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For example, in the early days of the Russian Revolution there was a very high standard of democracy which those fighting the revolution created.
In the early days soviet democracy prevailed, land and factories were turned over to peasant and worker soviets, the debt was canceled, the banks, trusts and cartels were nationalized... [it was] democratic to the core, in which the police and standing army were to be replaced by the armed people." (weissman) This was changed not by an internal failure, but because European and American forces both sent armies and provided military and monetary support to counterrevolutionaries within Russia.
The Civil War, brought on by the world bourgeoisie... [with] fourteen invading armies and the White 'contras' of the day... brought the end to soviet democracy.... [partly because] the advanced revolutionary workers had been killed in the Civil War; olshevism now governed a mass of war-weary, semiliterate peasants…… [Read More]
There also tends to be less bureaucracy and regulatory constraints for business growth. Businesses are often motivated, because of increased market competition, to serve the customer with expanded services and lower prices. The downside, of course, is that many individuals fall through the cracks of capitalist systems: people may work hard but not receive healthcare, private universities can charge very high tuitions, and elite universities only give scholarships if it suits their budgets. This can limit access to education and opportunities. There is less job security under capitalism, fewer benefits such as daycare to make life at home manageable for wives and husbands, and also less generous unemployment insurance. Finally, capitalist societies tend to be more reluctant to regulate entrepreneurial excesses, as was seen in the recent meltdown in the subprime mortgage industry.
Few systems operate purely on Marxist-controlled principles or Adam Smith 'invisible hand' ideals entirely, of course: the…… [Read More]
Marxism and National Socialism
Lenin's version of socialism, which became the model for the Soviet Union, China, Cuba and other underdeveloped nations that underwent revolutions in the 20th Century, was highly centralized, hierarchical and authoritarian. It emphasized rapid industrialization and economic development under the direction of the Communist Party, although in all these semi-feudal societies this was carried out without the benefits of any type of liberal or democratic traditions. Lenin was a tyrant and mass murderer, whose authoritarian (or totalitarian) system became the model for other tyrants like Stalin, Hitler and Mao. Contrary to the original hopes of Karl Marx and even Lenin, no socialist revolution occurred in Germany, France or any estern nation, all of which remained dominated by governments hostile to the Soviet Union and Communism in general. Although Hitler led a National Socialist 'revolution' in Germany in 1933, this ideology was hostile to Marxism, Communism, democratic…… [Read More]
These commonalities encompass all aspects of the society, which includes the economy, the political structure, history and culture of the nation.
Modern nationalism traces one of its roots to the history of Germany, wherein, for as early as 1815, the pursuit for nationalism became evident through the student associations or "urschenschaften," which promoted and encouraged German nationalism through the circulation of the writings of Johann Fichte and Lutheranism. Strong antagonism against the rise of nationalism in Germany is reflected in the conceptualization of the Carlsbad Decrees, which censors publications and other secular forms of propaganda and writings from these student associations. The suppression of the civil society's assertion of their nationalism and liberalism broke out with the occurrence of an insurrection against the Frankfurt Parliament's discriminating legislation in 1848. However, unlike the revolutions that took place asserting nationalism in European countries during the same period, the attempt to liberate Germany…… [Read More]
Sociology: Capitalism and Socialism
Socialism and capitalism are fundamental schools of thought in the study of economics, with opposing views regarding the government's role in economic operations and economic equity. Socialism is against inequality, and holds that the government has a duty to reduce, or eliminate the said inequality through initiatives that are beneficial to the poor. Such initiatives could include subsidized or free social services such as healthcare and education, progressive taxation, etc. Capitalism, on the other hand, believes that the government, compared to the private sector, is an inefficient resource allocator. Due to this, its role should be limited; and the free forces of demand and supply left to allocate economic resources.
Similarity between Socialism and Capitalism
The most fundamental aspect of similarity between the two schools of thought is that; both recognize the concept of scarcity of economic resources (Lawson, Jones & Moores, 2000). Capitalism and socialism…… [Read More]
This is evidenced in (Thessalonians 3:10) where it is written, "For even when we were with you, we would give you this command: 'If anyone is not willing to work, let him not eat.'" Ideally, each person contributes what they can to the well being of everyone else. This is further evidenced in (Ephesians 4:28), where it is written, "Let the thief no longer steal, but rather let him labor, doing honest work with his own hands, so that he may have something to share with anyone in need."
Public ownership of certain means of production is supported in (Isaiah 65:21-22) where it is written, "They shall build houses and inhabit them; they shall plant vineyards and eat their fruit. They shall not build and another inhabit; they shall not plant and another eat; for like the days of a tree shall the days of my people be, and my…… [Read More]
There have been three main systems of government that have persisted from the beginning of the 20th century through the present. Of course, those three methods would be communism, socialism and capitalism. This report will address a number of pertinent questions when it comes to this topic. Answers will include why some systems are pilloried, why some systems are seen as superior and how both of these lead to the ebb and flow of how governments are structured and react given economic troubles, war and so forth. While no single system is perfect, there are those that tout the "best solution" based on a number of justifications and reasons.
As for why socialism is seen as discoursing individual initiative, the common reason for this belief is that people will be prone to being less engaged, less motivated and less self-sufficient if they are going to receive financial, healthcare and…… [Read More]
His proposition to adopt socialism as the social order was supported by the fact that in the socialist setting, the working class, which makes up the bulk of the population during his time, would benefit most as the 'riches' of the country will spread among the people rather than concentrated to the wealthy or elite class. However bleak the picture of industrialization was demonstrated in his discussion in the "The Social Gospel," Rauschenbusch still believed that perhaps, industrialization was the catalyst that would prompt the development and "beginning of a progress in the intellectual, social and moral life" -- ideally embodied by the socialist society.
In Rauschenbusch's discussion and analysis, the working class became significant because they were the direct 'oppressed' individuals in the industrialization happening in his society during the 19th century. Like Rauschenbusch, the increased development and shift in social structure of the society was what prompted Karl…… [Read More]
Also, these characters are clearly connected to a larger debate about guilt and punishment in a way that is meaningful and unforced and germane to all nations.
Susanne agues and eventually convinces Mertens that Bruckner should not be subject to private justice, but be punished publicly. The film deals with the real existence of former Nazi Captains like Bruckner, who were prospering after the war by keeping their former crimes a secret. Although the film is concerned specifically with orld ar II, it is still just as important for contemporary audiences to see as it deals with the ongoing debate of how war crimes should be handled after a nation has committed genocide.
The Murderers are Among Us" has a theme still as relevant today as it was to the Nuremberg trials. It is powerful testimony to the fact that film can still embrace and tell particular stories and give…… [Read More]
Jewish Victim Primary Source:
Victor Klemperer's I Will Bear Witness
Victor Klemperer was in many ways atypical of many Jewish victims of the Holocaust. He had a relatively privileged position as an academic, writer, and journalist. His identification with the Jewish community was rather tenuous. As noted by Martin Chalmers "Preface" to Klemperer's journals of the period entitled I Will Bear Witness, "Observance and the Reform Synagogue" that Klemperer attended as a child "was extremely liberal" and entailed no dietary restrictions; no bar mitzvah, and in contrast to Reform Judaism today, it was regarded as a "halfway house" between conversion to Protestantism and Judaism.[footnoteRef:1] Klemperer's beloved wife of forty-five years was a Protestant and this gave him a somewhat protected status when the Nazis came to power. Klemperer's area of academic interest was Voltaire, not anything pertaining to Jewish theology. Thus, his life experience is particularly illustrative of the extent…… [Read More]
Nineteenth century ideologies emerged concurrently with the ongoing entrenchment of secular values and the principles of scientific inquiry. With empirical methods at the fore, philosophers and social scientists also grounded their theories in the prevailing political themes and realities of their time. The industrial revolution had a profound impact on political ideology and practice throughout Europe.[footnoteRef:1] When Karl Marx developed the theories that would inform his most influential works like Das Capital and the Communist Manifesto, his theories blended the methodologies used in history and political theory with those used in social sciences, most notably economics. Marx’s scientific socialism reflected the shift from an economic and political model dominated by feudalism and tight authoritarian political control towards one that reflected the tenets of independence, self-governance, and human rights. [1: Joshua Cole and Carol Symes., Western Civilizations: Their History & Their Culture, Brief 4th ed. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2017) v.…… [Read More]
Karl Marx, the founder of modern socialism and communism and son of a lawyer was born on 5 May 1818 in Trier, and received his classical education. He studied jurisprudence at Bonn and later in Berlin, his obsession with philosophy turned him away from law. However, after spending five years in the "metropolis of intellectuals," he returned to Bonn aiming to habilitate in 1841 (The Life and ork of Karl Marx).
At the end of 1842 he took over the editorship and was received the honor of sending a censor ilhelm Saint-Paul from Berlin particularly to take care of the Rheinische Zeitung. However, this proved of no benefit since either the paper was made to undergo dual censorship, or additionally to the common procedure, every issue was subjected to a second stage of censorship by the office of Cologne's Regierungspr sident (The Life and ork of Karl Marx).
However, this…… [Read More]
Socialism is a highly charged issue in any capitalistic culture as a lack of general understanding of the term and the fragmentation of its application over the years has led many to equate it with both despotism and social degeneration through lack of personal control over the means of production. To many capitalist thinkers socialism holds back the progress of any one individual and therefore any culture that accepts it through the seeming lack of upward mobility available to those who practice socialism in a broad way. Socialism, generally defines is:
The general term for the political and economic theory that advocates a system of collective or government ownership and management of the means of production and distribution of goods. Because of the collective nature of socialism, it is to be contrasted to the doctrine of the sanctity of private property that characterizes capitalism. here capitalism stresses competition and profit,…… [Read More]
When Lenin's Bolshevik Revolution occurred, Russia was primarily an agricultural country with many of its people being little more than poor agricultural workers. There was little sign of an impending industrial revolution.
When Lenin came into power and held the position of head of government, he began to implement some of his socialist ideologies. In 1918, the Russian Constituent Assembly was dissolved and enabled the Bolsheviks to consolidate their political power. Prior to this consolidation, in 1917 the Cheka was formed. Created to defend the Russian Revolution, the Cheka began to clamp down on voices opposed to the Bolshevik party, taking control of newspaper content and ensuring no defamatory articles were written about the Cheka. As was always his intention, Lenin sought to introduce the world to his revolutionary ideas and in 1923 he looked to the Third World as the focus of his revolution. He praised China's socialist values…… [Read More]
Vatican II, officially known as the Second Vatican Council, was a meeting of many leaders of the Catholic Church to discuss both theological and social issues pertaining to the Church in the modern era. Convened by Pope John XXIII in the 1960s and continued by his successor Paul VI, the main goal of the Second Vatican Council was to establish the Church's role and meaning in the modern world, which it recognized as fundamentally changed from the role of the Church in previous eras. Many different topics of concern were examined during the many phases of Vatican II, and the Council produced a number of documents on these varying subjects that help to define Church doctrine and perspectives on the modern world. When it comes to the social thought and action of the Catholic Church following Vatican II, one of the most important documents produced by the Council…… [Read More]
Underground: On Socialism
Notes from the Underground is the story of a nameless, angry man who feels a kind of inchoate rage at society. The main plot of the novel chronicles the Underground Man's encounter with a prostitute. He alternately tries to explain the reality of her condition to the prostitute; humiliates her and abases himself before her. The short novel is a rebuke to the idea that creating an ideal world is possible, given the fallen nature of humanity. The Underground Man is treated cruelly by his friends but also treats others cruelty, like the prostitute. The Underground Man is so obsessed with criticizing and thinking he is unable to act against what enrages him. Other than occasionally lashing out at others in a pointless manner, he spends most of his days alone, in his garret. His life lacks a spiritual purpose and direction -- he constantly is angry…… [Read More]
Nevertheless, in the immediate period, due to the increasing prosperity, the Republican left started to benefit from the people's trust and this was proven as well by the elections in 1928. Moreover, the coalition formed by the German's people Party with the three Republican parties was undoubtedly considered a change. However, the situation was not to last long and one year afterwards in Germany the first signs of an economic depression have made themselves felt. As a consequence, people started to mistrust the political change they had sustained and that allowed the left-wing and right-wing radicalism to gain legitimacy, a fact which led to tensions of the parties which sustained those currents of thought on the political scene. In this situation, one of the logical measures, which later determined the appearance of Fascism, was that the Socialists, under the pressure of the fear that their sustainers would embrace Communism, became…… [Read More]
Cambridge; Cambridge, MA: Polity Press
Devine, F. (ed.) (2004). ethinking class: culture, identities and lifestyles. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
Joyce, P. (ed.) (1995). Class. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press
eid, I. (1989). Social class differences in Britain: life-chances and life-styles. London: Fontana [Franklin-Wilkins HN400.S6 EI]
ose, D and K. O'eilly (eds.) (1997). Constructing classes: towards a new social classification in the UK. Swindon: ESC/ONS
Wright, E. (1997) Classes. London: Verso
Zbigniew, a. (1972). Karl Marx: economy, class and social revolution. London: Nelson
Cohen, G. (2009) Why not socialism?
Elster, J (1986) an introduction to Marx
Gurley, J. (1976). Challengers to capitalism: Marx, Lenin and Mao
Lee, S. (200). European dictatorships, 1918-1945.
Marx, K. And Engels, F. (2005). The Communist Manifesto
Newman, M. (2005). Socialism: a very short introduction
Schumpeter, J (2010) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy
Wacquant, L. (2009). Punishing the poor; the neoliberal government of social insecurity… [Read More]
As long as the government will be able to tackle these concerns and retain a sustainable development of the economy, it is likely that China will become one of the most prosperous countries in the world. However, the authorities will need to watch for popular discontent following income inequality.
Qian Yingyi; the Process of China's Market Transition (1978-98): The Evolutionary, Historical, and Comparative Perspectives. Stanford University. April 1999. On the Internet at http://www-econ.stanford.edu/faculty/workp/swp99012.pdf.Last retrieved on May 13, 2008
2. Qian Yingyi; the Institutional Foundations of China's Market Transition. Stanford University. April 1999. On the Internet at http://www-econ.stanford.edu/faculty/workp/swp99011.pdf.Last retrieved on May 13, 2008
3. Tucker, Noah. How China rises. November 2007. On the Internet at http://21stcenturysocialism.com/article/how_china_rises_01546.html.Last retrieved on May 13, 2008
4. Weil, Robert. China at the brink: class contradictions of "market socialism. Monthly Review. January 1995. On the Internet at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_n8_v46/ai_16380655/pg_16.Last retrieved on May 13, 2008
Qian Yingyi; the…… [Read More]
" (Raines and Leather, 2007) This goal was achievable through wealth acquisition derived from "monopoly profits from successful innovations."(Raines and Leather, 2007) Schumpeter held that the ability of these businessmen is that which determines how far they will rise "because in that schema rising to a position and doing well in it is one and the same thing." (1950: as cited in Raines and Leather, 2007) Schumpeter also discussed the 'human element' in the political democratic decision-making in his work "Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy" and in one section which he entitled 'Human Nature in Politics' he stressed that the mindset of capitalism was one of rationalism and held a view of individual rationality as "consumers and in political activities as being quite limited." (Raines and Leathers, 2007) Schumpeter rejected the "idea of the human personality that is a homogeneous unit and the idea of the definite will that is the…… [Read More]
This includes previously mentioned measures such as increased governmental spending, directing funds towards education and health sectors etc.
Referring to Liberalism, we should first of all point out that liberalism does not necessarily limit its perceptions only to economic equality, as is the case with Socialism, but it extends its beliefs to the sector of civil and individual equality. This means that liberalism has always found itself as a promoter of human rights, as a sustainer of political freedom and the right to self - determination.
Going forth from these social and political perceptions, the social equality that liberalism promotes naturally leads to a policy of tolerance at a societal level. Liberal governances are generally know to be tolerant in terms of rights for social or religious minorities.
On the other hand, in terms of economic policies, liberalism promotes equality rather through the laissez-faire philosophy, through the capacity of the…… [Read More]
Heidegger and Hitler
Proponents of Heidegger's metaphysical viewpoint are reluctant to identify a relationship between it and the opprobrious Nazi regime which Heidegger supported from 1933 to 1945. Critics of Heidegger, however, view the relationship between his metaphysics and his politics as significant. One might well ask, therefore, whether the relationship is real or only apparent -- whether the tenets of National Socialism are found in Heidegger's philosophy, or whether the fact that the two came from one man is merely a coincidence that ultimately means little.
Yet, by the formula of his own analysis (set forth in Contributions to Philosophy: Of the Event), one can see that Heidegger's metaphysics cannot be separated from his politics anymore than he himself can be separated from the environment and context in which he came to maturity. But while some scholars view Heidegger's political views as having an impact on his metaphysical views,…… [Read More]
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…… [Read More]
S. The societal system practiced in France serves as a model towards which the U.S. aspire.
President Barack Obama's healthcare reform plan is considered by many as being a socialist experiment that will significantly hurt the economy (CBS, 2009). In opposition, the President has stated that he does not intend to implement a healthcare system that depends on the government. Instead, he would prefer a system in which the government competes with private insurance companies for selling coverage.
The Invisible Hand Principle
The invisible hand principle was developed as an opposition to the protectionist system. This principle is actually a metaphor describing the self-regulating characteristic of the market. In other words, such a system can be implemented due to a combination of factors, like self-interest, competition, supply and demand. Adam Smith, who developed this theory, considered that the action of these forces and their effects are able to allocate resources…… [Read More]
In fact, the UN's official policy attempts to limit the types of conditions that can be placed on debt forgiveness for third-world and developing nations. Despite this fact, it would be simplistic to state that G8 should not have the ability to make financial decisions independent of the UN and other international influence. As the countries that have provided the majority of financing for the world's poorest countries, it may be that the continued financial health of those countries depends upon them getting a financial benefit from such financial assistance. Therefore, the current world economy may actually depend on the ability of G8 to operate independently from the broader international community.
Q3: How does the Fisher effect impact the ability to forecast currency exchange rates? If the real interest rate is constant across borders, one would expect a constant currency exchange rate, but this does not occur. On the contrary,…… [Read More]
He was the typical immigrant who sought to make his way in America but the harsh realities of American capitalist system left him battered and broken with a dead wife and child. After wandering through a life of crime and corruption, Jurgis is finally redeemed through socialism; just as American society could be redeemed through socialism. The Jungle ends with the socialist making some progress in the American political landscape but with a long way to go. However, whatever message that Sinclair hoped to make about the American economic system became overshadowed by his descriptions of the actual conditions in the meatpacking industry. And the ultimate impact of the book was to alter the way industries were regulated to ensure the safety of the public.
Boyer, Paul, et al. The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People,
Volume 2: Since 1865. Boston, MA: adsworth, Centgage, 2010. Print.…… [Read More]
Mr. W.H. Moody
Dear Mr. Moody
This writing is in response to works such as The Jungle by Upton inclair. I believe that Mr. inclair is unfair in his assessment of the various aspects in my packinghouse. Of course his views are very subjective, and he presents only one side of the issue. With this letter then, my intention is to explain several aspects within my meatpacking house. These include working conditions, my political dealings, my views on the Chicago poor and immigrant population, and finally my feelings regarding the rise of ocialism.
Firstly then, the working conditions in my packinghouse will be addressed. The workers in my place of business are employed under an agreement that I pay them for a certain amount of a certain type of work. They are free to seek other employment if their working conditions or the conditions of their contract do not please…… [Read More]
osa Luxemburg's view of World War I, as demonstrated in her political tract "The Workers and the War," was relatively simple. She vehemently protested against the war on political grounds, arguing that it actually represented a dissolution of the socialist principles which had largely animated Europe and large portions of Germany at the time. This fact is readily underscored by the notion that the author was imprisoned for the majority of World War I due to her protesting this war as violating many of the crucial tenets of socialism. The author's primary thesis is that large international conflicts such as World War I were fundamentally contrary to the ideologies of socialism, which strove to unite and empower the working class. Luxemburg widely believed that World War I and the very conception of nationalism itself merely led to the disempowerment of socialists, and regulated the working class to its substandard living…… [Read More]
As nations move away from a bureaucratic approached to building government t monoliths, the course of political leaders has been termed "creating a more responsive government." Responsive government is a reaction against the long lines, and red tape which has typically stereotyped inflexible government behaviors. Responsive government must become a reality in a world in which citizens have instant access to information and influence which in the past was open to only a select few. Responsive government is an systemic approach which must be addressed by all types of governments, whether democratic, socialist, or modern hybrid.
Robert Dahl (2000) says that a paradox often exists in the execution of government services. Although a majority of citizens in most democratic countries may view participating in political life as neither urgent nor rewarding, overwhelming majorities of citizens do value the rights and opportunities their democratic system of government provides to…… [Read More]
The American business model and the American capitalist ideal has infiltrated every aspect of Indonesian society, transforming the way people live and work. Not all of the changes taking place are negative. Before American culture influenced that of Indonesia, local elite controlled a vast amount of wealth and power and created what can correctly be called a caste system like the one in India or more accurately, feudalism. Without any possibility for a middle class to emerge, many individuals remained impoverished and beholden to the landowning class. The influence of American culture has allowed a middle class to emerge. Large corporations hire local managers and community liaisons.
The Dynamics of Capitalism
Ultimately capitalism caused the Great Depression, even though capitalism also enabled social mobility on a scale never before practiced in human history. Rampant speculation was the main culprit: buying on credit and borrowing prematurely. Moreover, unchecked capitalism…… [Read More]
This also helps indicate the U.S. is indeed a nation and a nation with conflicting goals and ideals for many.
It is interesting that Heywood notes that in nations, there is a growing trend against nationalism and socialism toward religious fundamentalism. This is very clear in the Middle East, but it also seems to be taking place in the U.S. Just last week the national news reported there are a group of disgruntled Republicans who do not like the way the party is becoming more "liberal," and want to form a third, ultra-conservative, Christian Republican party. This seems to fly in the face of the Constitution, which clearly separates church and state, but it also seems to be a natural progression in nationalism as Heywood sees it.
Thus, the United States is indeed a nation; it fits the definition of several forms of nationalism that Heywood discusses. Just like states,…… [Read More]
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
The…… [Read More]
Although economic, political, and social structures had been changing for at least a century prior, the Industrial Revolution did have a tremendous and far-reaching impact on reconfiguring socioeconomic classes. Industrial capitalism shifted the centers of economic power to the private sector, and economic systems became far more decentralized than ever before due to the emergence of market capitalism. The new economic regime necessitated new political institutions, which in turn transformed social structures. Nineteenth century social formations included a leisure class known as the bourgeoisie and the working class, known as the proletariat, while the new political ideologies that supported capitalism included liberalism and socialism.
Prior to the Enlightenment, European social, economic and political institutions were dependent on Church authority (Burke, n.d.). The French Revolution was a harbinger of the new social and political institutions like liberalism and socialism. Monarchic rule was a thing of the past; once the seeds of…… [Read More]
This is designed to help support individuals who are dealing with financial challenges. The problem is that select amounts of recipients will use as a way to live off of the government. (Wolf, 2005)
How might a socialist and a capitalist government differ in its treatment of the problem of unemployment?
Socialists want to see massive amounts of government spending to create new jobs, training programs and provide unemployment benefits. A capitalist is opposed to these kinds of programs and believes that charities / private enterprises can address these issues.
In your opinion, should the government have the responsibility of providing health care for every citizen? Why or why not?
Yes, the government should provide health care. The reason why is because prices are increasing exponentially and the number of uninsured is rising. These factors are a sign that there is very little competition inside the sector. To address these…… [Read More]
Housing Support on Teenager Parents
Housing Support on Teenagers
The Impacts of Housing Support on Teenagers Parent in United Kingdom
UK leads Europe in teenage pregnancies in Western Europe with 35,966 conceptions in the under 18s in 2009. Majority of these unplanned pregnancies are the cause and consequence of social exclusion in UK. (UNICEF, 2001) There are 90K teenagers under 20 years and 8k under 16-year's pregnancies in England each year; it is the highest rate in Western Europe (SEU, 1999).
Teenage pregnancy can take place before first menstrual period (12or 13 years), which can result into pregnancy but usually occurs between 13 to 20 years of age. The National Health Services spends over £63 million a year on teenage pregnancies in UK. (Dennison, 2004).
Teenage parenthood is a serious social problem; it has adverse effects on parents and children. These young mothers have greater chances of being poor, less…… [Read More]
Moral Criticisms of the Market
Moral Criticisms Market This assignment requires read article Ken S. Ewert (found eading & Study folder). Note article, Ewert defending free market "Christian Socialists." He states position a rebuttal
Moral criticisms of the market: A critique of Ewert's analysis
It is interesting to read Ken S. Ewert's 1989 criticisms of 'Christian socialists' in light of current debates on other types of economic policies today. Ewert portrays Christian, leftist defenders of socialism as impervious to logic, in contrast to other former critics of capitalism, who grew more acclimated to capitalist principles in light of the failure of the Soviet Union Similar criticisms are made of 21st century religious fundamentalists, who stress the need for private enterprise to address societal problems 'on principle,' even when public regulation might be helpful and who try to define science, including science education, in religious terms rather than in terms of…… [Read More]
One of the most pragmatic applications of Marxist labor theory would be strong state regulations on capitalist enterprise: requiring, for example, mandatory profit sharing or a means to include all workers in the process of management and in rights to the means of production.
By the early 20th century, the Russian economy was rapidly industrializing, which dramatically altered social structures and institutions. The Czarist regime was showing signs of wear as a burgeoning bourgeoisie was amassing considerable wealth and corresponding political clout. At the same time, factories demanded a larger labor force and recruited from rural regions. Workers who migrated either permanently or temporarily to urban centers and to centers of industry experienced a significant breakdown in traditional social structures and family life. The first stage of the Russian Revolution occurred when the Czar was overthrown to form an aristocratic government, which was soon overtaken by the Bolshevik communists. Lenin…… [Read More]
Whatever happened you vanished, and neither you nor your actions were ever heard of again" (Orwell, 1949, p.168).
Principles of mass production are very clear in the novels. Huxley for instance, applied the idea of mass production in human reproduction, since the people has abandoned the natural method of reproduction. Mass production as the conventional feature of capitalism and Huxley's novel reinforces such. He talked about the requirement of the World State about constant consumption, which is considered as foundation of its stability. Huxley apparently criticizes the commercial dependence of the world towards goods. Conditioning centers teaches people to consume. Orwell similarly provides criticism to capitalism as well: "The centuries of capitalism were held to have produced nothing of any value." The Proles are the symbols of the capitalist system as they constitute the working class who work in assembly lines.
Destruction of the concept of family
oth novels…… [Read More]
Development is a general concept that includes many different aspects. The definition of development is improvement in human welfare, quality of life, social well-being, and satisfying the population's needs and wants. There are many different measurements for development, such as GDP, GNI, Human Development Index, Gender Inequality Index, Gini coefficient, and etc. Since each nation has its own culture, history, tradition, religion, and etc., the measurement of a successful development varies for different countries. As a result, although the general development concepts apply to all countries, each country needs to find their own specific way to develop. China has led the world its development among many various measures; especially economic growth. This analysis will consider some of the factors that are associated with China's exception development trajectory and what option it may hold in the future.
China's History of Development in the Twentieth Century
To understand China's rapid…… [Read More]
Combat. A French Resistance Newspaper from 1944
COMBAT: THE RESISTANCE NESPAPER
Big Brother: The Physical Embodiment and Symbol of the Party in Oceania
Big Brother's Predecessors: Hitler, Stalin and an Old British Recruiting Poster Featuring Lord Kitchener
BIG BROTHER IS HITLER AND STALIN, INCLUDING THE MOUSTACHE
By O'Brien X
Unlike the real dictators Hitler and Stalin, Big Brother does not really exist and has never existed, except as the symbol of English Socialism (Ingsoc) and the Party that controls all aspects of life in Oceania through totalitarian, police state methods. After all, a dictator with a physical body will eventually become ill, decline with age and die, Big Brother will live forever as the image of a Party that intends to remain in power forever. Its members will die off, even at the privileged Inner Party levels, but that matters no more than cutting off dead fingernails. As…… [Read More]
6. I disagree with fascism. Fascism promotes the whole of society over the individual, which appears to be a sound policy. However, in reality, fascist societies result in the widespread denial of basic human rights to those who do not fit into the government vision of normalcy.
7. I disagree with communism as an ideology, because its focus on collective ownership of resources ignores one of the basic truths about human nature: greed. Communist systems place far too much power in the hands of those who control the resources, and that power has been abused in every single communist government that has ever been established.
8. Conservativism is one of the ideologies I agree with the least. I disagree with it because one of its driving principles is an entirely free market. Conservatives believe that "Economic freedom is essentially about ensuring human rights. Strengthening and expanding it guarantees an individual's…… [Read More]
American verses Vietnam culture. It include History,( events impacted culture); Political (system governs culture); Economy (current economical system, producing distributing goods services; receives, profit transaction, (Capitalism, Socialism Mixed Economy).
Vietnamese culture largely differs from North American culture: firstly because of the influences that each of the countries have had over the years and secondly because of the form of government administering each state. oth the U.S. And Vietnam were at a certain point colonies and while the 1775-1783 Independence War made it possible for colonists to achieve autonomy, it was not until 1954 that the Vietnamese managed to remove French leadership.
The Independence War was the principal factor in installing a democratic system and the First Indochina War had Vietnam divided into two parts: one led by communist forces under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh, and the other under the ruling of emperor ao Dai. Although democracy dominated the…… [Read More]
However, a corporate executive, according to Friedman, would have to spend other people's money for a general social interest, by means of reducing returns to stockholders, lowering worker wages, or raising the price of products. However, herein lies the basic flaw of this author's reasoning, for the social responsibility of the business as it falls on the executive is to make sacrifices for the benefit of others. In a position of such power, a business executive needs to make policy decisions that might actually cut into his own profits, as opposed to the wages of the workers or the wallets of the consumers. While this author may argue that the only responsibility of the business is to make profits using all available resources, engaging in open and free competition without fraudulent activity, a business is a controllable extension of those who own and run it, and just as we have…… [Read More]
In that book, which Munoz claims was just a "long interview with a fictitious journalist," Pinochet portrays himself as a life-long "anti-Communist," and he recounts an experience he had as an army officer in Pisagua, a prison where communists were incarcerated. "The more I knew those prisoners and listened to their thoughts, while, at the same time, I studied Marx and Engels, the more I became convinced that we were mistaken about the Communist Party," Pinochet wrote. "It was not just another party… it was a system that turns things on their heads, dismissing any loyalty…" he continued (Munoz, 2008, p. 28). As though justifying the cruelty he perpetrated on thousands of civilians -- in the name of him keeping a grip on his dictatorship -- he said he was "…troubled that these pernicious and contaminating ideas could continue and spread throughout Chile" (Pinochet quoted by Munoz, p. 28).
Human…… [Read More]
Deng Xiaoping and Modernization
During the Cultural Revolution, Mao Zedong led a tremendously aggressive and transformative movement within mainland China that would forever change the face of his country and the people within its borders. Since the beginnings of Mao's communist China, there existed a powerful will amongst his supporters to remove the liberal bourgeois from Chinese society; the Cultural Revolution took this agenda to further, far more frightening extremes, in order to achieve that goal. During Mao's iron grip on China, he led the country into a nightmarish world of flawed policies, persecution, and utter destruction of the economy. Originally intending to industrialize and develop the nation by means of a proletariat movement, Mao sought to lift the lower class out of their poverty, calling on farmers, small-time laborers, and other low-income citizens to band together in order to oust undesirable members of society. At many points throughout his…… [Read More]
In the U.S. The conflict between progressive and traditional education has been going on for over 100 years, and E.D. Hirsch and John Dewey are polar opposites in this pedagogical and philosophical conflict. Dewey was indeed a support of the Left in politics who wanted the U.S. To become a social democracy and move away from more traditional conservative ideas. He thought that democratic socialism would be the wave of the future in urban, industrial society, and that the traditional education system was not preparing students to participate as active citizens in this new society. It was rigid, authoritarian and hierarchical, with teachers acting like dictators in the classroom and often dispensing plenty of corporal punishment. ather than follow a rigid, old-fashioned curriculum, the teacher had to allow students to participate in designing lessons that were relevant to their lives and experiences. Only this way could the public schools…… [Read More]
Whether or not it was the direct intention of our forefathers, it has been the Bill of Rights that has allowed for the existence of various movements throughout U.S. history. he right to assembly, the right of free speech and the guarantee of a free press have allowed for the various movements to be tolerated, even when they represented but a small minority of society. heir existence has served as a safety valve to keep internal pressure from building and exploding.
Every movement --whether we are speaking of civil rights, anti-war, and progressive, as well as labor, anti-nuclear, prohibition, and suffrage -- moved from the fringe where its diehard constituents kept the flame burning, no matter the political climate, to the forefront through the building of coalitions and partnerships that coalesced with a common, usually homogenized sense of purpose. Movements in this country have not only developed to spread…… [Read More]
The term "socialism" is often used to refer to an economic system characterized by state ownership of the means of production and distribution. Especially during the Great Depression, many socialists considered Soviet-style planning a remedy to what they saw as the inherent flaws of capitalism, such as monopolies, business cycles, unemployment, vast inequalities in the distribution of wealth, and the exploitation of workers (Socialism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialism)."
Americans, however, felt differently. Americans were raised in a nation that prides itself on the American dream. The entire American Dream is based in the belief that if one works hard, treats people fairly and strives for success they will achieve it.
Millions of immigrants come to America annually for the purpose of obtaining the American Dream that they have heard so much about back in their homeland.
Another element in the failure for socialism to take hold in the United States dates back to…… [Read More]
My impressions of the debate
Listening the debate one cannot fail to see that there are major differences in perception of how socialism should work and if, addressing the primary question of the debate, socialism has failed. In general, my impressions on the debate is that, while socialism has proven to be a failure, we cannot in the modern day society, avoid the incorporation of some aspects of socialism. For example, the tax scheme all over the globe is oriented to a socialism idea of wealth distribution, and with particular reference to the United States, the welfare scheme is oriented to the socialism ideology of taking from the Haves and giving to the Have-nots.
The other major impression generated from this debate is the fact that, a society cannot run entirely on each of the two ideologies; capitalism and socialism. While the general economy can run on capitalism, the social…… [Read More]
economic crisis that hit the international community and the world economies has determined, since 2008, a slow, almost invisible shift in the doctrinal preferences of more and more people in terms of deciding on the right economic approach to be followed in order to avoid such crises from taking place in the future. Although there have been numerous attempts to convince on the benefits of capitalism, the economic crises that have taken place since the 70s on a cyclical basis have been used as counterarguments for the efficiency of capitalism and free market economies as we know it today. In this sense, more and more people, scholars, professors, and even politicians, advocate a more moderate approach to capitalism to include several aspects of apparently long-forgotten economic doctrines such as Marxism. However, Marxism in its purest form is not the solution; yet, it offers the justifications for what is now seen…… [Read More]
Turning the Tide: Chapter Reviews and Summaries
"the Rising Tide"
In Chapter 1 of Turning the Tide, author Charles Stanley writes about what he considers the main problems of America, namely a lack of civic engagement and religious family values. The first subtitle of the chapter is "The Story of Our Storm." Stanley makes an explicit analogy between the swelling of the ocean from an unexpected storm and the various crises that are occurring in America. Unlike the natural ebbs and flows of the ocean, Stanley states that the difficulties America is currently facing are man-made.
Stanley identifies a wide variety of troubles currently afflicting America, only some of which are explicitly religious in nature. These include the rising bankruptcy and mortgage default rate; the escalating divorce rate; challenges to traditional values; even the rise of actual storms and extreme weather. Stanley also fingers more explicitly religious problems, such as…… [Read More]
Traditional and Modern Societies during the 'European Expansion': Modernism in Europe and the Rise of Socialism in Non-Western Societies
European expansion and the civilization of modernity" by S.N. Elsenstadt provides a through discussion and analysis of the dynamics concerning the European expansion, centering in particular on its effects in non-Western or Asian societies. Tracing the history of the European expansion from the emergence of industrialization to the development of capitalism in Western societies, the author seeks to determine what caused the seemingly contradicting development of the so-called 'expansionist' movement of modernization in Europe. That is, instead of spreading modernization and capitalism in Asian societies, what occurred was the rise of socialism, which is a new form of society that overturns the basic premises of capitalism -- in effect, modernization.
This paper discusses Elsenstadt's arguments regarding the changes in the European expansion in non-Western societies: from being modernist to socialist, even…… [Read More]
In what ways was Salvador Allende's "democratic road to socialism" in Chile distinct from Mexican and Cuban revolutionary movements? In what ways was it similar? Does it seem as though a democratic alternative to political coup d'etat is a workable and useful one? hy or why not?
Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens, or just Salador Allende for short, was the first of the South American leader to institute a Marxist form of socialism, who came to power through a democratic election. Although the election that brought Allende to power was virtually a three-way tie, the Chilean Congress eventually named him as president through a run-off process. This victory was substantial for Allende's life and he had tried on three previous occasions to win the presidency. At the time, the Chilean government had several left-leaning government factions, with some more radical than others. This movement mirrored many other movements found…… [Read More]
Social Revolution 1945 to 1990
Eric Hobsbawm's writing style was that of a historian. Nevertheless, his objective was always: adding to political action and thought, which he accomplished more effectively through this book than all his other works. Retrospectively, the author discovered that global socialism's challenge to the capitalist idea had a strength which was its opponent's weakness. Also, in truth, a large number of individuals who backed socialism sincerely to the very end held a belief, for long, that socialism's political yzantinism, bureaucratic rigidities, and mass murders would eventually be overcome, and that the above horrors were responsible for ensuring capitalism remained afloat. The weaknesses of the socialist theory were underrated, while those of the capitalist theory were overvalued. In effect, the world was convinced in its belief that capitalism was unable to solve issues, while socialism could tackle their own issues. However, the latter issues were deep-rooted rather…… [Read More]
There is much to the assertion by Nachman Syrkin that the Jews have persisted in history because the performed a socio-economic function that other peoples did not want to do or could not do. In his 1898 "The Jewish Problem and the Socialist Jewish State, " Syrkin lays out these ideas. Regarding this, Syrkin argued that a classless society and national sovereignty were the only means of solving the Jewish question completely. He felt that this social revolution would be the key to the normalization of the Jewish condition. ith this in mind, he argued that the Jew must therefore join the proletariat as the only way to end class struggle and redistribute power justly. Since the bourgeoisie betrayed the principles of liberalism, then Jews must be the torchbearers of Socialism.
hile Syrkin is many times seen as working on his own, however he had predecessors and contemporaries who had…… [Read More]
Mill talked of ethical freedom in terms of all areas wherein individual and society interacts and become involved with each other; Marx utilized the same viewpoint, although specified it in terms of proletarian-bourgeoisie relations.
For Marx, ethical freedom is self-realization within the individual, and primary in this realization was the acknowledgment that one needs to be economically independent in order for modern individuals, and society in general, to function progressively. Ethical freedom is said to have been achieved if there will develop a new social order, identified as the "industrial proletariat," described to be the modern individuals, belonging to the previously identified proletariat class, who embodies "fresh moral and political idea, but one rooted in the world of material reality" (Morgan, 2005:392). In concrete Marxian terms, self-realization is an event that will occur only once the following elements have been abolished, as cited in "The Communist Manifesto": "representative government, bourgeois…… [Read More]
Milton Friedman, "Social Responsibility"
Milton Friedman is absolutely blunt and direct in his 1970 critique of the notion that businesses have "social responsiblities" which require them to look beyond their balance-sheets at the real-world effects of their activity. The title of his article states his thesis outright: "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits." Anyone who states otherwise, says Friedman, is "preaching pure and unadulterated socialism" and leans on ideas "that have been undermining the basis of a free society these past decades."
Yet I think that Friedman's argument hinges on his selective and highly tendentious definition of terms here. Friedman switches between political and ethical definitions of the various concepts, so "pure and unadulterated socialism" is used purely as a scare tactic in his opening: in reality, socialism (whether in diluted or concentrated form) has nothing to do with the public calls for businesses to increase…… [Read More]
An important contribution to the market ideology is that the authors recognized the existence of a relationship between employment and the market. This relationship was based on that the employment, the division of labor and the "human material progress had proceed in parallel with the growth of the market." Otherwise put, there existed a direct relationship between the market and the employment, with the market being the feature which set the tone. An increase of the market would generate an increase in employment and vice versa. However, an increase or decrease in employment would not affect the market as the relationship between the two is unilateral.
Engels, Moore and Jones believed that the future successful implementation of the communist policies would see no major use of the market; "in the society of the future, there would be no mediation through the market. Wealth would satisfy needs directly. It would be…… [Read More]
The shift from socialism to capitalism also dismantled religion from the state. Many acts, considered immoral in Judaism, have been legalized, including homosexual marriages. Sexuality, once an intimate aspect of Jewish lives, can now be discussed openly in television programs and classrooms. Such changes are being welcomed neither by the right-wing political parties nor by the orthodox Jews. The religious orthodoxy along with several moderate factions within the Israeli Jewish community is annoyed and feel left out in the current climate. All in all, the transformation from socialism to capitalism, in the post war era, has given mixed results to the Israelis (Colin, 2008).
The 1967 six-day war between the Israelis and the Arabs had several grave political and social implications for not only the Israelis but also its neighbors. Some major implications have been discussed in this paper. It is noteworthy that both leftwing and right wing political…… [Read More]
Most of the Jews who had settled in the Austro-Hungarian Empire were in the hinterlands, and were as poor as their neighbours. In those provinces where Jews could own land, there was a requirement that the Jews live on and work their land -- in order to prevent land speculation. As a result, many Jews in Niederoestereich and around Linz, where von Schnerer and his family resided, were themselves farmers. Natural increases and immigration resulted in large Jewish populations in the Austrian Empire; it has been estimated that over 70% of all the Jews in the world lived in these areas in the late 19th century (Engleman, 1933) One can imagine that the entry of Jewish farmers created tension within the communities of rural Austria, as they competed in the marketplace for customers, and demonstrated their abilities to succeed through education and hard work. This contrasted with the Austrian "auern,"…… [Read More]