Social Science Research Conceptualize and Operationalize the Essay

Excerpt from Essay :

Social Science Research

Conceptualize and operationalize the variables in that sentence

What is the relationship between age and responsibility?

Age refers to the numbers of years a person has live right form birth till date. Age may indicate the level of maturity of an individual depending on the circumstance a person has been brought up. The age of a person can only be categorized and measured according to figurative values. For instance age can be categorized as follows

a) 0-10years (children)

b) 11-20 years (adolescents)

c) 20-30 years (adults)

d) 30-40 years (old people)

e) 40-50 and above (elderly people)

Responsibility refers to the capability of an individual to handle certain situations the immediately surround him or her. Responsibility reveals the capacity of a person to take care of a given assignment to excellence and perfection. Responsibility can be categorized as follows

a) Very responsible

b) Responsible

c) irresponsible

d) Very irresponsible

Age and responsibly are closely related. It is important to realize that the maturity of an individual goes hand in hand with age. The younger a person is the more irresponsible he or she can be in any given circumstances. On the other hand, old people and the elderly are expected to be responsible because these people understand consequences that follow certain decisions. For instance, an adolescent (young boy) may be rebellious and refuse to attend school yet an adult will willingly attend classes without being compelled by another person.

Essay Two

Compare and contrast probability and non-probability sampling methods

Probability and non-probability sampling methods are both used in experimental analysis and making certain conclusions concerning a given analytical study. Probability sampling refers to a sampling techniques that a researcher can use to calculate the probability of a certain happening while non-probability sampling does not use this concept. Probability sampling equitable chances to all participant unlike non-probability sampling which has bias on certain participants and subjects. Non-probability sampling has no random selection of participants unlike probability sampling, which include random selection (McQueen & Knussen, 2002).

a population sampled using a probability sampling method

Population chosen: University Students

Find out the probability of a smoking students in the university

Students from various walks of life join the university to further their studies. While there are students from religious families other comes from various backgrounds of different cultures. Each students has his or her own belief and practice, which is acceptable in the family. This study is meant to highlight the rate of smoking amongst the university student.

Method: at the entrance, the researcher interviews and questions each students about smoking. This way the results obtained will have no bias as the researcher will not have picked any student using a specified criteria, but has given all students equal opportunity.

a population best sampled using a non-probability sampling method

Population chosen: modern women living in the city

A research done to know the effects of smoking in pregnant women. This survey will only be done on female subject specifically pregnant women. This means that the researcher has a bias on pregnant women. Hence, he or she can move from one town to another looking for opinions of smoking from pregnant women.

Essay Three

Define the following ethical issues and describe how each might influence your study, such as measure selection, methodology, design, and results.

Voluntary participation

Voluntary participation refers to the involvement of subjects that the researcher has not looked for. In voluntary participation the researcher is likely to receive many subjects in the research. Nonetheless, voluntary participation does not offer any compensation or penalty to the participant. Hence, voluntary participation can result to the withdrawal of participants at any given time.

No harm to subjects: this is the guarantee given to any person of participant involved in a research bout his or her safety. It is fundamental to assure the subjects about their safety. This surety plays a key role in confirming the participation of the subjects throughout the study.

Anonymity and confidentiality: refers to the omission of participant names for the surveys. This develops confidence of the participants and improves chances of people participating in the research. In addition, by enhancing confidentiality, the researcher can obtain adequate information concerning a given subject.

Guidelines for reporting: they are statements which act as the guide in research to eliminate cases of bias and improper subject…

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