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When is an individual justified in challenging community standard? what are valid reasons for defying social codes of behavior and/or thought?
Individuals should continually challenge community standards. It is a necessary process in regards to the natural evolution of social codes and standards. Without challenging conventional thought and behavior, society becomes sloth like in regards to innovation and improvement. America, for instance is a nation that continually challenges and defies social codes, behaviors and thoughts. In fact, the nation was founded on defying social codes of repatriation to the home country. Over the past, 220 plus years that America has existed many social codes and norms have been challenged or amended. This has allowed the country to flourish relative to its large and more established peers around the world.
In the literary piece, "Mexicans begin jogging," the conditions in and perception of minority works needed to be altered. The…
The whole idea of society's role and function as a matter of control is being turned on its head yet again (Lilly, Cullen & Ball, 2011).
This entire thought pattern dovetails nicely with the eckless talk of pushes and pulls. Many people that are protesting against private industry and/or society as a whole are no doubt influenced by internal pushes and external pulls. This is not to automatically label all such influencing as deviancy, but there are some that would absolutely do that and no doubt the two parties in many days do the labeling against each other for the same situation (Lilly, Cullen & Ball, 2011).
Even so, the focus of eckless on juvenile delinquency and other related behavior is a lot less shades of gray and much more black and white. Crime is crime, even if the motives and indicators of it are stemming from something that is…
Lilly, J.R., Cullen, F.T., & Ball, R.A. (2011). Criminological theory: context and consequences (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications.
Geertz suggests that "man's nervous system does not merely enable him to acquire culture; it positively demands that he do so if it is going to function at all" (Geertz, 1973:73; McNeil, 2002). Despite this he also notes that deficiencies exist within culture, and that stress is far too often paid to the relationship between idealized versions of culture.
Carrithers like many suggests that human beings have an innate tendency to mutually engage and mutually response, and that this propensity is due "to cognitive or intellectual, some of it emotional, but in any case human character and human experience exist only in and through people's relations with each other" (Carrithers, 1992:55; McNeil, 2002).
egardless of ones philosophy of culture or definition of society, one must acknowledge that man is ever changing and a creature that requires interaction and formation of complex relationships to survive. Society evolves in part as…
Carrithers, M (1992) "Why humans have cultures: Explaining anthropology and social diversity." Oxford University Press.
Geertz, C (1973) the interpretation of cultures, p.73. New York, Basic Books.
Haviland, W.A. (2002). "Cultural Anthropology, 10th ed." Wadsworth, Harcourt Brace.
Just, P. & Monaghan, J. (2000). "Social and cultural anthropology: A very short introduction." Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Most people are likely to think of marriage as being "fundamentally a package of legal rights, benefits and obligations -- which include hospital visitation rights and immigration rights for the foreign spouses of citizens, among others" (Wedgood). While people were accustomed to a traditional view of marriage, they gradually came to accept that it can actually be interpreted in order to incorporate a series of other values. For example, same-sex marriage demonstrated that two people can get married regardless of their gender.
While it is difficult and almost impossible to predict how marriage is going to be in the future, it is very likely that it will become more complex and that it will never return to how it once was. The future of marriage is going to be altered by a series of factors such as women's economic independence. Society will focus on designing marriage in accordance to trends,…
Society's View Of Criminal Justice System
Society's Perception of the Criminal Justice System
Laws exist to maintain order and peace and provide for the safety and well-being of all members of society. Acts that disrupt and threaten this system of order are deemed criminal in nature and are therefore punishable by law. For the most part, Americans understand that our criminal justice system is designed to prevent criminal behavior, punish offenders and make society safer for all. However, there are still those times when the system fails -- convictions can be overturned by DNA evidence, those accused may be coerced into confessions, and vulnerable people such as those with mental illness or handicaps may be taken advantage of (Cox, 2013). Such incidents make it difficult to have full trust that the criminal justice system is truly functioning as originally intended.
Perceptions about the criminal justice system begin with perceptions of…
Cox, A. (2013). New visions of social control? Young people's perceptions of community penalties. Journal of Youth Studies, 16(1), 135-150. doi:10.1080/13676261.2012.697136.
Hurwitz, J., & Peffley, M. (2005). Explaining the Great Racial Divide: Perceptions of Fairness in the U.S. Criminal Justice System. Journal of Politics, 67(3), 762-783. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2508.2005.00338.x.
Unnever, J.D., Gabbidon, S.L., & Higgins, G.E. (2011). The Election of Barack Obama and Perceptions of Criminal Injustice. JQ: Justice Quarterly, 28(1), 23-45. doi:10.1080/07418825.2010.493525.
Those who are not able to use computers, the Internet, or other elements of high technology are also unable to develop the knowledge base and skills that have come to be expected in most business situations. This means that as the pace of technological advancement rises, and the skill set required for mainstream employment changes along with it, society is becoming increasingly stratified (Mooney & Knox 2007). The technological haves and the technological have-nots have been increasingly separated throughout the twentieth century, first with the advent of the telephone, then the car, the personal computer, the cell phone, and who knows what will be next. Each of these technological innovations has become mainstream in developed countries since its invention, but it takes time for this to happen.
It would be one thing if there were simply a schism between those with access to technology and those without such access. However,…
Mooney, L. & Knox, D. Understanding Social Problems. New York: Thompson/Wadsworth 2007.
This pool of experiences and knowledge is an additional resource for the international focus of the company. Even the American employees represent a wide variety of regions of the nation, as persons are more mobile today. Most of the employees have worked in a variety of occupations and jobs over the course of their occupational lives, as it is no longer common for persons to remain secure in the same company and job for any long duration of time. Workers travel more frequently, and live abroad, bringing back their knowledge and experience from these different areas of the world. And yes, many of the formerly blue-collar jobs are no longer unionized, or in some cases have been outsourced to different corners of the globe. Managers must still deal with these international employees as colleagues, even if they might not see them every day, and thus develop a fluency in the…
Meanwhile, those issues in females are much more likely to correspond to internalized diminishment of self-worth and to external behaviors and choices likely to confirm and perpetuate those internalized messages or to "punish" the individual through their predictably bad consequences (Efthim, Kenny, & Mahalik, 2001).
Biology establishes only very general gender-specific natural tendencies and behavioral differences; society further shapes the outward expression of those biological differences into more particular gender-based behavioral expression. However, cultural influences account for the precise way those tendencies manifest themselves in the specific behavior among individuals within social groups. Within Latino cultures, for example, over-idealization of the mother figure often conflicts with the male acknowledgement of female sexuality in a manner that affects marriage negatively (Abreu, Goodyear, Campos, et al., 2000).
Specifically, the so-called "whore-Madonna" complex makes it difficult for many men to reconcile their contradictory views of women in such a way that they cannot…
References Abreu, Jose M.; Goodyear, Rodney K.; Campos, Alvaro; Newcomb, Michael D. "Ethnic Belonging and Traditional Masculinity Ideology Among African-Americans, European-Americans, and Latinos." Psychology of Men and Masculinity 1, no. 2 (2000): 75-86.
Bruch, Monroe A. "Shyness and Toughness: Unique and Moderated Relations With Men's Emotional Inexpression." Journal of Counseling Psychology 49, no. 1 (2002): 28-34.
Efthim, Paul W.; Kenny, Maureen E.; and Mahalik, James R. "Gender Role Stress in relation to Shame, Guilt, and Externalization." Journal of Counseling and Development 79, no. 4 (2001): 430-438.
Gerrig, Richard J., Zimbardo, Philip G. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Society has dealt with an increasing number of problems resulting from the fact that the global warming process has started to experience rapid progress during recent years. eather is becoming more and more chaotic as the planet's atmosphere and oceans see a graduate rise in temperature. Global warming is largely considered to be the result of man's influence on the environment, as humanity has dealt a series of blows as a consequence of the industrial process and similar events heavily damaging the natural world. Most people today are well-acquainted with strategies they can employ with the purpose of playing an active role in saving nature, but find it difficult to do so because it involves them getting out of their comfort zones.
People's comfort zone is one of the principal reasons why many are reluctant to perform actions that are likely to assist the environment by generating less greenhouse gasses…
Maslin, Mark, "Global Warming: Causes, Effects, and the Future," (MBI Publishing Company, 2007)
Spencer, Roy W., "The Great Global Warming Blunder: How Mother Nature Fooled the World's Top Climate Scientists," (Encounter Books, 2012)
Society and Regulation
In today's society, everything is regulated. Most public roads, highways and traffic systems are regulated, as are monetary and behavioral systems. Everything from wireless devices to wildlife is regulated at many levels. Even the mass media, including television and radio, is regulated. These things are not just regulated by the government; private institutions also regulate them.
For example, the Department of Education regulates the nation-wide school system, but local schools are also regulated privately. The government regulates business but private companies also play a role in regulating business. While we live in a democratic and free society, the lives of the American people are highly regulated.
Many people feel that regulation is necessary, as it keeps society in check. Without regulation, society would be corrupt, unorganized and inadequate, argue proponents of regulation.
Others believe that in a world without regulation, people would use their individual freedoms responsibly…
Friedman, Milton and Rose. Capitalism and Freedom. University of Chicago. 2002
Tocqueville, Alex. Democracy in America. Harper, 1998.
Individuals can find some sanctuary in the diverse population of urban areas. Unlike small family groups, which enforce social restrictions much tighter, larger urban areas give their inhabitants more freedom to explore diverse paths without fear of judgment or social outcast. More subgroups within a population lead to more individual exploration with fewer worries than lesser populated areas.
Coser, Lewis a. "Georg Simmel: Biographical Information." 1977. Sociology in Switzerland. Retrieved on November 28, 2007 at http://socio.ch/sim/bio/htm
Durkheim, Emile. "hat is Social fact?" The Rules of the Sociological Method. Free Press. New York. 1982. pp.50-59. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theoryeb/readings/DurkheimFactForm.html
Emile-Durkheim.com. "Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)." Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://emile-durkheim.com
Elwell, Frank. The Sociology of Max eber. 1996. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorist/eber/whome.htm
Marx, Karl. "Bourgeoisie and Proletariat." The Communist Manifesto. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://media.pfeiffer.edu/lridener/courses/COMMAN.htmL
Simmel, Georg. The Metropolis and Mental…
Coser, Lewis a. "Georg Simmel: Biographical Information." 1977. Sociology in Switzerland. Retrieved on November 28, 2007 at http://socio.ch/sim/bio/htm
Durkheim, Emile. "What is Social fact?" The Rules of the Sociological Method. Free Press. New York. 1982. pp.50-59. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/TheoryWeb/readings/DurkheimFactForm.html
Emile-Durkheim.com. "Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)." Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://emile-durkheim.com
Elwell, Frank. The Sociology of Max Weber. 1996. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorist/Weber/whome.htm
It is only human for cultures to borrow from successful societies. It has been a common practice throughout human history, especially within the context of the Classical periods, where many major nations were developing themselves as world powers. Many of these traditions still live on today either in their own right, or through the perpetuation by other cultures. In fact, Western society owes much of its foundations and philosophies to Classical cultures, such as Greco-oman and Middle Eastern influences. Then, the question remains, how will our current society lend to the future formation of new societies yet to be conceived?
Boeree, C. George. (2000). "An Introuction to Buddhism." Shippensburg University. etrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro.html.
Butler, Chris. (2007). "Bronze Age Greeks: the Minoans and Myceneans." The Flow of History. etrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/birth/3/FC17.
Hooker, ichard. (1996). "The Persians." World Civilizations. etrieved 24 mar 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/PESIANS.HTM.…
Boeree, C. George. (2000). "An Introuction to Buddhism." Shippensburg University. Retrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro.html .
Butler, Chris. (2007). "Bronze Age Greeks: the Minoans and Myceneans." The Flow of History. Retrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/birth/3/FC17.
Hooker, Richard. (1996). "The Persians." World Civilizations. Retrieved 24 mar 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/PERSIANS.HTM .
Jayaram, V. (2008). "Chinese Buddhism: An Overview." Hindu Website. Retrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.hinduwebsite.com/buddhism/chinese_buddhism.asp .
Society vs. Individuality in James'
The Portrait of a Lady
Henry James' novel, The Portrait of a Lady, takes an exclusive look at the conflict between the individual and society. Isabel Archer is a lucky woman because she is afforded the luxury of knowing freedom and independence at a time when women were generally seen and not heard. Because of Isabel's upbringing, she can resist the proposals of men for the sole reason of her individuality. Freedom and independence are important and she realizes that one must be proactive in protecting them. hen Isabel lets her guard down, she begins to compromise one small aspect at a time, those things she considered dear and important to her soul. Once lost, they bring her close to edge of darkness with no way of ever finding her way back to them. The portrait of this lady becomes darkened by the incredible conflict…
James, Henry. The Portrait of a Lady. Ann Arbor: Stat Street Press. 1996. Print.
Society's Overdependence On Computers
Today, the human race has become dependent almost entirely on computers for everything from communication to research to classroom instruction. Indeed, it would be hard to imagine of a world without computers. This text concerns itself with society's overdependence on computers.
Society's Overdependence on Computers
In the words of Kizza, "computer dependency is increasing as computers increasingly become part of our everyday lives" (81). To begin with, computers today effectively define how a majority of us communicate and interact with our friends and families. Emails and social media have replaced the traditional telephone and post office mail as popular communication mediums. People (especially the younger generation) now interact via social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. Most of those in their 20s would find it quite difficult to interact with their peers were such platforms to be removed from the equation.
Secondly, the education sector…
Gitman, Lawrence J., and Carl McDaniel. The Future of Business: The Essentials. 3rd ed. Mason, OH: Thomson Higher Education, 2007. Print.
Hobrock, Brice G., ed. Library Management in the Information Technology Environment: Issues, Policies, and Practice for Administrators. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, Inc., 1992. Print.
Janczewski, Lech and Andrew M. Colarik. Cyber Warfare and Cyber Terrorism. Hershey: IGI Global, 2008. Print.
Kizza, Joseph M. Computer Network Security and Cyber Ethics. 3rd ed. North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2011. Print.
It is also wise to have it reviewed by a doctor or attorney, the Family Doctor eb site suggests; that way you can be assured that what you wish to have done with you and to you if you become incapacitated is "understood exactly as you intended" (Family Doctor).
The advance directives are sensitive and private, and they are very important for seniors. But the advance directives can be controversial, so it is wise for older people to know the law and understand the facts. To wit, there have been rumors and falsehoods spread on the orld ide eb and elsewhere about the advance directives that are spelled out in the recent overhaul of the healthcare system. Former governor of Alaska Sarah Palin made news in the summer of 2009 by asserting that the advance directives in the healthcare overhaul created a "death panel" of bureaucrats who will "decide, based…
Binstock, Robert H., and George, Linda K. (2010). Handbook of Aging and the Social
Sciences. Maryland Heights, MO: Academic Press.
Black, Jane A. (2008). Notes: The Not-So-Golden Years: Power of Attorney, Elder Abuse, and Why Our Laws are Failing a Vulnerable Population. St. John's Law Review, 82(1), 289-314
Collier, Elizabeth. (2005). Latent age discrimination in mental health care. Mental Health
As the situation exists today, driving gasoline and electric hybrid vehicles is still more economical and environmentally sensitive than driving fuel cell cars run on hydrogen. The future may prove otherwise but the reality is that hydrogen has not proven to be the great answer that some have suggested.
IV. Comparing popular press and professional viewpoints
As one might expected, the treatment provided the issue of hydrogen use has received different treatment in the popular press than it has in the professional journals. In the popular press, the emphasis has been on the how the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel would benefit the whole of society. Little attention is provided the technical problems related to the use of hydrogen or the requisite changes that must be made in order to accommodate the changeover to hydrogen. Instead, the popular press tends to point out the environmental and consumer advantages.…
(Editor), Shawna McQueen. Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles & the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements. Survey. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, 2008.
Gold, R. "Natural Gas Costs Hurt U.S. Firms." Wall Street Journal 17 February 2004: 2.
Kinaci, A. "Ab initio investigation of FeTi - H System." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2006): 2466-2474.
Liss, William E. Role of Natural Gas in the Future Hydrogen Market. Research. Des Plaines, IL: Hydrogen Energy Systems Center, 2003.
This is the result of the child's physical and cognitive growth. Nature pursues a given path. One asks how does the world surrounding the child help or hinder the child's development. This is the question that is answered by Bronfenbrenner's theory (Paquette & yan, 2001).
Bronfenbrenner believed that the family suffered from the change in society from industrial to technological. Families were still locked into the normal 40-hour work week. Mothers were very often in the workforce, leaving the children with less parental influence at home. Bronfenbrenner thought that the schools were being called upon to fill the gaps left by parents. He thought that society should step in to provide support for the new family structure brought on by technology (Paquette & yan, 2001).
1. Crandell, T., Crandell, C., & Vander Zanden, J., 2009 Human Development (9th Ed.). Boston. McGraw-Hill
2. Gilbert, ., Widom, C., Browne, K., et…
1. Crandell, T., Crandell, C., & Vander Zanden, J., 2009 Human Development (9th Ed.). Boston. McGraw-Hill
2. Gilbert, R., Widom, C., Browne, K., et al. (2009). Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. The Lancet. 373(1). pp. 9657.
3. Maschi, T., Morgen, K., Hatcher, S., et al. (2009). Maltreated children's thoughts and emotions as behavioral predictors. Social Work. 54(2).
4. Murrell, a., Christoff, K., & Henning, K. (2007). Characteristics of domestic violence offenders: Associations with childhood exposure to violence. Journal of Family Violence. 22. pp. 523-532.
However, it is already clear that the music industry had been irrevocably changed as the revenue potential shifts from traditional sources to those corresponding to the way music is typically enjoyed and shared by youthful consumers today (Halbert & Ingulli, 2007).
egardless of the many ways that modern technology and societies have changed the way music is produced, in many respects, music still provides many of the same functions as it always has. Music continues to be featured prominently in cultural and religious expression and it continues to be an important part of adolescent development and self-expression. Ultimately, music will likely always continue to change in superficial ways and in the manner in which it is produced and disseminated, but in its most fundamental character, it remains unchanged in it significance to human society and culture..
Brownlee S. "Baby Talk" U.S. News & World eport; June 15, 1998:48-55.…
Brownlee S. "Baby Talk" U.S. News & World Report; June 15, 1998:48-55.
Dennet D. (1997). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Robert Vigil's account of the direct consequences of white collar crimes of the type at issue details the tremendous harm to innocent individuals and their families and serves as an effective reminder of the basis for penal law in the first place. While it may be appropriate to punish white collar crimes that do not cause substantial tangible harm to innocents less harshly than some violent crimes, that argument simply does not hold water in cases where those crimes do cause tremendous harms, such as those detailed by Vigil. Furthermore, the position that the advanced age of white collar criminals should justify to mitigate their criminal sentences completely ignores the effect their crimes have on the quality of the twilight years of their equally elderly victims. At the very least, white collar crime must be punished in a manner that reflects the magnitude and types of harms they cause to…
PUNISHING WHITE COLLAR CRIME APPROPRIATELY
In his 2005 New York Times article, "How Long to Jail White-Collar Criminals?," Andrew Sorkin expresses a reluctance to punish white collar criminals as harshly as current laws allow. Sorkin cites several arguments, including the suggestion that the advanced age of defendants makes long sentences tantamount to a life sentence and that they are out of proportion to the seriousness of other crimes eligible for similar sentences. According to one of Sorkin's sources, long sentences in high-profile cases provide less deterrent value than increased enforcement efforts producing greater numbers of convictions but shorter sentences. Sorkin utterly fails to consider the impact of white collar crimes on those victimized by them and does not address that issue in his analysis at all; he merely acknowledges that the argument against harsh penalties does not go so far as to suggest that white collar crimes should go unpunished.
Robert Vigil's account of the direct consequences of white collar crimes of the type at issue details the tremendous harm to innocent individuals and their families and serves as an effective reminder of the basis for penal law in the first place. While it may be appropriate to punish white collar crimes that do not cause substantial tangible harm to innocents less harshly than some violent crimes, that argument simply does not hold water in cases where those crimes do cause tremendous harms, such as those detailed by Vigil. Furthermore, the position that the advanced age of white collar criminals should justify to mitigate their criminal sentences completely ignores the effect their crimes have on the quality of the twilight years of their equally elderly victims. At the very least, white collar crime must be punished in a manner that reflects the magnitude and types of harms they cause to innocent individuals.
We all live within societies and we are the consistency of the society. As families and as individuals, we play roles and responsibilities that when combined point towards a given trend and charters of a larger group, hence the society.
An ideal society is one that constitutes people with similar life patterns which are mutual and beneficial to each member of that particular group. The infiltration of people with divergent interests interferes with the consistency of that society hence should be deterred by whatever means possible.
The Oxford Dictionary (2012), refers to a society as "The aggregate of people living together in a more or less ordered community." The society is also defined "The community of people living in a particular region and having shared customs, laws, and organizations."
More often than not, the term society is confused with family, it is worth noting that the family is just…
Constitution Society, (2011). The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli: That Which Concerns A
Prince On The Subject Of The Art Of War. Retrieved November 2, 2012 from http://www.constitution.org/mac/prince14.htm .
Oxford Dictionary, (2012). Definition of Society. Retrieved November 2, 2012 from http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/society
Public Book Shelf, (2012). The Philosopher King: Socrates vision in Plato's Republic. From the Republic -- Plato. Retrieved November 2, 2012 from http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/Outline_of_Great_Books_Volume_I/thephilos_bcd.html
3. How does the author discuss the relationship between the individual and society?
Once again, interpretivism sees this relationship as a complex and intricate set of actions and interactions that are largely dependent on cultural and social context. In other words, there is no "correct "view of self but rather self and the individual's relationship with society is a result of interaction in different contexts. This view is contrasted with the more objective views of functionalism and Marxism, where the self is seen either in terms of its functional relation to the society or as an object of social repression.
4. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?
As has been mentioned, the stress in this article is on the importance of context in the interpretivist view of the individual and society. It is this understanding of context that acts as the determining factor…
In this case, they are not even at the level of the industrial society. Therefore, an answer would have to consider both aspects.
The advantages for an individual living in the agrarian society are the freedom of the being. Aside from its philosophical content, the expression points out the fact that people living in agrarian societies were more part of a society that those living today because they still had the human element in their character. The constant interdependent relationship was necessary and connected people more. The disadvantage was, surely, the lack of possibilities, and the limited technology available which made their lives tougher.
The post industrial society however is by far the society which offers the most advantages, as well as disadvantages. The advantages include communication, online education, the Internet, world trade, the globalization of exchanges, and economic development. China has benefited greatly from technology as it is now…
The first items addressed in this particular just society are the principles of liberty that shall apply to each individual as well as to the overall society. The first principle of liberty will be the right to an unlimited freedom of speech that will pertain to each and every person. This right will be sacrosanct and will be defended and upheld by all. Assuming that each individual will act in a just manner, this right should permeate throughout society and should be the one right that is held true and steadfast by all.
The second principle of liberty for the proposed just society is the freedom to choose whatever path the individual wishes to travel, as long as that path does not negatively impact others who have chosen different directions. The right to make decisions bears with it the right of responsibility for those decisions. If the individual makes…
A Theory of Justice, by John Rawls, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971
Rights of Man (1791), reprinted by Citadel Press, 1948, with an introduction by Philip S. Foner
society in which Angela Vicario and Bayardo San Roman lived? Use specific examples from the book to illustrate your points.
The society in which Angela Vicario and Bayardo San Roman lived can best be described as a small Latin American community with traditional values. Everyone in the town knows each other by name, and knows each others' business. It is also a relatively stratified society with a coded social hierarchy. One's position in society is determined by gender and class, as well as family name.
For example, the plot is driven by the story of Bayardo San Roman coming to the town in order to find a bride. This represents the patriarchal culture in which both the protagonists live. Furthermore, the fact that Angela's family was poorer than Bayardos also reveals the importance of social class. Everyone ends up knowing the personal business of the couple, including intimate details such…
Mental Health, and Welfare
Society, mental health and welfare:
A problem related to counseling (under-insurance) and a social problem (the lack of adequate healthcare coverage)
The course text Social action: A mandate for counselors discusses the ethical implications of such issues as race and social injustice in the counseling profession. However, perhaps even more important than these factors is the issue of class, specifically the affordability of counseling on an individual basis. Wealthier individuals with better insurance or who can afford to pay 'pout of pocket' often have the luxury of 'talk' therapy that poorer people, or people without adequate health insurance, lack. This creates a 'haves' versus 'have not' situation in terms of the availability and the quality of counseling. Poorer individuals with minimal insurance coverage for mental health care are often offered fewer counseling sessions, or have their psychological complaints treated as medical disorders, rather than fully addressed…
Considering some practical matters. (2011). AMHA (American Mental Health Alliance).
Retrieved June 8, 2011 at http://www.americanmentalhealth.com/index.tpl?page=10737827503031878
Harris, G. (2011, March 6). Talk doesn't pay. The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2011 at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/06/health/policy/06doctors.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=psychiatrist%20talk%20therapy&st=cse
Society Bring Law
There is a fair amount of veracity in the assumption that major changes in society frequently account for changes in laws. The relationship between these two occurrences appears fairly direct and even logical. Major changes in society ultimately result in different types of behavior in people. When people begin acting differently, their actions tend to produce different consequences than before whatever change was made in society. Not all of these consequences are favorable. Some are dangerous, and many times, they are unforeseen and can have a significant impact on society in a way that was not intended due to whatever sort of change was initiated. Therefore, there are frequent occurrences of alterations in the law to accommodate for these unforeseen occurrences, and to attempt to preserve the original spirit and safety of the law.
Numerous examples can substantiate this thesis. Virtually any aspect of technology…
Brown, D. (2012). "Cell phones and driving in California." Nolo. Web. Retrieved from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/cell-phones-driving-california-law-29709.html
Kay, M., Vance, Andrea. (2011). "Controversial internet file-sharing law passed." Stuff.co.nz. Web. Retrieved from http://www.stuff.co.nz/technology/digital-living/4885041/Controversial-internet-file-sharing-law-passed
Miller, N. (2010). "Georgia's new texting while driving law." HG.org. Web. Retrieved from http://www.hg.org/article.asp?id=19555
society that has a much higher percentage of older adults than any previous generation. Still, older adults are often marginalized and rarely interact with younger people, many believing "old people" have nothing to offer. The modern environment is faced with a number of problems that directly relate to aging. A number of methods to reduce the effects of time are thought to be new and innovative, when often; it is many tried and true methods that are the most efficacious. This is as important for medical specialists, geriatric caregivers, and even family caregivers -- those in the trenches who are faced with the daunting and daily tasks of helping to care for our aged. They know that using physical activity to bolster biological reactions is one of these methods that work -- and now science has proven that certain chemicals are released when one is active, amused or happy that…
Costanza, R., et al. (2008). An Integrative Approach to Quality of Life Measurement,
Research and Policy. Sapiens Journal. 1 (1). Cited in:
Johannson, M., et al., (2006). Living with Incurable Cancer at the End of Life -- Patients'
society as we know exerts its influence on the affairs and behavior of human beings. Social influences encompass the changes that occur in attitudes, beliefs, and behavior that often result from interpersonal interactions. Conformity and obedience are key concepts that aid in explaining social influences. Concisely, conformity refers to the influence that the masses or the majority have over an individual (Collins, 2009). On the other hand, obedience is influence exerted by the state or an authority over its subjects. This essay will endeavor to compare and contrast these two forms of social influences and draw conclusions that will candidly show the difference between conformity and obedience.
Conformity and obedience bear some semblance with each other in the fact that they can both persuade, or inspire an individual to change one's behavior, actions and thoughts, as regards a specific situation. Another semblance between conformity and obedience lies in their ability…
Bleske-rechek, A.L. (1999). Obedience, Conformity, and Social Roles: Active Learning in a Large Introductory Psychology Class. Teaching of Psychology, 28(4), 260-262.
Burger, J.M., Neil J. Smelser & Paul B. Baltes. (2001). The psychology of social influence. In N.J. Smelser & P.B. Baltes (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Social Behavioral Sciences (pp. 14320-14325). Cambridge University Press.
Collins, S.D. (2009). Persuasion. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Fiske, S.T. (2010). Social beings: Core Motives in Social Psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ:
Like Plato, More retains the belief in One God in his concept of the perfect society by injecting the foundation of Neoplatonism and blending it with a rather festive or carnival-like quality (Marius 1995 as qtd in SparkNotes 2010). Utopians enjoy the good life at the expense of firmly rooted institutions and established order in society. People turn their freedom around and upside down. Ranks, norms, prohibitions, private property and morals are suspended. Critics see the Utopian society as opposing what has been made complete and immortal for ages (SparkNotes).
oth Plato and Thomas More, in their respective works, aim at the perfect or ideal society but in different perspectives under the 5 sub-themes. Plato builds his society on justice and harmony in a way that balances the internal and the external conditions of a person. He assumes that true justice already exists in every man and that every…
Book Notes. The Republic by Plato. Book Rags, Inc., 2004. Retrieved on November 28,
2010 from http://www.bookrags.com/notes/rep/SUM.htm
Kemerling, Garth. Plato: Education and the Value of Justice. Philosophy Pages, 2001.
Retrieved on November 27, 2010 from http://www.philosophypages/hy/2h.htm
Heavy rule will always lead to destruction one way or another. Individuals can only take being oppressed for so long. An ideal society is one where the government and the people are happy.
e see the results of oppression when we look at Martin Luther King's ideas and dreams for a better society. A world apart from Machiavelli's time, King captures the plight of the oppressed individual. He knows all too well what people experience when they are held down by a government that encroaches on everyday freedom. He urges his readers to "rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice" (King). He also sees hope in the future and asks people to "make justice a reality for all of God's children" (King). Justice is part of the government's responsibility to the people. Elizabeth Cady Canton also understood the struggle for independence.…
Elizabeth Cady Stanton. "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolution." Rutgers University Online. Information Retrieved October 1, 2008. http://ecssba.rutgers.edu/docs/seneca.html
Jefferson, Thomas, et al. "The Declaration of Independence." 1776. The Indiana University School of Law Online. Information Retrieved October 1, 2008. http://www.law.indiana.edu/uslawdocs/declaration.html
King, Martin Luther. "I have a Dream." American Rhetoric. Information Retrieved October 1, 2008. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1992.
Social Security checks would be months behind if done manually. However, the other side of this coin is a gorgon's head: public information needs to be easily available while private personal information is protected as much as possible. In reality, information technology is a powerful tool to beat crime, terrorism and poverty, if we only wield that sword properly.
So what is the key? I say it is education, but not the kind we all think about with memorization and regurgitation. We need to teach our children to think, to make rational decisions, to behave ethically and to measure their actions by their effects. We need to train children to seek out the truth and how to know it when they find it. We need to teach them the have the courage and passion to use it. We must become a nation of life long learners, for knowledge will be…
Marsden, C.T. (Ed.). (2000). Regulating the Global Information Society. London: Routledge. Retrieved December 9, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109329915
Peters, Katherine McIntyre. (1999). A Fitting History. Govexec.com. http://www.govexec.com/features/0399/0399s5s2.htm www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108165029
Webster, F. (2002). Theories of the Information Society. London: Routledge. Retrieved December 9, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108165031
The production of art should be viewed as a necessity for everyone, the rich or poor, smart or dumb, disturbed or not (Sweet pp). The contemporary tendency to diminish the importance of what used to be referred to as a "liberal arts education," and the downsizing of art and music classes in our grade schools, certainly underscores society's miscomprehension of the "basic need to know ourselves and the best means to exercise that knowledge" (Sweet pp). Joseph Campbell speculated that art and its creation were the only religion left in society, and De Tocqueville's Democracy in America suggests that art embodies the individual's power to combat the tyranny of the majority (Sweet pp).
In June 2005, the International Society for Performing Arts' Board, which is supported by 210 delegates from 28 countries representing Europe, North America, South America, Asia, and Africa, voted to endorse a statement urging the world's government…
Government Support for Cultural Activities. Retrieved August 31, 2005 at http://www.csulb.edu/~jvancamp/freedom2.html
ISPA Urges World's Leaders to Support the Arts. 2005 June 22.
International Society for the Performing Arts Foundation. Retrieved August 31, 2005 at http://www.ispa.org/gateshead/statement.html
Sweet, Robert Burdette. Creatures of the metaphor. (the importance of art and metaphor to society). The Humanist. 1995 November 01. Retrieved August 31, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
society has accepted the presence of gays and lesbians, still beneath that facade, lies intense prejudice and discrimination. Society has refused to grant them even some most basic rights such as adoption and foster-parenting. Florida and two other states have imposed strict ban on adoption by same-sex parents, assuming that, children in unconventional family settings often lack emotional and psychological stability. But several studies in this connection have contradicted such notions and have clearly indicated that children of homosexual parents are no different from children of heterosexual couples.
GAY AND LESBIAN PAENTING
The Courts in the United States have tried repeatedly to provide children with a family setting which is recognized by American Family Law. Even the societal changes, which are currently taking place in family structures, the society itself and the legal system of our country have failed to see beyond the myths and misconceptions associated with alternative family…
Nancy D. Polikoff, This Child Does Have Two Mothers: Redefining Parenthood to Meet the Needs of Children in Lesbian-Mother and Other Nontraditional Families, 78 GEO L.J. 459, 469 (1990)
ACLU Fact Sheet-- Overview of Lesbian and Gay Parenting, Adoption and Foster Care http://www.aclu.org/issues/gay/parent.html
Adoption: Pediatricians say same-sex parents are OK., The Dallas Morning News, 02-07-2002, pp. 18A
BARBARA AMIEL, Column: Same-sex marriage is OK., Maclean's, 07-10-2000, pp. 13.
Society in Southern Sudan, much like all of Sub-Saharan Africa (of which it is not technically considered a part), is substantially shaped by ancient tribal attitudes and beliefs about the respective roles and rights of the two genders. Generally, Sudanese women still endure gender inequality that prevents them from being socially or economically dependent and that exposes most of them to violence inflicted by men both inside and outside of the family. Domestic violence is prevalent largely because Sudanese men belief that it both their rights as men and perfectly appropriate to discipline their wives physically. Because education and professional training are the keys to social independence, the fact that opportunities in those areas are still largely unavailable to most Sudanese women is a significant barrier in that regard. Meanwhile, the empirical evidence demonstrates that once women manage to obtain quality education and professional training, they are readily capable of…
The fact that people express particular interest in particular types of fish means that large fish are likely to be replaced by smaller fish that feed on plankton, especially considering that these fish gradually come to have less and less natural predators. Marine ecosystems are thus significantly altered as the number of predators slowly drops while plankton also drops as a result of more and more plankton-eating small fish having no one to prey on them.
The marine ecosystem no longer functions the same as a series of fish species become seriously affected by fishing. The general public thus needs to acknowledge the critical condition the marine ecosystem and to raise public awareness concerning the impending catastrophe that the world is about to experience.
In addition to the marine ecosystem being affected, overfishing is also responsible for generating economic and social problems throughout the world. "The cod fishery off Newfoundland,…
"Overfishing," Retrieved April 2, 2013, from the GreenPeace Website: http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/oceans/overfishing/
or, if the health condition was not so severe as to actually keep such an individual from work, there would surely be other costs associated with that individual's attempts to battle for health, including reduced productivity at work which would minimize his or her output and affect the amount of money the employing agency would make. However, all of these aforementioned costs could simply be eschewed via early detection and the prevention of any sort of health malady.
An excellent example of this concept is found within Stuart Schweitzer's "Cost Effectiveness of Early Detection of Disease." This document analyzes several economic aspects associated with treating a substantial disease such as "disease incidence, probabilities of test error, the cost of the test and of treatment for found cases, and the economic value (expected lifetime earnings or equivalent) of additional length or quality of life for those cured of disease" (22). One…
Benson, B.L, Storey, E., Huntingtion, C.G., Eberle, M.U., Ferris, a.M. (2008). "The Economic Impact of Prevention." The Center for Public Health and Health Policy. Retrieved from http://publichealth.uconn.edu/images/reports/UCONN_EconomicImpactPrevention.pdf
Schweitzer, S.O. (1974). "Cost effectiveness of early detection of disease." Health Services Research. 9 (1): (22-32).
Social networks are emerging as a powerful and sophisticated new kind of marketing channel. Marketing is becoming precise, personal, and social: social networking sites are giving marketers new abilities to hypertarget campaigns using profile information, engage community members by tapping into social capital within friend groups, and systematically cultivate word-of-mouth marketing across their existing customer base (Shih 81-82).
Hypertargeting through social networks like Facebook is an important part of the new way of advertising. hat is so different in the Facebook age of marketing is that through Facebook people end up sharing a lot of demographic information about themselves, as well as "psychographic information" (Shih 83). Shih (83) notes that it is considered normal to share your birthday, your religion, your hobbies, your political views, and even your relationship status. This means that through hypertargeting, ads can now reach individuals whom they are specially designed to influence.
Facebook has changed…
Hovland, Roxanne. & Wolburg, Joyce M. Advertising, Society, and Consumer Culture.
Kirkpatrick, David. The Facebook Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That Is
Simulated World: The Emergence of Internet technology in the 21st Century Human Society
Considered as the most important and influential event and development that happened when human society reached the 20th century, computer technology, or more precisely, Internet technology, have encompassed all aspects of human life for the last century and remains to be so in the 21st century.
The invention of computers revolutionized scientific computations by making these quantitative processes faster and easier. However, a computer development that led to global networking of computers, called the Internet and manifested by the World Wide Web, made the use computer technology not only limited for research and scientific endeavors, but for social interaction and communication as well. Social networks began to establish, with the prevalence of electronic mail (e-mail), Internet Relay Chat (IRC), and electronic groups (e-groups), and organization and company web sites. These are just some of the venues where…
individual is a product of society, rather than its cause.' Discuss.
The relationship between the individual and the society are recurrent themes and profoundly linked concepts in the fields of anthropology and sociology. While the individual is defined as a human being who is considered isolated from and separate from the broader community, the society is thought of as the aggregate of these individuals or a more holistic structure that extends beyond the individuals themselves. However, both concepts are problematic since their significance varies according to whether the approach is holistic, focusing on society, or individualistic, focusing on the individual. Therefore, the causal relationship between the individual and society is of the utmost importance in the related academic fields. Since this subject is evidently central to the study of humans, many social theorists have taken a focused interest in these relationships. A classical debate brings into conflict, advocates of society's…
New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).
After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…
thinkquest.org. (1999). Retrieved March 27, 2010, from SPQR Online: http://library.thinkquest.org/26602/government.htm
Islam and Islamic History in Arabia and the Middle East. (2001). Retrieved March 28, 2010, from islamcity.com: http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/ihame/Sec12.htm
The European Voyages of Exploration. (2001). Retrieved April 5, 2010, from the Applied History Research Group: http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/index.html
Mummies and Mummification. (2003). Retrieved March 30, 2010, from Digital Egypt: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/mummy/ok.html
When Sogolon is brought to the king by two hunters, he marries her despite her ugliness. When Sogolon becomes pregnant, she is treated with a great deal of favorability because of the prophecy. Maghan's first wife, Sassouma Berete, became jealous of Sogolon's and fears that her child will displace her own eight-year-old son. Sassouma later affects Sogolon's and Sundiata's lives when, following the king's death, she maneuvers to have her son placed on the throne, forcing Sogolon and Sundiata to flee in exile ("Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali").
From reading this document, it is very clear that the society had similarities to today's culture as far as the roles of men and women are concerned. It is believable that in American culture, women appeared to be weaker while maintaining a mental strength, which is the strongest of strengths.
With that, slavery was another issue that American culture had very…
The Society for Human esource Management (SHM) is a professional organization that gathers together human resource professionals for advocacy, and to discuss the current issues within the profession. The SHM is involved in legal issues within the professional, and contributes advice to public policy. The society can also provide its members with updated information on a variety of human resources topics, so that members are up-to-date on all the current issues in the field. The SHM has multiple publications, including H News and H Magazine, as well as books, that can help to keep members informed, with more in-depth and heavily-researched works.
The Society also plays a role in educating members, and provides certification that can assist members in gaining better employment in the field. By setting standards, the SHM seeks to improve the quality of workers in the human resources profession, so that its designations have genuine…
SRHM.org (2015). Website, multiple pages. Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved March 7, 2015 from http://www.shrm.org/hrdisciplines/global/pages/default.aspx
Technology and Social Change
There is an intrinsic relationship between technology and social change. The exact nature of that relationship is interesting, especially when one considers the myriad facets of it. On the one hand, technology impacts social change in a way that is arguably causal. On the other hand, social changes can help to engender technological advances, which in turn continue to affect additional social changes. In this way, the relationship between these two phenomena are somewhat cyclical, much like the proverbial chicken and the egg conundrum. Suffice to say that both technology and social change affect one another, and are interwoven in the sort of advancements they foster in today's world.
It is difficult to discuss today's society without considering the impact that the personal computer, cellular phones, and the internet have had upon it. Quite simply, the ramifications of these technological developments are that considerable. The commercialization…
Abboud, L. (2014). Telecom firms mine for gold in big data despite concerns. www.reuters.com Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/us-mobile-world-bigdata-idUSBREA1M09F20140223
Harper, J. (2014). How to do operational intelligence. www.dataversity.net Retrieved from http://www.dataversity.net/operational-intelligence/
McClelland, K. (2000). Functionalism. http://web.grinnell.edu Retrieved from http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Functionalism.html
McClelland, K. (2000). Conflict theory. http://web.grinnell.edu Retrieved from http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Conflict.html
We know this in theory, however, reading about these very innocent families and the things that they have been force to endure makes it even more important to me that the nation begin healing and removing the fears that cause this type of behavior against innocent people.
The second and more far reaching point that the book makes is that nobody is safe from suspicion of this mindset is allowed to be continued. egardless of the situation there may come a time in which each of us falls into a group or groups of people who are suddenly being eyed suspiciously.
In the past five years the Middle Eastern immigrants and descendants have faced the focus of the nation's evil suspicious eye. Before them the Blacks took their turn at bat and in addition to them there have been periods in American history in which Irish, Italian, and Spanish people…
We Are All Suspects Now: Untold Stories from Immigrant America After 9/11 (Paperback) by Tram Nguyen " Beacon Press (September 15, 2005)
Often, these disparities take on a cultural, age, or gender role. When combined with the financial barriers that block health care (whether or not the individual has insurance or not), it is one of the most risky segments of 21st century healthcare. This is quite ironic because over the last century so many improvements have been made in the field of disease prevention, public health, and approaches to health care. Even in the last few decades the country has matured in its approach to STDs and the HIV epidemic. Yet still, while we recognize that the brain is the very locus of the human "being" and while we know more today about treating mental illness effectively, rapidly, and with typically positive results, we still tend to stigmatize this segment of society with inadequate care, difficult access to that care, or in some rural or smaller towns and cities, zero access…
Public Health and Aging. (2003, Febuary 14). Retrieved August 2011, from CDC Weekly: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5206a2.htm
Mahant, S., Peterson, R., & Campbell, M. (2008, May 1). Reducing Inappropriate Hospital Use on a General pediatric Inpatient Unit. Retrieved August 2011, from Pediatrics: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/121/5/e1068.full
Neumann, R. (2010, April 8). Top 10 Reasons NOT to plan for retirement. Retrieved August 2011, from Northjersey.com: http://www.northjersey.com/news/business/business_opinion/90328449_Top_10_reasons_to__not__plan_for_retirement.html
Paul, J.S. (2006, March). New Measures of Ambulatory Care. Retrieved August 2011, from Hosptiral Report HRRC: http://hospitalreport.ca/downloads/otherreports/SNAPSHOT_REPORT_Amb_FINAL.pdf
What the world needs today is an effective global banking system and a strong and sustainable trade relationship. The recent world recession reflects the collapse of the global banking system. This was the result of heavy advancement of loans and cumulative rates of interest that were collected on those loans, which led to economic growth in the short-term but economic collapse in the long-run. It is the time for the global powers to take the world economists and political leaders on board and make an effective decision on the creation of a banking system that offers loans to nations which are in urgent need of financial assistance such as Nigeria, Uganda and other African countries. The authority that looks after such banking system should ensure a balance between the First world and the third world in order to ensure that the world economy grows smoothly.
Cutting down public spending is…
World Trade Organization (1999). The WTO as the basic free trade institution: Ministerial Conference 1999. Retrieved from http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/minist_e/min99_e/english/state_e/d5325e.pdf
World Trade Organization (n.d.). About the WTO. Retrieved from http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/wto_dg_stat_e.htm
International Monetary Fund (2010). How the IMF promotes global economic stability. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts/globstab.htm
Society and Culture
The heirloom of the sixties era has been significant and decidedly pivotal for the advancement of culture and society in nations, an aspect that is referred to as civilization. These changes and modifications that the society went through made the 1960s decade to be one of the fundamental and vital periods of the twentieth century and a landmark that is forever etched. The 1960s era can be revered and given admiration as revolutionary. These changes had a major influence on not only nations in South America and Africa that were developing, but it also had a great influence in civilized nations and we choose to concentrate on Belgium (MacDonald, 2007).
The changes that the society experienced and went through at that time made the 1960s one of the fundamental transition periods of the twentieth century and significant to how culture had fashioned society to what we see…
Donnelly, M. (2014). Sixties Britain: culture, society and politics. Routledge.
Gammond, P. (1993). The Oxford Companion to Popular Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Grossberg, L. (1984). Another boring day in paradise: Rock and roll and the empowerment of everyday life. Popular Music, 4, 225-258.
Helc, R. (2006). The Beatles and Their Influence on Culture. Brno: Masaryk University.
Society of St. Vincent de Paul is an international Catholic organization that is best known in the U.S. for its non-profit thrift stores, where persons can donate goods for a tax write-off or simply to get things out of their homes and makes space for new items. These thrift stores, commonly known simply as St. Vincent's, accept all manner of items, from clothing to kitchen ware to televisions, books, games, and much more. St. Vincent's then turns around and sells these items which are donated to it at bargain basement prices to people who typically cannot afford to purchase off-the-rack merchandise at retail stores or malls. The small profit on each item that St. Vincent's makes is then given back to the community in the form of vouchers or small incentives that help people in various ways: for example, some people are helped to make their rent payments for that…
"The Beginnings of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul." SVDPUSA. Web. 27 Mar 2016.
Franklin, Ben. The Autobiography of Ben Franklin. MA: Dover Books, 1992. Print.
Mathisen, Robert. Critical Issues in American Religious History: A Reader. Waco, TX:
Baylor University Press, 2001. Print.
How Technology Shapes Society
A society is a conglomerate of people who, for some reason, are throw together in a particular bounded region. The group has to make laws that will govern their actions and they also determine how they will live together in the most productive manner. But, there are events and devices that some say can change the way this group of people behaves and what laws they will make for one another. For example, an early hunter-gatherer society subsisted on what they could kill and find. Then someone invented the hoe, and they became cultivating societies (Keel, 2011). This meant that the people did not have to roam so far afield to find they needed to exist. Thus they could stay closer together and build up societies. Small events sometimes shape great changes in society without the people within the society realizing that the invention will…
Anderson, P., & Tushman, M.R., (1990). Technological discontinuities and dominant designs: A cyclical model of technological change. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(4), 604-619.
Beals, G., (1997). The biography of Thomas Edison. Retrieved from http://www.thomasedison.com/biography.html
Carlson, W.B., (1992). "Artifacts and frames of meaning: Thomas A. Edison, his managers, and the cultural construction of motion pictures," in W.E. Bijker and J. Law Shaping technology/building society: Studies in sociotechnical change. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, pp. 175-198.
Chandler, D., (2002). Technological or media determinism. Retrieved from http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/tecdet/tdet01.html
women's tenuous position society Susanna Rowson's book "Charlotte Temple." Essay feature a balance summary analysis. Summarize passages incorporate short quotations. The point content essay specific direction
Gender discrimination in Susanna Rowson's "Charlotte Temple"
Susanna Rowson's 1791 novel "Charlotte Temple" provides an intriguing perspective regarding society's understanding of women in the eighteenth century. Although it appears that Rowson wanted her readers to be left with the impression that it is wrong to discriminate women, it is difficult to determine whether she wants to emphasize that women are stronger than one might be inclined to think or whether she simply acknowledges women's vulnerability and wants the masses to express a more sympathetic attitude toward them. One of the writer's main intentions in writing the novel is obviously that of improving the image of women in society.
Gender roles presented throughout "Charlotte Temple" make it possible for readers to gain a better understanding…
Rowson, Susanna, "Charlotte Temple: A Tale of Truth," (Charles Ewer, 1824)
The work Gemeinschaft is translated as "community" and is a reference to the "closeness of holistic social relationships said to be found in pre-industrial communities, and imputed to the community as moral worth." (Hughes, nd, p.1) Gemeinschaft is reported to be dependent in terms of its existence upon the member's "subjective will" and as stated in the work of Tonnies (1925) "The very existence of Gemeinschaft rests in the consciousness of belonging together and the affirmation of the condition of mutual dependence." (p.69) While a similar association exists in what is known as Gesellschaft, this society or association is based on unity based on "common traits and activities and other external phenomena." (Tonnies, 1925, p.67) Such as the "ethnic community, community of speech and community of work" are not Gemeinschaft since they are lacking the critical factor of "shared feeling which is essential to Gemeinschaft." (Hughes, nd, p.1)…
Hughes, I. (nd) Gemeinschaft (community) and Gesellschaft (society). Retrieved from: http://foster.20megsfree.com/544.htm
Tonnies F (1925) "The Concept of Gemeinschaft," in Cahnman WJ & Heberle R (Eds) Ferdinand Tonnies on Sociology: Pure, applied and empirical. Selected writings, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp62-72.
Tonnies, F. (nd) Community and Civil Society. Cambridge University Press. (eds) Jose Harris. (Trans) Jose Harris and Margaret Hollis. Retrieved from: http://www.tlu.ee/files/arts/10245/T%C3%B6nn31a3d7f11826a4143580359cbb9fb159.pdf
Society Feels About Animals
As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…
Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."
Healthy Pets. [online] available: http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets / archive/2013/0.
Bleich, A. (2004, October 1). "Mental Disability." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related
Sciences, 41(4), 235-237.
Society -- in Support of the Multidimensional View
The multidimensional view of society, as first advanced by the sociological theorist Max eber, confirms the common Marxian viewpoint about the class-ridden or divided nature of modern society. According to Marx, society was divided into different classes such as the workers and the factory owners, the proletariat and the bourgeois property owners, and thus existed in a state of constant polarity or division. However, the more subtle multidimensional view of society suggested that there were multiple dimensions to the inequality that existed in a society that made social analysis more complex than property ownership, and financial dominance.
In the multidimensional view, societal notions of class have social and political elements of power as well. For example, class is economic but is also established by what one does for a living. The contribution groups make to the productive system of the society may…
Richard H. Anderson. (1996) "Inequality and Conflict Topics." The Department of Sociology and the University of Colorado at Denver. Page last revised 12 Jan 1999. Retrieved 22 Jun 2005 at http://carbon.cudenver.edu/public/sociology/introsoc/topics/topic4b.html
The Impact of a Borderless Society
Because of technology and the way in which society has evolved, people currently live in a world where there are virtually no geographic boundaries (Time, 2006). Goods and services can be transmitted anywhere, and people from all over the world can talk to one another via the internet and cell phones quickly and easily in real time. Even the food that is consumed by most people comes from places far away from them (Kloppenburg, et al., 1996). They have fresh fruit in cold weather areas of the United States in December, for example, and that fruit has to come from somewhere else. It is not possible to grow peaches in South Dakota in January, so there is no way that fruit is local. It had to be grown somewhere warm, picked, packed up, and shipped elsewhere. While there is nothing actually wrong…
Kloppenburg, J. Jr., Hendrickson, J., & Stevenson, G.W. (1996). Coming in to the foodshed. Agriculture and Human Values 13(3): 33-42
Time (2006). Local-Food Movement: The Lure of the 100-Mile Diet. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1200783,00.html#ixzz1wCS2WC46
Likewise, woman in Saudi Arabia are still suppressed enough that they are not allowed to drive on the road. When recently one Saudi woman rebelled and was jailed and the foreign media raised the issue, the government of Saudi Arabia stood firm by their laws pertaining to female liberties in the face of the international media.
3. Provide an overview of hegemonic masculinity
The concept of hegemonic masculinity is a normative notion that promotes the idea of male dominance and power over the opposite gender in the society. Since the societies that adhere to patriarchal structure see gay men as 'weak' according to social norms, under the concept of hegemonic masculinity a normal 'strong' male member of the society is not only expected to have power over the females but also the 'weaker' males. In such social structures when male members cannot attain financial successes, they exercise their power by…
Connell, C. (2009). Gender. Cambridge. Polity Press.
Adler, L.L. (Ed.). (1993). International Handbook on Gender Roles. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59441463
Enos, T. (1996). Gender Roles and Faculty Lives in Rhetoric and Composition. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=42471043
Mussap, A.J. (2008). Masculine Gender Role Stress and the Pursuit of Muscularity. International Journal of Men's Health, 7(1), 72+. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035170430
individual in society: To what extent are individuals the product of society?
The idea of 'the individual' has become such an accepted construct in modern life it is easy to forget that the idea of an isolated, all-important private and individual 'self' is a relatively new development in human sociological thought. Even today, human beings define themselves, not simply as individual selves, but as persons who must function within particular social contexts of family, work, and school. Quite often, when one asks 'who am I,' one's societal roles of child or parent, worker or employee, or student formulate one's answer. But although societal ideals and ideas have produced the modern notion of the individual as an isolated, psychologically contained essence, this idea has grown so powerful that even as societal institutions of church and education continue to shape the collective, individual persons now seek a sense of empowerment and actualization…
Abercrombie, N. And Warde, A. Contemporary British Society. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000.
Durkheim, Emile. Suicide, 1929.
Freud, Sigmund. Freud's Collected Writings, 1924.
Marsh I. Sociology: Making sense of Society. 2000.
Individual and Society
Relationship between Individual and Society
As the world has penetrated into the age of advancements, numerous facets have been changed over time, and the relationship between the individual and society is one of the elements that have also changed over the course of period, which cannot be overlooked. Conformity and traditional values were considered the most significant aspect for the people in the earlier times, however, currently; individualization has been witnessed as the latest attempt that defines the current nature of this relationship.
Numerous investigations from the post modern, modern and late modern eras have been carried out in order to identify and determine the root cause of the changes in the relationship over time. However, amongst the numerous researches, few of it are highlighted that can measure the reasons behind the changing forms of integration and differentiation amongst the people and society.
Furlong, Andy and Cartmel, Fred. Young People and Social Change. 2nd Edition. Poland: McGraw-Hill International, 2006.
Jeffs, T. And Smith, M.K. "Individualization and youth work," Youth and Policy, volume 76, (2002).
Leccardi, Carmen and Ruspini, Elisabetta. A New Youth?: Young People, Generations And Family Life. Great Britain: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006.
Rury, John L.. Education and Social Change: Contours in the History of American Schooling, 3ed Edition, New York: Routledge, 2012.
Vision for Society: A Just Society
The Vision: A Just Society
It is a moral duty for those in immigration department to ensure that immigrants get free English classes to help them promote their own life. In AACA, there are rules that do not allow employees to help immigrants. For instance, reading letters for immigrants who cannot read and understand English is not a responsibility of AACA staff. In this regard, clients end up going back with unsolved problems because AACA staffs are not obliged to assist them. Although such acts do not form part of the organization's duty, helping these immigrants read bills and solve their problems is a moral duty that calls for commonsense. Commonsensical thoughts from Kant's point-of-view begin with the idea that what is good; is a good will. The thought of good will is a noteworthy reasonable decisive factor that Kant employs all through his…
Foucault, M. (2012). Discipline & Punishment. London: Knopf Doubleday Publishing
Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed: 30th anniversary edition. London:
Continuum International Publishing Group.
" (illmott 2000) in other words, the reality of death is removed to the edges of culture and society; which means that the significance and reality of death is in effect 'anesthetized' by institutions such as the medicine and science. As Giddens states, death is avoided or excluded from common social life and from "…fundamental existential issues which raise central moral dilemmas for human beings." (Giddens 156)
This suggests that the taboo about death and its avoidance in the cultural discourse is linked to the structure and the composition of modern society and culture. There is a sense that death is seen as the pornography of the modern age. "Helmut Thielicke observed that death is coming to have the same position in modern life and literature that sex had in Victorian times." (the avoidance of death in our modern world)
If we analyze the sociological structure of modern society we…
"Death and Society." Web. 19 November
Giddens, a. Modernity and Self-identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age.
The problem is that if this trend continues it will have serious consequences for the society as a whole.
Many other great historical cultures have deteriorated and fallen as a result of a decline of social values and standards. We need only refer to the great Roman Empire for clear evidence of the link between a reduction of morals and standards and the demise of the culture. Historians refer to the view that the fall of the Roman Empire can be directly linked to a decline in moral and societal norms and that the culture was destroyed not only by the outside invaders but by internal decay and moral decline. As one expert writes,
The primary reason for Rome's fall was moral decline. Every Roman writer who chronicled the fall of the republic -- Appian, Tacitus, Cassius Dio, Sallust, Cicero, and others -- marveled at the evaporation of ancient virtue…
Bonta, Steve. Lessons of Rome: The Rise and Fall of the Roman Republic
Provides Lessons That Hint at Flaws in Modern Political Policies. The New American, 21 Feb. 2005.
Nursing Home Current Events in Texas. 2001. June 22, 2009.