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Social Pressure to Have or Not Have Children
In the November issue of edbook magazine two articles are available discussing children. The first article discusses TV in the bedroom and its effects on children, and the next discusses strategies for getting kids to sleep at night. The amount of coverage given to children in this magazine is small compared with the overall content of the magazine, however the overall message presented in the book is that it is acceptable if not very common and expected to have children.
A small portion of the advertisements in this magazine is dedicated to children, roughly 2% of the total magazine. The article suggests that children are difficult in some respects. Some subjects covered include trying to et children to sleep through the night which appears a difficult task, trying to talk with children about sleep and avoiding over stimulating children with too…
Yu, Winnie, "Get Your Kids To Sleep." Redbook, November 2005: 172
No More TV In The Bedrooms." Redbook, November 2005: 171
The impact of social pressures and cultural influences on human development are not fully know. Only pieces of information are available for us to understand as there is much to be learned and gathered from this subject. The purpose of this essay is to examine two distinct articles directly related to socio-cultural influences on the development of the human species. This essay will first review and summarize each article on its own merits before offering new conclusions about the feasibility, practicality and overall usefulness of these two arguments presented.
Bakermans-Kranenburg et al. (2004) article about attachment security and minority children helped to expose some important information about the ways culture has a direct and sometimes profound impact on human development. Through statistical analysis gathered from qualitative means, certain patterns of relationships were identified through this study. The study eventually found that there are significant differences in the way…
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. et al. (2004). Differences in attachment security between African- American and white children; ethnicity or socio-economic status? Infant Behavior & Development,27 (2004) 417-433.
Varela, R. et al. (2009). Parenting strategies and socio-cultural influences in childhood anxiety; Mexican, Latin American descent, and European-American families. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 2009, 609-616.
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…
Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.
Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
Social Exchange Theory
the teacher an e-mail states. In words, explain . Your answer pages double spaced. 1. What Social exchange Theory? 2. List focus assumptions Social Exchange Theory describe . 3. How concepts work theory?
What is social exchange theory?
Social exchange theory views human beings as essentially self-interested creatures. 'What's in it for me?' is the underlying question behind all human actions. People engage in social interactions and relationships to obtain benefits for themselves, whether these benefits are economic, social, or personal in nature.
List some focus and assumptions of social exchange theory and describe one of them.
Human beings are assumed to be rational in their behaviors and motivations, and are capable of calculating what is the best of a series of given alternatives to maximize personal gains. There is also an assumption that humans are capable of assimilating enough useful knowledge to make such decisions (Witt…
Witt, David. (2010). Social exchange and developmental theories. Family Crisis.
Retrieved February 7, 2011 at http://www3.uakron.edu/witt/fc/fcnote5b.htm
Lack of rewards for individuals, unintended rewards for loafing: Having some individuals who are collectively-minded paired with workers with a 'what's in it for me' attitude can result in the more generously spirited workers' good will being relied up, while others take credit.
A five best practices
1. Create a common work culture: Friends are often less likely to 'socially loaf' on work teams (Kunishima & elte 2004).
2. Using dispersed teams with a lack of social facilitation factors can be undercut by increasing levels of difficulty and responsibility "As tasks become more difficult and participants perceive they can make a unique contribution to the task, social loafing decreases" (Kunishima & elte 2004).
3. Task uniqueness -- by ensuring members of the work teams have specifically defined roles, there is less of a chance to feel as if others can pick up the slack (Kunishima & elte 2004).
Bansal, Pratima & Sonia Kandola. (2004, March/April) Corporate social responsibility: why good people behave badly in organizations. Business Journal Online. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/117189488.html
Big Brother eyes 'boost honesty' (2006, June 28). BBC News. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/5120662.stm
Coleman, Andrew. (2001). Social loafing. The Encyclopedia of Psychology. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O87-socialloafing.html
Kunishima, Jill & Kasi Welte. (2004, March) Effects of punishment threats on social loafing
In other words, "the acquisition and transmission of imaginations of the past follows patterns that are specific to the respective generation." (Welzer, 2010, p.5) This is exemplified by the experience of the Sabbateans during the transition of Turkey into a modern nation after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1920. Traditionally the Sabbateans had followed their religious beliefs in private while maintaining a Moslem facade in public. But after the fall of the Ottomans, and the modernization programs enacted by its new leader Mustafa Kemal, there was enormous social pressure for the Sabbateans to conform to the new ideals of the modern Turkish state by discarding their Sabbatean religious traditions. In other words, the Turks were creating a new social memory that was based on abandoning traditional activities, like practicing Sabbateanism, and embracing the new, progressive activities of the modern Turkish state: exemplified by citizenship. But this new social…
Allan, Diana (2007). "Chapter 10: The Politics of Witness: Remembering and Forgetting 1948 in Shatila Camp," in Nakba: Palestine, 2948, and the Claims of Memory. Eds. Ahmad E. Sa'di and Lila Abu-Lughod.
New York: Columbia UP: 254-282. Print.
Cenarro, Angelo. (2002). "Memory Beyond the Public Sphere: The Francoist
Repression Remembered in Aragon." History and Memory 14(1/2): 165-176
Social Forces and Costs of Cheating
The rules of personal academic conduct generally require students to do the work necessary to complete class assignments on their own. Any effort to evade this rule in a manner that maintains the impression that the student is performing adequately, would be considered cheating.
Academic cheating can take many forms, from looking over the shoulder of a classmate during an exam, writing notes on inside of the palm or forearm, purchasing the answers from an online service, to paying someone to complete a take-home exam. The justifications a student might use for cheating can be just as varied, and can include being uninterested in the course material, struggling to keep up, a temporary personal crisis, scheduling conflicts, or arrogance. While all of us have experienced personal problems, scheduling conflicts, and boring class material, and some of us may have found instructional material…
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…
Travis Hirschi's Social Bonding Theory
The theorist, Hirschi, asserts that those who exhibit deviant behavior desire to do so and that criminal behavior is seen among people with weak social bonds. In his social bonding model, he delineated four elements which make up social bonds, namely, attachment to partner/spouse, engagement in conforming behaviors, holding conventional beliefs and values, and dedication to conventionality (Wolfzorn, Heckert & Heckert, 2006). The theorist indicates that with increased attachment of a person to fellow human beings, their belief in conformist social values will increase. Furthermore, with increased investment and involvement in conventional activity, their propensity to deviate will decrease (Chriss, 2007).
Four Elements of Social Bonding Theory
Social bonding has four elements, namely: attachment, involvement, belief, and commitment.
The first component -- attachment -- denotes individuals' ties to their spouses or partners, and other members of the family. This aspect encompasses the extent of…
social construction relate critical incident stress? 2. Is CISM applicable emergency -emergency persons? Why ? 3. Why important distinguish CISM psychotherapy? Sources: Mitchell, J.
How does social construction relate to critical incident stress?
Stresses from critical incidents do not occur in a 'bubble.' Social pressures are critical components of interpersonal and environmental stress, spanning from the problems that arise from drug and alcohol abuse; emotional, physical, and sexual workplace violence; domestic violence and child abuse; post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide. Tensions between different groups can lead to divisiveness and violence if not appropriately managed. Different cultural standards regarding sexual or other interpersonal behaviors can create miscommunication and escalating tensions in the workplace. Gender assumptions can result in female and child victimization, if a man feels he has a 'right' to 'treat' his family according to standards of patriarchal dominance. The trauma of war, living in high-crime areas, deprivation,…
social networking has in the last couple of years stirred a lot of debate among politician and scholars alike. The level of risks and benefits associated with social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace especially to children and teenagers has elicited a mixed reaction among the debating parties. In this paper we present a systematic analysis of the implications of social networking sites for both children and teenagers with a sharp focus on Facebook. We also focus on the benefits as well as the issue surrounding the use of social networking sites by use of relevant illustrations. Overall, we evaluate how the use of computer technology has impacted the society in general and education in particular.
Definition of Social Networking
Several scholars have attempted to define the concept of social networking and its components. Boyd & Ellison (2007) define social networking sites as special web-based services that are…
Berkshire District Attorney. Sexting. Pittsfield, MA: Commonwealth of Massachusetts; 2010.
Availableonline at: www.mass.gov/?pageID_ berterminal&L_3&L0_Home&L1_Crime_Awareness_%26_Prevention&L2_Parents_
%26_Youth&sid_Dber&b_terminalcontent&f_parents_youth_sexting&csid_Dber. Accessed onApril 5, 2011
Tynes, BM (2007),Internet Safety Gone Wild? Sacrificing the Educational and Psychosocial
Moral Licensing and Morality:
Does Being Good Make You Bad?
This study focuses on 107 psychology students living in Australia for more than a year. The students were given a moral licensing crime task with two potential suspects; one of whom was more likely to be guilty. For the control group, both suspects were Anglo Australians; for the moral licensing group, the less suspicious suspect was Aboriginal. The hypotheses were that: moral licensing will not impact explicit moral self-concept; moral licensing will have a negative impact on implicit moral self-concept; moral licensing will make participants less racially sensitive; and moral licensing will make participants less likely to volunteer than the control participants. There was no significant different between the control condition and the moral licensing condition for explicit moral self-concept or for racism sensitivity. Participants in the control condition scored higher on the test for implicit moral self-concept and were…
Aquino, K., & Reed, A. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 83, 1423-1440.
Effron, D. A, Miller, D.T., & Monin, B. (2012). Inventing racist roads not taken: the licensing effect of immoral counterfactual behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 103, 916-932. doi:10.1037/a0030008
Nietzsche's "madman" and the Madness of the First orld ar as viewed "In Flanders's Field" and All Quiet on the estern Front
The essence of the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche is a stated view of human existence where all individuals possessing attributes of excellence or superiority are at odds with their complacent, or intellectually slumbering society. Nietzsche's supposed madman of his famous "Parable" voiced a critique and a prophesy of the world, a world that had killed God, for better or for worse. Yet the world, said the madman, temporarily remained willfully ignorant of this fact and thus the madman's truth remained unheard and deliberately misunderstood by the masses as merely the voice of madness, so spoke Nietzsche in the "Parable of the Madman." (Nietzsche, 1882).
In his parable as well, Nietzsche suggested that such willed acts of individual knowledge and by extension, excellence, in the form of 'killing God,'…
Nietzsche, Friedrich. "The Parable of the Madman." 1882. Retrieved on March 28, 2004 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/nietzsche-madman.html
McCrae, John. "In Flanders Field." Retrieved on March 28, 2004 at http://www.yankeedoodles.net/inflandersfield.htm
Pressures to Conform or Obey
Western nations pride themselves on allowing their citizens freedom to choose for themselves their paths and destinies. However, psychological and sociological pressures often trump government-granted freedoms, especially in certain situations.
Sociology is the examination of the social lives of humans, groups, and societies, often defined as the study of social interactions. It is a relatively new academic discipline that evolved in the early 19th century throughout Europe and America. It deals with the social rules and processes that bind and separate people not only as individuals, but as members of associations, groups, and institutions.
In fact, sociology is concerned with our behavior as social beings; as a result the sociological field of interest ranges from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous individuals on the street to the examination of global social processes. In a broad sense, sociology manifests the scientific examination of social groups,…
Orwell, George. (1949). 1984. New York: Bantam.
Janis, Irving. (1972). Groupthink. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Aperture. (2005). The New Workplace. New York: Aperture.
KidsHealth.org. (2005). Dealing with peer pressure. http://kidshealth.org/kid/feeling/friend/peer_pressure.html .
This in turn generates a kind of societal morality. As a consequence, social order becomes an incorporated trait of everyday life. According to the theory, what people see as standards are indirect behavioral rules. Infringements of the standard lead to diverse amounts of punishment depending on how common the standard may be. Chastisements can come in the shape of being disqualified from one's social group, critical looks, or imprisonment in the case of harsh infringements like killing or assault (Jeanty, 2010).
As sociologists and historians examine social work, they often see a profession the spirit of which is social control. For them the language of therapy, assisting, or even empowerment masquerades a coercive center. Various recent literature of the vocation, conversely, has confronted the attitude of those researchers who depend on case reports as proof of what social workers in fact do in the field has highlighted empowerment in the…
Burford, Gale and Adams, Paul. (2010). Restorative justice, responsive regulation and social work. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
Chapter 4: The role of the social worker. (2006). Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
Social evolution to rapid revolutionary change and contemporary globalization dynamics: Emphasizing the contributions of economic, and political process to societal change
Should the U.S. trade with ussia?
The Cold War ended long ago but trade restrictions still exist between the U.S. And the former communist superpower of ussia. In an effort to liberalize trade, the U.S. has been easing some of these restrictions. ecently, the Senate Finance Committee passed a trade bill that could double U.S. exports to ussia at a time when the U.S. economy is particularly strapped and in need of rectifying the trade imbalance that exists between itself and the rest of the world overall. Declining U.S. exports have been linked to sluggish job growth. U.S. exports to ussia currently hover around $9 billion dollars, a figure which some analysts estimate could double if the trade bill passes ("U.S. okays trade with ussia," The Korea Herald, 2012).…
Pukhov, Rusan. "Why Russia supports Syria." The New York Times. 7 Jul 2012.
[27 Jul 2012] http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/07/opinion/why-russia-supports-syria.html?_r=2&%20scp=1&sq=russia%20syria&st=Search
"U.S. okays trade with Russia." The Korea Herald. 19 July 2012. [19 July 2012]
Description of Company
My company, idgetCo, designs and manufactures widgets here in Dullsville, USA. The company has been in operation since 1927, and moved to Dullsville shortly after II to take advantage of the large clustering of industry around the steel plant in Steelville. The steel plant and many of the other businesses have now closed, but idgetCo has long been an innovator in widget design, so remains a thriving business. The company is now the largest employer in Dullsville. Operating as a differentiated provider, we are able to meet the needs of our customers -- mainly manufacturers -- who now are spread throughout the NAFTA region.
There are a number of stakeholders for idgetCo, and we believe that it is important to take the needs of each into consideration when embarking on major strategic endeavors (Leigh, 2013). Internally, we see our stakeholder universe as consisting of management,…
Gillan, S. & Starks, L. (2000). Corporate governance proposals and shareholder activism: The role of institutional investors. Journal of Financial Economics Vol. 57 (2000) 275-305
Holzer, B. (2008). Turning stakeseekers into stakeholders. Business & Society. Vol. 47 (1) 50-67.
Kokemuller, N. (2013). How do stakeholders influence business activities? Houston Chronicle. Retrieved April 28, 2013 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/stakeholders-influence-business-activities-18754.html
Leigh, J. (2013). The differences between primary and secondary stakeholders. eHow. Retrieved April 28, 2013 from http://www.ehow.co.uk/facts_7267188_difference-between-primary-secondary-stakeholders.html
The reason for this is that the phenomenon generally occurs within groups. Individuals who function in a group often do so differently than when left upon their own. To conduct the study, one individual and one group of people should be observed in two separate rooms.
The individual will be able to observe the group by means of a one-way window. The group will be unaware of the individual. All the group members except one were told to clap their hands in unison when a piece of rhythmic music begins to play. The individual in the adjacent room will observe this behavior as well as be able to hear the music.
As soon as the music begins to play, it is hypothesized that the person without prior coaching will be initially surprised. The other group members will overtly or covertly stare at the person or encourage him or her to…
ChangingMinds.org. (2010). Normative Social Influence. Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/normative_social_influence.htm
Lord, Kenneth R., Myung-Soo Lee, Peggy Choong (2001), "DIFFERENCES in NORMATIVE and INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE," in Advances in Consumer Research Volume 28, eds. Mary C. Gilly and Joan Meyers-Levy, Valdosta, GA: Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 280-285.
McLeod, S.A. (2007) Simply Psychology [Online] UK: Available: http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk / Accessed: March 15, 2010
While he supported me in my endeavors, he raised many questions, >Why do you want to enter social work? How do you think you are going to provide for your family and the lifestyle you are accustomed to?" Deferring to socialization pressures that still impel them to fulfill the "breadwinner" role and avoid feminine characteristics, they may segregate themselves from women in the profession, selecting specialties or positions that society deems as more appropriate for men (Williams, 1995). They too may emphasize the masculine aspects of their jobs to "reduce the dissonance between their professional and gender identities" and to justify their career choices (Christie, 1998, p. 506). Thereby, male social workers adhere more closely to the social definition of masculinity" (ritton, J. & Stoller M., 1998).
The young people who are trying to enter into a social work profession "hope to advance research and social work services for men…
Britton, J. & Stoller M. (Autumn, 1998), Engendered disparity: Males in Social Work, Retrieved December 6, 2006, from The Advocate's Forum, Vol.5, No.1, Web Site: http://www.ssa.uchicago.edu/publications/advforum/v5n1/v5i1a2.html
Chattopadhay, T. (2004), Role of men and boys in promoting gender equality: advocacy brief / Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL), United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok, Retrieved December 6, 2006, at http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/unesco_role_of_men.pdf
Christie, A.(2001), Men and social work, New York, NY USA: Palgrave Publishers, Retrieved December 3, 2006, at http://site.ebrary.com/lib/csueastbay/Doc?id=2002957
Gillingham, P. (January, 2006), Male social workers in child and family welfare: New directions for research, in Social work, Volume 51, number I
Competitor products and their equivalent prizes, this is so that after establishing our break-even analysis it can act as a guiding line to set the best price. (Tao 2008)
The survey should enable one establish the best marketing strategies and anticipate any future contingencies.
Entrepreneurship development services
This service will target individuals who wish to start business on their own or in a group it will mainly involve
Training on how to originate business ideas. It is said that if you feed a man you have only feed him a day, a long-term problem in a short-term way. If you show the man how to fish then you have feed him and his family for life and I add that if you show the man how to run a fish business you will have feed the society too. In his book ich Dad Poor Dad, Kiyosaki explains that the most…
Adaman F., Keyder C., Mudderrisoglu S., Yukseker D. (2009) Poverty and Social Exclusion in the Slum Areas of Large Cities in Turkey. European Commission on Employment, SocialAffairs and Equal Opportunities Development Goal. European Union, Luxenbourg, Europe.
Agbola T., Agunbiade E. (2009) Urbanization, Slum Development and Security of Tenure: The Challenges of Meeting Millennium Development Goal 7 in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Camur E. (2003) What are the Social, Physical and Economic Problems of Slums and their Expectations from the Urban City? Sage books.New York.
Dumashie a. (2004) Informal Housing in East Africa: Lessons Learned From Cross Country Borders (Part II). Journal, FIG Working Week, May 22-27, United Kingdom.
According to Freud, human societies require people to give up many of their most natural instincts and to replace their natural desires with the need to satisfy the "false standards of measurement" such as the "power, success and wealth [that they seek] for themselves and admire & #8230; in others, and that [as a result,] they underestimate what is of true value in life." Fred suggested that the need to live up to the standards and expectations set by society causes "too many pains, disappointments and impossible tasks" and that "to bear it we cannot dispense with palliative measures." By that, Freud meant that all of the psychological mechanisms, substitutions, and escapes that cause psychological problems and that often prevent human happiness. These ideas introduced by Freud about the psychological price paid by people living in society would later be part of the views of several other 20th century sociological…
Social Engineering and Information Security
We are in an age of information explosion and one of the most critical problems facing us is the security and proper management of information. Advanced hardware and software solutions are being constantly developed and refined to patch up any technical loopholes that might allow a hacker attack and prevent consequent breach of information security. While this technical warfare continues, hackers are now pursuing other vectors of attack. Social engineering refers to the increasing employment of techniques, both technical and non-technical, that focus on exploiting the cognitive bias in humans as the weakest link in computer security. What is shocking is the fact that in spite of the great vulnerability to human exploitation, there prevails a seemingly careless attitude in this regard in the corporate world. While more and more money is spent on beefing up hardware security and in acquiring expensive software solutions, little…
1) Christopher Hadnagy (2011), 'Social Engineering: The Art of Human Hacking', Wiley Publishing Inc.
2) Greg Sandoval, (Feb 2007), 'FTC to Court: Put an end to pretexting operations', Retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from, http://news.cnet.com/FTC-to-court-Put-an-end-to-pretexting-operations/2100-7348_3-6159871.html?tag=lia;rcol
3) Mindi McDowell, (Oct 2009), 'National Cyber Alert System: Avoiding Social Engineering and Phishing attacks', retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from, http://www.us-cert.gov/cas/tips/ST04-014.html
4) Sonja Ryst, (July, 2006), ' The Phone is the latest Phishign Rod', retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from, http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/jul2006/tc20060710_811021.htm
They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].
The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:
The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal
Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.
It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did
James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at http://www.spcollege.edu/Central/libonline/path/shortstory.pdf .
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.
December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.
Gayle, V., Berridge, D., & Davies, R. 2002. Young people's entry into higher education: Quantifying influential factors. Oxford Review of Education, 28(1), 5-20.
his article addresses the factors that are most prevalent when young individuals move into higher education. Among these factors are social status, economic issues, marital status, and gender issues. For this study, the researchers examined many different individuals at a higher education institution and determined their demographic characteristics. hey then gave weight to these characteristics and, through a scientific and statistical analysis, determined to what degree each one of these demographics affected the individual and whether they were involved with higher education. he results of the study indicated that a marriage age of 19 had a significant effect on whether someone would be attending an institution of higher education in the future, with those that married early attending higher education institutions at lower rates.
This article addresses the factors that are most prevalent when young individuals move into higher education. Among these factors are social status, economic issues, marital status, and gender issues. For this study, the researchers examined many different individuals at a higher education institution and determined their demographic characteristics. They then gave weight to these characteristics and, through a scientific and statistical analysis, determined to what degree each one of these demographics affected the individual and whether they were involved with higher education. The results of the study indicated that a marriage age of 19 had a significant effect on whether someone would be attending an institution of higher education in the future, with those that married early attending higher education institutions at lower rates.
Goldstein, J.R. & Kenney, C.T. 2001. Marriage delayed or marriage forgone? New cohort forecasts of first marriage for U.S. women. American Sociological Review, 66(4), 506-519.
In this particular study, the researchers were interested in whether the recent trend of highly-educated women to delay marriage was an indication that these women would not marry at all. However, the study indicated that, while women were delaying marriage and getting more education, they were still getting married at the 'normal' rate - they were simply doing it later in life than their less-educated counterparts. Because of this, the study hypothesized that marriage may in the future become the province of the educated, as opposed to belonging to less educated individuals and being avoided by those who have been through more schooling. It is not assumed, therefore, that highly educated people will only have careers and will not marry.
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Modern day examples of human modification of an ecosystem
Module 01 Question 01: Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Various measures have been put in order to modify and contain the natural state of the ecosystem. Preservation is one of the approaches that have been used to foster equitable management of the ecosystem. Through preservation, it has become evident that the ecosystem has taken a different understanding from the avenue of human perception. For instance, rules and regulations that help to protect the ecosystem have changed the entire perception of the ecosystem globally. Initially before the establishment of preservation approaches, the ecosystem was getting devastated gradually. Nonetheless, modification has come with the introduction of laws and regulations that work towards protection and preservation of the available avenues in the market.
Through the rules and regulations created, the ecosystem has achieved a new state of protection in…
Callan, S., & Thomas, J.M. (2010). Environmental economics & management: Theory, policy, and applications. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Corwin, J. (2009). 100 heartbeats: The race to save earth's most endangered species. New York, NY: Rodale.
FAO/IRRI Workshop on Judicious and Efficient Use of Insecticides on Rice, International
Rice Research Institute. & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Psychological studies have confirmed 'altruistic behavior' can be elicited in people. 'Peer Pressure' could also be utilized as an effective psychological tool in reducing resource consumption and in promoting other healthy environmental practices. [Center for Naturalism] A case in point is the Chinese governments 'Grain to Green' Program that offered cash incentives to farmers to convert marginal farmlands to forests. As Alan Tessier, program director in the National Science Foundation (NSF) says, "Much of the marginal cropland in rural communities has been converted from agriculture to forests through the Grain-to-Green Program, one of the largest 'payment for ecosystem services' programs in the world," "Results of this study show that a community's social norms have substantial impacts on the sustainability of these conservation investments." [ScienceDaily] uilding this collective self-control at the community, national and international level holds the key to the success of an environmentally sustainable future. Motivated and environmentally conscious…
1) Su-Houn Liu, Yu-Hsieh Sung & Hsiu-Li Liao (2006), 'Developing Sustainable Digital Opportunity: The Case of Lalashan DOWEB Model', Issues in Information Systems,
Volume VII, No. 1, 2006, retrieved Dec 30th 2009, from http://www.iacis.org/iis/2006_iis/PDFs/Liu_Sung_Liao.pdf
2) BIO, (Nov 2009) 'Agricultural Biotechnology Benefits Farmers and the environment', retrieved Dec 30th 2009, from, http://www.bio.org/foodag/positions/Benbrook_Report_PUBLIC_111709.pdf
3) John Vidal, (2009), 'Rich Nations to Offset Emissions with Birth Control', retrieved Dec 30th 2009, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/03/carbon-offset-projects-climate-change
The GEMS effort was to create a social environment that encouraged healthy eating and exercise, and expanded health literacy in a fun manner, and was accessible to young girls.
It is easier to change health-related behaviors in the young, and the program tried to address the unique and often more acute problem of obesity in African-American young girls. The entire community and family units were incorporated into the program effort. Positive aspects of the African-American community, such as strong social support, were used by the study designers, also in line with social cognition theory. Existing support structures and social learning were combined: for example, the families in question were often not educated in how to properly read food labels, but once they were, the desire to help their daughters become healthier would hopefully reinforce the need to engage in proactive steps to improve dietary health. During Family Nights, families of…
Marvella E. Ford, Barbara C. Tilley, & Patricia E. McDonald. (1998). Social support among
African- American adults with diabetes. Journal of American Medicine. 90 (6) 361-365.
Retrieved July 9, 2010 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2568240/pdf/jnma00165-0047.pdf
Story, Mary, et al. (2003, Winter). "An after-school obesity prevention program for African-
Pressure Building on College Students
College is not always a breeze as some students might expect. While the studies themselves are stressful, what really builds additional pressure is a variety of tasks that need to be done within 24 hours of the day such as research assignments, coursework, quizzes, take-home exams and not to mention all domestic activities as well. Fitting everything in 24 hours is not easy. On top of all this, students are also expected to maintain a respectable grade point average while not neglecting their social lives. Most students feel that if you can survive college, you can probably survive everything in life. This is certainly not an exaggeration since rate of depression and suicide is very high among college students. "Suicide is the second leading killer of college students - with an estimated 7.5 deaths per 100,000 students per year, according to a study of Big…
1) Daniela Lamas / Knight Ridder Newspaper (KRT), The dark side of college life: Academic pressure, depression, suicide, (Accessed May 7th, 2001) http://www.elon.edu/e-web/pendulum/Issues/2004/onlinefeatures/health/depression.xhtml
2) Ranjita Misra, Academic Stress Of College Students: Comparison Of Student And Faculty Perceptions, College Student Journal, June, 2000
3) Shannon E. Ross, Sources Of Stress Among College Students, College Student Journal June, 1999
4) Pete L. Kranz, Perceived Stress Reported by Fisheries Graduate Students at Tennessee Technological University, Journal of Instructional Psychology, Sept, 1999
On the other hand, one lesson of the Industrial Revolution is that human suffering and exploitation can never be used as a coin with which to pay for material progress or wealth. Likewise, the Industrial Revolution teaches that neither the welfare of the contemporary wealthy and fortunate, nor even the future well-being of subsequent generations is ever justified as the fruits of the suffering of other human beings.
In retrospect, the progression from agrarian to industrial economies need not have required the degree of suffering with which it was, unfortunately, associated, particularly in the nineteenth century. The best evidence for this proposition seems to be the efforts, most of which were successful, on the part of Bismark, in Germany, while workers suffered greater hardships, by comparison, in the rest of the newly industrialized world. Greed and callousness, is, unfortunately, characteristic of many elements of human life, which was not necessarily…
Burchell, S.D. (1968) Age of Progress.
Time Life: UK
Faissler, M., Hayes, C. (1966) Modern Times: Mainstreams of Civilization.
Macmillan: New York
Effects of social advertising on the American society
Having seen that the society at large is highly dependent on the social media, and it is on these social networks that the social advertising has turned to, it is necessary to look at the extent to which the society today has been affected by the medium of transmission and the content of the social advertising.
The underlying fact about the social advertising is that they want to make a positive impact on the society in general, it is the drive to see a better society that makes the foundation and core business of the organizations involved in social advertisements.
It has been seen that the same techniques used in promoting profitable goods and services can as well be used for information purpose, educate and motivational aspect to the public about the non-profitable issues like HIV / AIDS, the energy conservation, politics…
AAF (2011), About AAF. Retrieved March 1, 2011 from http://www.aaf.org/default.asp?id=24
B&T, (2003). Advertising road safety. Retrieved March 1, 2011 from http://www.bandt.com.au/news/advertising-road-safety
Barrie G, et al. (2005). Advertising to children on TV: content, impact, and regulation. (pp 104).
New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Publishers.
This drives a value system that makes our work preventative by one intent. ith a clear understanding that some intervention will require a removal of the child from his or her parents' care, the value of family togetherness will direct the strategy of community involvement on the part of the agency.
The practice framework is guided by specialized knowledge on the patterns and trends dominating the landscape of abuse cases. The breakdown of major abuse categories reported by Bromfield & Horsfall finds that 39% of abuse cases are of the emotional abuse category, 29% in the category of neglect, 22% in the category of physical abuse and 10% in the category of sexual abuse. (p. 3)
Moreover, a major thrust of the report by Bromfield & Horsfall is that reports of all types of cases are on the rise, but also attributes this to certain realities including the…
BBC News. (20009). Australia 'Sorry' for Child Abuse. Bbc.co.uk.
Bromfield, L. & Horsfall, B. (2010). Child Abuse and Neglect Statistics. National Child Protection Clearinghouse.
Department for Child Protection (DCP). (2010). Homepage. Government of Western Australia. Online at http://www.community.wa.gov.au/DCP/
Early Childhood Australia (ECA). (2006). Statistics Show Child Abuse in Australia is Getting Worse. Early Childhoodaustralia.org.
Social workers try to help people make the most of their environment, their relationships, and any struggles they might have with money or family. A lot of social workers deal with people who face life-threatening circumstances, such as criminal activity or substance abuse. Other issues that social workers try to tackle are inadequate housing, unemployment, illness, disability, or difficulties around childbirth (Social Work Professions: Summary of the Social Worker Fields, 2010).
There are various social work specializations, but the larger categories include child, family, and school social workers, who provide social services and assistance to children and their families; medical and public health social workers who provide support for people with illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer, or AIDS; mental health and substance abuse social workers who deal with people who struggle with psychological issues; and social workers who deal with the intricacies of social policy and planning (Social Work…
Social Work Practice. (n.d.). Retrieved August 31, 2010, from Web site:
Social Work Professions: Summary of the Social Worker Fields. (2010). Retrieved August 31,
2010, from Education Portal Web site: http://education-
Social Media and the ed Shirt evolution
Most scholars are in conflict with regard to the subject of revolution in the age of social media. Until now, revolution has been considered a top-down process. In Thai situation, things might have been different. The ed Shirt evolution in Thailand was one of the first of the "Twitter" revolutions, that is one that was fueled by social media and Web 2.0 technology. Since then, other revolutions have come as well. The lone citizen is now no longer on their own. The dissident in Chiang Mai now can commiserate with their brother or sister in Tahrir Square and plan revolution on a country to country or even on a global basis. Even as this writer types up a dissertation proposal, demonstrators coordinate strategy on a global basis to protest corporate greed. It is with this in mind that this study looks back at…
Bailey, M and Labovitz C (2011). Censorship and Co-option of the Internet Infrastructure. Ann Arbor,
MI: University of Michigan. p1-14.
Bajpai, K and Jaiswal, A (2011). A Framework for Analyzing Collective Action Events on Twitter.
Lisbon, Portugal: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference. p1-10.
Social Marginalization by Race: Economic Deprivation and White American Resistance in the allot or the ullet by Malcolm X
The rigorous history of African-Americanism and their emancipation within the American society reflects the struggles and perpetuation of discrimination among black Americans even during the 20th century. Malcolm X, considered one of the most radical and influential leader of the black American civil rights movement, centers on the issues of discrimination and white American resistance among the blacks in his famous discourse, The allot or the ullet, delivered in April 3, 1964.
The relevance and significance of Malcolm X's discourse must be put into context in the events happening during his time. Historically, the socio-political landscape of the United States during the 1960s is characterized by the emergence and development of the civil rights movement for the marginalized sectors of the society, such as the youth, women, poor, and particularly, African-Americans.…
Malcolm X (1964). The Ballot or the Bullet. Available at: http://www.indiana.edu/~rterrill/Text-BorB.html .
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Accumulating evidence suggest that sustainable agriculture should be promoted. The growth and development of agriculture will still be the driving force of the loss of ecosystems in the 21st century. In specified areas, the growth and development of agriculture poses a danger to ecosystems, establishment, evaluation, and technological diffusion. This could see the rise of the food production sustainably per unit area with the absence of trade-offs relating to excessive water consumption or nutrients and pesticides use, would lessen pressure significantly to ecosystems. For many cases, the required technologies are in place, and they could be implemented in a wider variety, but the nation is facing financial constraints and lacking intuitional capabilities to use and gain the stated technologies. In areas where technology is predominant of the landscape, maintenance of ecosystems within the landscape is a very significant constitute of…
Hayden, J. (2009). Introduction to health behavior theory. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
O'Donnell, M.P. (2008). Health promotion in the workplace. Albany: Delmar Thomson Learning
Scutchfield, F.D., & Keck, C.W. (2009). Principles of public health practice. Clifton Park: Thomson/Delmar Learning
Stephens, C. (2008). Health promotion: A psychosocial approach. Maidenhead: Open University Press
Social and Ethical Issues
Consulting for a Tobacco Company
It would be difficult for me to consult for a tobacco company. I would have to seriously weigh the pros and cons of the assignment. One positive aspect is that it is only a short-term assignment. Thus if I did accept the assignment, it would only be for a short duration with a defined end point. Another advantage is that I would have some control over the decisions that the company made and I could recommend that ethics be applied in each situation. Although the sale of tobacco products is harmful to health in general, there are situations in which it can be relatively less harmful than it would otherwise be.
For example, there can be decisions made to use additives that are safer than others. There are also decisions to be made about marketing and distribution that could…
At the same time there are also many areas of contention and criticism of these groups. In order to put this debate into perspective one has to take into account that the concept of democracy is complex and that there are many views of what true democracy is and how it should function. As suggested above, the pluralist notion of democracy is different in many respects to the more formal or 'elitist' views of democracy. One's assessments of pressure groups will therefore depend to a great extent on one's concept and understanding of democracy.
On the one hand the pluralistic view that pressure groups expand involvement in the democratic process and bring important issues to the attention of both the public and the state is a view that many pundits tend to accept. But there are many other arguments against these groups; such as the view that they can in…
Do pressure groups add to democracy?, viewed 8 August, 2010,
Bhandari J. 2003, Democracy of pressure groups, viewed 8 August, 2010,
Social isk and Vulnerability Analysis Comment by Babyliza: There's No Abstract
Vulnerability to hazards is affected by several factors, comprising age or income, the power of social networks, and neighborhood individualities. Social vulnerability takes into account the socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence the resilience of populations. The Sovi for Bexar County is 0.230416 whereas that for Philadelphia County is 3.418284. This indicates that Philadelphia County as a geographical expanse has a higher vulnerability and susceptibility to environmental and public health hazards. A key group that ought to be taken into consideration is one of people lacking insurance. This is a group that is severely impacted in the course of disasters and after disasters, and are not able to easily recover. Individuals that are not self-insured are generally excluded from these calculations.
All expanses of the United States have experienced disasters, both natural and anthropogenic. The vulnerabilities that are…
Bexar County Emergency Management. (2016). The Mission & Vision of the OEM. Retrieved from: http://www.bexar.org/675/OEM-Mission-Vision
Chavi. (2015). Here Are The 10 Worst Disasters to Occur in Pennsylvania History. Only in Your State. Retrieved from: http://www.onlyinyourstate.com/pennsylvania/pa-disasters/
City Data. (2016). Philadelphia: Geography and Climate. Retrieved from: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-Northeast/Philadelphia-Geography-and-Climate.html
Dunning, C. M., Durden, S. (2013). Social Vulnerability Analysis: A Comparison of Tools. Institute for Water Resources.
Therefore, the person who chooses to suspend his interests to comply with those artificial externally-imposed social values for the benefit of others will ultimately always suffer disadvantage because others cannot be counted upon to do so consistently and in a meaningful way, at least not beyond the ability of the state to control and ensure.
To Freud, modern civilization provides various tangible benefits to the individual but only at a tremendous cost. While living in society and with the benefits of government protection against the uncontrolled expression of the selfish will of others is a benefit, the fact that our goals and values, and the component elements of our psychological personas are determined and shaped to such a great extent by external society generates much if not all of the psychological pain and trauma experienced by individuals.
Personal Response and Conclusion
There is substantial value as well as inherent weaknesses…
Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and he can feed himself for life. How could you put this principle into practice through the development of a social entrepreneurship venture?
Development of Social Entrepreneurialism
Corporate Social Responsibility
Social Entrepreneurship and Food
Social entrepreneurship was introduced in the 1970s to address the issue of social sustainably and the term "social entrepreneur." This analysis will begin by providing a brief history as well as a working definition for the concept of social entrepreneurialism. It will also discuss some of the related movements that have been working towards some of the same goals, albeit, from different directions to address various challenges in society and the environment. Furthermore, a more detailed overview of the exact challenges that are present in society that social entrepreneurialism can work to address will…
Abu-Saifan, S., 2012. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries. [Online]
Available at: http://timreview.ca/article/523
[Accessed 28 April 2016].
Ashoka, N.d.. Vision and Mission. [Online]
Environmental and Organizational
Individual Commitment to Environment
Contribute to Profits
Environmental vs. Organizational Pressure
Change is disruptive and can be the source of much anxiety and stress. egardless of these fears, changes within organizations are inevitable and are guaranteed to happen sooner or later. To better manage these changes it is helpful to compare and contrast the different types of pressures an individual may feel when working in a corporate environment. The purpose of this essay is to discuss these pressures in an organizational and environmental context to decipher their influence on organizations. For purposes of this essay I will utilize my job working for Astra Zeneca as a guide to explain these influences and how change can best be managed.
The environment contains the organization and is large in size and scope, and, in theory affecting everyone who…
Angell, L (1999). Environmental and Operations Management Face the Future. Decisions Sciences, May 1999. Retrieved from http://www.decisionsciences.org/DecisionLine/Vol30/30_3/pom30_3.pdf
Delmas, Magali A. And Michael Toffel. "Institutional Pressures and Organizational Characteristics: Implications for Environmental Strategy." The Oxford Handbook of Business and the Natural Environment. Bansal, Pratima, and Andrew Hoffman, Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. 229-247
Donovan, F. (2013). Organizational pressures creating schizophrenia within IT. Fierce Enterprise Communications, 30 Mar, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.fierceenterprisecommunications.com/story/gartner-organizational-pressures - creating-schizophrenia-within-it/2013-03-30
For school retention, the major reason for support of this was academic achievement. If the child does not meet the set benchmarks for performance, the decision-making panel simply agreed to retention of the student. There was no formal assessment system for this decision process.
These results were supported by the result of the study conducted by Hong and audenbush (2006)
who found that student achievement were used in state and district schools to decide social promotion vs. school retention instead of formal systems of assessment of student performance. According to these findings, the schools that used academic achievement as the main criterion for social promotion did not bother to understand how the decision affected the student for who the decision was being made and the other students in general. The findings of these authors showed that these were very important aspects in the general performance of the school itself and…
Bali, V.A., Anagnostopoulos, D., & Roberts, R. (2005). Toward a Political Explanation of Grade Retention. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27(2), 133-155. doi: 10.2307/3699523
Hong, G., & Raudenbush, S.W. (2005). Effects of Kindergarten Retention Policy on Children's Cognitive Growth in Reading and Mathematics. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27(3), 205-224. doi: 10.2307/3699569
Hong, G., & Raudenbush, S.W. (2006). Evaluating Kindergarten Retention Policy: A Case Study of Causal Inference for Multilevel Observational Data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 101(475), 901-910. doi: 10.2307/27590770
Jacob, B.A., & Lefgren, L. (2009). The Effect of Grade Retention on High School Completion. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 1(3), 33-58. doi: 10.2307/25760170
The term 'applied social psychology' is used to denote a methodical utilization of socio-psychological models, study approaches and outcomes, concepts, ideologies, and intervention approaches for comprehending or ameliorating social issues. Psychologists belonging to this subfield concentrate on comprehending and solving practical issues and coming up with intervention approaches to enhance individual, organizational and societal response to social issues. While this domain's chief concern is the generic tackling of practical and social issues revolving around the environment, education, and so forth, social psychology may also help enrich people's lives (Schneider, Gruman, & Coutts, 2012). Social psychological theories offer prescriptions to solve practical and social challenges. This paper is presented as a review of literature on social psychological theories and their generic role in resolving practical and social problems.
A key applied social psychological theory is Cognitive Dissonance, whose main premise is that an individual is driven to remain consistent…
Children and Media
Technology surrounds everything that children participate in nowadays. From using computers to watching television, the media influences children in just about every activity that they are a part of. The mainstream and social media have had a great impact on the behavior of children, as they are consistently exposed to numerous forms of the media at all times. As technology advances and children are more and more prone to watching television and participating in activities over the Internet, children will always be affected by how the media is presented to them. It can be difficult to shelter children from the growing media influence, however, the effects of this phenomenon on both the psychological and cognitive development of children need to be analyzed and considered (Christakis & Zimmerman, 2009).
Social life has been completely revolutionized due to the existence of the Internet and the development of social media.…
Anderson, D.R. & Hanson, K.G. (2009). Children, media, and methodology. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1204-1219.
Bargh, J.A. & McKenna, K.Y.A. (2003). The internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology. 55, 573-590.
Chau, C. (2010). YouTube as a participatory culture. New Directions for Youth Development. 2010(128), 65-74.
Christakis, D.A. & Zimmerman, F.J. (2009). Young Children and media: Limitations of current knowledge and future directions for research. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1177-1185.
This may allow room for evaluation of the gender role conflicts which must naturally enter into this conversation. Where so many validate gender roles according to sexuality, this discussion of lesbian and feminist identity yields something of a less certain correlation. Rather, by an inclination to overcome the limitations imposed upon the female identity, there are distinctive characteristics which have been adopted by some within the lesbian community distinguishing these as apolitical-social lesbians. Driven by personal identification, and therefore required to pursue a social agenda which contrasts with mainstream conventions, apolitical-social lesbians may or may not be distinguishable by observable gender-role characteristics. However, in cases where such distinctions can be drawn due simply to a subversion of assumed gender rolls, the "butch" lesbian can be identified by a presentation of historically accepted male characteristics of identity. As outliers to the standards for gender-orientation normalcy, such lesbians are easily targeted for…
Ardill, S. & O'Sullivan, S. (1987). Upsetting the Applecart: Difference, Desire and Lesbian Sadomasochism in Sexuality: A Reader. Feminist Review London: Virago Press.
Butler, J. (1991). Imitation and Gender Insubordination. Inside/Out: Lesbian
Theories, Gay Theories. ed. Diana Fuss. New York: Routledge
Social equity is a key issue of public administration and forms the basic theme of the 2013 "Social Equity Leadership Conference," in June. This white paper discusses the key goals of the conference based on the conference issue for social equity as global engagement and local responsibility. These are the issue facing social equity among domestic and global public leaders in public and private agencies in the education, immigration, transportation, environmental, policing and corrections sectors. A review of theories on public administration identifies that public leadership networking, collaboration, and cooperation with leaders and agencies is necessary. This is associated with public leadership practices like public policy development, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation, social equity, and public advocacy.
Globally Engaged, Locally esponsible: New Challenges for Social Equity
Emerging Issues in Social Equity and Leadership Covered in the Conference:
2. Policing and corrections
3. At risk communities, which…
Brian, A.E., & Adam, J.N. (2010). Building the reservoir to nowhere: The role of agencies in advocacy coalitions. Policy Studies Journal, 38(4), 653-678.
Buss, T.F. & Morse, R.S. (2008). Innovations in Public Leadership Development. Armonk, New York; M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
Candler, G., & Dumont, G. (2010). The price of citizenship: Civic responsibility as the missing dimension of public administration theory. Public Administration Quarterly, 34(2), 169-201.
Cichocki, D., Laberschek, M., & Rusanowska, M. (2011). Analysis of strategy of culture development in krakow 2010-2014 as an example of public policy implementation. Zarzadzanie Publiczne, 13(1), 103-115.
Pressure on Performance
The Effects of Time Pressure and Performance Pressure on the Ability to Solve Anagrams in College Students.
Anxiety and stress have been demonstrated to affect test performance and cognitive performance. Previous research has suggested that anxiety interferes with test performance by means of cognitive interference. Often, especially in individuals with high levels of test anxiety, stress leads to anxiety which leads to inattention, self-absorption, and focus on self-evaluation rather than on task-relevant behaviors. Stress is most often induced by a high pressure environment and can vary from situation to situation. The purpose the current study is to examine whether stress induced from a high pressure environment negatively affects testing performance. The current study investigated the effects of time pressure (being timed) and performance pressure (being evaluated) on the ability of college students to solve anagrams. It was hypothesized that pressure would lead to stress that would result…
Holroyd, K.A., Westbrook, T., Wolf, M., & Badorn, E. (1978). Performance, cognition, and physiological responding in test anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 4, 442-451.
Morris, L.W., & Liebert, R.M. (1969). Effects of anxiety on timed and untimed intelligence tests: another look. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
Sarason, I.G. (1984). Stress, anxiety, and cognitive interference: reactions to tests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 929-938.
Socio-economic accounting as a term and as a subdiscipline of accounting is a relatively new phenomenon. It is sometimes confused with social accounting, which is an established field of accounting and economics. Social accounting was first introduced by J.R. Hicks of Oxford University in The Social Framework: An Introduction to Economics, published in 1942. The accounting research of the time interpreted it as the whole system of accounts and balance sheets of a nation or a region, the price and quantity components of these accounts, and the various considerations to be derived there from. Social accounting was basically associated with national income accounting. An examination of the early publications in the accounting literature proves that point. A general theme in the early literature is the failure of the accountant to be involved in social accounting. The presence of business in initiatives implicating social accounting is so pervasive today…
Bailey, D., Harte, G. And Sugden, R. 1994, Making Transnationals Accountable: A Significant Step for Britain, London: Routledge.
Carroll, A.B., and Buchholtz, A.K. 2000, Business and Society: Ethics and stakeholder management, 4th ed, Chapter 4, Cincinnati: South-Western Publishing, .
Easterly, William, and Ross Levine. 1996. Africas Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions. World Bank. April.
Elkington, J. 1998, Cannibals with Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of the 21st Century, London: Capstone.
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND WHAT DOES IT AIM TO STUDY?
Inspired by Kurt Lewin (1951), social psychology adopted the experimental method to study human behavior (Wood & Kroger, 1998). In this regard, Wood and Kroger (1998) report that, "Lewin's experiments in leadership style (autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire) became classics in the new experimental social psychology" (p. 267). Lewins' early work was carried on by Festinger and others who explored cognitive dissonance for the next 20 years at MIT and subsequently at the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota, making this one of the foundations of social psychology (Wood & Kroger, 1998).
Simply stated, social psychology uses the scientific method to study human social behavior (ogers, 2003). According to ogers, psychological social psychology "studies how social events and phenomena influence the ways in which individual people feel, think and act. It is concerned with the psychological processes (such as social perception and cognition) that…
Hayes, D. (2004). RoutledgeFalmer guide to key debates in education. New York:
Karakashian, L.M., Walter, M.I., Christopher, A.N. & Lucas, T. (2006). Fear of negative evaluation affects helping behavior: The bystander effect revisited. North American
Journal of Psychology, 8(1), 13.
.....dreamed of becoming successful the field of social work or another career that involves helping people, I was told that I could not succeed in college because of my learning disability. The situation occurred when I was applying to join college to advance my professional development and skills. Throughout high school, I was in an individualized education program (IEP) because of the learning disability. I obtained decent grades in high school and also held several leadership and volunteer positions because of my passion to help others. However, when applying for college, I was told that I may not succeed because the learning disability was affecting my academic performance. The school administration told me that the course I was applying for was very demanding and a learning disability would affect my chances of success.
The situation was influenced by some external social, political and cultural factors, which made the school administration…
pressures China, Jamaica, America expressed article, ethics play a role decision making financial, environmental, cultural issues? How concepts positive normative economics reflected context? How market efficiency, economizing, market system affect ethical issues? Format paper APA standards.
Ethics and business making
Society has experienced much change in recent years and the business environment has similarly progressed significantly as more and more international players started to get actively involved in expanding their businesses while also putting across cooperating attitudes. Even with this, these bodies are well-acquainted with the fact that their actions reflect negatively on society as a whole in some cases and come to adopt approaches that demonstrate that they are more interested in profits than they are in ethics. Countries like China, Jamaica, and the U.S. are among those who are hesitant about adopting strategies that would reduce the level of pollution they provoke because they know that this would…
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, John, and Ferrell, Linda, "Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases," (Cengage Learning, 01.01.2012)
Prakashan, Nirali, "Business Ethics"
socal and cultural mpacts of establshng an eco-Toursm enterprse n Joao Pessoa, Brazl. The man focus of the dssertaton s on the followng areas:
An analyss of eco-toursm development
An assessment of the opportuntes - regonal, domestc, nternatonal
An evaluaton of the projects feasblty
An examnaton of the socal-cultural mpact of the eco-toursm
Brazl has a sanctuary of the fnest natural resources ("fauna & flora") n the world, and therefore toursm s n ascendence, and demands for md-class hotels are on the ncrease. The development of eco-toursm n specfc areas s antcpated due to partnershp wth local bankng ntutons; local government nterest and regulatons; and a general growth of awareness of the tenson between the tourst dollar, the envronment and local cultures.
Prmary research (ntervews and questonnares) wll be conducted to analyze the feasblty of the project. Secondary research wll be carred out, n the form of a…
i) Adventurers set out to discover other lands (e.g., Captain Cook) ii) People traveled for scientific research (e.g., Darwin) iii) People traveled for business (trade) iv) People traveled in order to visit friends and family (social), v) People traveled for leisure (relaxation) vi) People travel as Eco-Travelers (learners).
The development of tourism has influenced people and society, and has created thousands of organizations, at many levels: national and international, governmental or non- governmental. Tourism has thus led to the creation of million of jobs worldwide, in what is today is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Tourism has led people to confront different attitudes and to admire eclectic cultures. In addition, to be able to understand these cultures, society at large has had to adapt to the pluralism of cultures by learning languages other than their own, different types of gastronomy and music, and also by adopting a greater tolerance of different religions.
Accordingly to Kaluf (2001), the development of tourism has been worldwide, and has been sustaining a growth of 20% over last five years: 5% in mass tourism and an incredible 15% in
For example, Krishan Kumar of the University of Kent at Canterbury11 states,... "in sum, a fine piece of properly political sociology, of which there are in truth very few examples. Society gets its due share of attention; but as is fitting and absolutely essential in any discussion of revolution, it is the peculiar nature of and crisis of the state that occupies the centre of the stage."
Similarly, Michael Kimmel of the University of California -- Santa Cruz,12 states that "Theda Skocpol is perhaps the most ambitious and exciting of a new generation of historical-comparative sociologists who have focused their attention squarely on the big issues of social change that once preoccupied the classic sociologists."
The difficulty that some reviewers had about this book is because of some of the misinformation. For example, George Yaney 12 of the University of Maryland states it is based almost entirely on secondary sources…
Kimmel, Michael. "States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China. By Theda Skocpol." http://www.jstor.org.libdb.fairfield.edu/browse/00029602 " the American Journal of Sociology. 86 No.5 (1981): 1145-1154
Kumar, Krishan. States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France,
Russia and China by Theda Skocpol" the British Journal of Sociology. 31, no. 2
ocial Work and Burnout
Providing psychiatric and other forms of social work has been the chosen field of many generations of social workers and a major source of services in mental health facilities. ince psychiatric services are a subset of a larger career field of the health care profession, when the definition of social worker was expanded to health care professionals, it can be understood that the issue of burnout in the health care fields is of increasing importance. The health care professional is responsible for the well-being of others, and when the health care worker spends their time and energy giving to the well being of others without monitoring, or attending to their own needs, not only is the health care worker affected, but so is the entire health care profession, and client base. This research is designed to investigate, and determine some of the factors which contribute to…
Spector, P.E., & O'Connell, B.J. (1994). The contribution of personality traits, negative affectivity, locus of control, and type A to the subsequent reports of job stressors and job strains. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 67, 1-12.
Ullmann, A., Goos, M., Davis, M., & Mushinski, M. (1971). Activities satisfaction and problems of social work in hospital settings: A comparative study. Social Service Review, 45, 17-29.
Weismann, C., Alexander, C., & Chase, G. (1980). Job satisfaction among hospital nurses: A longitudinal study. Health Services Research, 15, 341-364.
Social Media and the Peril of Looking for Likes
Douglas Rushkoff's article, titled "Social Media and the Perils of Looking for Likes," poignantly depicts the dangerous extent to which teens and young adults would go to win their friends' or peers' approval through "likes" and "favorites" on social media, with total disregard to the moral and ethical norms expected of them by society. Further, the writer depicts how multi-dollar companies have made this "like" and "favorite" business a money-making spot, and how they would do anything to reap financial gain, even if it means blatantly taking advantage of unsuspecting kids who are perhaps so eager for sponsorships, and also too young to understand exactly what this kind of exchange entails. The writer employs ethos (expert testimony) and pathos (guilt and worry), which he uses to create sensationalism and engage the audience in a bid to manipulate their emotion (right). Through…
Rushkoff, Douglas. "Social Media and the Perils of Looking for Likes." CNN, 2014. Web. 8 October 2014 from http://edition.cnn.com/2014/02/18/opinion/rushkoff-social-media-likes/index.html
Wright, David. "The Rhetorical Library and Three Rhetorical Appeals." University of Richmond, n.d. Web. 8 October 2014 http://writing2.richmond.edu/writing/wweb/Rhet_Triangle.html
Criminology researchers usually draw on multiple sociological theories for understanding crime and offenders. Certain elements of serial-killing research continue to be a subject of speculation and exploration, on account of the numerous preconceptions and myths surrounding the crime. The significance of establishing a theoretic basis to explain sociological factors proves crucial to distinguishing between fact and fiction (Hickey, 2013).
Social Structure Theory
This class of theories concentrates on the socioeconomic status of a person and suggests that the poor perpetrate more offenses owing to their struggle to achieve social or monetary success. They are, particularly owing to their subcultural, racial, or ethnic status, restricted in several ways from lawfully attaining the great “American Dream\". Thus, they resort to deviant techniques to succeed. Structural theories provide convincing justifications for numerous offenses, with the exception of serial killing. Normally, serial killers lack financial or social motivation, and aren’t members of any specific…
.....starting point for research, I am selecting Scenario Two: Police Interrogations and False Confessions. The reason why I am selecting scenario two is that I have some degree of familiarity with the subject, and am fascinated by the ways people behave under pressure from authority figures, particularly law enforcement. I am also interested in scenario three related to the psychological aspects of disaster preparedness, but am more interested and concerned with criminal justice generally. Therefore, I narrowed down my selection of the scenarios mainly because of personal interest and curiosity about the subject matter, which motivates my desire to conduct the research necessary to write a proposal and complete the report.
Scenario Two described involving false confessions raises several points about the ethics of criminal justice, and how officers lie in order to extract information from suspects or witnesses. That information should not be admissible in court but sometimes is…
The common point-of-view is more focused on the negative impact of social networking than on its advantages. O'Keeffe and Clarke-Pearson (800)
argue that this is as a result of social networking influencing teenagers and adolescents more negatively and the positive effects that it brings. They state that "daily overuse of social media has negative impact on health, and physical growth of teens and preteens." Recent research also shows that teenagers are fond of expressing negative offline behaviors in the online social networks. These include the formation of cliques, sexual experimentation, peer pressure and bullying. In addition to this, there are other new behaviors that are introduced as a result of their use of social networks such as privacy issues, internet addiction, and "sexting." These teenagers feel comfortable in these social networks and thus are easily drawn to these behaviors and have difficulty in withdrawing when they are needed to. However,…
(Green Left, 1999).The gap between the rich and the poor is also soaring because vast most of the wealth generated from Canada's recent economic growth goes to the richest Canadians instead of being channeled to the poor Canadians who are the majority of the Canadian population.
The shrinking Middle class
According to Macionis & Gerber (2002), approximately 40 to 50% of the Canadian population belongs to the middle class. Due to its size, it heavily influences the nature of Canadian culture. This class has a considerable level of racial as well as ethnic diversity. This class is never characterized by familiarity and exclusivity with which the upper class carries. Over half of the families in this category are referred to as the "upper-middle" class and is characterized by families having incomes ranging $50,000- $100,000. The salaries of the upper middle class are mainly earned from professional and upper managerial positions…
Baker, L (2009), "A boom in office towers in Calgary," New York Times, 2009-01-20
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/21/business/21calgary.html , retrieved 2011-02-17
Barber, J (2007).Toronto Divided: a Tale of Three Cities." John Barber, Globe and Mail,
December 20, 2007.
To citically investigate the cuent state of intenational business elationship development liteatue.
2. To exploe the chaacteistics that detemines sustainable intenational business elationships within the Libyan business context-fom the Libyan point-of-view.
3. To pesent a model based on the findings fom the two objectives above. This model will seve two main functions: (I). It will help fill in gaps in the cuent liteatue elating to the development and maintenance of business elationships with Libya. (II). It will be of pactical value to foeign businesses wishing to develop elationships with Libyan companies.
1.4.3 Reseach Questions
Fou eseach questions ae fomulated as a means of pusuing the above objectives, these being:
What ae the key vaiables that influence Libyan companies when they intenationalise, and why ae these vaiables so impotant fo Libyan oganisations?
What ae the majo steps/stages that Libyans go though when establishing business elationships?
How can foeign oganisations establish/maintain sustainable…
references and details.
- Retrievability or loopback: can be low.
- Biased selectivity, if collection is incomplete.
- Reporting bias: reflects bias of the author.
- Access: may be deliberately blocked.