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Social Science and Why Is it Important
Words: 1276 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11208514
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Social Science and Why Is it Important?

The definition of social science has been narrowed down to those sciences that deal with human activities and human behavior as opposed to science that studies natural phenomenon. However this division may be superfluous now because modern science has its origin from the old social sciences. Science evolved from the society which also contained many thoughts that may be out of the realm of modern science like "religion, philosophy, ideology and politics." (Williams, 2000)

Thus the scientific theories are based on a philosophical thinking that is often shaped by politics or religion. The relationship between science and other streams of human thought and science changed with the changes in scientific method which again form within the disciplines of each branch of science is different and often contradictory. (Williams, 2000)

The argument at this stage is if the social world is amenable to experiments…

References

Bowker, Geoffrey C; Star, Susan Leigh; Turner, William; Gasser, Les. (1997) "Social

Science, Technical Systems, and Cooperative Work: Beyond the Great Divide." Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ.

Brooks, Stephen; Gagnon, Alain-G. (1994) "The Political Influence of Ideas: Policy

Communities and the Social Sciences." Praeger Publishers: Westport, CT.

Social Sciences in Education the Development and
Words: 893 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66610854
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Social Sciences in Education

The development and specialization of the various fields in the social sciences started with the establishment of sociology as an academic discipline in the 19th century. The architects of this early discipline include Max Weber, Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx. Over time, the social sciences have broadened to include other disciplines looking at human life through in a variety of contexts, including anthropology, economics, political science, history, psychology, communication and linguistics.

There are two broadly-defined schools of thought in the contemporary understanding of social sciences. A positivist interpretation of the social sciences utilizes the scientific method in the study of human society. An interpretivist social scientist tends to utilize analysis, written deconstruction, and contextualization to examine theoretical linkages. One of the more notable tendencies of contemporary social science practice have been researchers who use hybrid styles, techniques, and methodologies in their work to look at their…

References

Jacoby, Sanford M. (2005). "Social Science in Europe, Japan, and the United States" Comparative Labor, Law, and Policy Journal. Vol. 23:819

National Council for the Social Studies. (2009). "About National Council for the Social Studies." Retrieved from:  http://www.socialstudies.org/about 

Hess, Diana. (2001) "Teaching Students to Discuss Controversial Public Issues" Social Studies Development Center. Retrieved from:  http://www.indiana.edu/~ssdc/cpidig.htm 

Vessuri, Hebe. (2000). "Ethical Challenges for the Social Sciences on the Threshold of the 21st Century." Current Sociology 50, no. 1 135-150.

Social Sciences Quantitative Qualitative and Mixed Methods
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17281787
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social sciences: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. However, there is another classification of research -- evaluation research -- frequently deployed in organizations. Evaluation research may make use of all of these different methodologies, even though it has a different goal than academic research. "The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide 'useful feedback' to a variety of audiences including sponsors, donors, client-groups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies" (Trochim 2006).

In contrast to the use of the scientific method as in quantitative research, evaluation research is more intent upon offering practical data that can be used to maximize organizational resources and is specifically devoted to program evaluation. Some evaluation research does use standard qualitative methods in the tradition of the scientific method. However, an equally common approach is that of "management-oriented systems models. Two of the most common of these are PET, the Program Evaluation and eview Technique, and…

References

Trochim, W. (2006). Evaluation research. Social Science Research Methods. Retrieved:

 http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/intreval.php 

First Response:

The correlation between evaluation research and research methods are they are applications for research and they are also purposes of research (Laureate Education, Inc., 2009). Evaluation research and research methods are distinct in the manner that they specify a specific purpose. The correlation when using the research is that they all correlate together to distinguish a common reason, intent, goal, or idea which is used in acquiring knowledge (Laureate Education Inc., 2009).

Fundamentals of Social Sciences
Words: 829 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 24591918
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Social Science esearch

Within any healthcare paradigm, clinical outcomes are the desired effect of medical treatment. In many cases, assessment is too often placed into a template that is completely synonymous with testing, and diagnosis with testing scores. This may be a misguided paradigm for the modern medical paradigm since there are so many proven links between assessment and intervention planning. In fact, employing an evidence-based and best practices approach in assessment becomes important to glean the desired results in studying the efficacy of outcome assessment. Clinical assessment, of course, is used in all medical fields -- from general practice to psychology. In fact, it is the core basis of the modern medical model (Vlaovich-McLeod, et.al., 2008). However, in far too many cases, there is a complete overreliance on scores and not enough on the clinician and clinical judgment modeling. In a perfect world, all subtests would be identical and…

REFERENCES

Priftera, A., et.al. (2008). WISC-IV Clinical Assessment and Intervention. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Publications.

Parsons, J., et.al. (2008, July-August). Change is Hard: Adopting a Disablement Model for Athletic Training. Journal of Athletic Training. 43 (4): 446-448. Retrieved from:

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2474825/ 

Valovich-McLeod, et.al. (2008, July-August). Using disablement models and clinical outcomes assessment to enable evidence-based athletic training practice, Part II: Clinical outcomes assessment, Journal of Athletic Training, 43(4), 437-445.Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2474824/

Social Psychology The Social Sciences
Words: 1691 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 27191752
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Thus, this aspect can multiply into many sub-genres that focus on one or more aspects of the social world as they contribute to influencing behaviors and innate thought processes. Focusing on the social means looking for more abstract concepts that relate to existence within a social world. Actually trying to predict later success in publication, "Predicting the future success of junior scholars is of great concern to academic hiring committees," (Haslam & Lamb 2009:144). Yet it is based within two correlating variables that can then be compared, "It is therefore reasonable to predict that publication success during graduate school may be associated with publication success later in people's academic careers," (Haslam & Lamb 2009:144). Although the subject is socially constructed, the method of analysis is still quantitatively measured. Even this study shows quantitative measurement use- using mathematical prediction models in analysis of data (Haslam & Lamb 2009). egression analysis, common…

References

Haslam, Nick & Laham, Simon M. (2009). Ten years on: does graduate student promise predict later scientific achievement? Current Research in Social Psychology. 14(10):143-147.

Kearl, Michael C. (2009). Social psychology. Trinity University. Retrieved 28, October 2009 at  http://trinity.edu/~mkearl/socpsy.html 

New York University (2009). Infants able to identify humans as source of speech. Science Daily. Retrieved October 28, 2009 at  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/10/091019162919.htm 

Smith, Eliot R. & Mackie, Diane M. (1999). Social Psychology. Routledge Press.

Ocial Science Project Social Science
Words: 732 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38077841
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Avoidance of harm is another important aspect that is incorporated in the plan. The research will be conducted in such a way that the subjects will not be harmed in any way. In this particular research project it will be ensured that the subjects are not emotionally harmed or create conditions whereby harm can be caused by others.

In the research it will also be ensure that the subjects remain anonymous. Anonymity is coupled with two other concepts confidentiality and privacy. Anonymity ensures that a subject has a right to have his identity shared or not. Therefore just as the decision to take part in the research is ones choice so will be the decision to disclose their identity remains their choice. In the research the issue of justice will also be considered as there will be efforts made to distribute any risks and benefits that are got from the…

References

Resnik, J.D. (2011) what is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important? Retrieved February 28, 2013 from  http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/whatis/ 

University of Washington.(2010). Research Ethics.retrievd February 28, 2013 from  http://depts.washington.edu/bioethx/topics/resrch.html

Role of Research in Social Work Research
Words: 2302 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72488529
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ole of esearch in Social Work

esearch assists in placing social work in its changing political and social context. This implies the ability to define social work's current environment in terms of dynamics like society and politics. esearch assists in establishing a knowledge base and professional status of social work, for example it assisted in establishing evidence-based practice. esearch also assists in analyzing population-based research that identifies people at risk in social work (Leece & Leece, 2010). This is because is assists social workers to understand clients in their social contexts, give voice to clients. Overall, research provides epistemological and value issues that define the nature and purpose of social work.

Social Worker's need to understand research

The main reason social workers need to understand research is to understand effective use of scientific evidence on the social services they offer to clients. esearch assists the social worker to investigate social…

References

Allen, R., & Earl, B. (2009). Essential Research Methods for Social Work. 2nd ed., Belmont, CA:

Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

Leece, J., & Leece, D. (2010). Personalization: Perceptions of the Role of Social Work in a World of Brokers and Budgets. The British Journal of Social Work, 41(2), 204-223.

Regnerus Mark. (2012). How different are the adult children of parents who have same-sex relationships? Findings from the New Family Structures Study. Social Science Research

Social Sciences Background- for Centuries
Words: 1340 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67274474
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It was originally established in the early 19th century by Auguste Comte who tried to unify history, psychology and economics through an understanding of society as a broad paradigm. Emile Durkheim took this a bit further and focused on the way societies could maintain a sort of integrity within the modern work where past cultural trends (religion, ethnicity, etc.) were no longer the singular part of society. His view, which has become the modern view of sociology, surrounded questions of what binds individuals together as a formal group (society) and what happens to this group both collectively and for the individual. This is a broad discipline as well, and clearly an academic response to the modern age (industrialization, urbanization, secularization, etc.). The field looks at social rules, the way those rules were formed, and the way that individuals coalesce into groups, communities, institutions, and even powerful social organizations that transcend…

Works Cited

American Anthropological Association. (2012, January). What is Anthropology. Retrieved from aaanet.org:  http://www.aaanet.org/about/WhatisAnthropology.cfm 

Backhouse, R., & Fontaine, P. (Eds.). (2010). The History of the Social Sciences Since 1945. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bernard, H. (2011). Research Methods in Anthropology. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

Fernald, L. (2008). Psychology: Six Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Social Science There Are of Course a
Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81254007
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Social Science

There are, of course, a number of theoretical approaches to social science -- and a number of sub-theories that construct a larger, more detailed template that helps us critique the differences between critical social science, and the positivist and interpretive views. eally, as noted, there are a number of means to an end. There are some fundamental questions that social scientists must answer that have been seminal questions for millennium -- namely; from where does knowledge arise -- how do we "know" what we know. We can be as basic as going back to Plato's ideas of forms being individual -- my red is not your red, etc. But really, what is the major question with which we must deal? It is, of course, using critical thinking to uncover more information so that we may act upon it in a professional manner.

Critical thinking is primarily a way…

REFERENCES

Brown, M. And S. Keeley. (2009). Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Critical

Thinking. 9th ed. New York: Prentice Hall.

Gilcken, M. (2010). Social Work in the 21st Century. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Social Science Indentified as Social Psychology Studies
Words: 845 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39217431
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social science indentified as social psychology studies the influences that affect how individuals in a society interact with one another (Kenrick, 2006). In doing so, it applies scientific methods to measure how a variety of different factors such as group behavior, social perception, leadership, conformity, aggression and prejudice serve to affect how members of society relate to each other. In doing so, social psychologists examine the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of both the individuals and groups who incorporate society. They also measure the effect that culture factors such as advertising, television, literature, and the movies contribute to these interactions.

Through the study of social psychology experts in the field use empirical methods in an attempt to explain why people organize themselves in groups, make decisions, behave in deviant ways, and form dating relationships. The field of social psychology has adopted a number of approaches to study in this area but…

References

Abelson, R.P. (2003). Experiments with People: Revelations from Social Psychology. London: Psychology Press.

Kenrick, D.T. (2006). Social Psychology: Goals in Interaction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Ally & Bacon, Inc.

Oishi, S. (2009). Sociology: A Lost Connection in Social Psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 334-353.

social psychology

Social Sciences In General Qualitative
Words: 2583 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49942215
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These individuals will be recruited via email, similar to that of the journal recruitment email. However, the email will only detail that they have been selected to participate in a free shopping spree at a given time and place in appreciation for their loyal patronage. Another possibility is to set up a drawing at the selected store. From the individuals who register, random participants can be selected.

The experiment itself will utilize a simulated shopping environment will be set up. Half the participants will be bombarded with advertisements while shopping and prior to shopping (such as having ads mailed and emailed to them). The other half will not be bombarded with the advertisements for that particular brand and products. All other variables will be the same. After the experiment, the observer will be able to compare the purchases of the two groups to see if the advertisement group purchased the…

Bibliography

Girdner, Ellen R.R. (2001): Evaluating Research Articles from Start to Finish. London: SAGE Publications.

Graydon, Shari. (2003): Made You Look: How Advertising Works and Why You Should Know. Toronto: Annick Press.

Johnson, J. Douglas. (1978): Advertising Today. Chicago: Science Research Associates.

Kleppner, Otto. (1966): Advertising Procedure. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Social Risk and Vulnerability Analysis
Words: 4052 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64819789
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Social isk and Vulnerability Analysis Comment by Babyliza: There's No Abstract

Vulnerability to hazards is affected by several factors, comprising age or income, the power of social networks, and neighborhood individualities. Social vulnerability takes into account the socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence the resilience of populations. The Sovi for Bexar County is 0.230416 whereas that for Philadelphia County is 3.418284. This indicates that Philadelphia County as a geographical expanse has a higher vulnerability and susceptibility to environmental and public health hazards. A key group that ought to be taken into consideration is one of people lacking insurance. This is a group that is severely impacted in the course of disasters and after disasters, and are not able to easily recover. Individuals that are not self-insured are generally excluded from these calculations.

Introduction

All expanses of the United States have experienced disasters, both natural and anthropogenic. The vulnerabilities that are…

References

Bexar County Emergency Management. (2016). The Mission & Vision of the OEM. Retrieved from:  http://www.bexar.org/675/OEM-Mission-Vision 

Chavi. (2015). Here Are The 10 Worst Disasters to Occur in Pennsylvania History. Only in Your State. Retrieved from:  http://www.onlyinyourstate.com/pennsylvania/pa-disasters/ 

City Data. (2016). Philadelphia: Geography and Climate. Retrieved from:  http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-Northeast/Philadelphia-Geography-and-Climate.html 

Dunning, C. M., Durden, S. (2013). Social Vulnerability Analysis: A Comparison of Tools. Institute for Water Resources.

Social Sciences and its Statistical Package
Words: 806 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42631769
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Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
Describe ways in which MS Excel can be used by a manager of an organization as a tool for interpreting data
There are different ways in which a manager of an organization can employ MS Excel as a tool for data interpretation. One of the uses of MS Excel is collating, which encompasses collecting associated data items into a single item. The layout and formatting of the worksheet can enable the managers to perceive data sets in a structured and organized formation, which augments clarity of the data. The second benefit is processing. Excel cells can include functions, formulas as well as references to other excel cells, that permit one to glean information in prevailing data sets. Therefore, excel functions can facilitate the process of interpreting a data set in a manner that is suitable to the data itself and the system in position.…

Social Variables in the Development
Words: 16820 Length: 58 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 6052567
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To citically investigate the cuent state of intenational business elationship development liteatue.

2. To exploe the chaacteistics that detemines sustainable intenational business elationships within the Libyan business context-fom the Libyan point-of-view.

3. To pesent a model based on the findings fom the two objectives above. This model will seve two main functions: (I). It will help fill in gaps in the cuent liteatue elating to the development and maintenance of business elationships with Libya. (II). It will be of pactical value to foeign businesses wishing to develop elationships with Libyan companies.

1.4.3 Reseach Questions

Fou eseach questions ae fomulated as a means of pusuing the above objectives, these being:

What ae the key vaiables that influence Libyan companies when they intenationalise, and why ae these vaiables so impotant fo Libyan oganisations?

What ae the majo steps/stages that Libyans go though when establishing business elationships?

How can foeign oganisations establish/maintain sustainable…

references and details.

- Retrievability or loopback: can be low.

- Biased selectivity, if collection is incomplete.

- Reporting bias: reflects bias of the author.

- Access: may be deliberately blocked.

Research Proposal for Sustainability in Pharmaceutical Pricing
Words: 806 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 68579566
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Sustainability in Pharmaceutical Pricing

How Can Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships Help to Achieve the Dissemination of affordable medicines - The Case of Anti Malaria Drugs in Nigeria?

Sustainability Perspective

Many individuals from developing countries who could benefit from pharmaceuticals products do not receive them due to high costs. Antiretroviral therapy's failure in reaching more than scant numbers of individuals in developing nations, suffering from AIDS, has drawn extensive publicity. However, even far cheaper medications that can be delivered easily aren't reaching numerous individuals who require them. Over a fourth of children all over the world and more than half of the children in a few nations do not receive vaccines, which come under the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Expanded Program on Immunization. Even though these vaccines only cost a family under a dollar a dose, they still cannot afford the medicine. The lack of access to beneficial pharmaceutical products and the…

References

AUSPA 2012, Policy & Advocacy, Western Australian Council of Social Service Inc., viewed 10 June 2017,

Buckley, J & Seamus, T 2005, International Pricing and Distribution of Therapeutic Pharmaceuticals: An Ethical Minefield. Business Ethics, pp.127-141.

Hussein, A 2015, The Use of Triangulation in Social Sciences Research: Can Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Be Combined? Journal of Comparative Social Work, vol. 4., no.1.

Lampard, R & Pole, C 2015. Practical social investigation: qualitative and quantitative methods in social research. Routledge: Abingdon, UK.

History Social Science Textbook Controversy History
Words: 1394 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93087411
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So let's change the interpretation a little bit so that it will be the way we wished it were." Well, that's not what history is. History is what happened, and history ought to be nothing more than the quest to find out what happened. Now, if you want to get into why what happened, that's probably valid too, but why what happened shouldn't have much of anything to do with what happened. (Limbaugh 1994)

The push for the elimination of negative stereotypes, and to encourage the diversification of perspectives through education of our youths is certainly a noble and worthwhile effort. However, there cannot be an absolute answer for all of the problems. Certainly racism, for example, needs to be abolished, and the tone and viewpoints of our educational tools is the perfect place to begin this alteration. However, is it necessarily beneficial to erase all evidence of racism from…

References

Cheney, Lynne V. 1994. The end of history. Wall Street Journal. 20 October 1994.Evans, R.W., & Pang, V.O. (1995). National Standards for United States History: the Storm of Controversy Continues. Social Studies, 86(6), 270-274.

Faulconer, T., & Freeman, A.C. (2005). Teachers, Classroom Controversy and the Media. Social Education, 69(6), 323+.

Garvey, J. (1995, December 15). The Earth Is Flat: My Textbook Says So. Commonweal, 122, 7+.

Heritage Foundation (2006).  http://www.heritage.org/ .

Statistics for the Behavioral and Social Sciences
Words: 3816 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 97885517
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eduction of Prejudice

The Contact Hypothesis of Gordon Allport and the eduction of Prejudice

The literature covering the nature of prejudice, its scope, the effects of prejudice, and methods to reduce on prejudice is among the most extraordinary body of literature in all of social science. The total volume of research on the topic of prejudice is quite extraordinary and this body of work reflects several decades of scholarly investigation of the meaning of prejudice, its assessment, its etiology, its consequences, and methods to reduce prejudice. There are very few areas of study that have attracted a greater range of theoretical perspectives than the area of prejudice. Theorizing about the nature and manifestation of prejudice has also been accompanied by many spirited debates about the appropriate way to conceptualize methods to reduce prejudice in people. The result has been a rich body of measurement instruments and reduction strategies. The most…

References

Allport, G. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Aron, A., Aron, E. & Coups, E. (2011). Statistics for the behavioral and social sciences: A brief course. (5th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall.

Bar-Haim, Y., Ziv, T., Lamy, D., & Hodes, R.M. (2006). Nature and nurture in own-race face processing. Psychological Science, 17 (2), 159-163.

Binder, J., Zagefka, H., Brown, R., Funke, F., Kessler, T., Mummendey, A., Maquil, A., Demoulin, S. & Leyens, J. (2009). Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(4), 843-856.

WA 2 Social Sciences Genital Herpes Affliction
Words: 2016 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 11252909
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WA 2 social sciences

Genital herpes affliction owing to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), causes ill health and even death across the globe. Although in most cases symptoms are not found, the possibility of severe clinical manifestations cannot be ruled out, specifically in people living in inhospitable and unhygienic conditions. People additionally have a scope of mental responses to the determination; for a few, stresses about telling accomplices and the effect on their sexuality are very critical, especially immediately after the revelation. Moreover, genital herpes can be prenatally transferred and cause life-debilitating neonatal HSV contamination. In addition, it proffers the danger of acquiring HIV two to three-fold and additionally HIV transmission in those dually afflicted. This level of danger of ailment makes counteractive action and treatment of genital herpes disease very important globally. Be that as it may, this has still been…

References

Ashley, R.L., & Wald, A. (1999). Genital herpes: review of the epidemic and potential use of type-specific serology. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12(1), 1-8.

Genital Herpes and Self-Image (2001).

HA Weiss, SL Thomas, SK Munabi, and RJ Hayes. (2006). Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sex Transm Infect; 82(2): 101 -- 110.

Hofstetter, A. Rosenthal, S. Stanberry, L (2014). Current Thinking on Genital Herpes. Retrieved January 26, 2015, from  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/820140

Qualitative vs Quantitative Social Science Sometimes Debates
Words: 1349 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10774586
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Qualitative vs. Quantitative

Social science sometimes debates differences between quantitative and qualitative. On one side, positivists argue quantitative research is objective and measurable where post-positivists argue qualitative analysis allows for a rich understanding of the situation. Although qualitative and quantitative research differ in the techniques, types of data and ethical concerns, they both have their place in psychology. Let us begin by exploring the realm of quantitative research and then move on to qualitative research.

Quantitative research is research that uses numerical measures to evaluate the world. Often, this approach is used by positivists who believe in objective measures to predict the world. This epistemology says research can and should focus only on what can be observed and measured. Following is a discussion of features of quantitative research including techniques, types of data and possible ethical concerns.

There are multiple techniques used to collect quantitative data, but all techniques will…

Works Cited

Bartholomew, L.M., & Horowitz, K. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology .

Monk, A.N. (1993). Mixing oil and water? Ethnography vs. experimental psychology in the study of computer-mediated communication. INTERCHI'93, 3-6.

Rusbult, C.E. (1980). Commitment and satisfaction in romantic associations: A test of the investment model. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 16,, 172-186.

Rusbult, C.E. (1982). Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: Responses to dissatisfaction in romantic involvements. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1230-1242.

Evaluating the Rise of Social Media
Words: 3217 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67215612
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Social media involves online content that people use via highly accessible technologies. Basically, social media marks a change in the way people read, discover and share information, news and content. Therefore, social media fuses technology and sociology leading to a change in monologues into dialogues and also marks information democratization, making everyone an author instead of being a mere content reader. Social media has become very popular since it enables people interaction through the internet to create relations useful for different reasons including political, personal and business. Businesses consider social media to be an amalgamation of consumer-generated media. The social media takes different forms like, blogs, Internet forums, wikis, pictures, podcasts and video. Therefore, it is obvious that the Internet is a fundamental social medium (Customer Centric Business Strategies, n.d.). This may not change since people endeavor to engage with each other online; hence, social media is going to be…

References

Ali, S. (2012, August 8). Social Media - A Good Thing or a Bad Thing? Retrieved, from  http://www.socialmediatoday.com/content/social-media-good-thing-or-bad-thing 

Fernandez, A. (2011). Clinical Report: The impact of social media on children, adolescents and families. Archivos de Pediatriadel Uruguay, 82(1), 31-32.

Gaal, Z., Szabo, L., & Obermayer-Kovacs, N. (2015).The Power of Social Media in Fostering Knowledge Sharing. Proceedings Of The European Conference On Intellectual Capital, 114-121.

Hajli, M.N. (2014). A study of the impact of social media on consumers. International Journal Of Market Research, 56(3), 387-404. doi:10.2501/IJMR-2014-025

Examination of Social Science Data Research
Words: 805 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 33727660
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Crime and the Depenalization of Cannabis Possession: Evidence from a Policing Experiment" -- published in the Journal of Political Economy, a bimonthly peer-reviewed journal issued by the University of Chicago -- is a fascinating quantitative analysis on the impact of a localized policing "experiment" conducted over the course of seven and a half years. Between April 1998 and January 2006, the south London borough of Lambeth instituted a policy of "depenalization" for cannabis possession and consumption, the LCWS or Lambeth Cannabis Warning Scheme (Adda McConnell asul 2014, 1133). Although marijuana still remained illegal, the police in Lambeth made it known that "(i) the possession of small quantities of cannabis for personal consumption was still a recordable offence, but would no longer lead to the individual being arrested; (ii) the primary motivation was to free up police time and other resources to focus on crimes related to other drugs or other…

References

Adda, J., McConnell, B., Rasul, I. (2014) Crime and the depenalization of cannabis possession: Evidence from a policing experiment. Journal of Political Economy 122(5), 1130-1202.  http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/676932

Interdisciplinary Social Science
Words: 575 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 86747672
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Interdisciplinary Social Science

Sociology

What are the advantages of the interdisciplinary approach to the study of many social problems? Give an example of your own where this approach would work.

The interdisciplinary approach to social problems could have many advantages such as, expanding professional understanding and achievement between all disciplines. This approach additionally enhances communication skills. The use of the interdisciplinary approach is not fool-proof or perfect, as it has disadvantages, such as integration confusion and time-consuming project or research preparation.

The interdisciplinary inquiries critically draw upon two or more disciplines and which lead to an integration of disciplinary insights. The interdisciplinary approach is uniquely different from a multidisciplinary approach, which is the teaching of topics from more than one discipline in parallel to the other. It also varies from the crossdisciplinary approach, which is the case where one discipline is crossed with the subject matter of another. Interdisciplinary techniques…

References:

Hunt, Elgin F., and Colander, D.C. Social Science An Introduction to the Study of Society, 14th Edition. Allyn and Bacon Publishers.

Sage Publications. (2008). Chapter 1 -- Defining Interdisciplinary Studies. Web, Available from: www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23223_Chapter_1.pdf. 2012 November 08.

Ethnomethodology the Social Science of
Words: 2885 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91891783
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He wanted to show how conversation analysis and ethnomethodology may elucidate two interrelated matters of continuing concern to the ethnographer: the role of culture in shaping an informants' behavior and the apparent capacity of an investigated culture to compel the fieldworker to follow local habits of thought.

For this research, Watson defined ethnomethodology as "the study of how people, in their everyday lives, constitute the world as a recognizable state of affairs." Similar to conversation analysis, it is concerned with explication of order in social interaction and attempts to replace the existing Parsonian motivational approach to the analysis of social action to one with procedure. It asks not why but how. stipulates four basic moves in conversation analysis of ethnomethodology: 1) Conversation analysis and ethnomethodology look at utterances as tools for the performance of activities, not just things that stand in for other things. Further, activities performed by utterances are…

References

Button, G. & Dourish, P. (1996) Technomethodology Paradoxes and Possibilities. In Proceedings of ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI

Durkheim Emile. 1933 the Division of Labor in Society. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press

Frances, D. & Hester, S. (2004) an Invitation to Ethnomethodology: Language, Society and Interaction. New York: Sage

French, B. (2005) Issues and Innovations in Nursing Practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing 49(2), 125-134

community psychology diversity and'social action research
Words: 878 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70158346
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An Ecological Approach
Community psychology uses an ecological or systems approach, recognizing that individuals are inseparable from their social networks and communities. According to Dalton, Elias & Wandersman (2012), community psychology also works with seven core values. Those values include individual and family wellness, a sense of community, respect for human diversity, social justice, empowerment and citizen participation, collaboration and community struggle, and empirical grounding. Thus, community psychology can be viewed as an interface between traditional individualistic psychology, sociology, and social work. Community psychology has been called a “common sense” approach given its broad focus on the ecological connections between individuals and their environments (Scileppi, Teed & Toerres, 1999, p. 1). Rather than focus only on individual variables, community psychologists take into account multiple dimensions and contextual constraints and influences on human behavior, identity, and relationships.
Using a systems or ecological approach also transforms the nature of the social scientist’s…

Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia
Words: 4858 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 92162537
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Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia: How the Social Media Affect the E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia

SOCIAL COMMECE IN SAUDI AABIA

Conceptual Framework Model

Social Media

Psychological Aspect and Theories

Administration

Digital Divide in Saudi Arabia

Ethos, eligious conviction, and Government in E-commerce Adoption

The ise of the P Industry in Saudi Arabia

Conceptual Model and esearch Hypothesis (Drawing)

esearch Contribution

Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia

Modern Saudi Arabia today actually represents an exceptional and convergent mixture of social conservatism and technological ability, a wonderful alteration from a remote, desert land that it was just something like 50 years ago. As social media is turning out to be increasingly prevalent in Saudi Arabia, online marketers are starting capitalizing in methods that service social media and include online customers. In Saudi Arabia Online marketers' adoption of new online marking trends is being prompted by discoveries that show individuals are spending great amounts…

References:

Anderson, M. (2013). Turning "like" to "Buy" Social Media Emerges as a Commerce Channel. Booz & Company, 23-56.

Assad, S.W. (2009). The rise of consumerism in saudi arabian society. International Journal of Commerce & Management,, 73-104.

Bahaddad, A.A. (2013). Attracting customer in saudi arabia to buy from your business online. . International Journal of Business and Management, 65-81.

Brock, C. (2014). F-COMMERCE AND THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF TRUST. Online Communities and Digital Collaborations, 1-11.

Social Media and the Red Shirt Revolution
Words: 4791 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 84158194
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Social Media and the ed Shirt evolution

Most scholars are in conflict with regard to the subject of revolution in the age of social media. Until now, revolution has been considered a top-down process. In Thai situation, things might have been different. The ed Shirt evolution in Thailand was one of the first of the "Twitter" revolutions, that is one that was fueled by social media and Web 2.0 technology. Since then, other revolutions have come as well. The lone citizen is now no longer on their own. The dissident in Chiang Mai now can commiserate with their brother or sister in Tahrir Square and plan revolution on a country to country or even on a global basis. Even as this writer types up a dissertation proposal, demonstrators coordinate strategy on a global basis to protest corporate greed. It is with this in mind that this study looks back at…

References

Bailey, M and Labovitz C (2011). Censorship and Co-option of the Internet Infrastructure. Ann Arbor,

MI: University of Michigan. p1-14.

Bajpai, K and Jaiswal, A (2011). A Framework for Analyzing Collective Action Events on Twitter.

Lisbon, Portugal: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference. p1-10.

Social Work Critical Thinking a Higher Order
Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 41149233
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Social Work

Critical thinking, a higher order of thinking about and dealing with issues, is quite relevant in many contemporary disciplines, particularly social work. It is a way of looking at information, of processing that information in an analytical manner, and having the ability to bring both life experience and other information to bear on the regular processes of one's discipline. Certainly, it can be used as an approach to daily lie, reading, public speaking, even watching movies or attending a concert. Within the social work discipline, it is a way to take a careful appraisal of beliefs and actions and then arrive at well-reasoned and thoughtful interventions that increase the likelihood of helping clients and avoiding harm -- reasonable and reflecting attitudes that help decide what to do and when (Papell and Skolnik, 1992).

Social work, and other medical and sociological and medical disciplines often turn toward theory as…

REFERENCES

Hoshmand, L.T. And Polkinghorne, D.E. (1992). Redefining the Science-

Practice Relationship and Professional Training. American Psychologist.

47 (1): 55-66.

Pappell, C.P. And Skolnik, L. (1992). The Reflective Practitioner: A Contemporary

Social Psychology View What Ensures That Women
Words: 2368 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19111831
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Social psychology view: What ensures that women are treated fairly in office settings in the United States?

One of the most prudent applications of social psychology within contemporary settings are those that relate to gender. Gender issues can become exacerbated when they are viewed within particular social constructs, such as the work environment. Due to the fact that the majority of the world was initially a patriarchal society (particularly in the United States) before modern conceptions of gender became prevalent, the role of women within the work environment is one which is certainly worthy of investigation in terms of how women are treated, what sorts of issues they must contend with, and how others (men) consider working women. The principle difference between contemporary and most historic notions of gender pertaining to women in the workplace is that in modern times, there is supposed to be a substantial greater amount of…

References

Bisika, T. (2008). Do social and cultural factors perpetuate gender-based violence in Malawi?.Gender & Behaviour, 6(2), 1884-1896. doi:10.4314/gab.v6i2.23426

Cikara, M., Rudman, L., & Fiske, S. (2012). Dearth by a Thousand Cuts?: Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology. Journal Of Social Issues, 68(2), 263-285. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2012.01748.x

Gilbert, D.G., Fiske, S.T. & Lindzey G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Huerta, M. (2007). Intersections of race and gender in women's experiences of harassment. (Order No. 3253291, University of Michigan). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 110-110 p. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/304848503?accountid=25340 . (304848503).

Social Loafing A Plan for
Words: 1978 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 7012080
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Lack of rewards for individuals, unintended rewards for loafing: Having some individuals who are collectively-minded paired with workers with a 'what's in it for me' attitude can result in the more generously spirited workers' good will being relied up, while others take credit.

A five best practices

1. Create a common work culture: Friends are often less likely to 'socially loaf' on work teams (Kunishima & elte 2004).

2. Using dispersed teams with a lack of social facilitation factors can be undercut by increasing levels of difficulty and responsibility "As tasks become more difficult and participants perceive they can make a unique contribution to the task, social loafing decreases" (Kunishima & elte 2004).

3. Task uniqueness -- by ensuring members of the work teams have specifically defined roles, there is less of a chance to feel as if others can pick up the slack (Kunishima & elte 2004).

5. Punishment…

Works Cited

Bansal, Pratima & Sonia Kandola. (2004, March/April) Corporate social responsibility: why good people behave badly in organizations. Business Journal Online. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at  http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/117189488.html 

Big Brother eyes 'boost honesty' (2006, June 28). BBC News. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/5120662.stm 

Coleman, Andrew. (2001). Social loafing. The Encyclopedia of Psychology. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at  http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O87-socialloafing.html 

Kunishima, Jill & Kasi Welte. (2004, March) Effects of punishment threats on social loafing

Science of Desire Ever Since
Words: 894 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 39604860
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, such as GE's entrance into the plastic fiber producing industry. Ante notes that "for big corporations that don't market directly to consumers, ethnography has a singular appeal" in letting them know how to work with other possible associates and subsidiaries (Ante 2006, pp. 73). GE had assumed the plastic fiber industry would work one way, but instead learned that things operated very differently, and there use of ethnographers allowed them to learn this difference quickly.

t is not an entirely rosy scenario that Ante paints in his article, however. Though many ethnographers are pleased to longer be relegated to academia, there have been negative results. The perceived "cheapening" of the science is one. Worse, "many ethnographers already complain about poseurs flooding the field," and others feel like mere rubber-stamps (Ante 2006, pp. 71).

n general, however, Ante makes it very clear that he is at least amused by, if…

It is not an entirely rosy scenario that Ante paints in his article, however. Though many ethnographers are pleased to longer be relegated to academia, there have been negative results. The perceived "cheapening" of the science is one. Worse, "many ethnographers already complain about poseurs flooding the field," and others feel like mere rubber-stamps (Ante 2006, pp. 71).

In general, however, Ante makes it very clear that he is at least amused by, if not staunchly in favor of, this growing trend of using science to design and market products. In a way, his optimism is easy to understand. Many of the executives he quotes or cites in this article are using ethnographers to design products for different cultures, some of which are incredibly disadvantaged. It is not merely an issue of selling more products to more people, but really about designing and building products that people truly need. The increased focus on filling consumer demand, and adjusting the idea of demand to include affordability, will certainly have its benefits, and these are the effects that Ante seems to focus on. There is also a definite tone of bemusement running throughout the entire piece, as though it is almost hard for Ante to believe -- as it is perhaps for many of his readers -- that so much scientific thought and effort could go into designing the next iPod. Yet overall his article seems to suggest that this is simply one more change brought by the information age, and we might as well reap the benefits.

In my opinion, it is more than a little funny that corporations go to such academic lengths in order to make a buck. The story of General Electric's attempts at entering a new industry were the most indicative of corporate blindness and even idiocy: "GE discovered it was approaching its bid to break into the fibers biz all wrong: instead of cheap commodities, customers wanted help developing advanced materials" (Ante 2006, pp. 73). This seems to me like Business 101 -- knowing what your customers want. This type of fact should not need to be uncovered by ethnographers. The same is true f public research -- yes, it is important to objectively study consumers, but when you're that out of touch it might be time to retire.

Social Informatics or the Collection
Words: 1610 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85785442
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More current research in this field uses an even more analytical approach. King and Covi (1995) studied the use of electronic journals, and their effect on scholarly communications. ather than just examining the effect of those journals, the researchers also took into consideration variables such as design layout and speed of content updates. What they found was that these journals did play a role in scholarly communication, and each of the different variables had an effect on how well the journal faired (King and Covi, 1995). It is precisely this type of analytical, integrated research that is useful to the field of social informatics, but is generally lacking.

While studies such as that above show clearly the value of social informatics research, done in a systematic, empirical way, the field in and of its self is still too non-integrated and unorganized. In order for the field to be truly beneficial…

References

Attewell, P. (1987). The deskilling controversy. Work and Occupation, 14(3), 323-346.

King, J.L. (1983). Centralized vs. decentralized computing: organizational considerations and management options. Computing Surveys, 15(4), 320-349.

Kling, R. (1999, January). What is social informatics and why does it matter? D-Lib Magazine, 5(1). Retrieved July 6, 2005, from D-Lib Magazine. Web site:  http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january99/kling/01kling.html#Kling95 .

Kling, R. And Covi, L. (1995). Electronic journals and legitimate media in the systems of scholarly communication. The Information Society, 11(4), 261-271.

Social Biases A Continuing Societal
Words: 1559 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29182202
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(2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice esearch, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis evisited. Status Bias in the eduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. esearch Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Pearson, A., Dovidio, J., & Pratto, F. (2007).acial Prejudice, Intergroup Hate, and Blatant and Subtle Bias of Whites toward Blacks in Legal Decision Making in the United States. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p145-158, 14p. etrieved July 8, 2009 from EBSCO online database Full Text http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=27747337&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site

amasubramanian, S. &…

References:

Faxed material

Fiske, S. (2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice Research, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site 

Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis Revisited. Status Bias in the Reduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site 

Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. Research Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Social Strain Robert K Merton's
Words: 1904 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 93893589
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By the 1980s, theories had begun to swing the other way again, with doubts being cast on the relevance of aggregate social strain theories (Bernard 1987). Even social strain theorists were finding new and more individualistic and specific features within the theory (Agnew 1985).

In the past two decades, social strain theory has continued to be attacked by some as an antiquated and invalidated method for explaining subversive and criminal behavior, with some theorists stating outright that the empirical evidence supports alternative explanations far better than it supports traditional social strain theories (Burton et al. 1994). Other researchers have found evidence that in their view directly refutes certain aspects of social strain theory while seeming to support certain other conclusions and hypotheses that are a part of the overall explanation for criminality (De Clercq & Dakhil 2009). Ultimately, all of the problems and discrepancies that have been found with social…

References

Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strain theory of delinquency. Social forces 64(1): 151-67.

Bernard, T. (1987). Testing social strain theories. Journal of research in crime and delinquency 24(4): 262-80.

Burton, V., Cullen, F., Evans, T. & Dunaway, R. (1994). Reconsidering strain theory: Operationalization, rival theories, and adult criminality. Journal of quantitative criminology 10(3): 213039.

De Clercq, D. & Dakhil, M. (2009). Personal strain and ethical standards of the self-employed. Journal of business venturing 24(5): 477-90.

Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Words: 2664 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8454350
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Social Ecology of Health Promotion

Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.

The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).

There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…

References

Marco-Barba, J., Mesquita-Joanes, F., & Miracle, M. (2013). Ostracod palaeolimnological analysis reveals drastic historical changes in salinity, eutrophication and biodiversity loss in a coastal Mediterranean lake. Holocene, 23(4), 556-567.

Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Liancourt, P., Gross, N., & Straile, D. (2012). Indirect facilitation promotes macrophyte survival and growth in freshwater ecosystems threatened by eutrophication. Journal Of Ecology, 100(2), 530-538.

Riplett, L., Engstrom, D., & Conley, D. (2012). Changes in amorphous silica sequestration with eutrophication of riverine impoundments. Biogeochemistry, 108(1-3), 413-427.

Gareca, E.E., Vandelook, F., Fernandez, M., Hermy, M., & Honnay, O. (2012). Seed

Fox News Please Revise Edit the Submitted Research
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70963331
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Fox News

Please revise/edit the submitted research paper rough draft and add 4 additional pages of content.

The paper organization is as follows:

FULL literature review and an extended discussion of the actual findings, briefly compared to those previously predicted and indicated in rough draft.

In a stunningly short period of time, Fox News went from being the potentially disastrous offshoot of merica's "fourth network" to literally the most watched news network in the country (Nielsen, 2012; Sterling, 2004, p. 654). The network bills itself as "Fair and balanced," but there are times when this tagline seems less than an actual description of the network and more of a cruel joke. Regardless of one's political leanings, even a cursory glance at Fox News' products, whether on television or the Internet, suggests that contrary to its tagline, the network is anything but balanced. Instead, Fox News demonstrates a conservative bias, and…

A separate study comparing the reporting bias of CNN and The Fox News focused on the characterization and information reported about the Muslim Brotherhood, the leading political opposition group, during the Egyptian revolution and directly following Mubarak's resignation in January 2011 in Tahir Square (Glover, 2011). The research employed a content analysis of the television broadcast transcripts in order to understand the scope of the coverage and the discrepancies in reporting during the Egyptian crisis. (Glover, 2011) The analysis illuminated bias in both news channels, however, a higher frequency of exaggerated extremism was seen in reporting by the Fox News channel (Glover, 2011).

Research that analyzes the media coverage of the 2008 presidential primaries and election produced similar results, finding that Fox News appeared more willing "to cite outside polls [concerning a politician's approval rating] if they were damaging" to Democrats (Groeling, 2008, p. 655). This study was admittedly limited, as it only focused on each network's "flagship" show (which in the case of Fox News was determined to be Special Report), but it nevertheless bolsters the evidence of Fox News conservative bias, especially when taken in the context of other studies. Furthermore, this kind of content analysis is helpful when determining bias in the future, because it helps to demonstrate how bias can be revealed in more than just words; whereas the Iraq War study did find bias revealed through word choice, this later study found it the use of particular polls, demonstrating how media bias can course through nearly every facet of an organization without necessarily appearing blatant or intentional.

The studies mentioned above all looked to particular topics or issues in order to determine bias by looking for key words; thus, the Iraq War study examined words and phrases concerning the war, while the study of the presidential race examined the use of polls and how things were framed. Because this study is examining the network's bias in general, rather than its treatment of any given topic, it is necessary to examine its coverage of a number of different issues. Only then will one be able to convincingly argue that Fox News is indeed conservative, rather than strictly pro-war or pro-Republican. This is necessary because what makes media bias such as that demonstrated by Fox News so detrimental to society is the way that it allows news organizations to function as their

Leadership and Research Methods
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Summary and Analysis of The Forgotten Followers Contingency Model of Leadership and Follower Self-leadership by Seokhwa Yun and Jonathan Cox and Henry P Sims Jr.

This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of leadership and follower attributes on follower self-leadership.  The abstract provides a clear summary of the study in terms of its purpose, research methodology, findings, implications and limitations of the study, practical implications, and originality/value of the study.  As shown in the abstract, the purpose of the study was to assess the effect of leadership and follower attributes and follower self-leadership.  The researchers found that the impact of leadership on follower self-leadership was dependent on follower need for autonomy.

As part of conducting the study, these researchers introduce several concept beginning with the idea that, “Not everyone wants to be empowered!”  The statement basically highlights the two major differences in people’s response to self-leadership opportunities i.e. some people…

Measurement Scale and Business Research
Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92246886
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Measurement Scale

The first decision with respect to measurement scale is whether the findings will be reported on a composite scale or a summated scale. A composite scale is probably the most appropriate for this study. A summated scale is commonly used in the social sciences, and can be used to reflect people's attitudes, emotions and feelings. There are four main characteristics of a summated scale. The first is that the scale must contain two or more items. The second is that the format must be a rating scale. The third is that the scales "must be designed to assess an underlying construct that is quantifiable. The fourth is that the items do not have correct answers (Spector, 2006). A Likert scale is an example of a summated scale.

The composite scale is one that transforms the original data point. There may be just a single variable, but sometimes there…

References

Marcus, B. (2006). Composite measurement. Sage Research Methods. Retrieved November 18, 2015 from https://srmo.sagepub.com/view/the-sage-dictionary-of-social-research-methods/n26.xml

Spector, P. (2006). Summated ratings scale. Sage Research Methods. Retrieved November 18, 2015 from http://srmo.sagepub.com/view/the-sage-dictionary-of-social-research-methods/n203.xml

Loans Envisioned Research Methodology Association Loans Association
Words: 4859 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 84889499
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Loans Envisioned Research Methodology

Association Loans: Association Loans Envisioned Research Methodology

Association Loans: Envisioned Research Methodology

Envisioned research Methodology and Design

Methodologies Considered

Quantitative Methods

Correlation

Experimental Study

Qualitative Methods

Descriptive Research Methods

Interviewing

Focus Group

Mixed Method

Research Designs Considered

Convergent Design

Explanatory Sequential Design

Exploratory Sequential Design

The Embedded Design

Research Validity and Reliability

Strengths and weaknesses

Method of Data Collection

Primary Data Collection

Secondary Data Collection

Justifying Choice and Alternative methods/designs

Conclusion

ibliography

Introduction:

The loan associations work on different grounds as compared with commercial bank loans. The commercial and saving bank loans and financing options are usually provided by the financial service providers are more focused to provide funds for business venture. The loan's security is also devised based on credit cards, business performance, and the likelihood of growth potential. However, the loan associations and building loans are more concerned about promoting land and building ownerships.…

Bibliography:

Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2007). Business research methods. USA: Oxford University Press.

Caprio Jr., G., & Vittas, D. (Eds.). (2007). Reforming financial systems: historical implications for policy. USA: Cambridge University Press.

Creswell, J. W & Clark, V.L.P (2010). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. USA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Dexter, S. (2009). A treatise on co-operative savings and loan associations. USA: BiblioLife, L.L.C.

Introduction to Research Methodologies
Words: 1102 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 83884595
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represented by different methodologies, describing the purpose of every methodology and providing an example of a research problem for every methodology. The ideas that will be discussed in this paper include exemplifying what encompasses a research problem and also making comparisons and contrasts between qualitative research and quantitative research with respect to their strengths and weaknesses.

Matrix

Experimental esearch

Correlational Study

Grounded Theory

Ethnography

Quantitative

Quantitative Study

Quantitative Study

Qualitative Study

Qualitative study

Qualitative study

To enable the researcher manipulate one variable while measuring other variables and therefore making it possible to examine cause and effect of research problems

To measure the relationship or correlation that exists between two variables

To question and interrogate a massive group of people regarding their philosophies and standpoints on a certain phenomenon

To develop a theory or theoretical model where none exists in the literature in relation to the sample

To describe and interpret…

References

Bryman, A. (2007). The Research Question in Social Research: What is its Role?" International Journal of Social Research Methodology 10: 5-20.

Choy, L. T. (2014). The strengths and weaknesses of research methodology: Comparison and complimentary between qualitative and quantitative approaches. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(4), 99-104.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2008). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Sage.

Proposing and Justifying a Research Method and Design
Words: 1766 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33133730
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gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.

Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.

As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…

References

Charmaz, Kathy. (2003). Grounded theory. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage. Retrieved from:

 http://guides.temple.edu/groundedtheory 

The gender gap. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from:

 http://www.jbhe.com/2012/03/the-gender-gap-in-african-american-degree-attainments/

Qualitative and Quantitative Research Differences
Words: 771 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 80375544
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Discussion of the Differences Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Q1. How does a research problem/question guide the determination to conduct a quantitative versus a qualitative research study?
In general, qualitative research is exploratory in nature and seeks to understand a particular phenomenon from a particular subject’s perspective (McLeod, 2017). It is open-ended in its focus and the researcher has no predetermined conclusions before embarking upon the study. As a result, it focuses on a small rather than a large population. In stark contrast, a quantitative study seeks to understand a phenomenon in an objective fashion that is generalizable to a large population (McLeod, 2017). It is often framed in the form of a predetermined hypothesis and is narrow in its focus.
Q2. Discuss the value of using a conceptual framework or theory (grand or mid-range) to guide a quantitative research study. Address the debate of the appropriateness of using of…

Bioethical Research One of the
Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59899446
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Also, there has been pressure in the different professions for every research design to follow these general procedures (Chadwick, Bahr, & Albrecht, 1984, pp. 19-20).

The researcher needs protection as well as the subject does. An important protection of confidentiality is testimonial privilege. This protection is not absolute and must yield to other concerns in some cases such as state's requirement that certain diseases (infectious diseases) or injuries (child abuse or neglect, gun shot wounds) be reported to prevent further injury. Written, informed consent to release information is the best defense against an allegation of a breach of confidentiality (Brent, 1997, p. 258).

Bioethics and informed consent extend beyond the area of research into that of medical practice, calling for medical personnel to inform patients of what treatment are being given and what options the patient may have. Such efforts are seen as both ethical and as empowering for patients,…

References

Bower, R.T. & de Gasparis, P. (1978). Ethics in social research: Protecting the interests of human subjects. New York: Praeger.

Brent, N.J. (1997). The home healthcare nurse and confidentiality and privacy. Home Healthcare Nurse, 15(4), 256-258.

Chadwick, B.A., Bahr, H.M., & Albrecht, S.L. (1984). Social science research methods. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall.

Heinrich, Bernd. "What Is Natural?" Discover (June 1994), 40-42.

Freuds Work and Researches Which Clearly Indicate
Words: 2333 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 12850810
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Freuds work and researches which clearly indicate that they were developed through researches involving case studies. In a case study every aspect of the subject is researched and analyzed so that obvious and notable patterns and behaviors can be identified so that particular causes for behaviors and psychology in some cases can be identified. The main purpose is to learn what can be learned from one subject and some basic points in this way can be generalized and applied to others as well (Yin. 1984). However case studies happen to be very subjective since they are mostly based on one area of focus, so it makes there points or even them very hard to generalize and apply their results to a larger proportion of subjects.

Types of Case Studies

Explanatory: These types of case studies are used for investigations which are casual in nature.

Exploratory: these types of case studies…

References

Powell, R.R. (1985). Basic research methods for librarians. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Simons, H. (1980). Towards a science of the singular: Essays about case study in educational research and evaluation. Norwich, UK: University of East Anglia, Centre for Applied Research in Education.

Stake, R.E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Swisher, R., & McClure, C.R. (1984). Research for decision making, methods for librarians. Chicago: American Library Association.

Generational Differences in Social Media Usage
Words: 2329 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31623145
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The topic for this paper is to determine what is meant by social change from the perspective of graduate students today. The paper is organized into four parts. The first part presents a background statement concerning the issue of interest and the gap in the existing body of knowledge the study intends to address. A description concerning the role of the researcher is provided in the second part and an explanation concerning the process of gathering, organizing, and analyzing data to form the basis of the methods used in this study are presented in part three followed by the analysis and interpretation of those data. Finally, a discussion concerning the trustworthiness of the findings that emerged from this analysis and a summary of the research are presented in part four.
Introduction

Background statement

What you have learned about social change as a social issue. Because the historical record confirms that…

Cognitive Bias and Social Desirability Bias in
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Cognitive bias and Social Desirability Bias in esearch Study

Cognitive Bias

Exercise 1: Impact of cognitive biases on the research process.

Cognitive bias is an individual's tendency to base an opinion or decision on inconsistent perception or knowledge of research data. Cognitive bias may cause either a success or failure of a project. The nature of decisions by the researcher may contribute to the success or failure of the research project. A direct effect or impact is that, cognitive bias can cause significant negative impacts on the perception of projects risks. Cognitive bias has direct impacts on the research process, and it is easy to identify the impacts of cognitive bias based on the previous or past information applied in carrying out research. According to Haselton, Nettle and Andrews (2005:724-746), cognitive bias is an error in judgment caused by memory, societal ascription, and arithmetical errors. These errors are common to…

References

Brewer, M.B. 1979. In-group bias in the minimal intergroup situation: A cognitive-motivational analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 307 -- 324

Fisher, R.J. 1993. "Social Desirability Bias and the Validity of Indirect Questioning." The Journal of Consumer Research. 20: 303-315.

Haselton MG, Nettle D, and Andrews PW. The evolution of cognitive bias. The handbook of evolutionary psychology, 2005:724-746.

Leggett, C.G., N. Kleckner, K. Boyle, J. Duffield, and R. Mitchell. 2003. "Social Desirability Bias in Contingent Valuation Surveys Administered Through In-Person Interview." Land Economics 11:561-575.

Counter-Terrorism and Social Media Freedom vs Security
Words: 5692 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49775496
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Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom vs. Security

The United States prides itself to being the most democratic nation of the world, with the highest respect for the human being, for its values, norms, and dreams. At the same time, before 9/11, it was also considered to be one of the safest nations of the world. The attacks on the World Trade Center towers, in particular pointed out that there are gaps in security and that even the United States represent a vulnerable target. Since then, the security measures have been seriously increased, in certain areas of expertise; security rules have been created if they did not exist. All these measures fueled a constant debate on whether the security that has been increased affects or not the liberties and freedoms of the American population.

On May 1st 2011, Osama bin Laden has been announced dead by the U.S. President, arack Obama…

Bibliography

CNN Wire Staff. (2011) "Bin Laden killing caps decade-long manhunt." CNN Asia.  http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/05/02/bin.laden.dead/index.html?hpt=T2 

Cook, Martin L. (2001) Ethical Issues in Counterterrorism Warfare. Department of Command, Leadership, and Management. U.S. Army War College. May 3, 2011 http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Resources/PhilForum/Terrorism/Cook.html

Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Michigan Dept. Of State Police v. Sitz. 1990.  http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0496_0444_ZS.html 

Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Terry v. Ohio. 1967. May 3, 2011  http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0392_0001_ZS.html

Theory of Knowledge in Math and Science
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Name 4

Name
Professor
Class
Date:
Theory of Knowledge
Without the assumption of the existence of uniformities there can be no knowledge.
One of the presumptions of acquiring knowledge, particularly knowledge in a scientific or mathematical context, is that there must be causal relationships that can be observed or intuited between different phenomena. Human beings base their behaviors on this presumption on a regular basis. We wake up in the morning to the sound of an alarm clock and assume we can shut off that alarm using that particular button because we did so on previous occasions. We do not assume that every experience with an alarm clock is a new encounter. Similarly, we assume that the laws of gravity will secure ourselves in place to the earth and we will not go flying off into space. In science and math, the presumption that natural and mathematical laws have a…

Stakeholders Research Project
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Stakeholders Research Project
Introduction
Preliminary stakeholder identification around any natural resource proves vital to carrying out meaningful trans- disciplinary researches with regard to managing that particular resource. Stakeholders may be defined as all players capable of impacting, or being impacted by, any action or decision (after Freeman 1984). Natural resource management research scholars (e.g. Grimble and Wellard 1997; Dougill et al. 2006; Ravnborg and Westermann 2002) constantly report that the inclusion of stakeholders in finding solutions facilitates mutual learning and negotiation, improves stakeholder buy- in and support of actions and decisions, and decreases conflict. Trans- disciplinary study strategies build on this rationale through assimilating stakeholders and integrating the diverse kinds of ideas and knowledge they bring with them to the table in socially- sound, solution- focused studies (Lang et al. 2012; Bracken et al. 2014; Hurni and Wiesmann 2014).
Quite frequently, project reports and scholarly papers’ descriptions pertaining to stakeholder…

Alternative Types of Qualitative Research
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Beyond Creswell's Five Approaches

According to Creswell, there are five basic approaches to qualitative research: case studies, phenomenology, narrative research, ethnographies, and grounded theory approaches. However, not all theorists classify qualitative research according to these categories. Some have a separate category for pure qualitative 'history' approaches whereby the focus of the study is upon a specific past event or phenomenon. This approach uses primary sources like letters, newspapers of the period, journals, interviews, recordings, and other types of information accumulated by past researchers. It is used to "describe and examine events of the past to understand the present and anticipate potential future effects" (Qualitative research designs, 2014, UMSL).

Another approach to qualitative research is symbolic interactionism or participant observation, in which the researcher becomes 'part' of the research process and data-gathering. "Participant observation is a period of intensive social interaction between the researcher and the subjects….Participant observers are trained in…

References

Qualitative research designs. (2014). University of Missouri at St. Louis. Retrieved from:  http://www.umsl.edu/~lindquists/qualdsgn.html 

PPA 696: Research methods. Data collection strategies II: Qualitative research. (n.d.). Retrieved

from:  http://www.csulb.edu/~msaintg/ppa696/696quali.htm#Participant