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This allows the researcher and the research to be completely and comprehensively concerned with doing the "right" thing, regardless of what the observations and evidence gathered in the course of the research shows. This applies to honesty in recording and presenting information as well as to the collection methods for obtaining this information.
Without a strong ethical through-line in social research, the entire purpose of this research ends up being lost. Social research exists specifically to identify issues in society and among individuals and to suggest ways to improve these issues, and to build better-functioning societies that allow for greater chances at group and individual success. The measures of this success and the determination of exactly what constitutes a "better functioning society" are, of course, issues with many often hugely divergent conclusions, but even when these conclusions seem diametrically opposed the individuals that hold these conclusions are working towards the…
Social research involves measuring, describing, explaining and predicting social and economic phenomena. Its objectives include exploring social and economic structures, attitudes, values and behaviors and the factors, which motivate and constrain individuals and groups in society. here are, however, a number of ethical and political concerns that social researchers must be aware of while conducting such research. his paper focuses on and describes some of these valid ethical and political concerns.
Ethics of Social Research
Since "social research" encompasses a wide-ranging field, it is probably not appropriate to have a universal or a single set of code of ethics to govern such research. Over time, however, a number of conflicting ethical theories such as the Utilitarian theory introduced by John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), advocating that the ends justify the means, and Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)'s ethical theories that emphasized that humans should not be the means to an end, have been…
The U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) conducted an experiment on 399 black men in the late stages of syphilis between 1932 and 1972 without their knowledge and were deliberately deprived of proper treatment for the disease. (Brenner, 2004)
The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) had sponsored experiments during the Cold War in which hundreds of Americans were exposed to radioactive material, often without their consent
Chronically ill non-cancer patients at the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in New York were injected with live human cancer cells without their consent as part of experiments on cancer
This was the most consistent pattern observed in connection with this experiment. The researcher concluded that this was a function of the convergence of two independent social norms and expectations: namely, the expectation of politeness with respect to the dependent variable (i.e. door-holding behavior) and the independent social norm and expectation that males will be chivalrous in their interactions with females in virtually all ordinary circumstances, including those involving complete strangers. The significance of this pattern is even greater in relation to the other categories of patterns observed.
For example, generally, the experimenter determined whether or not the relative distance and speed between successive individuals was appropriate to create an expectation that the door holding or non-door holding behavior would be relevant for inclusion. if, in the experimenter's best attempt at an objective judgment, the individuals were too far from one another and/or that the second individual was moving too…
Healey, J.F. (2008). Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group
Conflict and Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
Henslin, J.M. (2005). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston:
Allyn and Bacon.
A disadvantage to interview research methods, on the other hand, include the potential for bias based on the respondents' desire to please the researcher, who will necessarily be directly involved in the research process.
In the One-Group Pretest-Posttest experimental design, a single group of subjects is given a test that measures a certain variable or variables, then is exposed to the experimental condition, and then is tested again to measure the effects of this exposure. While this might seem valid, there are several threats to internal validity facing this design. Other intervening events could affect posttest scores, the simple passing of time could have an effect, different test conditions could lead to different results, and selection biases could also influence outcomes.
There are a number of factors that influence the sample size needed for a given piece of research. The desired confidence level of the research outcomes, the…
One can just as easily get by without creating a scale or index, but at some point, at least in estimating the reliability and validity of your study, you're going to have to look at item and response patterns. Do the items (questions) you're asking fit together in the most productive way, or do they overlap redundantly? Do the response patterns (answers) hint at ways you can improve your measuring instrument? There's a big difference between scaling and scoring a test, and since most readers are familiar with the typical multiple choice tests found in education, that's where we'll start. it's not uncommon for social sciences to draw upon the field of Education Statistics.
A scale is a cluster of items (questions) that taps into a unitary dimension or single domain of behavior, attitudes, or feelings. They are sometimes called composites, subtests, schedules, or inventories. Aptitude, attitude, interest, performance, and…
Research activities, whether empirical, literature review sponsored, descriptive, or historical, must exhibit and command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment. It is vital that the researcher catch the essential quality of the excitement of discovery that comes from research well done if expected results are to be gained. If this sole tenet can be achieved then the difficulties and frustrations of the research performance, while they never completely vanish, play a much less significant role (Ferguson, 1967). To the enthused researcher there must be debate, discussion, and even argument if there is to exist intelligent conviction regarding the nature, design analysis, and inferences regarding the phenomenon or topic under investigation (Kerlinger, 1964). The remainder of this paper will examine two research studies from the perspective of data certification and whether or not the author's have adequately fulfilled the research requirements associated with the principle of data certification. The two…
Friedman T, Slayton WB, Allen LS, Pollock BH, Dumont-Driscoll M, Mehta P, Graham-Pole J.
Use of alternative therapies for children with cancer. Pediatrics December 1997, vol.
100, no. 6, p. e1.
Furgeson, George A. Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. New York: McGraw-
A significant increase in volunteerism is observed within the communities which implement social studies in high schools. The main elements which contribute to this outcome are those of community service programs integrated within the educational act and socialization. "The implications of our study are that mandatory community service programs can boost later volunteer efforts but that socialization into appropriate citizenship attitudes is of equal, if not greater, importance" (Janoski, Musick and Wilson, 1995).
Social research is conducted by a variety of parties within the community, from academicians to economic agents. Yet, a major category of researchers is represented by the federal institution. Within the United States, the public social researches are conducted by the Government Social esearch Service. The institution bases its findings on the evolutions within the contemporaneous society and it makes its findings public to the audience in order to support social development. In a nutshell, the functional…
Babbie, E.R., 2009, the practice of social research, 12th edition, Cengage Learning
Cole, J.R., 2009, Defending academic freedom and free inquiry, Social Research, Fall edition
De Vaus, D.A., 2002, Surveys in social research, 5th edition, Routledge
Dicks, B., 2005, Qualitative research and hypermedia: ethnography for the digital age, SAGE
Smith boils it down to two main concerns (pitfalls) and objections to the use of secondary data in social research: a) "It is full of errors"; and b) "…because of the socially constructed nature of social data, the act of reducing it to a simple numeric form cannot fully encapsulate its complexity" (p. 328). The author offers the national Census as a perfect example of the limitations of using secondary data in social research. In counting "everyone," how does the government assure that everyone has been counted? How about the homeless? How about "tourists" in the country for long stays? What about those with "multiple nationalities" or those "who simply refuse to be counted" Smith asks. She suggests that in the 1991 UK Census about 2% of the total number of national residents "were uncounted" (p. 329).
Meanwhile, Esther Sales and colleagues have published an article in the Journal…
Blaikie, Norman, 2009, Designing Social Research. Polity: Stafford BC, QLD, Australia.
Grinnell, Richard M. And Unrau, Yvonne A., 2010, Social Work Research and Evaluation: Foundations of Evidence-Based Practice. Oxford University Press: New York.
Livesey, Chris, 2006, 'AS Sociology, Revision, Sociological Methods', Retrieved May 13, from http://www.sociology.org.uk .
Sales, Esther, Fevola, Antonio, and Lichtenwalter, Sara, 2006, 'Secondary Analysis in Social Work Research Education: Past, Present, and Future Promise. Journal of Social Work Education, Vol. 42, no. 3, 543-558.
Social Research Studies: Mail Survey
Social Science Research: Mail Survey
Various researches are carried out at community level to assist in creating awareness, curbing a social issue or even to educating the public on concerning matters. In conducting these research works, it is considered imperative to recognize basic research terminologies and related concepts, especially while dealing with social science researches. This contextual aspect of research is a cornerstone to the established of best research methodologies of retrieving information from community-sensitive issues such as child abuse.
Differentiate among the various types of research methods used in social sciences
Qualitative designs: this research method depends on the data collected, which is primarily based on certain facts that affects the basis of the study. This type or research design draws its conclusion from analysis of the data collected. However, it is important to mention that qualitative studies can be influenced and…
More current research in this field uses an even more analytical approach. King and Covi (1995) studied the use of electronic journals, and their effect on scholarly communications. ather than just examining the effect of those journals, the researchers also took into consideration variables such as design layout and speed of content updates. What they found was that these journals did play a role in scholarly communication, and each of the different variables had an effect on how well the journal faired (King and Covi, 1995). It is precisely this type of analytical, integrated research that is useful to the field of social informatics, but is generally lacking.
While studies such as that above show clearly the value of social informatics research, done in a systematic, empirical way, the field in and of its self is still too non-integrated and unorganized. In order for the field to be truly beneficial…
Attewell, P. (1987). The deskilling controversy. Work and Occupation, 14(3), 323-346.
King, J.L. (1983). Centralized vs. decentralized computing: organizational considerations and management options. Computing Surveys, 15(4), 320-349.
Kling, R. (1999, January). What is social informatics and why does it matter? D-Lib Magazine, 5(1). Retrieved July 6, 2005, from D-Lib Magazine. Web site: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january99/kling/01kling.html#Kling95 .
Kling, R. And Covi, L. (1995). Electronic journals and legitimate media in the systems of scholarly communication. The Information Society, 11(4), 261-271.
By the 1980s, theories had begun to swing the other way again, with doubts being cast on the relevance of aggregate social strain theories (Bernard 1987). Even social strain theorists were finding new and more individualistic and specific features within the theory (Agnew 1985).
In the past two decades, social strain theory has continued to be attacked by some as an antiquated and invalidated method for explaining subversive and criminal behavior, with some theorists stating outright that the empirical evidence supports alternative explanations far better than it supports traditional social strain theories (Burton et al. 1994). Other researchers have found evidence that in their view directly refutes certain aspects of social strain theory while seeming to support certain other conclusions and hypotheses that are a part of the overall explanation for criminality (De Clercq & Dakhil 2009). Ultimately, all of the problems and discrepancies that have been found with social…
Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strain theory of delinquency. Social forces 64(1): 151-67.
Bernard, T. (1987). Testing social strain theories. Journal of research in crime and delinquency 24(4): 262-80.
Burton, V., Cullen, F., Evans, T. & Dunaway, R. (1994). Reconsidering strain theory: Operationalization, rival theories, and adult criminality. Journal of quantitative criminology 10(3): 213039.
De Clercq, D. & Dakhil, M. (2009). Personal strain and ethical standards of the self-employed. Journal of business venturing 24(5): 477-90.
Table of contents undergoes modification to accommodate the changes in the modern world. New volumes also elaborate on the changes or transformation within the sector of law enforcement agencies.
Discussion Question 2 -- Errors in Human Inquiry
Babbie Earl illustrates on numerous fallacies or errors that undermine the effectiveness and efficiency of human inquiry. These errors include assumed or made up information, overgeneralization, inaccurate observation, selective observation, premature closure, ego involvement, and mystification (Babbie, 2010). In order to avoid these errors, the author suggests accurate measures for each. In one occasion, a friend of mine came to me holding a piece of paper. Instead of checking out what the paper was about, I assumed that he was shedding the tear of joy having passed his test or something. Later it turned out that he was be evacuated from his apartment for failure to pay rent. During this judgment, error or…
Conser, J.A., Paynich, R., & Gingerich, T. (2012). Law enforcement in the United States.
Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Hess, K.M., Orthmann, C.M.H., & Cho, H.L. (2012). Introduction to law enforcement and criminal justice. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar/Cengage Learning.
Wrobleski, H.M., & Hess, K.M. (2006). Introduction to law enforcement and criminal justice.
Social Science esearch
Module 3 Discussion 1- Operationalizing Constructs
What does "safe" mean to you?
Safe means that the airplane travels without any problems and with comfort.
What types of variables could you construct to capture your concept of "safe?"
Using Ordinal Level measures (Babbie, 2010)
- Very Safe
How will your conceptualization of "safe" compare to others?
This concept is based n comfort ability of the airplane.
Have you ever participated in a survey?
I participated in a social research activity that was done in our community. It was an educational research on the effect of drug abuse on education and learning.
How were you selected to participate? Was it a random selection?
I was chosen as one of the people who have never used drugs to improve classroom performance. It was not a random selection.
What bias may have come into play…
Babbie, E.R. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. New York: Cengage Learning.
Blaikie, N. (2009). Designing Social Research. Cambridge: Polity.
Indeed, as Muntaner (2003) posited in her research, qualitative methods can be included in a dominantly quantitative research design "in situations where qualitative research adds knowledge that would not be available via quantitative methods" (p. 55). Through a mixed-methods design, the researcher can provide better analyses and stronger interpretations and recommendations through balanced strengths of data reliability and validity -- that is, the achievement of "triangulation" in the research study.
IIA. ased on your reading of books such as eaglehole (1993), describe what you know about observational epidemiology as a research approach and compare it to experimental studies. Describe some of the designs within each, e.g., RCT, case-control studies, etc.
Observational and analytical/relational studies provide different results and answer different research questions and hypotheses when compared to the experimental approach. In observation and analytical/relational studies, the highest kind of analysis that can be done is correlational and not causal.
Bonita, R. And R. Beaglehole. (2006). Basic epidemiology. Geneva: WHO Press.
Muntaner, C. (2003). "Qualitative and quantitative research in social epidemiology: is complementarity the only issue?" Gac Sanit, Vol. 17, Supl. 3.
Olsen, J. And K. Christensen. (2010). An introduction to epidemiology for health professionals. NY: Springer.
Rosnow, R. And R. Rosenthal. (1996). Beginning Behavioral Research. NJ: Prentice Hall.
The objective of course in transferability is not to generalize, but to determine if indeed, the same results will hold true for other groups that share the same characteristics from which the results of the study came from (e.g., cultural sub-groups within the American Indian culture) (Babbie, 2003:211). Lastly, Trustworthiness is the establishment of the researcher's credibility and trust between him/her and the study's informants / interviewees / discussants. Trust leads to rapport, which will make the informant at ease, disclose more, and impart useful insights about the topic/phenomenon under study.
Thus, when applied to the issue of utilizing social media to increase the competitiveness of small businesses, these concepts are especially valuable. Trust and integrity are important for small businesses because they rely on their small group of loyal and satisfied clients/customers to spread the "good word" about their products and services. Especially in using the social media as…
Babbie, E. (2003). The Practice of Social Research. NY: Wadsworth Publishing.
social work was mainly influenced by my desire to work with people. As a teenager, I saw several of my friends being helped by social workers in manner that left me motivated. My motivation was fuelled by the fact that I believe in the power of knowledge in alleviating problems in the society. This is why I embarked on a research process that would help me in advancing knowledge in the field of social science. Other than working with people, I strongly felt the urge of empowering them in a manner which is congruent with the existing social values and beliefs.
Before embarking on my research, I took a lot of time to thinks of the areas of knowledge in social science which had a deficit. This process allowed me to coin a precise problem statement which would later on help me in finishing my research. The problem statement was…
Social Science and Why Is it Important?
The definition of social science has been narrowed down to those sciences that deal with human activities and human behavior as opposed to science that studies natural phenomenon. However this division may be superfluous now because modern science has its origin from the old social sciences. Science evolved from the society which also contained many thoughts that may be out of the realm of modern science like "religion, philosophy, ideology and politics." (Williams, 2000)
Thus the scientific theories are based on a philosophical thinking that is often shaped by politics or religion. The relationship between science and other streams of human thought and science changed with the changes in scientific method which again form within the disciplines of each branch of science is different and often contradictory. (Williams, 2000)
The argument at this stage is if the social world is amenable to experiments…
Bowker, Geoffrey C; Star, Susan Leigh; Turner, William; Gasser, Les. (1997) "Social
Science, Technical Systems, and Cooperative Work: Beyond the Great Divide." Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ.
Brooks, Stephen; Gagnon, Alain-G. (1994) "The Political Influence of Ideas: Policy
Communities and the Social Sciences." Praeger Publishers: Westport, CT.
To citically investigate the cuent state of intenational business elationship development liteatue.
2. To exploe the chaacteistics that detemines sustainable intenational business elationships within the Libyan business context-fom the Libyan point-of-view.
3. To pesent a model based on the findings fom the two objectives above. This model will seve two main functions: (I). It will help fill in gaps in the cuent liteatue elating to the development and maintenance of business elationships with Libya. (II). It will be of pactical value to foeign businesses wishing to develop elationships with Libyan companies.
1.4.3 Reseach Questions
Fou eseach questions ae fomulated as a means of pusuing the above objectives, these being:
What ae the key vaiables that influence Libyan companies when they intenationalise, and why ae these vaiables so impotant fo Libyan oganisations?
What ae the majo steps/stages that Libyans go though when establishing business elationships?
How can foeign oganisations establish/maintain sustainable…
references and details.
- Retrievability or loopback: can be low.
- Biased selectivity, if collection is incomplete.
- Reporting bias: reflects bias of the author.
- Access: may be deliberately blocked.
social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.
In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…
Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/
Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.
Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.
CS in Saudi Arabian Banking
Social esponsibility: Attitudes, Actualities, and Possible Areas of Advancement in Saudi Arabian Banking
The global financial system has become increasingly smaller and more complex, with individual countries and their financial and banking infrastructures more intertwined and mutually dependent on each other. Because of this, understanding the role that banking systems and entities play in the social and political spheres is essential for policy makers and for individuals working in the banking sector. Of special importance are the social responsibilities that are borne by banks and the banking industry, which can vary greatly from country to country, based on a multitude of factors. The research described and proposed herein will yield a greater understanding of how these responsibilities are viewed by bankers in Saudi Arabia.
Scholarship on Saudi Arabia's banking industry has focused almost entirely on the financial implications for the country and the globe of…
Babbie, E. (2009). The practice of social research Mason, OH: Cengage.
Breakwell, G. (2006). Research methods in psychology Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Butters, A. (2009) "Saudi's small steps" Time 174(15), pp. 44-77
Campbell, J. (2007). "Why would corporations behave in socially responsible ways? An institutional theory of corporate social responsibility" Academy of Management Review 32(3), pp 946 -- 967
Travis Hirschi's Social Bonding Theory
The theorist, Hirschi, asserts that those who exhibit deviant behavior desire to do so and that criminal behavior is seen among people with weak social bonds. In his social bonding model, he delineated four elements which make up social bonds, namely, attachment to partner/spouse, engagement in conforming behaviors, holding conventional beliefs and values, and dedication to conventionality (Wolfzorn, Heckert & Heckert, 2006). The theorist indicates that with increased attachment of a person to fellow human beings, their belief in conformist social values will increase. Furthermore, with increased investment and involvement in conventional activity, their propensity to deviate will decrease (Chriss, 2007).
Four Elements of Social Bonding Theory
Social bonding has four elements, namely: attachment, involvement, belief, and commitment.
The first component -- attachment -- denotes individuals' ties to their spouses or partners, and other members of the family. This aspect encompasses the extent of…
Colic's (2005) argument is that there is a very strong correlation between porr housing and an individual's physical ill health. He goes further to point out that six out of every ten homeless individuals do suffer from a certain form of mental distress. About 20% of this lot have severe mental illness. In a nutshell, social exclusion gives rise to a direct form of social and economic consequences that include poor housing and limited financial resources.
Dunn (1999) studied the link between social exclusion and mental health. His concluded that the correlation was rather strong and was in congruence with what other authors have documented. It has been acknowledged that unemployment affects persons who have long-term mental disorders in a way that is far greater as compared to the other persons with disability. A total of only 13% are employed as opposed to the more than a third of individuals…
Burnett, R. (2004) To reoffend or not to reoffend? The ambivalence of convicted property offenders in Maruna and Immarigeon, After Crime and Punishment.
Burnett A and Peel M (2001) Health needs of asylum seekers and refugees British Medical
Journal 322:544-547 (link to www.bmj.com)
Colic, P., (2005). Refugees and Employment: The effects of visible difference on discrimination. Perth: Murdoch University Press.
Sustainability in Pharmaceutical Pricing
How Can Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships Help to Achieve the Dissemination of affordable medicines - The Case of Anti Malaria Drugs in Nigeria?
Many individuals from developing countries who could benefit from pharmaceuticals products do not receive them due to high costs. Antiretroviral therapy's failure in reaching more than scant numbers of individuals in developing nations, suffering from AIDS, has drawn extensive publicity. However, even far cheaper medications that can be delivered easily aren't reaching numerous individuals who require them. Over a fourth of children all over the world and more than half of the children in a few nations do not receive vaccines, which come under the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Expanded Program on Immunization. Even though these vaccines only cost a family under a dollar a dose, they still cannot afford the medicine. The lack of access to beneficial pharmaceutical products and the…
AUSPA 2012, Policy & Advocacy, Western Australian Council of Social Service Inc., viewed 10 June 2017,
Buckley, J & Seamus, T 2005, International Pricing and Distribution of Therapeutic Pharmaceuticals: An Ethical Minefield. Business Ethics, pp.127-141.
Hussein, A 2015, The Use of Triangulation in Social Sciences Research: Can Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Be Combined? Journal of Comparative Social Work, vol. 4., no.1.
Lampard, R & Pole, C 2015. Practical social investigation: qualitative and quantitative methods in social research. Routledge: Abingdon, UK.
Social Media and Technology
The entire sphere of human interaction has undergone large-scale transformation as a result of the rapidly changing technological environment and the emergence of the internet. Back in the day, social interactions were primarily based on hand-written letters and occasional telephone conversations. Thanks to technological progression, however, numerous online communication platforms have been developed, and what we have now is an internet revolution and a totally new and dynamic realm of human interaction and long-distance communication. Currently, 73% of America's adult population, and 93% of the teen population uses social media platforms to communicate with family members and friends. Today, Facebook is home to more than 700 million users who can conveniently communicate with each other at the touch of a button without having to grapple with the time and space limitations that back in the day forced people to choose their partners and friends from their…
Anderson, T.L. & Emmers-Sommer, T.M. (2006). Predictors of Relationship Satisfaction in Online Romantic Relationships. Communication Studies, 57(2), 153-172.
Andon, S.P. (2006). Evaluating Computer-Mediated Communication on the University Campus: The Impact of Facebook.com on the Development of Romantic Relationships. The Florida State University Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations. Paper 208. Retrieved 3 October 2014 from http://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3729&context=etd
Baack, D., Fogliasso, C. & Harris, J. (2000). The Personal Impact of Ethical Decisions: A Social Penetration Theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 24(1), 39-49.
Babbie, E. (2010). The Practice of Social Research (12th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Social Media and Technology
Today, a growing number of the world's population subscribe to various social media networks such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, MySpace and others. Moreover, just as the overwhelming majority of enterprises jumped on the Internet bandwagon during the late 1990s and early 2000s, companies of all sizes and types are taking advantage of these social media networks as well to promote their businesses and interact directly with their customers. This study proposal provides a series of researchable questions and a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature regarding these trends. A description of participant selection procedures for the proposed study is followed by an identification of data collection methods, potential ethical problems and limitations of the research proposal. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the proposed study and its guiding research questions are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Bicak, P. (2013, June). Lovink, Geert. Networks without a cause: A critique of social media.
Communication Research Trends, 32(2), 32-39.
Edosomwan, S., Prakasan, S.K., Kouame, D., Watson, J., & Seymour, T. (2011). The history of social media and its impact on business. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 16(3), 79-83.
Elias, S. (2012, Summer). Implications of online social network sites on the personal and professional learning of educational leaders. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University.
Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second orld ar, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…
Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Penguin Books, 2006.
Cooper, S. "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30, 2006.
Ewen, Stuart. PR!: A Social History of Spin. NY: Basic Books, 1996.
Feenstra, Jennifer. Introduction to Social Psychology. Bridegeport Education, Inc., 2011.
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…
Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.
Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.
Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.
Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
Social Network and Its Effects on the Developing Brain
The enhancing quantity of time kids are investing on computer systems in their home and institution has actually raised concerns about how using computer innovation might make a distinction in their lives-- from assisting with research to triggering depression to motivating terrible habits. This short article offers a review of the restricted study on the impacts of personal computer use on kids' physical development. Preliminary study recommends, for instance, that access to computer systems enhances the overall quantity of time kids invest in front of a TV or computer screen at the expenditure of other individual tasks, therefore putting them at danger for excessive weight. At the exact same time, intellectual study recommends that playing video game can be an essential foundation to computer proficiency due to the fact that it boosts kids' capability to check out and picture images in…
Deadwyler, S.A. (2008) 'Systemic and nasal delivery of Orexin -- A (Hypocretin-1) reduces the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance in nonhuman primates', Journal of Neuroscience, 27 (52): 14239 -- 47.
Linn, S. And Poussaint, A.F. (1999). The Trouble With Teletubbies. The American prospect. May 1, 1999. June.
Sigman, A. (2007a) Remotely Controlled: How Television Is Damaging Our Lives, Vermilion, London
Sigman, A. (2007b) 'Visual voodoo: the biological impact of watching television', The Biologist, 54 (1): 14 -- 19
As recent events in the Middle East have clearly demonstrated, Facebook is more on the side of the politically disadvantaged and the poor as they have increasingly embraced Facebook and other social media while the governments in the region tried to ban them. Many governments such as that of China do not allow Facebook primarily because they want to avert scenarios they have seen in the Middle East.
It was in the wake of 2008 when Oscar Morales, a young man in Columbia, decided that he had had enough of FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a Marxist group which routinely kidnaps people, keeping them as hostages for months or years, while many of the hostages die in captivity. Angry and depressed by the actions of FARC, one night he turned to Facebook which he had been using to connect with his friends and high school classmates. He…
Alexanian, Janet A.. "Eyewitness Accounts and Political Claims: Transnational Responses to the 2009 Postelection Protests in Iran." Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 31.2 (2011): 425-442. Project MUSE. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. .
Burns, Alex and Ben Eltham, "Twitter free Iran: an evaluation of twitter's role in public diplomacy and information operations in Iran's 2009 election crisis," in Papandrea, Franco & Armstrong, Mark (Eds.). Record of the Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009. Sydney: Network Insight Institute. Web. 26 Nov. 2011 .
China, Walid. "The Facebook Revolution." New African 503 (2011): 24. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Eltahawy, Mona. "The Middle East's Generation Facebook." World Policy Journal 25.3 (2008): 69-77. Academic Search Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
This implies that through this study, the educators can get some assistance while they make the decision of retaining or promoting the failing students by considering the effects of both in detail. Since this is a qualitative study and not a quantitative one, from the data that is collected, it will be possible for us to build up a theory and then further studies can be conducted to confirm the theory about the effects of social promotion or retention and about the alternative ways that can be adopted to counter these effects. It should be made sure that information is given in a natural setting and the data is allowed to flow in any time. Once the information is collected it will be analyzed and compared with other studies of the same sort (Leedy and Ormod, 2010).
As mentioned earlier in the paper, the main purpose of this…
Aldridge, J. And Goldman, R. (2007).Current Issues and Trends In Education. p. 140-144.
Denton, D. (2001). Finding alternatives to failure: Can states end social promotion and reduce retention rates- http://www.sreb.org/programs/srr/pubs/alternatives/AlternativesToFailure.pdf
Greene, Jay (2008). Pro-con On Social Promotion.The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
Hager, Lindsay (2013).Pros and Cons of Social Promotion.Social Promotion vs. Retention.
Social Facilitation, Social Inhibition, And Social Loafing
The objective of this study is to provide a description of the characters in the media program demonstrating social loafing, social inhibition, and social facilitation. One of the characters will be selected by using the current literature and two ways their behavior might be mitigated will be explained. This work will additionally describe a situation in which negative consequences were observed resulting from groupthink or group polarization and use an article from the current literature to explain how on alternative to groupthink or group polarization could have been used in that situation.
Social Loafing, Social Inhibition, and Social Facilitation
Social loafing is described as "the tendency to reduce individual effort when working in groups compared to the individual effort expended when working alone." (Piezon and Donaldson, n.d., p.1) Social facilitation is described as the increase "of individuals' performance in the presence of others"…
Klehe, UC, Anderson, N., and Hoefnagels, EA (2007) Social Facilitation and Inhibition During Maximum vs. Typical Performance Situations. Human Performance, 20(3), 223-239. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&ved=0CFYQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.researchgate.net%2Fpublication%2F228489268_Social_facilitation_and_inhibition_during_maximum_versus_typical_performance_situations%2Ffile%2Fe0b495236dce132488.pdf&ei=Ji9LUtW7DOfi4AP7gYHQDg&usg=AFQjCNEILSkosHlyJ1cqNRKN9h02NlV1Dg&sig2=tfNVahZuqSCqEibjgfDmPw&bvm=bv.53371865,d.dmg
Piezon, S. And Donaldson, RL (n.d.) Online Groups and Social Loafing: Understanding Student-Group Interactions. Retrieved from: http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter84/piezon84.htm
Rovio, E. (2009) Can High Group Cohesion Be Harmful? A Case Study of a Junior High Ice-Hockey Team. Sage Publishers.
Social Psychology Week 5: The Virtual Office
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia: How the Social Media Affect the E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia
SOCIAL COMMECE IN SAUDI AABIA
Conceptual Framework Model
Psychological Aspect and Theories
Digital Divide in Saudi Arabia
Ethos, eligious conviction, and Government in E-commerce Adoption
The ise of the P Industry in Saudi Arabia
Conceptual Model and esearch Hypothesis (Drawing)
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia
Modern Saudi Arabia today actually represents an exceptional and convergent mixture of social conservatism and technological ability, a wonderful alteration from a remote, desert land that it was just something like 50 years ago. As social media is turning out to be increasingly prevalent in Saudi Arabia, online marketers are starting capitalizing in methods that service social media and include online customers. In Saudi Arabia Online marketers' adoption of new online marking trends is being prompted by discoveries that show individuals are spending great amounts…
Anderson, M. (2013). Turning "like" to "Buy" Social Media Emerges as a Commerce Channel. Booz & Company, 23-56.
Assad, S.W. (2009). The rise of consumerism in saudi arabian society. International Journal of Commerce & Management,, 73-104.
Bahaddad, A.A. (2013). Attracting customer in saudi arabia to buy from your business online. . International Journal of Business and Management, 65-81.
Brock, C. (2014). F-COMMERCE AND THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF TRUST. Online Communities and Digital Collaborations, 1-11.
Social Security was instituted with the passage of the Social Security Act of 1935. It was signed into law by President oosevelt as a means of providing a social safety net for retirees. The passage of Social Security occurred during the depths of the Great Depression. Prior to this, the concept of social security did not exist in the U.S. -- you either worked until you died, or you retired when you were wealthy enough to do so. Social Security is run by the Social Security Administration, which also administers Medicare as part of the system. Social Security is theoretically self-funding. In 1937, the first taxes were collected to finance the Social Security system. Workers pay into the Social Security system via a payroll tax. According to the SSA's website, general tax revenues have never funded Social Security to any meaningful extent, implying that the program is self-funding through these…
Autor, D. & Duggan, M. (2006). The growth in social security disability rolls: A fiscal crisis unfolding. NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://cid.bcrp.gob.pe/biblio/Papers/NBER/2006/Agosto/w12436.pdf
Biggs, A. (2011). Means testing and its limits. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://www.aei.org/article/economics/retirement/means-testing-and-its-limits/
SSA.gov. (2014). FAQs. Social Security Administration. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://www.ssa.gov/history/hfaq.html
Templin, B. (2006) Full funding: The future of social security. Thomas Jefferson School of Law. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://drupaldev.tjsl.edu/sites/default/files/files/Full_Funding-The_Future_of_Social_Security.pdf
Social Context of HIV and AIDS in Africa
The government of Africa has been moving toward criminalization of HIV transmission in its attempts to respond to the rising numbers of HIV infections however, those who advocate for human rights are concerned that these laws result in a violation of the rights of individuals living with HIV and ultimately resulting in the marginalization of these individuals. As well, it has been argued that laws criminalizing transmission of AIDS are counterproductive to the reason for their creation, which is that of slowing the rate of transmission and infection of HIV. There are arguments both for and against criminalization of HIV transmission that are valid and worthy of consideration.
The question addressed in this research study is one asking if criminalization of HIV transmission is a valid option to slowing the rate of infection among the population.
Significance of the Study…
The Criminalization of HIV (nd) UNFPA, Worldaids Campaign, IPPF, and GYCA,
Bernard EJ: (2008) Criminal HIV Transmission. 2008 in: HIV is a Virus, Not a Crime: Ten Reasons Against Criminal Statutes and Criminal Prosecutions. Journal of the International AIDS Society. Dec 2008.
UNFPA Fact Sheet (2008) 'The Criminalisation of HIV' in: HIV is a Virus, Not a Crime: Ten Reasons Against Criminal Statutes and Criminal Prosecutions. Journal of the International AIDS Society. Dec 2008.
Bernard EJ (2008) Criminal HIV Transmission. Neue Zurcher Zeitung 2008 in: HIV is a Virus, Not a Crime: Ten Reasons Against Criminal Statutes and Criminal Prosecutions. Journal of the International AIDS Society. Dec 2008.
Some jobs will require that a person continue his college education and some will require learning that can take place on the job in order to acquire the needed skills.
on-the-job training can take place in several forms. An outside training firm can be brought in to the company to hold seminars on a relevant topic for the employees. In this environment, the social nature of learning could be one of camaraderie or competitiveness among the adult employees. The adult employee wanted to get ahead may try to excel and outperform his coworkers to increase his chances of advancing. On the other hand, the environment could be more of a friendly social nature while everyone is learning. They may be asked to work in groups, much like in a college classroom setting. This will allow them to collaborate and perhaps learn about new skills they can acquire from their coworkers.…
Cameron, David. (2010). Adult learning and the way it inspires people is crucially important. Adults Learning, 21(9), 16-17.
http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html (Accessed on June 22, 2010).
http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html (Accessed on June 22, 2010).
Schmidt, Laurel. (2008). How we don't learn. Leadership, 38(2), 10-14.
His painting (social realism) called "Approaching Storm" is a remarkable portrayal of a man walking up a hill with a bucket of water and two donkeys waiting to be told what to do. In the distance is a menacing storm. The website (Twecht.tripod) says that this farm could possibly have been a beautiful place to live at one point in time…but now it is gray and windy…all life in the painting ceases to exist" (www.twecht.tripod.com).
Dorothea Lange is among the best known of all the photographers and artists that contributed to the social realism movement during the Great Depression. Lange's most famous photograph, "Migrant Mother," shows a worried woman with two "tousle-haired children clinging to her, their faces turned away from the camera" (u, 2010, p. 1). A third child is asleep in the woman's arms. That photo -- taken in a migrant camp in California -- is…
Archives. "Portfolio: Dorothea Lange." Retrieved Dec. 7, 2010, from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/picturing_the_century/text/port_lange_text.html .
Illinois State Museum. "The Federal Art Project (FAP)" Retrieved Dec. 8, 2010, from http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/art/htmls/de_FAPhist.html . (2010).
The History Place. "Migrant Farm Families." Retrieved Dec. 8, 2010, from http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/lang/index.html. (2010).
Twecht Tripod. "Thomas Hart Benton: Approaching Storm, 1938." Retrieved Dec. 8, 2010,
A model that stresses the fact that people in a generally bad mood or situation will seek out pro-social behaviors, i.e. To help others to make him or herself feel better. (Berkowitz 185) Though this theory has often been contested, not simply because it tends to negate altruism but because people in bad moods tend not to seek out the doing of good deeds, (Berkowitz 186) these two examples of pro-social behavior in this film are both realistic and examples of the negative state relief model of action.
The first example is when Rob agrees to help two skater slackers and frequent shoplifters at his store to produce a record. Rob does not have a record label but it is a logical extension of his love of music and of human progress. He walks into the store, where Barry and Dick are listening to a demo tape of Vince and…
Berkowitz, Leonard. Causes and Consequences of Feelings. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Geen, Russell G. Human Aggression. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2001.
Heath, Robert L., and Jennings Bryant. Human Communication Theory and Research: Concepts, Contexts, and Challenges. 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
Cradock's 2004 study of a correlation between population categories and child abuse lead to the development of an assessment tool that allowed social workers to determine when children were at risk for child abuse and when to intervene and what actions would be seen as an over-intervention. By using this assessment, social workers will not only know how to identify the serious danger of child abuse and what children are at-risk for being abused, but also the assessment makes it possible for social workers to determine when intervening in the situation may be dangerous or unnecessary for the children involved. Of similar importance are the tools developed to assess and evaluate those convicted of both child physical and sexual abuse. In Milner and Murphy's 1995 study, the methods of assessment and evaluation are discussed and critiqued. These methods, including interview, observation, personality tests, and offender-specific assessments, are all studied in…
Arad-Davidzon, Bilhah, and Benbenishty, Rami. "The role of workers' attitudes and parent and child wishes in child protection workers' assessments and recommendation regarding removal and reunification. Children and Youth Services Review. 30.1 (2008): 107-121.
Bray, James H. "Family Assessment: Current Issues in Evaluating Families." National
Council on Family Relations. 44.4 (1995): 469-477.
Buckner, Lynn P. And Salts, Connie J. "A Premarital Assessment Program." Family
" (Adams et al.)
hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science.
The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. ashington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of alter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror tale character). Around the same time that Eleanor Dwight Jones was striving to preserve the white race, the United States Public Health Service began the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. hat took place was a forty year analysis of the life of syphilis. The two hundred black men who had syphilis were "deliberately denied treatment" (Adams et al.) in what was just one more step in oppression and callous social engineering.
And at the same time the Tuskegee experiment was…
Adams, Myrtle, et al. "Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee."
1996. Web. 8 June 2011.
Cone, James. Risks of Faith. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999. Print.
Dowlings, Keven, and Knightley, Philip. "The Spy Who Came Back from the Grave."
I find this very surprising because I thought that social learning and incorporation of operant conditioning as part of the social learning theory plays a preeminent role in influencing criminality.
I think that the theories that explain best the findings of the articles are the sociological and theories. Psychological and biological theories are not suitable for support. I chose from the sociological theories the "Social Disorganization Theory" emanating from the Chicago School research of Shaw and McKay. According to this theory's general hypothesis "low economic status, ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility, and family disruption lead to community social disintegration, which in turn increases crime and delinquency rates" (Sampson, .J. & Groves, W.B., Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory, p. 774.) The Social Disorganization Study is the theory that by virtue of the article's title actually underlies the research of Triplett & Gainey. But in large parts it also mirrors the…
Monahan, J. (19 February 2010). The Causes of Violence. Derived 15 August 2011 from www.sodahead.com/united-states/the-causes-of.../blog-263921
Sampson, R.J. & Groves, W.B. (1989). Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory. AJS Volume 94 Number 4 (January 1989): 774-802, derived 15 August 2011 from RJ Sampson… - American Journal of Sociology, 1989 -- JSTOR.
Social Media and the ed Shirt evolution
Most scholars are in conflict with regard to the subject of revolution in the age of social media. Until now, revolution has been considered a top-down process. In Thai situation, things might have been different. The ed Shirt evolution in Thailand was one of the first of the "Twitter" revolutions, that is one that was fueled by social media and Web 2.0 technology. Since then, other revolutions have come as well. The lone citizen is now no longer on their own. The dissident in Chiang Mai now can commiserate with their brother or sister in Tahrir Square and plan revolution on a country to country or even on a global basis. Even as this writer types up a dissertation proposal, demonstrators coordinate strategy on a global basis to protest corporate greed. It is with this in mind that this study looks back at…
Bailey, M and Labovitz C (2011). Censorship and Co-option of the Internet Infrastructure. Ann Arbor,
MI: University of Michigan. p1-14.
Bajpai, K and Jaiswal, A (2011). A Framework for Analyzing Collective Action Events on Twitter.
Lisbon, Portugal: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference. p1-10.
Social Web and Technology: Moving Humans Into Uncharted Territory
The internet has changed the way humans interact with each other in every way. It has helped shape an entire generation of social interactions as well as helped people learn in ways that were not possible before. Within these interactions, the very roots of society are created. S these interactions have changed media and shape, the preferences and habits of socialization have changed as well. As a technology, social web has given people the ability to connect with other people and places that were at one time inaccessible. It also gives people unfettered access to information through first hand reports and stories. This access to information on a global scale is also changing the way socialization occurs.
Human beings have always had a certain access to information, whether within a small group or over technologies like TV, radio, or printed media.…
Blossom, J. (2009). Content nation: surviving and thriving as social media technology changes our lives and our future. Social Media: New York.
Dorfman, L., Martindale, C., Gassimova, V., & Vartanian, O. (2008). Creativity and speed of information processing: A double dissociation involving elementary vs. inhibitory cognitive tasks. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 44, No. 6, April 2008, 1382-1390.
Postman, N. (2001). Deus Machina. Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology, Vol.
10, No. 27. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002395759 .
I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.
Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…
David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Social Media and Suicide
Internet has become a gadget of everyday use for people of 21st century. As it is offering many benefits to the users in terms of information communcaition, interaction, entertainment, socialization and earning livelihhod, there are certain dark factors related to it. The dark factors are as severe as forcing people to commit suicide. It is no exaggeration to mention that Intenet is used as a medium to harass people and get undue benefits from them.
Social media today is playing major role in enabling people and organizations to communicate and share ideas, views and knowledge with other people. The traditional methods of communication have been modified through social media platforms like chat rooms, social networking sites (Facebook, My-Space, Twitter, Google+ etc.), video sites (YouTube), discussion forums, video chat, text messages, blogs etc. (Lexton et al., 2012). The most well-known social networking website Facebook had…
Biddle, L., Donovan, J., Hawton, K., Kapur, N., Gunnell, D., 2008. Suicide and the Internet. British Medical Journal, 336, 800-802.
"Cyberbullying Does Not 'Cause' Teen Suicide," 2012. Retrieved from http://www.science20.com/news_articles/cyberbullying_does_not_cause_teen_suicide-95444
"Facebook Statistics," 2011. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics
"Facebook statistics by country," n.d. Retrieved from http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics
Social Psychology Concept Matrix
Social Psychology Concept
Application to Society
Application to the Individual
The researcher selects a certain number of people from the population that he/she wants to study and presents them with a list of questions on the topic asking them to respond in order to elicit their opinion.
The survey can be conducted in writing, over the phone, as face-to-face interview, or in a small-group oral format
The survey can be used to, for instance, discover the expectations that citizens wish from their new president.
The citizens of the country can be polled and asked what they wish the president to accomplish for them / their country in the new term. Results can tell the government what the citizens most wish to be implemented in their country.
Tjaden and Thoennes (2000) surveyed men and women to find their comparable…
This is as also known as the knew-it-all-along effect or creeping determinism. It refers to the situation where the individual is inclined to see events that occurred as events that were predictable all along. This may result in memory distortion where a person's memory of the past is slanted by after-effects
Hindsight bias can interfere with the judicial system in that judges and jurors presented with the case a given often judge defendants as being capable of preventing the bad outcome (Starr & McCormick, 2001). This may be erroneous since many times defendant may not have known the outcome. This also extends tot the plaintiff, where, sometimes, jurors may determine that, based on the outcome, the plaintiff should have been more aware of the
Social Class And Crime
For this study the researcher chose to explore social class and crime rates, because while there are many studies conducted on race and crime and gender and crime or related factors, social class seems to be something that is relatively little regarded in modern times at least in places like the U.S. Social class is often a large predictor of factors including crime in many countries overseas, but it is sometimes something that is overlooked in the U.S., where people assume democracy guarantees people the right to safety. Studies suggest however that this is very often not the case.
Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy.
In this research study, the authors explore social cohesion and collective efficacy, which they define as the willingness of neighbors to intervene "on behalf of the common good" which they hypothesize is essential to reducing violence. The…
Flango, V.E. & Sherbenou, E.L. (2006 March Online) Poverty, Urbanization & Crime.
Criminology. Vol. 14, Issue 3. Pp. 331-346.
Logan, J.R., & Stults, B.J. (1999 May). Racial differences in exposure to crime: The city and suburbs of Cleveland in 1990. Criminology. Vol. 37(2) pp.251-276.
Markowitz, F.E., Bellair, P.E., Liska, A.E., Liu, J. (2006 Mar). Extending social disorganization theory: Modeling the relationships between cohesion, disorder, and fear. Criminology. Vol. 39, Issue 2, pp. 293-319.
Social work history displays that the desire of social justice is both a task and a myth for employees and their immediate predecessors in organizations. This study provides a critical analysis of Janet Finn's and Maxine Jacobson's work titled "Just Practice." The great focus is on the first and the third chapter where their contributions and critical omissions are identified. Finn and Jacobson have worked hard to illustrate the historical development of social work, which was largely premised on charity for the poor (Finn, & Jacobson, 2003). In both chapters, they have elaborated in length on how social work came into being. Ideally, social work history revolves around the industrial revolution and the way the rise of capitalism created a gap between the rich and the poor. In the first chapter, the role of Charity Organization Societies and Settlement House Movement as the pioneers of social work has been elucidated…
Barusch, A.S. (2009). Foundations of social policy: Social justice in human perspective. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Finn, J.L., & Jacobson, M. (2003). Just practice: a social justice approach to social work. Peosta, Iowa: Eddie Bowers Pub. Co..
Leiby, J. (1978). A history of social welfare and social work in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lundy, C., & Lundy, C. (2011). Social work, social justice, & human rights: A structural approach to practice. North York, Ont: University of Toronto Press.
Social Vulnerability Analysis
Compare and contrast your findings based on your research and provide a summary.
Describe the correlation between environmental and socioeconomic risk and vulnerability for the counties you selected. This is Part III of the Social Risks and Vulnerabilities Project. St. Lawrence County, New York State and Missoula County, Montana were chosen from the Hazard Vulnerability and Risk Institute web site because they have similar population size but are from different geographic regions (Northeast vs. Northwest).
The correlation between environmental and socioeconomic risk and vulnerability for St. Lawrence County, New York State and Missoula County, Montana
Lawrence County, New York State
Environmental risk factors include the accessibility and availability of tobacco which is higher here than in many other states in the U.S.A. . This makes it one of the places in New York that experiences a high level of lung and bronchus cancer. It has a rural…
Lack of rewards for individuals, unintended rewards for loafing: Having some individuals who are collectively-minded paired with workers with a 'what's in it for me' attitude can result in the more generously spirited workers' good will being relied up, while others take credit.
A five best practices
1. Create a common work culture: Friends are often less likely to 'socially loaf' on work teams (Kunishima & elte 2004).
2. Using dispersed teams with a lack of social facilitation factors can be undercut by increasing levels of difficulty and responsibility "As tasks become more difficult and participants perceive they can make a unique contribution to the task, social loafing decreases" (Kunishima & elte 2004).
3. Task uniqueness -- by ensuring members of the work teams have specifically defined roles, there is less of a chance to feel as if others can pick up the slack (Kunishima & elte 2004).
Bansal, Pratima & Sonia Kandola. (2004, March/April) Corporate social responsibility: why good people behave badly in organizations. Business Journal Online. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/117189488.html
Big Brother eyes 'boost honesty' (2006, June 28). BBC News. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/5120662.stm
Coleman, Andrew. (2001). Social loafing. The Encyclopedia of Psychology. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O87-socialloafing.html
Kunishima, Jill & Kasi Welte. (2004, March) Effects of punishment threats on social loafing
Social Marketing Dragonfly Effect
Social Marketing and the Dragonfly Effect: The Case of Barack Obama
"All of this happened because of you. Thanks, Barack," that was the message Barack Obama sent to all of his many online supporters on the night he won the historic presidential election (Chang & Aaker 2010 p 20). Part of Obama's success was his ability to capitalize on the emerging trends of social media. In his teams' efforts, the dragonfly model was implemented seamlessly, allowing him to gather a specific focus, grab attention, engage and finally empower his audience.
In his first run for president, Barak Obama implemented new and innovative strategies utilizing tenants of social media to help spread the message of his campaign. Not only did Obama utilize existing social networking platforms, but he also hired a team to create his own that was featured on his campaign website. Here, the research states…
Chang, Victoria & Aaker, Jennifer. (2010). Obama and the power of social media and technology. The European Business Review, 16-24.
Green, Douglas W. (2011). The dragonfly effect. DrDougGreen.com. Web. http://www.drdouggreen.com/wp-content/Dragonfly-Effect.pdf
The Dragonfly Effect. (2012). How Obama won with social media. Case Studies. Web. http://www.dragonflyeffect.com/blog/dragonfly-in-action/case-studies/the-obama-campaign/
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…
Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.
Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
What is meant by the term 'social enterprise' and what do social enterprises contribute to society and the economies in which they operate?
The acceleration with which the world is changing day by day is continuous. A majority of organizations that have a motto of 'not-for-profit' are looking out for prospects with the help of which they can begin or widen their projects in order to get their missions fulfilled and offer the needy the earned profits. Thus, any organization or scheme that brings about the mentioned twofold objectives is considered a social enterprise. Social enterprises sell mission-related goods or services and by doing so they try to create a more impartial and fair environment through specific market-based strategies (Bornstein & Davis 2010).
In other words, a business is regarded as a social enterprise when the main objective is to cope up with the prevailing societal problems and…
Baptiste, T. (2009). Being a Leader and Making Decisions. 1st. ed. New York: Chelsea House.
Beerel, A. (2009). Leadership and Change Management. 1st. ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Bornstein, D. & Davis, S. (2010). Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to Know. 1st. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Borzaga, C. & Defourny, J. (2001). The Emergence of Social Enterprise. 1st. ed. London: Routledge.
WikiNerdia allows the users to ask questions and all the nerd community members answer the questions. People normally trust the reviews and answers of the customers more than the brand. Giantnerd gets the benefit of their fan engagement and ultimately the brand trust increases. Customers can be your sale force and work for any company if the company can get the benefit by engaging the audience. A brand must think of multiple opportunities for the customers so that they can spread the word about the company. eal-time engagement opportunities and exclusive social communities are the tools which can turn existing customers to word-of-mouth advocates (Goldman, 2013).
Social Media will have a huge impact on business over the next decade, especially on the recruiting matters. Social media technology presents exciting opportunities for the recruitment industry. A research has highlighted that Twitter, LinkedIn and Facebook are the most used social media websites…
Goldman, J. (2013). Going Social: Excite Customers, Generate Buzz, and Energize Your Brand with the Power of Social Media. New York: AMACOM.
Hensel, K., & Deis, M.H. (2010). Using Social Media to Increase Advertising and Improve Marketing. Entrepreneurial Executive, 15, 87+. Retrieved May 16, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-2191652481/using-social-media-to-increase-advertising-and-improve
Libert, B. (2010). Social Nation: How to Harness the Power of Social Media to Attract Customers, Motivate Employees, and Grow Your Business. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Mathieson, R. (2010). The on-Demand Brand: 10 Rules for Digital Marketing Success in an Anytime, Everywhere World. New York: AMACOM.
Social Implications of Sexual Identity Formation and Coming Out Process
Chad Mosher's article, "The social implications of identity formation and the coming-out-process: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature" provides a fairly comprehensive look at the theories and realities of individuals asserting their homosexual tendencies to the world. The article is widely written as a source of material and instruction for psychologists who are employed in a therapeutic or counseling capacity with such individuals, as there are implications for them to incorporate into their practice in the article's conclusion. In addition to discussing the two principle theories regarding coming out, essentialism and social constructionism, the author discusses aspects of the theories that are integrated as well as the effect of coming out on both the audience and the homosexual perception. Audiences are stratified into three distinct categories: family members, heterosexuals, as well as homosexuals and those somewhere in between…
Mosher, C. (2001). The social implications of identity formation and the coming-out-process: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature. The Family Journal. 9 (2): 164-173.
Social Psychology 2nd
Morality and Group elations: Possible Bias
The article entitled "Morality and intergroup relations: Threats to safety and group image predict the desire to interact with outgroup and ingroup members" as written by Brambilla et al. is comprised of three different research studies. However, each of these studies explores different facets of the same phenomena: how morality within and outside of groups varies by type of threat, and what sort of behavior these threats elicit from these same groups (Brambilla et al., 2013, p. 813). There is an extreme amount of relevance to the research conducted within this article and the principle research question of the present author, who is attempting to ascertain the meaning of relationships with moral development and reasoning in social groups.
Prior to stratifying the analysis of this paper to the three respective studies, it is necessary to mention various salient factors regarding the…
Fiske, S.T., Gilbert, D.T., Lindzey, G. (2010). Handbook of Social Psychology. New York: Wiley.
Tuffin, K. (2004). Understanding Critical Social Psychology. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Brambilla, M., Sacchi, S., Pagliaro, S., Ellemers, N. (2013). Morality and intergroup relations: Threats to safety and group image predict the desire to interact with outgroup and ingroup members. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 49: 811-821.
The purpose of this article is to extend on previous rsearch relating the issue of group morality to the perceived threat and influential behavior within an ingroup as actuated on the part of an outgroup. The researchers studided an ingroup of Italian nationals and an outgroup of Indians who were living Italy. Therefore, there ethnic differences between these groups as well as those which may have been perceived related to nationality.
Social Media etailing Applications: Opportunities and Threats
How Has Social Media Developed and What are the Benefits and Downsides of Using Social Media for etailers Today?
This study examines social business in general, how it developed and the benefits of using social media in particular. Second, this study provides a discussion concerning the potential positive as well as the effects of social business in the retail sector which is followed by a description of optimal business strategies for social media applications, the pros/cons of using these tools in the industry, and some representative case studies concerning companies that succeeded and some that recently failed in their use of social media. Finally, the study provides a summary of the research and important findings is followed by a series of recommendations concerning how retailers should use social media technologies in their own businesses in the concluding chapter.
Social Media Business Applications
About Honda. (2013). Honda. Available: http://corporate.honda.com/america/philanthropy.aspx?id=philanthropy_overview . Last accessed 1 November 2013.
About Virgin. (2013). Virgin America. Available: http://www.virginamerica.com/about/airline-company.html.
Baumann, M. (2010, June). @Twitter Discloses Business Model #Promotedtweets RT.
Information Today, 27 (6) 1-5.
Social psychology view: What ensures that women are treated fairly in office settings in the United States?
One of the most prudent applications of social psychology within contemporary settings are those that relate to gender. Gender issues can become exacerbated when they are viewed within particular social constructs, such as the work environment. Due to the fact that the majority of the world was initially a patriarchal society (particularly in the United States) before modern conceptions of gender became prevalent, the role of women within the work environment is one which is certainly worthy of investigation in terms of how women are treated, what sorts of issues they must contend with, and how others (men) consider working women. The principle difference between contemporary and most historic notions of gender pertaining to women in the workplace is that in modern times, there is supposed to be a substantial greater amount of…
Bisika, T. (2008). Do social and cultural factors perpetuate gender-based violence in Malawi?.Gender & Behaviour, 6(2), 1884-1896. doi:10.4314/gab.v6i2.23426
Cikara, M., Rudman, L., & Fiske, S. (2012). Dearth by a Thousand Cuts?: Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology. Journal Of Social Issues, 68(2), 263-285. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2012.01748.x
Gilbert, D.G., Fiske, S.T. & Lindzey G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Huerta, M. (2007). Intersections of race and gender in women's experiences of harassment. (Order No. 3253291, University of Michigan). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 110-110 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304848503?accountid=25340 . (304848503).
.This is not to say, though, that these themes and others are not examined. For example, Hank Hill's relationship with his father, Cotton ("I killed me fifty men") Hill explores the role of the elderly in modern American society, and even presents a poignant episode in which his father dies and he is forced to confront the mixed-blessing of this loss. Likewise, Homer manages to become more than a bungling parent from time to time and actually connect with his children in ways that would not be feasible in traditional sitcom formats. Homer and Lisa breaking into the Springfield Museum to see the Egyptian exhibit, only to discover the secret to an ancient music box by accident is a good example. Similarly, Bart and Homer even manage to overcome their differences and become a team when it comes to thwarting the good-natured advances of Ned Flanders (who is still…
Harrison, C. (2010). American culture in the 1990s. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Mills, B. (2009). The sitcom. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Pehlke, T.A. & Hennon, C.B. (2009, Spring). Does father still know best? An inductive
thematic analysis of popular TV sitcoms. Fathering, 7(2), 114-118.
Social Perceptions and Bias
Within any organization there is a dual cognitive and emotional role in making decisions. In the 21st century global environment, this role is accentuated and allows far less time than ever before. Typically, decision making is the result of stimuli, then choosing from alternatives based on past and current knowledge, then making a final choice of an action or group of action. One way of looking at the decision making process is that it is ingrained within the human psychological perspective, which makes it both unique and complex for the individual or organization involved. esearchers Seo and Barrett (2007) present a theory that contrary to the popular belief that emotions (feelings) are dysfunctional in decision making, in fact, research shows that individuals who are able to identify and distinguish among feelings have a greater chance of making successful and discreet decisions by looking critically at their…
Ashforth, B., Humphrey, R. (1995). Emotion in the Workplace: A Reappraisal.
Human Relations. 48 (2): 97-125.
Baron, R., Kenney, D. (1986). The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social
Psychological Research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 51 (6): 1173-82.
Early trauma that causes anger often corresponds to higher levels of aggression later in life, especially where the traumas are suppressed and internalized instead of being expressed at the time of their origin and at the source.
Furthermore, since many dysfunctional families forbid the expression of anger by children (particularly anger toward parents), individuals who experience significant levels of early trauma that produces repressed anger are often considerably more aggressive throughout life subsequently than individuals who were fortunate not to experience as much early trauma (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). Aggression is a known factor in criminal conduct as well as other forms of non-criminal negative social behavior such as those associated with overt prejudice and other types of social intolerance toward others (Macionis 2003).
Aggression and Prejudice:
One of the primary ways that aggression-prone individuals express their repressed rage is in their treatment of other less powerful individuals (Gerrig &…
Friedman, a. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, R.G. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th Ed.
Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.