will be funded by direct grants to the communities that are affected. Initial seeds and equipment are provided, as well as an advisor/support person, who is trained in agricultural and environmental science, for each community. Such a program will have several benefits. In addition to the environmental benefits already mentioned, communities will be uplifted by a sense of self-sufficiency and the concomitant power of caring for themselves. This will have a tremendous impact not only upon the general outlook of such communities, but also upon their sense of self-worth and motivation. In this way, while directly providing employment and lowering unemployment levels, the program can also do so indirectly by motivating community members to start their own businesses - whether food related or not. Furthermore, cultivating land will result in rising natural resources and a sustainable way of providing communities with food. In general, the program can
What is meant by the term 'social enterprise' and what do social enterprises contribute to society and the economies in which they operate?
The acceleration with which the world is changing day by day is continuous. A majority of organizations that have a motto of 'not-for-profit' are looking out for prospects with the help of which they can begin or widen their projects in order to get their missions fulfilled and offer the needy the earned profits. Thus, any organization or scheme that brings about the mentioned twofold objectives is considered a social enterprise. Social enterprises sell mission-related goods or services and by doing so they try to create a more impartial and fair environment through specific market-based strategies (Bornstein & Davis 2010).
In other words, a business is regarded as a social enterprise when the main objective is to cope up with the prevailing societal problems and…
Baptiste, T. (2009). Being a Leader and Making Decisions. 1st. ed. New York: Chelsea House.
Beerel, A. (2009). Leadership and Change Management. 1st. ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Bornstein, D. & Davis, S. (2010). Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to Know. 1st. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Borzaga, C. & Defourny, J. (2001). The Emergence of Social Enterprise. 1st. ed. London: Routledge.