While these processes are based on facts, the discourses surrounding the term globalization are actually not. This means that globalization should not automatically be equated with neoliberalist economics and should not be imagined as making the nation-state concept obsolete (Kelly 1999). Thus it can be theorized that this discourse is open to change and interpretation, thereby leading to a wider set of alternative views regarding the term globalization.
Various alternative views regarding globalization can be offered, which signal significant departures from traditional views. One such view has to do with regarding the nation-state as still being in existence and in control of world affairs. The state's continued role can be observed for example in the various intergovernmental organizations in existence, which are created and regulated by state actors. Another view has to do with the notion of global civil societies, in which social movements such as environmental groups, feminist organizations,…… [Read More]
As is often the case, the groups most hurt by the crisis are those who are already marginalized -- the working poor. This group is unable to qualify for social services but is likely to have had their hours cut, benefits reduced, or both. They may have a mortgage that is too high for their income level; children in school, and be unable to actualize or improve their situation because of the economic lull and the tremendous difficulty in finding employment in some segments. This group is also likely to not have adequate savings, and is therefore one paycheck away from the street -- which would then place the burden upon society and continue to contribute more to the overall problem (Kolb, 2010).
Balderama, a. (2009, March 17). Workers Over 60 Are Postpoining etirement - Thanks Economy! etrieved January 2011, from the Work Buzz: http://www.theworkbuzz.com/current-affairs/workers-over-60-are-postponing-retirement-thanks-economy/
Bucznski, . (2010, April…… [Read More]
Social Theory and Globalization:
The topic of globalization has become one of the trendiest subjects in modern political and academic debates because it covers a broad range of discrete economic, cultural and political trends. Since its multi-facet in nature, the attributes of globalization have become difficult for people to conceive especially for those who believe its existence. Consequently, there are various definitions of globalization that have emerged from various disciplines of social science. In some cases, globalization is referred to as the broadening of economic, political and social activities across frontiers ("Theories of Globalization," n.d.). Because of this extension of activities, decisions and events in a certain region of the world can have a significant impact on individuals and communities in another part of the world.
Globalization can also be defined as the social process in which geographical limits on political, social and economic aspects withdraw making people to act…… [Read More]
" Their opinion does have merit but it is limited
It is impossible to separate the person from the environment because both of these ideas depend on each other to make sense. A person needs an environment in which to live in, his environment is his present surroundings. This cannot be escaped and therefore sociological theories that proclaim environment as being a proponent in causing crime is correct at some level of investigation. Flipping the argument also reveals that a person has made a free will choice to maintain themselves within a specific environment also proclaiming the truth in life course sociological theories of criminal behavior.
Both can be used effectively when appropriate however. The truth much like crime is relative and unique to the individual. Blanket statements or panaceas that offer impossible solutions doesn't help frame the argument and ultimately detracts from the more important parts of the discussion.…… [Read More]
Crime and Social Theory
Deviance Interpreted by Social Theories
Illicit Drug Use
Illicit drug use has historically been seen as a global threat towards society and a primary contributing factor for the prevalence other crimes, such as smuggling, home invasions, property crimes, assault, and murder. In 1969 President Nixon stated publicly that illicit drug use is a serious national problem and in 1971 declared the "War on Drugs" (National Public adio, 2007). Over the two decades since, other governments around the world, including the United Nations, followed suit, but differed substantially from the United States in how much emphasis was placed on deterrence through incarceration (Bewley-Taylor, Hallam, and Allen, 2009, p. 1).
Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use
An estimated 21.8 million Americans were using illicit drugs in 2009, which represents about 8.7% of the population (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2010, p. 1). Of these, 16.7 million used…… [Read More]
The complexity of the issue is underscored by the attempts to not discuss the issue on the larger political stage. This is supported by the presentation of race issues as being historical in nature. The inherent suggestion is that at present these issues no longer exist. As long as identity construction is anchored in the political and cultural dynamic then historical antecedents will remain relevant to the discussion and debate.
While the concept of freedom is intimately linked to the understanding of being one's self, technological developments have whittled away at this inherent notion of personal freedom. The development of new and more subtle forms of control has in a covert manner removed the sense of personhood and replaced it with the construction of the whole. Traditional understanding of freedom in terms of political, economic and intellectual have limited applicability in the modern arrangement. The individual is constantly being…… [Read More]
Teachers will continue to lead the educational process, but they need to be very sensitive about the issues facing the society as a whole and the children as individuals in this society. Then, education becomes a means of identifying the issues in the life of the students and gaining knowledge and understanding about them. Education in this global society also has to acknowledge that cultural diversity is valued and preserved (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 190). Teachers have to ensure that their students are taught in ways that respond to cultural groups without bias (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 420). In education, there is a responsibility for students to gain a respect for other races, religions and gender that are different from their own. This is the only way that a diverse society can successfully survive.
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New…… [Read More]
ational choice theory can in fact encompass the other two previously mentioned theories of criminal behavior due to the fact that acting rational may include conflicting with common culture or joining the neighborhood gang to eventually escape the ghetto.
Of all the theories of criminal behavior studied so far, rational choice theory is the most applicable to the current state of society in my opinion. Much too often criminals are often dismissed for their faults, when in actuality they are truly acting rational and within their known boundaries of experience. Blanket laws do little good when examining them under this theory. Followers of rational choice theory would agree that changes within the criminal justice system should be made to expose the relative circumstances surrounding each case and not assuming that common punishments meet the required solution for the problem. Warner tended to agree: "building stronger communities will require not…… [Read More]
Theory vs. Ideology
What is ideology?
Ideology is a belief system that supports and promotes personal or a group's social or religious agenda. In some cases its nature will be obvious to most people, but in other cases an ideology will be disguised as scientific fact based on nonexistent or reinterpreted empirical evidence. Ideologies are invariably supported by personally- or collectively-held religious or political beliefs, rather than extant empirical evidence or objective observation. Concepts within the ideology are typically framed in a black and white manner, such as right vs. wrong, just vs. unjust, and Evil Empire vs. God's Country. The use of such terminology has the effect of erasing the inherent complexity common to most social issues. From the perspective of a social scientist the most important characteristic is that ideologies are refractory to scientific inquiry and may go so far as to attack opposing beliefs to preserve its…… [Read More]
While there are clearly circumstances where the civil society sector is at odds with the state, there are at least as many where the relationship is one of interdependence and mutual support…. The state has thus emerged in the modern era not as a displacer of nonprofit activity but as perhaps the major philanthropist… (Salamon & Anheier 1997, p. 63-64).
Calprig is an independent statewide student organization that works on issues such as environmental protection, consumer protection, hunger and homelessness. In essence, members of Calprig desire to build a better society through a plethora of volunteer activities. The group also provides students with the opportunity to practice their effective citizenship both on and off campus. This semester, the organization focused primarily on six campaigns: The Ocean and Plastic Ban is a short-term goal to ban plastic bags in Los Angeles California; Big Agriculture, although not a lot planned for…… [Read More]
The effects of information technology on the society
The social capital framework
In this paper, we evaluate the validity of the statement that IT is radically changing the social world. We perform a critical analysis of the concept of social world and social capital and how it is influenced by information technology. This is carried against the backdrop of the concept of information technology as the conceptual framework. The paper concludes that indeed the statement that IT is radically changing the social world is true.
The contemporary society has witnessed a series of transformations which can directly be attributed to the concept of technological dynamism. Technological dynamism is a concept which was defined by Albu (2009) as the rate of exchange in the level of predictability of new technologies. The technological advancements that we witness today are largely as a result of the lack of knowledge that exists…… [Read More]
It is the process of interaction among family members that determines the rules by which the family is governed. This is the family's level of cohesion, its adaptability, and its communication style. Finally, these interactions work together to serve individual members and collective family needs;
(3) Family function is the output of the interactional system. Utilizing the resources available through its structure (input), the family interacts to produce responses that fulfill its needs; and (4) the family life cycle introduces the element of change into the family system. As the family moves through time, developmental and non-developmental changes alter the family structure and/or the family's needs. These, in turn, produce change in the way the family interacts." (Allen, et al., 2007)
Figure 1 -- the Family System
Source: Allen et al. (2007)
The family is stated by Allen et al. (2007) to have many "attitudes, rules and communication patterns which…… [Read More]
Social Science and Why Is it Important?
The definition of social science has been narrowed down to those sciences that deal with human activities and human behavior as opposed to science that studies natural phenomenon. However this division may be superfluous now because modern science has its origin from the old social sciences. Science evolved from the society which also contained many thoughts that may be out of the realm of modern science like "religion, philosophy, ideology and politics." (Williams, 2000)
Thus the scientific theories are based on a philosophical thinking that is often shaped by politics or religion. The relationship between science and other streams of human thought and science changed with the changes in scientific method which again form within the disciplines of each branch of science is different and often contradictory. (Williams, 2000)
The argument at this stage is if the social world is amenable to experiments…… [Read More]
Organizational theory refers to the behavioral and social theories which help in the understanding of both informal and formal organizations. It makes references to a number of fields - anthropology, sociology, psychology, semiotics, economics, communications science, history and cybernetics (Sage Publications, n.d). The field has become popular with sociological researchers. Many of these researchers, drawn from such fields as medical sociology, social movements, political sociology and education, have realized the need to study this concept because of the role in empirical research that big organizations play. Scholars out of this field have always found discussions regarding organizational theory arcane. These scholars also hold the view that all that organizational theory concerns itself with is firms and so it is not applicable in other social situations. The formal or complex organization is the study object in organizational theory. Assumptions are made that there exists goals, rules, hierarchy and definitions of membership…… [Read More]
theories you selected, and explain how they provide a theoretical framework for your Final Project. Be specific, and provide examples.
n this week's Discussion, will briefly describe the structural/cultural social theory (traditional/classical) (Tangenberg, 2005, 197). n terms of contemporary theory, we will examine a theoretical integration of ecosystems and structuration (contemporary social theory) in order to examine the issue of human trafficking (Case, 2008, 213). These theories provide a theoretical framework for the final project.
Due to the multi-faceted nature of human trafficking, it is necessary to examine it in terms of the old and the new slavery simultaneously. As Bales and Soodalter point out in their book, human trafficking has become a priority for the Obama administration (Bales & Soodalter, 2009, vii). For this reason, social work professionals have a window of opportunity in which to construct studies that will affect the contradictory sets of laws that…… [Read More]
Nursing: Theory and Nursing Practice Issues
Theory and Nursing Practice Issues: Nursing
The modern-day staff nurse faces a variety of challenges in the work environment. These include inadequate staffing, the authority gradient, and issues related to changing models of care. The nurse leader has a duty to aid staff nurses working under him in addressing the challenges posed by these, and other issues facing the nursing profession. Leadership theories provide effective guidelines by which nurse leaders can address issues inherent in the nursing profession. In so doing, they accord staff nurses adequate opportunities to make meaning out of their lives. Leadership theories such as the situational leadership theory, the transformational leadership theory, role theory, and path-goal theory provides crucial insights from which nurse leaders could draw reference when seeking solutions for problems facing subordinate staff nurses. This text explores how leadership theory can be applied to nursing practice issues, and…… [Read More]
Social Networking and Social Media: A Case Study of Walmart Inc.
A Case Study of Walmart Inc.: Social Networking and Social Media
Walmart is an American-based multinational discount retailer operating in over 27 countries. It is the world's largest company by revenues, and the largest private employer in the Fortune 500 list of companies. Walmart has shown steady growth and improvement since 1965, when it was founded as Sam Walton as a general store. This text explores Walmart's organizational culture, structure, and digital media strategy with the aim of determining their role in the company's continued success.
A Case Study of Walmart Inc.
Walmart is the world's largest discount retailer, operating over 11,000 stores in 27 countries, including the U.S. Headquartered in Bentonville, Arkansas, Walmart grew from a family-owned general store in 1965 into the world's largest company by revenues. In 2015, the company ranked 20th in the Forbes list…… [Read More]
Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second orld ar, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…… [Read More]
I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.
Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…… [Read More]
Social Psychology Concept Matrix
Social Psychology Concept
Application to Society
Application to the Individual
The researcher selects a certain number of people from the population that he/she wants to study and presents them with a list of questions on the topic asking them to respond in order to elicit their opinion.
The survey can be conducted in writing, over the phone, as face-to-face interview, or in a small-group oral format
The survey can be used to, for instance, discover the expectations that citizens wish from their new president.
The citizens of the country can be polled and asked what they wish the president to accomplish for them / their country in the new term. Results can tell the government what the citizens most wish to be implemented in their country.
Tjaden and Thoennes (2000) surveyed men and women to find their comparable…… [Read More]
Social Cognitive, Behavioral Drinking
Social Cognitive/behavioralist Drinking
Drinking behavior provides informative demonstration of how social cognitive and behavioralist theories provide complementary rather than competing explanations of human agency. Bandura (1999) casts social cognitive theory against various determinist and materialist theories on the assertion humans are "sentient agents of experiences rather than simply undergoers of experiences" because people explore, manipulate and influence the environment they discover (p. 4). This contrasts against "automaticity," habit, "tendencies to repeat responses given a stable supporting context" (Oullette and Wood, 1998, p. 55). Oullette & Wood (1998) compare habit learning to skill development, where practice can lead to "nonvolitional, frequent, and consistent experiences in a given context" but new situations require deliberation (p. 55). Wood and Neal (2007) largely reiterate this summary as repeated learned behavior (843). The present inquiry is particularly interested in how and why particular behaviors become repeated after negative consequences have been…… [Read More]
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…… [Read More]
Social Implications of Sexual Identity Formation and Coming Out Process
Chad Mosher's article, "The social implications of identity formation and the coming-out-process: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature" provides a fairly comprehensive look at the theories and realities of individuals asserting their homosexual tendencies to the world. The article is widely written as a source of material and instruction for psychologists who are employed in a therapeutic or counseling capacity with such individuals, as there are implications for them to incorporate into their practice in the article's conclusion. In addition to discussing the two principle theories regarding coming out, essentialism and social constructionism, the author discusses aspects of the theories that are integrated as well as the effect of coming out on both the audience and the homosexual perception. Audiences are stratified into three distinct categories: family members, heterosexuals, as well as homosexuals and those somewhere in between…… [Read More]
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia: How the Social Media Affect the E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia
SOCIAL COMMECE IN SAUDI AABIA
Conceptual Framework Model
Psychological Aspect and Theories
Digital Divide in Saudi Arabia
Ethos, eligious conviction, and Government in E-commerce Adoption
The ise of the P Industry in Saudi Arabia
Conceptual Model and esearch Hypothesis (Drawing)
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia
Modern Saudi Arabia today actually represents an exceptional and convergent mixture of social conservatism and technological ability, a wonderful alteration from a remote, desert land that it was just something like 50 years ago. As social media is turning out to be increasingly prevalent in Saudi Arabia, online marketers are starting capitalizing in methods that service social media and include online customers. In Saudi Arabia Online marketers' adoption of new online marking trends is being prompted by discoveries that show individuals are spending great amounts…… [Read More]
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
Integrity and…… [Read More]
What is meant by the term 'social enterprise' and what do social enterprises contribute to society and the economies in which they operate?
The acceleration with which the world is changing day by day is continuous. A majority of organizations that have a motto of 'not-for-profit' are looking out for prospects with the help of which they can begin or widen their projects in order to get their missions fulfilled and offer the needy the earned profits. Thus, any organization or scheme that brings about the mentioned twofold objectives is considered a social enterprise. Social enterprises sell mission-related goods or services and by doing so they try to create a more impartial and fair environment through specific market-based strategies (Bornstein & Davis 2010).
In other words, a business is regarded as a social enterprise when the main objective is to cope up with the prevailing societal problems and…… [Read More]
Statement of the Issue
Beginning with a discussion of Social Darwinism's inherent logical fallacy, this study examines whether or not wealthy industrialists of the nineteenth century actually practiced what Social Darwinism called for. By considering the history of the concept and its relation to capitalism, it becomes clear that not only did wealthy industrialists practice Social Darwinism, but that they embraced it precisely because it provided a justification for the unethical business practices they were already engaged in.
Statement of the Issue
Social Darwinism was a major force in the political, economic, and social landscape of the nineteenth and early twentieth century, but it represents something of a conundrum for the historian attempting to determine whether or not the wealthy industrialists who were proponents of Social Darwinism actually practiced what they preached. The difficulty stems from the fact that Social Darwinism is itself an example of a formal…… [Read More]
Social Order and Inequalities
Social order and inequality
Ideas, beliefs, values, norms, roles, statuses, organizations and social class may have impact on an individual's life directly or indirectly. This can be in form of gender and social inequality. The life of my friend Jane who is a woman is an example of how these phenomenon impacts the life of individuals.
Gender inequalities rise from deepening division in the roles that are assigned to men and women, especially in the political, economic and educational sphere. When my friend Jane could not make it to the leadership of their community despite various attempts, it showed that women are always underrepresented in political activities as well as decision making processes. This is brought by the ever existing beliefs that men are better leaders than women. As a woman she is subjected to institutional discrimination where they face problem of accessing education which has…… [Read More]
Social psychology view: What ensures that women are treated fairly in office settings in the United States?
One of the most prudent applications of social psychology within contemporary settings are those that relate to gender. Gender issues can become exacerbated when they are viewed within particular social constructs, such as the work environment. Due to the fact that the majority of the world was initially a patriarchal society (particularly in the United States) before modern conceptions of gender became prevalent, the role of women within the work environment is one which is certainly worthy of investigation in terms of how women are treated, what sorts of issues they must contend with, and how others (men) consider working women. The principle difference between contemporary and most historic notions of gender pertaining to women in the workplace is that in modern times, there is supposed to be a substantial greater amount of…… [Read More]
Social Perceptions and Bias
Within any organization there is a dual cognitive and emotional role in making decisions. In the 21st century global environment, this role is accentuated and allows far less time than ever before. Typically, decision making is the result of stimuli, then choosing from alternatives based on past and current knowledge, then making a final choice of an action or group of action. One way of looking at the decision making process is that it is ingrained within the human psychological perspective, which makes it both unique and complex for the individual or organization involved. esearchers Seo and Barrett (2007) present a theory that contrary to the popular belief that emotions (feelings) are dysfunctional in decision making, in fact, research shows that individuals who are able to identify and distinguish among feelings have a greater chance of making successful and discreet decisions by looking critically at their…… [Read More]
This in turn generates a kind of societal morality. As a consequence, social order becomes an incorporated trait of everyday life. According to the theory, what people see as standards are indirect behavioral rules. Infringements of the standard lead to diverse amounts of punishment depending on how common the standard may be. Chastisements can come in the shape of being disqualified from one's social group, critical looks, or imprisonment in the case of harsh infringements like killing or assault (Jeanty, 2010).
As sociologists and historians examine social work, they often see a profession the spirit of which is social control. For them the language of therapy, assisting, or even empowerment masquerades a coercive center. Various recent literature of the vocation, conversely, has confronted the attitude of those researchers who depend on case reports as proof of what social workers in fact do in the field has highlighted empowerment in the…… [Read More]
Social evolution to rapid revolutionary change and contemporary globalization dynamics: Emphasizing the an Analysis of Global Economics.
An article that recently appeared in The Korea Herald, "U.S. And Germany stress cooperation" details a visit to Germany by U.S. Treasury Secretary Tim Geithner, who met with his German counterpart to discuss the financial crisis that has enveloped Europe as of late. The context for this meeting was important, as the European Union's currency, the Euro, has consistently been devalued in the past few years and several countries that are part of this alliance (17 altogether) are contemplating various measures in which the currency and the economic solidarity of the EU could be saved.
The crux of this article, which directly correlates to Hans-Werner Sinn's opinion editorial, "Why Berlin is Balking on Bailout" actually has less to do with the meeting between the two financial heads of the U.S. And Germany and…… [Read More]
Social trends in Education / the next 5 years
With societal establishments and school structures, we can carry the most important task of providing youths with the necessary education which will provide them opportunities to thrive in our community. A simple casual glance at the comparative mode of lifestyle in our country would make it obvious that these establishments performed in an excellent manner for the greater part of this century. But the universe is transforming in manners that radically remodels the suppositions, customs and guiding principles, which catered the American people earlier. Besides, the pace of transformation is gearing up at an amazing speed, requiring in many customs and establishments the need to progress in certain spheres. To look forward to modifications, to a certain extent than acting in response to it, schools are spotting developments and scrutinizing their probable connotations.
ather than guessing what the coming years has…… [Read More]
Social and Labor Issues of Supply Chain Management
There are a myriad of labor and social issues that all enterprises need to contend with in designing, implementing and managing an international supply chain. In addition to the specifics of how suppliers will communicate pricing, product, and transaction-specific information and also synchronize efforts to support product introductions, there is also the more challenging social and labor issues to contend with. These differences are exacerbated by vast cultural differences between regions and nations. One of the most valuable frameworks for understanding social and labor issue differences in international supply chains is the Hofstede Model of Cultural Dimensions (Hofstede, 1993). This framework provides dimensional insight into how labor and social issues within and between nations can be planned for and optimized to gain the greatest level of performance given the inherent constrains in supply chain management (Hofstede, McCrae, 2004).
Analysis of Social and…… [Read More]
A model that stresses the fact that people in a generally bad mood or situation will seek out pro-social behaviors, i.e. To help others to make him or herself feel better. (Berkowitz 185) Though this theory has often been contested, not simply because it tends to negate altruism but because people in bad moods tend not to seek out the doing of good deeds, (Berkowitz 186) these two examples of pro-social behavior in this film are both realistic and examples of the negative state relief model of action.
The first example is when Rob agrees to help two skater slackers and frequent shoplifters at his store to produce a record. Rob does not have a record label but it is a logical extension of his love of music and of human progress. He walks into the store, where Barry and Dick are listening to a demo tape of Vince and…… [Read More]
Social Control Theory of Juvenile Delinquency
Travis Hirschi's Social Control theory of deviance assumes that deviant behavior is largely a function of the connectedness of the individual to his or her society; more specifically, Hirschi's assumptions are that juvenile delinquency, and criminal deviance more generally, are inversely related to the following elements of connectedness between the individual and the community: involvement, commitment, attachment, and belief (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002).
Structure of Theory
Hirschi used the concept of involvement to describe the manner and extent to which the individuals takes part in the so-called "conventional" activities, such as extracurricular school functions and other organized opportunities for socially productive youth recreation available in the community (Macionis, 2008). Hirschi used the concept of commitment, to describe the basic "acceptance" in the most general senses, of fundamental social and behavioral norms, values, and expectations in the individual's community…… [Read More]
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…… [Read More]
Grohol J. (2005). Attachment heory. Psych Central. Retrieved October 7, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://psychcentral.com/psypsych/Attachment_theory
Psych Central is a web site which provides free mental health, support and psychology information and resources online since 1992. he site is clustered with numerous links to psychological issues and people related to this field. his article has been written by Dr. John Grohol who is a renowned psychologist and owner of this web portal. he article focuses on the theory of attachment explaining various behavioral patterns observed in the canvas of this theory.
Holmes, J. (1993). John Bowlby and Attachment heory. New York: Routledge.
Jeremy Holmes is a Consultant Psychiatrist/Psychotherapist in North Devon
District Hospital, Barn Staple, United Kingdom. He is also a visiting professor at Psychoanalysis Unit University College London. In this book, Jeremy Holmes provides a focused and coherent account of Bowlby's life and work, based on interviews with…… [Read More]
Concluding in Political moderation, in "A Theory of Justice," and in later works, John awls explains a comprehensive, as well as influential theory, which is on the subject of, presenting a theory of justice in concurrence with the liberal-democratic passion that relates to the rights and freedoms of individuals in society. It entails that the rights of the individuals ought to be moderated by various types of clauses, making certain that no social or natural eventualities are overlooked. The theory declares that no inborn benefits of political authority, substance riches or natural capability should irreversibly or overpoweringly establish life chances. Furthermore, more distinctively, these morally subjective issues should not establish the value of political liberties to moral persons (1).
In 1971, awls's explains his first articulation of his theory of justice which highlights on individual abilities that he entitles the "Original Position" and in addition, a model of…… [Read More]
Some jobs will require that a person continue his college education and some will require learning that can take place on the job in order to acquire the needed skills.
on-the-job training can take place in several forms. An outside training firm can be brought in to the company to hold seminars on a relevant topic for the employees. In this environment, the social nature of learning could be one of camaraderie or competitiveness among the adult employees. The adult employee wanted to get ahead may try to excel and outperform his coworkers to increase his chances of advancing. On the other hand, the environment could be more of a friendly social nature while everyone is learning. They may be asked to work in groups, much like in a college classroom setting. This will allow them to collaborate and perhaps learn about new skills they can acquire from their coworkers.…… [Read More]
I find this very surprising because I thought that social learning and incorporation of operant conditioning as part of the social learning theory plays a preeminent role in influencing criminality.
I think that the theories that explain best the findings of the articles are the sociological and theories. Psychological and biological theories are not suitable for support. I chose from the sociological theories the "Social Disorganization Theory" emanating from the Chicago School research of Shaw and McKay. According to this theory's general hypothesis "low economic status, ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility, and family disruption lead to community social disintegration, which in turn increases crime and delinquency rates" (Sampson, .J. & Groves, W.B., Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory, p. 774.) The Social Disorganization Study is the theory that by virtue of the article's title actually underlies the research of Triplett & Gainey. But in large parts it also mirrors the…… [Read More]
Social Exchange Theory
the teacher an e-mail states. In words, explain . Your answer pages double spaced. 1. What Social exchange Theory? 2. List focus assumptions Social Exchange Theory describe . 3. How concepts work theory?
What is social exchange theory?
Social exchange theory views human beings as essentially self-interested creatures. 'What's in it for me?' is the underlying question behind all human actions. People engage in social interactions and relationships to obtain benefits for themselves, whether these benefits are economic, social, or personal in nature.
List some focus and assumptions of social exchange theory and describe one of them.
Human beings are assumed to be rational in their behaviors and motivations, and are capable of calculating what is the best of a series of given alternatives to maximize personal gains. There is also an assumption that humans are capable of assimilating enough useful knowledge to make such decisions (Witt…… [Read More]
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…… [Read More]
Additionally, Sociocultural theory assumes that individuals develop self-concepts through interaction with others, and we are influenced by culture and social processes, such as social norms. Social norms dictate that girls are more sensitive and boys are less emotional, thus further explaining the gender differences in the above case study.
The two predictions of how these interactions affect a child's development are: 1) if the child is treated with more love, intimacy, and talked to about feelings, the child will grow up being more sensitive to others and more open to discuss their feelings with others. If the child is taught not to respond to their feelings, or let their emotions guide them, the child will grow up to be less sensitive, more aggressive and less likely to discuss their feelings. Depending on treatment, a child may grow up to have negative qualities, such as violence or repressed anger.
These interactions…… [Read More]
Thus, this aspect can multiply into many sub-genres that focus on one or more aspects of the social world as they contribute to influencing behaviors and innate thought processes. Focusing on the social means looking for more abstract concepts that relate to existence within a social world. Actually trying to predict later success in publication, "Predicting the future success of junior scholars is of great concern to academic hiring committees," (Haslam & Lamb 2009:144). Yet it is based within two correlating variables that can then be compared, "It is therefore reasonable to predict that publication success during graduate school may be associated with publication success later in people's academic careers," (Haslam & Lamb 2009:144). Although the subject is socially constructed, the method of analysis is still quantitatively measured. Even this study shows quantitative measurement use- using mathematical prediction models in analysis of data (Haslam & Lamb 2009). egression analysis, common…… [Read More]
The participants should be able to rate their performance both in the experimental situation involving a small audience and in that involving a large audience.
This is also a measure of their self-efficacy prior to exposure to the audiences. The purpose of this act is to see whether the change in their self-evaluation is due to exposure to the audiences. The self-evaluation is done by using a self-administered questionnaire. The second stage is the exposure to the two types of audience. After performing in front of the two types of audiences, the group of gymnasts is asked to rate themselves using the same self-administered questionnaire. Using the subjects' self-evaluation it is possible to identify the changes. And by taking into consideration the changes it would be possible to decide whether the size of the audience had any impact on the performance. However, in such a study it is possible to…… [Read More]
Indeed, his model includes the entire range of human experience and its effect upon behavior, while at the same time explicating it without being excessively confusing.
To accomplish this is a rare feat indeed. Bandura appears to have accomplished the difficult task of explaining the complex nature of human behavior in a non-complex way. This is what makes his theory so fascinating. It shows the reader the different aspects of human behavior as well as the various elements that can influence it. At the core of the theory lies the understanding that human behavior is affected by both external and internal factors, and how these interact with each other.
Having read the article and the various aspects of the theory, it is therefore not surprising to find at the end that the theory has many useful applications in the healthcare field, and in particular in studying how children develop.… [Read More]
Critical thinking, a higher order of thinking about and dealing with issues, is quite relevant in many contemporary disciplines, particularly social work. It is a way of looking at information, of processing that information in an analytical manner, and having the ability to bring both life experience and other information to bear on the regular processes of one's discipline. Certainly, it can be used as an approach to daily lie, reading, public speaking, even watching movies or attending a concert. Within the social work discipline, it is a way to take a careful appraisal of beliefs and actions and then arrive at well-reasoned and thoughtful interventions that increase the likelihood of helping clients and avoiding harm -- reasonable and reflecting attitudes that help decide what to do and when (Papell and Skolnik, 1992).
Social work, and other medical and sociological and medical disciplines often turn toward theory as…… [Read More]
Improving social justice for women has been identified as one of the building blocks of social change. Population control, education, and the eradication of domestic violence are all interlinked. "UNICEF estimates that worldwide, some 117 million school-aged children do not attend school, 62 million of them girls. Attendance rates are lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, where only 57% of girls are in school, and just 15% of these go on to secondary school" (About us, 2011, Women's global education fund). Women's education is not simply a feminist issue. Higher rates of female education are linked to lower birth rates and better health outcomes for children as well as women.
Women who are educated are more empowered to take control over family planning and have more resources to take care of the children they do have. "Educated mothers limit their families," says Dr. Yasmin aashid, a leader in obstetrics and…… [Read More]
There is a good case to be made for focusing on externalities and seeking to manage all of them in a social responsible manner, especially as the world becomes globalized and the key success drivers become relationships and information.
Mintzberg, H. (1994). The rise and fall of strategic planning. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved May 16, 2010 from http://online.worcester.edu/external/evescio/Principles%20of%20Management/strategicplan.pdf
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved May 16, 2010 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
De Toni, a. & Tonchia, S. (2003). Strategic planning and firms' competencies: Traditional approaches and new perspectives. International Journal of Operations and Production Management. Vol. 23 (9) 947-976.
ettstein, F. (2010). For better or for worse: Corporate responsibility beyond "do no harm." Business Ethics Quarterly. Vol. 20 (2) 275-283.
Peng, M., ang, D. & Yi, J. (2009). An institution-based view of international business strategy: A focus on…… [Read More]
(2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice esearch, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis evisited. Status Bias in the eduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. esearch Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Pearson, A., Dovidio, J., & Pratto, F. (2007).acial Prejudice, Intergroup Hate, and Blatant and Subtle Bias of Whites toward Blacks in Legal Decision Making in the United States. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p145-158, 14p. etrieved July 8, 2009 from EBSCO online database Full Text http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=27747337&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
amasubramanian, S. &…… [Read More]
While he supported me in my endeavors, he raised many questions, >Why do you want to enter social work? How do you think you are going to provide for your family and the lifestyle you are accustomed to?" Deferring to socialization pressures that still impel them to fulfill the "breadwinner" role and avoid feminine characteristics, they may segregate themselves from women in the profession, selecting specialties or positions that society deems as more appropriate for men (Williams, 1995). They too may emphasize the masculine aspects of their jobs to "reduce the dissonance between their professional and gender identities" and to justify their career choices (Christie, 1998, p. 506). Thereby, male social workers adhere more closely to the social definition of masculinity" (ritton, J. & Stoller M., 1998).
The young people who are trying to enter into a social work profession "hope to advance research and social work services for men…… [Read More]
A nation faithful to democracy is blessed and called to spread this "good news" throughout the nations "(Withrow,2007, p.15 ).
Coupled with this "gospel" was the support and verification of major scientific theories during this period. Social Darwinism was derived from Darwin's work on the evolution of the species. In essence, Darwin's theory of human evolution refers to the principle of the 'survival of the fittest," on which the ideal of human progress becomes possible. Therefore, taking this principle into account, Social Darwinism attempt to explain and justify the social and economic inequalities in society in terms of those who are the strongest and fittest in the society i.e. those who are the most prosperous and who accumulate the most. Therefore, the vision that this theory produced was one that favored and justified the strongest and most successful in society.
In order to understand the impact of Social Darwinism one…… [Read More]
Social Media and Barthes Cultural Myths
Social Media and Barthes' Cultural Myths
hile social media services undeniably bring individuals together, they also have created a new type of cultural understanding of words. They have created a subset of individuals, who, as users of social media, conceptualize words themselves differently than individuals who are not social media users. Using Barthes' definition, social media itself can be seen as the setting of a cultural myth. It is a vast network wherein signifiers, which outside the myth are associated with their own rich set of signifieds, are given new interpretations (Barthes 1957/1972). That is, these concepts, which outside the myth are imbued with connotative meanings, within the myth are set at a distance from those meanings and given a related, though slightly different, set of signified concepts. In particular, the concept of "friend" within the social media myth gains its own, new, mythic…… [Read More]
Thus, many firms rely not on spam but on opt-in e-mail promotions. One of the primary ways of having customers volunteer their e-mail addresses is through mandatory registration on a Web site. Firms that rely on registrations can cull their customers' e-mail address and send direct promotional materials to them. Targeted to the customer's interests, the e-mail flyers and brochures have the potential to bring in consumer traffic to Web sites or in some cases to brick-and-mortar stores. The disadvantage with using e-mail as a means of direct promotion is that many consumers do not provide a valid e-mail address or reserve a spare, hardly used e-mail address specifically for Web site registrations.
Viral marketing has become a potentially robust form of Web-based promotion. Including cleverly placed press releases, articles, and blog entries, viral marketing allows customers to come to the company rather than vice-versa. Word-of-mouth marketing empowers the consumer,…… [Read More]
Theory Methodology and Human Development
Analyze a selected topic from a social scientific perspective by doing the following
Explain the significance of a suitable question, which you have formulated, for social scientific analysis.
The impact that video games, as a form of media entertainment, have been a matter of concern for politicians, parents, and legislators. However, the results generated from the scholarly literature are not in agreement; researchers continue to disagree about the impact that video games have on people.
Analyze three research problems (i.e., subordinate questions) that will help answer the social scientific question that you have formulated.
For purposes of this research, a quantitative research design is utilized.
What is the relationship of playing video games to increased levels of obesity?
Walsh, Gentile, Walsh, & Bennett (2006, p. 2) found that "children who spend more time playing video games are heavier, and are more likely…… [Read More]
Hildegard Peplau was another pioneer in the fields of nursing and healthcare. One of her lasting innovations in this profession can be evidenced from her work in and regard for a theoretical perspective of nursing. The following quotation identifies some of the contributions she made in nursing theory. "According to Peplau (1952/1991), nursing involves the therapeutic interaction between two or more individuals motivated to come together by the pursuit of a common goal, the product of which is mutual growth. The common goal provides the incentive for the therapeutic relationship between the nurse and the patient (Plummer, M., & Molzahn, A.E., 2009, p. 137)."
Additionally, Peplau helped to stratify the various stages involved in nursing. She identified these stages as the orientation phase, the working stage and termination phase, and outlined a series of tasks and perspectives which influenced her theory about each of these stages (Plummer, M., & Molzahn,…… [Read More]
Social Work Informatics in Child Protection
Social Work esearch
The research design for this study utilizes mixed methods in order to identify variables that function as benefits and inhibitors of the use of technology by child protection case workers. Surveys that are a hybrid of quantitative (correlational survey techniques) and qualitative approaches will be conducted with case workers (Creswell, 2009). Survey questions that will permit inclusion of qualitative data in this study are considered to be essential by this author as they yield data that provides depth and detail from which to create understanding of the phenomena under study and the lived experiences of the survey respondents, which in this instance are case workers who provide child protection services (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Accordingly, the survey will contain both close-ended and open-ended items, such that quantitative data is available for analysis of correlations and qualitative data is available for grounded…… [Read More]
My views tend to classify modern societies first by their political system: socialist, democratic, representative, totalitarian, and then move more into demographics and psychographics.
1.2 Political Quarrels -Describe, in a 250-300-word post, one of the quarrels faced by the Britons or the French. Analyze the role of that country's history, geography, political institutions, and its culture in relation to the quarrel.
For centuries, Britain and France have been at odds with one another. This likely goes back to Medieval times, then progressed through the Age of Discovery, claims to colonies -- especially in the new world, and the age old rights to economic development of Europe and the oceans. Historically, in 1066 the Duke of Normandy led and invasion of England, defeating the English at the battle of Hastings. William, the Duke, had himself crowned King of England, but remained a vassal of the French King, which became humiliating to…… [Read More]
Social System, Institutional Values and Human Needs_
Burton's Deviance, Terrorism, and War redefined the nature of the problem to be discussed and the means to discuss it. Burton's agenda is not about states and state centric dynamics. He constitutes a new definition of the problem and a new definition of the reality (1979). In fact, the subtitle of his book, solving unsolved social and political problems, attests to this. Burton's work is therefore committed to addressing the process as opposed to stasis or structures. The book is committed to solving social and political problems and not their containment, management, or control. It is committed to initiating change not coercion. It is concerned with recurrent patterns of human behavior at all levels of social complexity (Burton, 1979).
Burton (1979) assesses the way society classifies and defines deviance. Structure of freedom underpins a portion of Burtons work. Structure of freedom is recognized…… [Read More]