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Dermura, S. (n.d.). he Interrelationship among Achievement Patterns of Activities of Daily Living. Journal of Psychological Anthropology, 167 -- 175.
he article the Interrelationship among Achievement Patterns of Activities of Daily Living, examines the responsiveness rates of those who are disabled and living in a nursing home. o determine this, the author sampled 706 dependent elderly patients. he results were that respondents performed well in activities using the lower parts of their body. his information can be used with corresponding information to examine how the body changes, once someone is forced into an institutionalized situation. At which point, it can be corroborated with the other pieces of information to see the true effects of aging. (Deruma, n.d.)
Mudege, N. (2007). Survival Strategies of Older Men and Women. Journal of Aging Studies, 23, 245 -- 257.
he article, Survival Strategies of Older Men and Women, highlights the different strategies…
The article, Health and Functional Status of Elderly Patients Living in Nursing Homes, looks for common factors that could help contribute to conditions that would increase the chances of some form of dependency, on various assisted living programs when person become older. This was accomplished by looking at 506 elderly men and women living in nursing homes throughout Turin, Italy. What the study found was those who were most commonly from the lower to middle classes within society and are less educated, were most likely to suffer from at least one of these conditions. This information is useful, because it could be used to highlight why particular social / economic classes would most likely to require increased amounts of care when they become older. The source provides information that can be used to help construct the various issues that the elderly must wrestle with. (Molashi, 1995)
Jennett, a. (2003). The Socio Economic Impact of Teleheatlh. University of Alberta. api.ning.com/.../Thesocioeconomicimpactoftelehealthsystematicreview.pdf
The article, the Socio Economic Impact of Teleheatlh, examined the overall economic benefit that a variety of community or government-based health service programs provides to the elderly and their families (such as Social Security of Medicare). This was accomplished through examining 306 different pieces of literature. At which point, the author was able to identify a number of different ways that these programs benefit senior citizens along with their families to include: higher quality care, easy access to a variety of health care services and greater social support. This source
A particular set of achievements or test results needs to be arrived at in order to objectively compare two different bodies of information. Data relative to graduation and dropout rates among students as well as their parents would be relevant in showing the potential correlation between traditional education and the poverty cycle. Once a set of standards is established and norms set for both the standard education system as well as an alternative education system, data sets can be accurately compared and analyzed according to socioeconomic class, economic advantage or disadvantage, and as ethnicity.
First of all, this approach will take the form of statistical research intended to show that the specified minority groups currently do not perform as well on standardized testing as other groups. It is quite easy to find data to support this premise, and this data comes from sources within the current American educational system. Secondly,…
Boyd-Zaharias, Jayne, and Helen Pate-Bain. "Class Matters in and Out of School:
Closing gaps requires attention to issues of race and poverty." Phi Delta Kppan Sept. (2008): 40-44. Print.
"Federal Role in Education." Ed.gov. U.S. Department of Education. 29, Jan. 2010. Web.
02 April, 2010.
Socioeconomic Causes and Effects of Racism
Racism is directly caused by the belief that some races or groups are superior to others. In most cases, racism is based on the false idea that different physical characteristics, such as the color of one's skin, make certain people better than others.
The problem of racism is inherent in attitude; in the fear and ignorance people have of others who are different than them. Racism is not limited to prejudice and discrimination against black and colored people. The Holocaust, during which six million Jews were murdered, represents one of the most heinous examples of racism ever seen (Lewis, 1998).
Racism is a fear people that people possess of others who are different, regarding language, sex, color or nationality, usually causes racism (Searing, 1989). This fear is instigated by beliefs and stereotypes that are passed between different generations.
Racism is a dangerous way of…
South Africa, History of." Encyclopedia Britannica 2003 Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. 16 Mar, 2003. retrieved on the Internet at: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=117926 .
Fish, Stanley. Reverse Racism, or How the Pot Got to Call the Kettle Black. The Atlantic, November, 1993.
Gladwell, Malcolm. "The Subtler Shades of Racism." Washington Post, July 15, 1991, A3.
Gutteridge, William (ed.) South Africa. From Apartheid to National Unity, 1894-1994. Dartmouth, 1995.
For example, say: "emember Great Aunt Martha? Today was her birthday. I can't help thinking that she would still be with us if it wasn't for the lung cancer. But back then, people didn't know that smoking was bad for you. Fortunately, we do now." Seeing someone smoking is another conversation opener: "I always feel so bad every time I see someone smoking. I know that they are shortening their life, and that attractive young girl will have yellow teeth, wrinkled skin, and bad breath, soon, all because of smoking." Smoking rates amongst teenage girls have increased, partially because of weight-related concerns, so it is not shallow to note the negative appearance-related aspects of smoking.
Translating the health risks of smoking into terms your teen can understand is important. For a teen, a statistically increased risk of death from lung cancer and heart disease may be abstract, but pointing out…
Heiti, Harry. (2010, January 8). Teen smoking facts. Official wire. Retrieved February 4, 2010 at http://www.officialwire.com/main.php?action=posted_news&rid=45484&catid=1108
Healthcare and Drug Costs
Increasing Healthcare and Drug Costs Affect on the Socioeconomic Drag in the U.S.
The United States spends about 2.5 trillion dollars a year just on health care (Johnson, 2009). However, the Unites States' prices keep going up which makes the economy go down. The rising health care costs, drug costs, and drug abuse affect the socioeconomic drag of the heath care economy in the United States of America.
ising healthcare costs are a major issue for most Americans. So much of what is spent on healthcare does not help the economy. According to the research, "the health care system is dysfunctional and full of waste -- as much as 30% of all spending" (Johnson, 2009). Still, each year, Americans spend an average of 17.5% of the GDP on health care costs. That takes away from spending in other areas that would help strengthen the economy. Yet,…
Baumgartner, Jason. (2011). Understanding socioeconomic and healthcare system drivers to increase vaccination coverage. Quintiles. Web. http://www.quintiles.com/~/media/library/presentations/vaccine-insights.pdf
Johnson, Linda A. (2009). Q&A: Why healthcare's economic impact matters. USA Today. Web. http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/health/2009-06-19-health-economy_N.htm
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2008). Drug abuse costs the United States economy hundreds of billions of dollars in increased healthcare costs, crime, and lost productivity. Publications. Web. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/addiction-science-molecules-to-managed-care/introduction/drug-abuse-costs-united-states-economy-hundreds-billions-dollars-in-increased-health
This is stated to be because "whites devoted a greater share of their income to saving, but racial differences in savings rates are not significant" after controlling for income.. Yet, there would have been at least a narrowing in the savings gap between whites and African-Americans, had African-Americans been as "devoted to saving..." As were whites during the same period. Stated by Gittleman and Wolff as the primary source of data in the 2004 study is the "PSID, which had followed about 5,000 U.S. families since 1968, interviewing them annually." (2004) the PSID measures net worth by "adding the values of the home, real estate other than the main residence, the farm or business, and vehicles together with holdings in stocks, checking and savings accounts and 'other savings' and then subtracting the non-mortgage debt." (Gittleman and Wolff, 2004) Gittleman and Wolff point out the necessity in understanding to a great…
Freeman, Lance (2004) the Changing Determinants of Inter-Racial Home Ownership Disparities: New York City in the 1990s. Housing Studies. 1 May 2004.
Gittleman, Maury and Wolff, Edward N. (2004) Racial Differences in Patterns of Wealth Accumulation. The Journal of Human Resources. Issue 39 Vol. 1
Goldsmith, Arthur H.; Hamilton, Darrick; and Darity, William Jr. (2007) From Dark to Light: Skin Color and Wages Among African-Americans. The Journal of Human Resources.
Holzer, Harry and Neumark, David (2000) Assessing Affirmative Action. Journal of Economic Literature Vol. 38. No. 3 September 2000.
Th sam thing gos for th IMF.
Qustion 22: What ar som of th most important xampls of typs of transnational crim and organizd groups that commit ths crims? How hav th Unitd Stats and othr countris trid to combat transnational crim, and with what rsults? Why is transnational crim so difficult to radicat? (Rfrnc: ). Intrnational rlations and world politics: Scurity, conomy, idntity).
Som of th most important xampls of transnational crims ar: mony laundring; illicit drug trafficking; corruption and bribry of public officials; fraudulnt bankruptcy; insuranc fraud; computr crim; thft of intllctual proprty; illicit trafficking of arms; trrorist activitis (for xampl, 9/11); aircraft hijacking (s also 9/11); and, on that w ar sing mor and mor of rcntly -- sa piracy.
Thr ar many transnational trrorist organizations that hav bn idntifid bing crtain groups and thrfor this idntification has hlpd us kp a clos watch on thir activity…
economy, identity (4th ed.). NJ: Prentice Hall.
Woods, Ngaire. (2007). The globalizers: The IMF, the World Bank, and their borrowers.
NY: Cornell University Press.
Aristotle viewed citizens as the backbone of the state, and considered that they had a clear responsibility to said State. "One citizen differs from another…the salvation of the community is the common business of them all" (Politics, 54). Thus, the Aristotelian approach is one of natural law and natural predisposition; for Machiavelli, politics are constructed.
Similarly, when Thomas Hobbes described the life of man in wartime as "nasty, brutish, and short," he was speaking more about the manner in which the majority of the population lived in 16th and 17th century Europe. Life was quite different during this time for 90% of the populace; there was a small merchant/middle class, an even smaller aristocratic class, and a large peasant and poor class. And what was urban life like? Cities were crowded, there was no sewer system or plumbing; night soil and trash was thrown out of windows onto the streets,…
Socioeconomic Status, Family Structure, and Parental Involvement: The Correlates of Achievement
Do class/socioeconomic status, the attention of a parent, the working patterns of the mother, and familial structure have any impact on a student's academic performance? This particular study seeks to, specifically, describe "the relationship between educational attainment and the components of the SES index as used in the National Longitudinal Surveys conducted by the National Center for Educational Statistics." The 1980 High School and Beyond senior cohort was utilized in the undertaking of this study, with more than fifty eight thousand high school seniors and sophomores (1980) being used as the nationally representative sample. The survey of the samples took place in years 1980, 1982, 1984, as well as 1986.
The research made use of correlational research design. As Privitera (2013, p. 215) points out, correlational research design seeks to "use data to determine if two or…
Blau and Blau believe that this fact provides one more piece of evidence in favor of their central proposition that "racial socioeconomic inequalities are a major source of much criminal violence.
There is a stereotype that poor class youth are the ones that commit crime. The fact is that many studies conclude that social class has no direct link to crime. It does on the other hand have an indirect link. To further understand the class-crime relationship, more studies are obviously necessary. There is no lack of interest in the subject, but the upper class are not likely to attract much interest in crime research. It is vital to study all aspects of crime so that a comparison can be made and help to further understand crime trends, and fully understand the relationship between socioeconomic status and criminal behavior
Blau, J.., & Blau, P.M. (1982). The cost of inequality:…
Blau, J.R., & Blau, P.M. (1982). The cost of inequality: Metropolitan structure and violent crime. American Sociological Review, 47, 114-117. Pp. 121-127
Blum, R.W., T. Beuhring, M.L. Shew, L.H. Bearinger, R.E. Sieving, and M.D. Resnick. (2000). The Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Income, and Family Structure on Adolescent Risk Behaviors. American Journal of Public Health 90 (12): 1879-84.
Bonczar, Thomas P. (2003), Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974-2001, Bureau of Jus tice Statistics Special Report, NCJ 197976.
Ellwood, D.T., & Jencks, C. (2002). The growing difference in family structure: What do we know? Where do we look for answers? John F. Kennedy School of Government, HarvardUniversity, Cambridge, MA.
Amnesty International (2010) also reports that domestic violence is the major cause of death and disability for women ages 16 to 44 years. Of course, there isn't any forgetting that women in Colombia and Darfur -- places of dangerous armed conflict -- are commonly raped. Amnesty International also notes that the trafficking of women has become a global issue; women are exploited sexually, raped, forced into hard labor and are victims of severe sexual and physical abuse.
The United States must take a stance in helping to protect women across the globe. On February 4, 2010, members of Congress introduced the International Violence Against Women Act (I-VAWA), an important step in protecting, defending and empowering women around the world. This would be a groundbreaking law as we live in a world where "approximately 1 out of 3 women worldwide has been beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused in her…
European Parliament. "Background Note on the Political and Human Rights Situation in Sudan and Darfur." 2007. Retrieved on June 27, 2010, from the Web site:
Responsibility to Protect. 2010. Retrieved on June 26, 2010, from the Web site:
One also has to question the 'rationality 'of these criteria in the light of the severity of the possible repercussions and diplomatic fallout.
The most acceptable criterion which could justify the use of force in intervention is when the freedom of the state of the safety of its citizens comes under real and tangible threat. However, what is much more questionable are other criteria which are vague and possibly ethically suspect. For example, the view of theorists like Clausewitz that forceful intervention is a tool used by the states to achieve certain political objectives:"….war was merely one means states might employ to achieve objectives set by political authorities" ( Viotti and Kauppi, 2009, chapter 7).
The above perspective, in my point-of-view, is unacceptable as a true criterion for the intervention by force. The reason for the rejection of this criterion is not only on ethical grounds but also refers to…
Brown, B.S. (2000). Humanitarian Intervention at a Crossroads. William and Mary Law Review, 41(5), 1683. Retrieved June 23, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001761450
Hillen H. (1996) American Military Intervention: A User's Guide. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/1996/05/BG1079nbsp-American-Military-Intervention-a-Users-Guide
Johnson J. Which Criteria Should the President Use to Decide on Armed Intervention?
Retrieved from http://gotmine9.blogspot.com/2008/05/which-criteria-should-president-use-to.html
Socioeconomic Status, ace and Healthcare
Higher rates of illness among blacks as compared to whites have become a persistent thing over time. At the same time other ethnic/racial minority groups have over the years shown an elevated disease risk for some of the health conditions. This paper will look at how race and socioeconomic status combine to affect health. Health comprises of several dimensions such as loss of functionality, diseases and conditions, disability and even death. The process of health change within a population is thought to start with the onset of diseases and conditions that lead to loss of functionality and impairment and eventually cause disability or even death. The development of some of the chronic diseases, while they are not recognized clinically until one reaches their middle age is affected mostly by lifelong circumstances that are related to race and socioeconomic status. Some factors affect the likelihood of…
Williams, D.(1999). Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Health
The Added Effects of Racism and Discrimination. Retrieved June 10,2014 from http://www.isr.umich.edu/williams/All%20Publications/DRW%20pubs%201999/race,%20SES,%20and%20health.%20the%20added%20effects%20of%20racism%20and%20discrimination.pdf
Crimmins, E., Hayward, M., & Seeman, T.(2010). Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Health. Retrieved June 10, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK25526/
Socioeconomics and Fiscal Policy
Current Events Article eview
One of the more interesting discussions occurring relative to the purpose and effective use of fiscal policy in today's macroeconomic environment is arguably occurring inside the European Union (EU). There is a high level debate that is ongoing about the future of the EU after various economic crises that have emerged such in Greece, most notably, but also in other economies such as Spain. Some argue that the since the European Union is made up of independent nations with their own elected governments, their problems are going to be essentially local and they will need local solutions that any policies from a centralized financial system that sets fiscal policies for all the EU nations could ever possibly address (Debating Europe, N.d.).
There are many ideological objections to the fiscal union that is being formed that lie outside its potential effectiveness, such as…
Coeure, B. (2016, March 21). The future of the euro area. Retrieved from European Central Bank: https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/key/date/2016/html/sp160321.en.html
Debating Europe. (N.d.). Arguments for and against fiscal union. Retrieved from Debating Europe: http://www.debatingeurope.eu/focus/infobox-arguments-for-and-against-fiscal-union/
Human esource Management in International Business
Impact of Cultural Differences, Socioeconomic or Political Factors on international HM
Challenges to HM posed by growth in International Business
By looking at the changing trends of the world of commerce in recent times, one can significantly notice the fact that this business community is becoming more and more competitive. This clearly signifies the truth that the elevating competition within the community has given rise to international business where enterprises regardless of their size are expanding their operations within the global market. As an outcome of it, an efficient and effective work environment has become the fundamental necessity that can facilitate the organizations in maintaining strong holds in the market place as well as generate profits (Daly, 2011).
Considering the challenge of maintaining an effectual organizational culture, businesses need the asset of human resources, hence, they are considered as the foundation stone for any…
Briscoe, D., Schuler, R., & Tarique, I. (2012). International Human Resource Management, 4E. 4th Edition. USA: CRC Press.
Briscoe, D.R., & Schuler, R.S. (2004). International Human Resource Management: Policies and Practices for the Global Enterprise. 2nd Edition. USA: Routledge.
Cooke, W.N. (2003). Multinational Companies and Global Human Resource Strategies. USA: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Daly, J.L. (2011). Human Resource Management in the Public Sector: Policies and Practices. USA: M.E. Sharpe.
Juvenile Community Corrections
Corrections in Community-Based Settings
Community-based corrections: Factors to consider when dealing with juvenile offenders
One seemingly self-evident truth regarding juvenile offenders might seem to be that socio-economic status will have a significant impact upon the individual's ability to find adequate treatment. The research does support the idea that individuals of higher socioeconomic status (SES) are less likely commit juvenile crimes. Also, it would seem that a wealthy, well-connected suburban family who is able to offer private counseling to their child is more likely to see the teen transition out of juvenile corrections than one who does not. An overall literature review suggests that lower SES is linked with the likelihood of perpetuating juvenile crimes. In another study of 420 urban youth comparing those from high SES neighborhoods vs. low SES neighborhoods, the high SES youth were half as likely to engage in serious delinquency (Atkins et al.…
Atkins, T., Bullis, M., & Yovanoff, P. (2007). Wealthy and wise? influence of socioeconomic status on the community adjustment of previously incarcerated youth. Behavioral Disorders, 32(4), 254-266. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219677853?accountid=14872
Mincey, Barrett, Maldonado, Nancy, Lacey, Candace H. & Thompson, Steve D. (2008).
Perceptions of successful graduates of juvenile residential programs: Reflections and suggestions for success The Journal of Correctional Education 59(1).
Woolard, Jennifer L., Harvell, Samantha, Graham, Sandra. (2008). Anticipatory injustice among adolescents: Age and racial/ethnic differences in perceived unfairness of the justice system. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 26: 207 -- 226. Retrieved:
"Coffee is King": The rise and fall of coffee in Colombia, economic growth and social change.
Colombia first became an exporting area in the sixteenth century, under the Spanish arrangement of mercantilism. Spanish imperial rule defined a great deal of Colombia's social and economic development. The colony became an exporter of raw materials, predominantly precious metals, to the mother country. ith its colonial position came a highly planned socioeconomic system founded on slavery, indentured servitude, and restricted foreign contact. Colombia's contemporary economy, based on coffee and other agricultural exports, did not materialize until well after its independence in 1810, when local entrepreneurs were free to take advantage of on world markets other than Spain. The late nineteenth century saw the development of tobacco and coffee export industries, which really enlarged the merchant class and led to population growth and the enlargement of cities. ealth was concentrated in agriculture and…
"Colombia -- Economy." Mongabay. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 3 May 2012.
"Colombia History." Mongabay. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 3 May 2012.
Bernie Krisher of American Assistance for Cambodia set her up in Phnom Penh twice more, but each time she ran away after a few days, desperate to get back to her meth supply" (Kristof and uDonn, p.39). hile I have not returned to Mexico and the carefree lifestyle I led there, I cannot deny having the desire to do so, on occasion. hile I know that the life I lived there was not the right life for me, I still long to return to it on occasion.
Of course, the differences in countries and cultures are, in many ways, becoming less apparent as the world becomes more global. This globalization has challenged the existing social structures in many countries, including those countries with castes or caste-like socioeconomic divisions. Discussing India, Kapur stated that, "ancient social structures are collapsing under the weight of new money. Bonds of caste and religion and…
Barber, Benjamin. "Jihad vs. McWorld." The Atlantic. N.p. 1 Mar. 1992. Web. 6 May 2013.
Kapur, Akash. "How India became America." The New York Times. 1-2. 9 Mar. 2012. Web.
6 May 2013.
Kristof, Nicholas and Sheryl WuDunn. "Microcredit: The Financial Revolution." Half the Sky:
S. And that, as much as anything else, has allowed the U.S. To fall behind other nations in upward mobility of the population.
Foroohar also suggests that some European nations (such as Germany) responded better to the recent economic crisis than the U.S., such as by artificially preventing unemployment rates from rising by subsidizing companies to retain them through hard times. As a result, consumer spending did not drop of the way it has in the U.S., resulting in a cycle of decreasing demand and increasing unemployment predicted by traditional macroeconomic principles. Finally, Foroohar points to the more equitable and les complicated tax codes in European nations that omit corporate tax loopholes and reduce the pressures that have resulted in the loss of upward socioeconomic mobility in the U.S.
ana Foroohar's article highlights the manner in which recent trends in American society have demonstrated classic macroeconomic principles in…
Foroohar, R. "What Ever Happened to Upward Mobility?" Time, Vol. 178, No. 19 (2011):
Studies that continue to seek a link between childhood SEP and adult BMI have tended to use "representative national samples," the authors explain. There is "regional variation in the SEP-adiposity relationship," they explain, that "may make a difference in a regionally constrained sample such as ours" (Trotter, p. 1092). "Regionally constrained" is a legitimate conclusion as to why there is such a variance between the Los Angeles sampling and the NHANES data collected between 1999 and 2004 and their own sampling. The NHANES reported a higher (31%) rate of obesity than the Los Angeles findings (20%). These authors admit the Los Angeles data is "regionally constrained."
Measurement: The reader loses faith in the veracity of this research when the authors explain (p. 1092) that there is "missing data" (up to 18% of data missing from "working class status"). Moreover, the "self-reported" weight of participants leaves a reader wondering just…
Trotter, LaTonya J., Bowen, Deborah J., and Beresford, Shirley a.A. (2010). Testing for Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Childhood Socioeconomic Position
and Adult Adiposity. American Journal of Public Health, 100(6), 1088-1094.
Children in poverty are "...behind the eight ball from the moment of conception. Fewer of the marginalized children will develop to the full measure of their potential or acquire advanced intellectual competencies and academic skills that are clearly ahead of the norm for their age." (Kitano, 2003, p.2)
The work of rooks-Gunn and Duncan (1997) stated conclusions that the "...negative effects of poverty on IQ and achievement tests are more pronounced for children who experience poverty during the preschool and early school years and, especially, for children who live in extreme poverty or for multiple years. However, the effects of poverty on school attainment (years of schooling completed), while statistically significant, are small. "It is not yet possible to make conclusive statements regarding the size of the effects of poverty on children's long-term cognitive development." (as cited in Kitano, 2003, p.3)
It is stated to be held by some researchers…
Ayoub, Catherine, et al. (2009) Cognitive Skill Performance Among Young Children Living in Poverty: Risk, Change, and the Promotive Effects of Early Head Start. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 1 Apr 2001.
B.J. Casey, Jay N. Giedd, and Kathleen M. Thomas, "Structural and Functional Brain Development and Its Relation to Cognitive Development," Biological Psychiatry 54, nos. 1-3 (2000).
Brooks-Gunn, J., & Duncan, G.J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. The Future of Children: Children and Poverty, 7(2), 55-71.
Kitano, M.K. (2003) Gifted Potential and Poverty: A Call for Extraordinary Action. Journal for the Education of the Gifted. Vol. 26, No. 4, 2003, pp. 292-303. Online available at: http://psych.wisc.edu/henriques/papers/Kitano.pdf
Sociology and Adult Education
Many believe that vessel education and training that that the very foundation of success. A strong educational background can help any individual branch into new opportunities, where individual goals and community goals are intimately intertwined. In addition to traditional education facilities, the United States has a prominent adult education industry which helps bring academic practices and continuous learning to individuals already within a working environment. Essentially, adult education helps empower both the individual and the community through a continual closure to new and useful information that continuously pushes the individual towards more progressive action.
There is a wide variety of types of adult education offers within mainstream American society today. Essentially, what sets adult education apart from traditional educational program is the fact that adults are already within the workforce are returning to an educational civility in order to train on some potentially lucrative…
Brookfield, Stephen. (1993). Self-directed learning, political clarity, and the critical practice of adult education. Adult Education Quarterly, 43(4). Web. http://www.nl.edu/academics/cas/ace/facultypapers/StephenBrookfield_Learning.cfm?RenderForPrint=1
Farmer, Lesley S.J. (2010). Gender impact on adult education. Information Communication Technologies and Adult Education. IGI Global. P 377-394.
Hopey, Christopher. (1999). Technology and adult education: Rising expectations. Adult Education, 10(4), 26-27.
Jarvis, Peter. (2004). Adult Education and Lifelong Learning. 3rd ed. Routledge Falmer.
divorce rate in the United States is rising at an alarming rate. Just after the Civil War, approximately 5% of marriages in the United States ended in divorce. The divorce rate increased to approximately 10% by the 1920s and approximately 35% by the mid-1960's. y 1990, the divorce rate in the United States had risen to 50%. In a span of 125 years, the divorce rate in the United States increased by 900%. These rising divorce rates have undoubtedly had a profound effect on children. In 1988, 15% of all chil-dren lived with a divorced or separated parent. Presently, more than one mil-lion children per year experience a parental divorce. In the 1960's, almost 90% of children lived in homes with two biological parents. y 1995, approximately 18.9 million children under the age of 18 lived with one. With the rising divorce rate it is important to look at how…
Ham, B. (2003). The Effects of Divorce on the Academic Achievement of High School Seniors. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 38(3/4), 167-185.
Jeynes, W.H. (1999). The Effects of Children of Divorce Living with Neither Parent on the Academic Acheivement of Those Children. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 30(3/4), 103-120.
Jeynes, W.H. (2002a). Does Parental Involvement Eliminate the Effects of Parental Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents? Journal of ivorce and Remarriage, 37(1/2), 101-115.
Jeynes, W.H. (2002b). Examining the Effects of Parental Absence on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents: The Challenge of Controlling for Family Income. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 23(2), 189-210.
Discrepancies in Achievement: Aspirations vs. Expectations Among Students
HISTOICAL OIGINS OF DIFFEENCES
There is a large body of research that focuses on the educational and occupational aspirations and expectations of minority students as well as between male vs. female students. Expectation is defined as a concrete or realistic plan students have and may differ from aspirations, which are generally more abstract and ideological (Trusty, 2002). As Hanson (1994) describes, a student may well have a high aspiration, as evidenced in the national statistics, such as to achieve a college degree; however many students might not actually expect to earn that degree during the course of their education (Trusty, 2002).
Why the discrepancy? In the past little effort has been made to differentiate between aspirations and expectations; and example given is a study conducted in 1991 by Marjoribanks, who used the term 'aspirations' to describe his study, but actually measured student…
Fisher, T.A., & Padmawidjaja, I. "Parental influences on career development perceived by African-American and Mexican-American college students." Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 27, 1999: 136-152.
Hanson, S.L. "Lost talent: Unrealized educational aspirations and expectations among U.S. youths." Sociology of Education, 67, 1994: 159-183.
Kao, G., & Tienda, M. "Educational aspirations of minority youth. American Journal of Education," 106, 1998: 349-384.
Smith-Maddox, R. "The social networks and resources of African-American eighth
Consistent with this, other findings propose that women are more likely than men to take part in violence in the home whereas men are more likely than women to take part in violence in public places.
Even though there is some evidence that mental illness is associated with violence, it appears that the bigger contributing factor is that of outside influences. Substance abuse appears to be the greatest contributing factor, but it can be something as insignificant as one's living arrangements or even just their gender. Overall people with mental health problems do not appear to be at an increased risk of violence.
Appelbaum, P.S., Robbins, P.C., Monahan, J. (2000). Violence and delusions: data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157,
Cottle, C. (2004). The role of social context in the prediction and management of violence among persons with mental illness. Dissertation…
S. healthcare structure do not include the unobserved disparities. This may sound very rudimentary, even silly to point out, but in by understanding that the numbers are actually worse than they appear, and that the rising costs of healthcare services re associated with both what we see and can't see, it is easier to understand how costs rise so quickly.
It is also a sobering fact that what we cannot observe is still out there, existing beyond the scope of the government and social programs designed to help people overcome obstacles to access to healthcare and health insurance. The ethnic group that is most unobserved within the bounds of many of the studies and statistics related to the disparities in the U.S. healthcare industry is non-Mexican Latinos (Bustamante, et. al., 2009). This group represents a major portion of the U.S. population that currently lacks access to healthcare. In understanding this…
Bodenheimer, T., Chen, E., and Bennett, H.D. (2009). "Reorganizing Care:
Confronting The Growing Burden Of Chronic Disease: Can The U.S. Health Care Workforce Do The Job?" Health Affairs. Vol. 28, No. 1. Pp. 164-174.
Braveman, P.A., Cubbin, C., Egerter, S., Williams, D.R., and Pamuk, E. (2010).
"Socioeconomic Disparities in Health in the United States: What the Patterns Tell Us." American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 100, No. 1. Pp. 186-196.
Social Vulnerability Analysis
Compare and contrast your findings based on your research and provide a summary.
Describe the correlation between environmental and socioeconomic risk and vulnerability for the counties you selected. This is Part III of the Social Risks and Vulnerabilities Project. St. Lawrence County, New York State and Missoula County, Montana were chosen from the Hazard Vulnerability and Risk Institute web site because they have similar population size but are from different geographic regions (Northeast vs. Northwest).
The correlation between environmental and socioeconomic risk and vulnerability for St. Lawrence County, New York State and Missoula County, Montana
Lawrence County, New York State
Environmental risk factors include the accessibility and availability of tobacco which is higher here than in many other states in the U.S.A. . This makes it one of the places in New York that experiences a high level of lung and bronchus cancer. It has a rural…
Cognitive ehavioral Therapy
In comparison with many different types of treatments that are available cognitive behavioral therapy (CT) has been used as a way to address a host of anxiety and depression disorders without the use of prescription medication. This is because; this approach is based on the fact that health care professionals are treating someone by: looking at how their thoughts are influencing the way that they are interacting with others. To fully understand the effectiveness of this kind of treatment requires examining the use of CT to deal with: a variety of issues / disorders, discussing the implications for treatment planning, understanding what aspects should be implemented when conducting a treatment program and the different ways that you can ensure that the therapy is useful at dealing with the objectives for each patient. Once this takes place, it will provide specific insights about the underlying effectiveness of CT…
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good. New York, NY: Avon Books.
Glossoff, H. (2005). Article 2. ACA Code of Ethics.
Robbins, A. (1991). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Wilson, R. (2010). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…
Baker, David P. And Deborah Perkins Jones. 1993. "Creating Gender Equality: Cross-national Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance." Sociology of Education 66:91-103.
Bassili, J.N. (2008). Attitude strength. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin, (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change, Frontiers of social psychology. New York, NY; Psychology Press, pp. 261-286.
Cialdini, R.B. 2001. Influence: Science and Practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
achievement of African-American students in civilian public schools vs. African-American students in the Depart of Defense (DOD) school system
The methods section of this dissertation provides the rationale for the proposed study based on my hypothesis comparing African-American students in the DOD school system with African-American students in civilian school systems.
It also highlights the key questions that were examined, how the study was conducted and the measuring criteria for analysis. The paper will provide detailed information that should be a sufficient foundation for anyone who wishes to conduct a parallel study.
This portion of the paper will provide an outline of the following:
Purpose - which will define my reason for doing this study
Background Information - will provide information on the level of measurement I have selected, i.e. The SAT scores and information on the Department of Defense (DOD) school system itself
Procedure - outlines the steps that…
Fact Sheet. The National Center for Fair and Open Testing. Cambridge, MA. August 2001.
George A. Clowes. "Defense Dept. Knows How to Operate Good Schools, Too." School Reform News. January 2002.
Defense Department Taps Distance Learning Tools. www.wtonline.com.Volume13, No.22. February
Unfortunately, most quantitative studies lack external validity in the research design to allow for general conclusions.
Teaching Theories and Nursing
It was Nightingale that recognized the potential of combining sound logical reflection and empirical research in the development of scientific knowledge that lead to evidence-based practices of today. She saw the need to only classify one's illness by the best possible available knowledge but to also collect patient information in the form of survey. Nightingale's work was also groundbreaking as it was the first to integrate such ideas into one method. She understood how factors such as housing and nutrition could have a direct influence on the patient's health and prognosis (McDonald, 2001, p. 68). Still many researchers to come would look at her work as primitive, inconclusive and one-sided. They would see how such details act as an extension of evidence and the attention paid to details as research…
Ackermans, W. & Lohnes, P. (1981). Research methods for nurses. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Allen, K. (2005 Aug.). Online Learning: constructivism and conversation as an approach to learning. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 42, 247-256.
Bigge, M.L., & Shremis, S.S. (1999). Learning Theories for teachers. New York: Addison- Wesley Longman.
Bilyeu, S.M. (2005 April 1). When families complicate patient care: a case study with guidelines for approaching ethical dilemmas. MedSurg Nursing, 6.
ace, Class and Gender and Correctional Settings
Today, the United States incarcerates more than 25% of low-income young black males, so it is reasonable to suggest that there is an inextricable relationship between race, socioeconomic class and gender and the institutional correctional community. It is also reasonable to suggest that this relationship has a corresponding impact on clients, staff and the administration of correctional institutions. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to identify the role of race, class and gender within the institutional correctional community and the impact of these variables on clients, staff, and administration. Finally, an analysis concerning the impact of race, class, and gender on current correctional institutions is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the relationship between race, class and gender within the institutional correctional community in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Assigning inmates to prison. (2014). North Carolina Department of Public Safety. Retrieved from http://www.doc.state.nc.us/dop/custody.htm .
Camp, S.D. & Steiger, T.L. Gender and racial differences in perceptions of career opportunities and the work environment in a traditionally white, male occupation:
Correctional workers in the Federal Bureau of Prisons. In N.A. Jackson (ed.).
Contemporary issues in criminal justice: Shaping tomorrow's system, pp. 258-277,
The company's foundes and senio manages howeve feaed this would make the company less agile and able to espond to maket equiements (Gammenou, 2009).
Thee have been many socioeconomic and demogaphic changes that have affected Avon's business model in the last two decades. The geatest socioeconomic foce affecting them today is the need fo many women to wok full-time jobs to contibute to thei household's income. This has dastically changed the company's distibution model as thee ae fewe women to wok as pat of thei sales foce. The shift in socioeconomic status is also one that has made competition with stoes even moe focused and aggessive, as etailes have the advantage of being moe of a poduct aggegato than poduct develope. Thei distibution model is shifting significantly as a esult.
Inceasing the ugency of the decision was the fact that demogaphic makets wee changing apidly, as wee the…
references for cosmetics were changing too. Younger, more educated Gen Y women wanted environmentally responsible or "green" cosmetics, as sustainability is very important to them as a value (Prior, 2010). The development requirements in this market of Gen Y consumers however is significantly different than the major cash source of the company today, which according to the case study are women from the Gen X and Baby Boomer generations (Grammenou, 2009). What Avon has had to do is concentrate on how to create effective marketing programs for each of these divergent markets while at the same time attempting to standardize on product components to streamline their supply chains (Tozzi, 2010). Of all factors that the case alludes to, this dynamics is what makes their supply chain operations the most difficult to manage over time. The company has created a very strong word-of-mouth campaign and has an exceptional level of trust in the industry for its products. Attempting to chase
(Cattelain, 1997; paraphrased) the work of Cattelain additionally states that as of the beginning of "...July, 1997, approximately 66,000 children born to couples of which one is a Hong Kong resident and one is a mainlanders were waiting to come to Hong Kong, and around 2,000-4,000 children who had entered the territory illegally or overstayed visit permits were estimated to be in Hong Kong." (Cattelain, 1997) Marriage between individuals and the resulting bearing of children has proved problematic to the mainland in terms of regulations and it is stated in Cattelain's work that "One of the first issues that the newly created Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) has had to dealt with his pitted an individual right against a community's capacity to absorb large numbers of new immigrants at one time." (1997)
VII. asic Law Regulating Children orn Outside of Hong Kong with Parent in Hong Kong
Tu, Edward Jow-Ching (2007 Cross-Border Marriage in Hong Kong and Taiwan. International Marriage Migration in Asia. 2007 Seoul. PAK/IPAR Conference.
Chen, Yu-Hua (2007) the Rise of Cross-Border Marriages and Its Impact on Fertility in Taiwan. Comparative Workshop of low Fertility organized by Asia Research Institute and Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. 22-23 February 2007. National University of Singapore. Online available at http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/showfile.asp?eventfileid=265
Cattelain, Chlo (1997) Family vs. Society: Hong Kong's Battle Over Right of Abode for Mainland-Born Children. HRIC. 30 June 1997. Online available at http://iso.hrichina.org/public/contents/article-revision%5fid=4156&item%5fid=4155
Chan, Bernard (nd) Post-1997 Hong Kong: The Social and Environmental Impact. Asia Financial Group and Asia Insurance Co. Ltd. And the Hong Kong Council of Social Service.
What variable(s) and factors does each model include that the other overlooks? Integrate one reading of your choice to your analysis on how social class of families impact school-related processes and educational outcomes.
Laureau finds that the social class of parents affects the parent-school-child triad. Middle class parents get more involved in their children's activities than do working class parents. This involvement has a positive impact on the child's educational attainment. According to Lareau, due to the parents' education, occupation, income, and social networks, middle class parents feel more equal to teachers than do working class parents. This enables them to question and monitor teachers rather than deferring to teachers. Additionally, they have the financial resources to purchase educational resources and usually have more flexibility in their jobs to permit greater involvement. Therefore, they have more frequent abilities to participate in their child's educational pursuits, which results in greater educational…
Eder found that teachers' perceptions of students, and therefore their treatment of students, were based on students' family backgrounds and social mannerisms. Differences in social mannerisms were often misinterpreted as being reflective of the students' abilities. These attitudes toward students' intellectual abilities led to ability grouping in reading and math, which become sort of a self-fulfilling prophecy for these students.
Alexander considered the social class origin of the teacher and his or her perception of student abilities. Alexander found that teachers from high socioeconomic backgrounds perceived lower SES and Black students as lacking in maturity. Additionally, these teachers had lower academic expectations for lower SES and Black students. However, teachers from lower SES backgrounds did not have these perceptions. These perceptions impacted the grades the students received at the end of the year. In classrooms of lower SES teachers, there was no correlation between student's SES or race and his or her year-end grade. Conversely, in classrooms of teachers of high SES backgrounds, students of lower SES and Black students had significantly lower grades than those who were white or of higher SES. Alexander attributes this to the social distance between teachers and students.
According to the Wisconsin Social-Psychological Model, how we see ourselves depend on our interpretations of how other people see us. As has been stated in the other models, when parents and teachers have high expectations of students, they perform better. Mistry et al. (2009) found that both parents' and teachers' expectations of students impacted student achievement. They also found that teacher perceptions were based on the perceptions of earlier teachers, so if as indicated in the Eder and Alexander models, teachers base their expectations on misunderstandings
Health Plan Dev
Health Plan and Health Organization Development
Five Key Events
There are a multitude of different historical events that have occurred in the modern era in a manner that has drastically changed the way in which health and the relationships between society and healthcare has been viewed. In Germany in 1883, Chncellor Otto van Bismarck managed to implement a national insurance-like healthcare scheme that ensured certain basic access to healthcare for many working-class Germans that would otherwise go without medical care. A second highly similar event occurred in England in 1911 with the establishment of a national health insurance program, which eventually became the National Health ervice of the United Kingdom that still provides healthcare services to the nation's citizens today.
The ocial ecurity Act of 1935 represents a major shift in the direction of healthcare policy in the United tates, as this legislation laid the groundwork for…
Socioeconomic and Legislative Influences
In the latter part of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, industrialization began to create ever more stark and extreme differences in the living standards of individuals and families living at different rungs on the socioeconomic ladder. Medical care had become hugely more effective, but could not be afforded by many of the working class, and thus government increasingly saw a need -- and felt certain pressures -- to intercede and provide at least a minimum of care for its citizens. There are directly pragmatic economic benefits of such intercession; improved healthcare leads to increased productivity and reduced costs in other social spending, even potentially reducing criminality as fewer families would find themselves in destitute situations without reliable wage earners due to illness or injury. All of these socioeconomic factors have led to an increased sense of social and civic responsibility for healthcare, yet the initial and direct expense of such a system on a national level with universal coverage has been a dissuasive factor.
Healthcare organizations in the United States have been hugely impacted by several key pieces of twentieth century legislation, including the Social Security Act of 1935, the adjustments to Medicare and Medicaid made in 1966 and in subsequent years throughout the following decades. Currently, the Affordable Care Act is set to go into full enforcement in 2014, and healthcare organizations and insurance providers are already beginning to make adjustments based on these anticipated changes.
Generally, the school system appears to try to teach children what they need to know for their age group, based on what developmental psychologists indicate children of that age should be able to grasp. There is no point in trying to teach a child something that the child is not yet old enough to comprehend, and there is also no point in waiting until a child is already involved with something before teaching him or her about it, such as teaching children about substance abuse and sexual activity, which are both serious issues in schools today.
Learning itself generally defies description, as there are so many ways to define it. However, I think that learning is the acquiring of knowledge that one did not have before, that is important for any reason, and that will benefit someone during their lifetime. It does not really matter how that knowledge is acquired,…
The book, hatever It Takes, by Paul Tough became a best seller because it captured the attention of people in both a scholarly way and yet because of its easy-to-read, entertaining format, and because the issues that Tough writes about are very important to the future of America. That important issue involves education and getting families from disadvantaged communities to rise up and seize opportunities to become enriched socially and economically. Tough highlights the ups and the downs of an expensive, 97-block project called the Harlem Children's Zone. This paper reviews and critiques the book.
An impoverished community can be awakened to a fresh new approach to education, and with cooperation and hard work, the children in that community can be given a far better future. This book is the perfect illustration of important socioeconomic transitions that must take place for that brighter future.
hatever It Takes
Tough, Paul. (2008). Whatever It Takes: Geoffrey Canada's Quest to Change Harlem and America. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Living in both China and the U.S. has been a transformative experience not least in experiencing different kinds and levels of diversity across cultures. This experience will enhance my understanding of patients I see in my professional work, and as a citizen of both my nations on either side of the Pacific. Working as an intern at Weifang Hospital, then at Blanchard Valley Hospital Rehabilitation Findlay Campus, and participating in social organizations outside of school and work have convinced me that despite differences across and within my own multinational experience, we are all more alike than different in the majority of ways. Regardless of demographic characteristics, if the job of therapist is to heal, reduce and prevent pain and disability, then since all peoples share the capacity to experience pain and disability, the therapist has to treat the person, not the class or the gender or ethnicity, even…
Public Health Study on Implications and Ethics of Syphilis
Reverby, Susan. (2003) Tuskegee's Truths: Rethinking the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Studies on Social Medicine.
One of the most infamous actions (or non-actions) in American medicine was that of the Tuskegee Study of this century. The U.S. Public Health Service, on behalf of the U.S. government, observed the effects of advanced and untreated syphilis on four hundred poor black Alabama men. The experiment lasted until 1972.
How could this have occurred? The reasons are twofold -- the perception of syphilis as an illness and the rampant racism prevalent in America at the time. One of the most culturally and politically significant illnesses in human history has been that of syphilis. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that has been blamed for taking some of the greatest minds that ever lived, including Mozart's, as well as many other ordinary individuals. It has been…
Interaction between SES and College Performance
wick, R. & Himelfarb, I. (2011). The effect of high school socioeconomic status on the predictive validity of SAT scores and high school grade-point average. Journal of Educational Measurement, 48(2), 101-121.
African-American (AA) and Latino students underperform other racial groups during their first year of college if SAT scores are used in the prediction formula. The reasons for this are unknown, although socioeconomic status (SES) is suspected.
The current study was undertaken to evaluate whether an SES index could improve the predictive performance of a formula incorporating high school grade-point averages (HSGPAs) and SAT scores.
Evaluate the value of including a SES correction factor in the formula used for predicting first-year college grade-point average (FGPA) performance, for the purpose of correcting for errors introduced by the suspected racially-insensitive HSGPAs. The predictive value of the SAT score in relation to SES will also be…
Zwick, R., & Green, J.G. (2007). New perspectives on the correlation of SAT scores, high school grades, and socioeconomic factors. Journal of Educational Measurement, 44, 23 -- 45.
Zwick, R., & Himelfarb, I. (2009, April). The effect of high school quality on the predictive validity of SAT scores and high school grade-point average. Presented by I. Himelfarb at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego.
Zwick, R., & Schlemer, L. (2004). SAT validity for linguistic minorities at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 25(2), 6 -- 16.
Health and Legislative Issues
All Americans have the desire of having a healthcare system which is capable of delivering world-class security together with financial security. The system in place should always be accessible and one that impacts the economy positively. Successful healthcare reforms will lead to a maximization of the choices available for consumers put a restrain to the ever increasing medical care costs and make healthcare accessible to more and more Americans. There are a number of organizations that have consistently urged the president and congress on building on the existing systems which strengths in order to achieve health reform solutions that are workable in a bipartisan manner. However, there are some healthcare legislative issues that come up and have effects on various stakeholders such as legislators, consumers and other healthcare professionals. This paper will look at one of the current health legislative issues, who is affected most by…
Mears, B.(2012). Health care's big four issues: What the justices are tackling. Retrieved March 12, 2014 from http://www.cnn.com/2012/06/17/politics/health-care-issues/
ANA.(2010). Nursing Beyond Borders: Access to Health Care for Documented and Undocumented Immigrants Living in the U.S. Retrieved March 12, 2014 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/Policy-Advocacy/Positions-and-Resolutions/Issue-Briefs/Access-to-care-for-immigrants.pdf
Goodman, J., (2012). The Impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on Job Creators and the Economy. Retrieved March 12, 2014 from http://www.independent.org/issues/article.asp?id=3385
American College of Emergency Physicians, (2013). The Ethics of Health Care Reform: Issues in Emergency - Medicine - An Information Paper. Retrieved March 12, 2014 from http://www.acep.org/Content.aspx?id=80871
The heated nature of the current political debate in the United States upon the subject of healthcare is testimony to the idea that far less than economic numbers, cultural wars govern how healthcare is perceived and administrated. All nations face the problem of cost containment of an increasingly expensive healthcare system. People are living longer, and the nations of the developed world have populations with a far higher median age than in the past. Medical technology is also more expensive. Thus, some form of 'rationing' (as politically unpalatable as the world may be) is required, either based upon need, or based upon who can pay. The United States stresses that individuals can 'choose' to have healthcare or not, and implicit in this assumption is that individuals who can 'merit' better jobs that provide healthcare are making one choice, while Americans who work several jobs that do not offer healthcare --…
Anderson, G .F. & J.P. Poullier. (1999).Health spending, access, and outcomes: trends in industrialized countries. Health Affairs, 18(3):178-192
Creese, Andrew. (1994). Global trends in health care reform. World Health Forum. 15.
Sanders, Jeffrey. Financing global health systems. Current issues facing global health systems.
Mandating Green Retrograding Among Income Property Owners
The movement for improved environmental sustainability starts with individual property owners. However, property ownership remains one of the most significant and determinant socioeconomic dividing lines in American society. The result is a clear socioeconomic dividing line where sustainability and conservation are concerned. In spite of the critical importance of adapting our consumption habits, lifestyle orientation and energy usage to meet changing needs, many Americans lack the basic ownership rights to participate in some key initiatives. Central among them is the impetus for Green building practices. As the research and discussion presented hereafter with show, this is an impetus to which most home-renters are unable to respond. As the research will note, the need to account for the significant population of Americans who rent when imposing regulatory policies effecting green building standards is today a central element of any plan to reduce…
Unfortunately, substantial evidence persists to suggest that these programs do not go far enough to address the renter/owner conundrum. Many tax incentive options are available only to property owners in their primary dwelling. Though some owners may see breaks on insurance of income properties for certain upgrades there is no significant program that aides property owners in upgrading income properties for energy efficiency. The owner of the property has a conflict of interest in that their desire is to have the home occupied, with the least possible out of pocket expense for the property. Therefore installing energy efficient appliances is often far from the top of the priority list, as the cost of running appliances falls on the occupier (Gardner & Stern, 2008).
Additionally, the value of properties from which owners collect rent is often viewed as profitable in the short-term. This differs from the property owner with intent to maintain, improve and eventually resell a property for profit. In today's particularly anemic housing market, collecting a monthly rent check stands as a much sturdier priority than such interests as either environmental sustainability or cost-controls for the long-term posterity of the structure. The result is a reluctance on the part of many property owners to install additional insulation, to replace older windows with high efficiency windows, to purchase weather-resistant doors and to upgrade older, energy-consuming appliances and temperature-control units. While this may improve property value in the long-term and raise eventual resale or even rental value, if the intention is lacking in the immediate future to make such a sale or a change in lessees, any such changes would cost more in the short-term and would therefore be unattractive to many income property owners. Moreover, these types of big ticket efficiency upgrades are very unlikely to be performed by a renter, who will be unlikely to see significant long-term financial gain from this type of overall improvement to the owner's property.
This dynamic helps point to the critical importance of providing meaningful financial incentives for the income property owner to make the types of changes and upgrades cited here above. First, some consideration should be given to existing programs designed to bring about change for property owners. Tax incentive programs carry merit but are neither substantial or widespread enough to stimulate the type of change called for here. According to the text by Moreno (2011) "income tax credits for going green are available in 22 states. Michigan has a refundable credit for
We live in a world full of diverse people, and all these diverse people interact with each other. Most of the time, the differences between two people don't really matter much: it does not matter whether the person who checks out your groceries is gay or straight, black or white, male or female. However, in the classroom and the workplace, differences may complicate interactions some, leading to confusion or even arguments (Mendelson & Mendelson, 1998).
In the workplace, people tend to hold stereotypes regarding their co-workers based on all sorts of things: sexual identification, ethnicity, education, socio-economic status. While some of this may be prejudice, there are legitimate differences between groups of people. One easily spotted difference involves ethnicity. A person's ethnicity will affect personality. A person with strong Asian influence may resist answering know when someone makes a request. However, people should keep in mind that a wide…
Mendelson, Jack L., and Mendelson, C. Dianne. 1998. "An action plan to improve difficult communication (promoting diversity in the workplace)." HR Magazine, Oct.
National Apartment Association (NAA). 2004. "Diversity in the workplace: Equity Residential is on a mission." Units, Jan. 12.
Neale, Margaret A. 1999. "Why Differences Make a Difference: A Field Study of Diversity, Conflict, and Performance in Workgroups." Administrative Science Quarterly, Dec.
Employee development and training is an alternate zone. In the IT business, training is not simply about recognizing training needs and giving the presupposed training, but anticipating and reckoning the necessities and advancing suitable training to equip employees so that they can handle the challenges.
Another serious challenge is the way businesses have the ability to fuse all the sub-systems in H and help them in accomplishing a definitive objective: extraordinary performance. Individuals must be groomed to get in tune with the performance culture. Making an environment that invigorates the formation of information and its sustenance all through the organization is an enormous challenge. However, investments in Human esource Information Systems (HIS) must create, maintain, and enhance a performance driven culture. The role shifts to that of a facilitator. H will include the entire organization in this process and go about as an advisor and facilitator. This is a H…
Aswathappa, A. (2009). International business. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.
Bell, M.P. (2012). Diversity in organizations. Mason, Ohio: South-Western College.
Burke, R.J. (2005). Reinventing human resource management: Challenges and new directions. London [u.a.: Routledge.
Congress, E.P., & Gonza-lez, M.J. (2013). Multicultural perspectives in social work practice with families. New York: Springer Pub. Company.
Students with ADHD
Education 518, Section B13
Dr. Carolyn McCreight
Qualitative article review: Students with ADHD
Homeschooling is one of the controversial approaches to educate children with 'special needs'. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are preferred to be taught at home by their parents. Instructors for homeschooling are also arranged for this purpose. However, there has been widespread criticism on this method of teaching attention-deficit students. The main purpose of this paper is to review a qualitative study conducted on the topic of providing homeschooling to attention-deficit students. Duvall, Delquadri and Ward (2004) conducted a study to investigate the appropriateness of homeschooling environment for instructing basic skills to children with special needs. The main purpose of this qualitative study was to ascertain whether or not parents of children having attention-deficit as well as hyperactivity disorder could provide their children with instructional environmental that was conducive for facilitating acquisition of…
Duvall, S.F., Delquadri, J.C., & Ward, D.L. (2004). A Preliminary Investigation of the Effectiveness of Home-school Instructional Environments for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 140-158.
Genetic Components of the Disease
Metabolic Components of the Disease
Causes of the disease
Symptoms of the disease
Diagnosis of the disease
Treatment of the disease
Cord lood Transfusion
Treatment for Late on-set Form
Incidence and Longevity of the disease
Krabbe disease, also referred as globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), causes a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), the enzyme responsible for preventing a build-up of galactolipids in the brain. Without the regulation of galactolipids, the growth of the myelin sheath around the nerve cells is severely impaired. Krabbe disease usually presents in first 6 months of the life. A child in the last stages of Krabbe disease is immobilized and has decreased level of responsiveness. Most of them die at the age of 2. (Lantos, 2011)
Genetic Components of the Disease
GLD is one of the subgroup of metabolic disorders called leukodystrophies. The leukodystrophies are caused…
(2011). The Case of Krabbe Disease. In J. Lantos, Dangerous and Expensive Screening and Treatment for Rare Childhood Diseases. Kansas City, Missouri.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011, June). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved March 2013, from Krabbe Disease: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/krabbe-disease/DS00937/DSECTION=risk-factors
Orchard, P. (2013). National Marrow Donor Program. Krabbe Disease.
Rosenberg, R.N. (2008). The Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurologic and Psychiatric Disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
The focus of this work is to examine multi-ethnic literature and focus on treating humans like farm animals that can be manipulated for various purposes. Multi-Ethnic literature offers a glimpse into the lives of the various writers of this literature and into the lives of various ethnic groups and the way that they view life and society and their experiences. Examined in this study are various writers including Tupac Shakar, Dorothy West, Petry, and others.
A Rose Grows From Concrete
One might be surprised to learn that Tupac Shakar was the writer of many sensitive poems. Upon his death in 1996, Tupac's mother released a collection of poems entitled 'A Rose Grows From Concrete', which includes various love poems among the 72 poems in the collection. Tupac writes:
Things that make hearts break.
And people who dream with their eyes open
Jones, SL (2012) Rereading the Harlem Renaissance: Race, Class and Gender in the Fiction of Jessie Fauset, Zora Neale Hurston and Dorothy West. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2002. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=NeRtokbeXDEC&dq=social,+political+and+economic+oppression,+created+a+climate+in+which+Dorothy+West+felt+compelled+to+refrain+from+completing+or+actively+pursuing+a+publisher+for+The+Wedding.+West%E2%80%99s+nearly+half-a-century+space+between+publication+of+The+Living+Is+Easy+ (1948)+and+The+Wedding+(1995)+signifies+the+complexities+of+African+American+literature+and+the+debate+over+which+aesthetics%E2%80%94folk,+bourgeois,+and+proletarian%E2%80%94should+take+preeminence+at+a+given+time&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Edwards, Walter. "From poetry to rap: the lyrics of Tupac Shakur. " The Western Journal of Black Studies. 26.2 (Summer 2002): 61(10). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. College of Alameda. 17 Sept. 2008
Hale, JC (1985) The Jailing of Cecelia Hale. University of New Mexico Press. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=eW6RGpubQ9UC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
Pat Mora (2012) Artist Page. Retrieved from: http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/mora_pat.php
Hurricane Katrina and the Plan Efforts to educe elated Disaster Impacts in Future
The hurricane Katrina is one of the deadliest hurricanes to occur in the United States. The hurricane hit Louisiana, Florida, and New Orleans amongst other places. It led to losses, evacuation of people, loss of lives and many businesses came to stand still. New Orleans had flood preparedness systems, which did not help, and floods persisted for weeks. The tragedy was contributed to by the lack of risk preparedness systems. Scientists have estimated lower storm surges and small coverage of wetlands in the 20th century. The winds, surges, and wetlands help to weaken the powerful winds. The areas are still vulnerable to hurricanes and storms in the future due to the geographic location. New Orleans city is also sinking geologically rapidly. Lessons learned from the hurricane Katrina should be used for disaster preparedness.
Department Of Homeland Security Appropriations. (2008). New York: DIANE Publishing.
Daniels, R.D. (2006). On Risk And Disaster Lessons From Hurricane Katrina. New York: University of Pennslyvania.
Huddow, G.J. (2010). Introduction To Emergency Management. Atlanta: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Jenkins, O. (2009). National Preparedness. New York: DIANE Publishing.
The knowledge of the evolution and starting point of the field of Victimology is of utmost worth. Three different ancient epochs describing the Victims' position inside methods of justice were reviewed by some foremost Researchers including Moriarty and Jerin. The Epochs are the Golden Age, the Reemergence of the Victim and the Dark Age. There is a proposition that the Golden Age has been before the time when laws were documented and governments founded and when ethnic law was in power. In most of the ethnic law, victims' position in defining the penalty for the criminal dealings that another person executed on them or their belonging is direct. This time is reckoned to be when the only judgment for unlawful events is individual justice. This means that the victims request payback or return for their damages right from their offenders. The Evolution of the Dark Ages of victimology was solely…
I learned that different people expect different things at hotels, for example, many of our British guests arrived with their own towels, while many of our North American guests were never satisfied with our air conditioning services, despite the fact that many of our local guests found the hotel to be too cold.
2. It is important to be aware of the cultures involved in one's staff. This comes into play a lot with respect to planning social events, which are important for developing staff morale. Yet, something very well intended can go the wrong way if cultural issues are not take into consideration. For example, we had many different cultures working at our hotel, which meant that we had many different dietary needs. This made planning parties very challenging with respect to choosing a menu that was appropriate for all cultures. It was important to understand which foods were…
Avon has both word-of-mouth and trust on its side as a provider of cosmetics, beauty and health aids. Their distribution strategy is one of the aspects that make their unique value proposition all the more effective as well, as it reinforces trust with face-time between their representatives and customers. The Avon model and competitive strength is all predicated on buying from someone you know and trust.
Supply Chain Implications for Avon
In advising Avon with regard to their supply chain strategy, the most important aspect of their planning must focus on creating green- and environmentally friendly products that are consistent with the values of their new primary market, which are women in the 30s to late 40s (Prior, 2010). The regenerative aspects of the products also need to be brought out more effectively and the supplier needs to be challenged for greater innovations in this area as well. The focus…
Grammenou, E.. (2009, April). WHAT'S NEXT? For COSMECEUTICALS and NUTRICOSMETICS. Global Cosmetic Industry, 177(4), 38.
Hill, John S., & Still, Richard R. (1990). Organizing the Overseas Sales Force: How Multinationals Do it. The Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 10(2), 57.
Molly Prior. (2010, March). Avon Launches Environmental Effort. WWD, 199(57), 5.
J. Alex Tarquinio. (2004, September). Aging Gracefully at Avon;. Kiplinger's Personal Finance, 58(9), 49.
The exam though it's validity as a barometer for academic preparedness for higher learning is contested, is a means of examining the factors which have been shown to be directly related to the outcomes seen with this strategy. Block scheduling has been shown to correlate directly to mathematics, language, and critical thinking in terms of improving scores. Also, the application of this evaluative comparison across a variety of students and academic settings may resolve the existing questions regarding the relative failure of an otherwise successful technique to raise writing skills. The test will be administered at the conclusion of each trial period in the fashion it would be administered in its intended use. The scores of each student will be compared with their previous score. The overall bell curve of scores between conditions will also be compared as a means of determining both specific and general efficacy.
Description of esearch…
Gruber, C. & Onwuegbuzie, A. (2001). Effects of block scheduling on academic achievement among high school students. The High School Journal, 84, 32- 43.
Evans, W. Tokarcyzk, J., Rice, S., & McCray, A. (2002). Block scheduling an evaluation of outcomes and impact. The Clearing House,75, 319- 325.
Jenkins, E., Queen, A., & Algozzine, B. ( 2002). To block or not to block: That's not the question. The Journal of Educational Research, 95, 196- 203.
Those countries who have developed their own WMD programs and have not signed various non-proliferation agreements, highlights this hypocrisy that is existing in the international community. Where, no one is willing to force new countries that develop their own WMD programs to commit to such standards. This is problematic, because it telling the world that those countries not committing to various non-proliferation efforts, can maintain their programs (in secrecy) despite the international standard that is in place. At which point, other nations will seek to start their own WMD programs, as they see this as a double standard. Where, you are not supposed to have these weapons, yet once you do they may not apply.
When you combine this with the fact, that those countries that have not signed various international accords are also not making such disclosures to the IAEA; will more than likely be inclined to pass this…
Cimbala, S. (2005). Nuclear Weapons and Strategy. New York, NY: Routledge.
Gardner, H. (2007). Risks of Nuclear Proliferation. American Global Strategy and the War on Terrorism. (pp. 81 -94) Aldershot, UA: Ashgate.
Heng, Y. (2009). The Proliferation Security Initiative. Risk, Global Governance and Security. (pp. 87 -- 95). New York, NY: Routledge.
Lia, B. (2004). Weapons of Mass Destruction. Globalization and the Future of Terrorism. (pp. 39 -- 48). New York, NY: Routeledge.
Where, many can be able to acquire and construct such materials that can be purchased on the black market. As a result, this increases the odds that these types of weapons will be used in the future, to create a super terrorist attack. This is significant, because it can be used to corroborate other research on terrorists seeking to acquire and use WMDs. Where, they could be purchased on the black market or one of the state sponsors of terrorism could pass this material to these groups. (Campbell, 1997, 24 -- 50)
usch, N. (2008). Force, Preemption and WMDs. Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction. (pp. 156 -- 175). Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
In this piece of literature, the author discusses how there are confusing international standards for dealing with WMD's and how to control them. This is because approaching the problem has been difficult. Where, some nations try…
Busch, N. (2008). Force, Preemption and WMDs. Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction. (pp. 156 -- 175) Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
Campbell, J. (1997). Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence 9 (2), 24 -- 50.
Kan, S. (2009). China and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Congressional Research Service. http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/crs/rl31555.pdf
Krauthammer, Charles. (1991). The Unipolar Movement. Foreign Affairs 71 (1), 23 -- 33
" (2008, p. 146) Flegal, Ogden & Carroll stress the need to educate lowering the fat content of the diet through nursing intervention and practice. (2004, p. S147) These nursing interventions can like this work stress the implementation of a program that exposes adolescents to healthier alternatives and builds the efficacy for obtaining them through successfully seeking family behavior changes and building awareness about healthier options and food costing that make such options obtainable.
What interventions have been successful and what interventions have NOT been successful?
It is clear that general nutrition education, in the schools or in the community has not been an effective intervention tool for children in general, especially given what some would consider the deplorable condition of the public school nutrition programs in most states. It is also clear that family focused interventions are rare, but where they have been tried they have proven most successful…
Heiss, G.L. (2008) Chapter 18: Health Promotion and Risk Reduction in the Community. In Maurer, F.A. & Smith C.M. eds. (2008) Community/Public Health Nursing Practice: Health for Families and Populations Philadelphia, PA. Saunders.
Flegal, K.M. Ogden, C.L. & Carroll, M.D. (July 2004) Prevalence and Trends in Overweight in Mexican-American Adults and Children. Nutrition Reviews 62 (7) S144-S148.
Fortmeier-Saucier, L. Savrin, C. Heinzer, M. & Hudak, C. (Third-Quarter 2008) BMI and Lipid Levels in Mexican-American Children Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes World Views on Evidenced-Based Nursing. 142-147.
Kumanyika, S. & Grier. S. (2006) "Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations." The Future of Children 16 (1) 187.
his is largely due to the eating patterns established in poverty; lack of food during childhood has the tendency to increase over-eating when food is available, and instills a strong compulsion to avoid food insecurities in adulthood, leading to unhealthy eating habits (Olson et al. 2007). Such habits obviously cause health deterioration, which limits productivity and creates bigger expenses, and so assists in the intergenerational perpetuation of poverty and the likely creation of similar or related issues in the children of the adult overeaters. his also ties into other social factors of adult life that stem from issues related to childhood poverty.
Employment in adulthood can be heavily affected by poverty in childhood, as noted above. here are several complex and interrelated ways in which this can occur. First, there is a strong indication that childhood poverty creates a pattern of psychological stress that becomes all but inescapable in…
This is largely due to the eating patterns established in poverty; lack of food during childhood has the tendency to increase over-eating when food is available, and instills a strong compulsion to avoid food insecurities in adulthood, leading to unhealthy eating habits (Olson et al. 2007). Such habits obviously cause health deterioration, which limits productivity and creates bigger expenses, and so assists in the intergenerational perpetuation of poverty and the likely creation of similar or related issues in the children of the adult overeaters. This also ties into other social factors of adult life that stem from issues related to childhood poverty.
Employment in adulthood can be heavily affected by poverty in childhood, as noted above. There are several complex and interrelated ways in which this can occur. First, there is a strong indication that childhood poverty creates a pattern of psychological stress that becomes all but inescapable in adulthood (Evans & Kim 2007). The prolonged stress that this can lead to has been linked to many health problems, like any other form of prolonged stress, but the cumulative effects of continued conditions of poverty often exacerbate the problem still further (Evans & Kim 2007). It can even lead to a lack of ability to fully regulate stress, and this leads to many issues in the employment world, including memory issues, the ability to handle work-related stress including deadlines and other common features of modern jobs, which simply leads to more stress and again, reduced productivity (Evans & Schamberg 2009). The problems of childhood poverty easily become self-perpetuating due to the reduced productivity of adults that grew up in poverty.
This is not merely evidenced from a medical and psychological perspective, but by direct economic research as well. Writing in the New York Times, Eckholm (2007) details recent findings that adults who were raised in poverty not only end up less productive, but typically also have higher costs associated with health problems and other issues. Intervention, then, must occur early and must come form an outside source if the cycle is to be broken. It is, of course, unfortunately impractical to think that poverty could simply be alleviated, but there are ways to mitigate the effects of childhood poverty so that they are not as exposed to risks either in childhood or in adulthood, giving greater
An American worldview assumes, for instance, that a person as the right to worship as he or she wishes. Not all cultures value religious freedom.
Religion, culture, gender, socio-economic status, and nationality all impact worldview. orldview in turn affects outlook on life in all its dimensions. Self-concept and identity are products of worldview, as people continually compare themselves to others. Beliefs about fundamental issues like human nature are related to worldview because the way we view the world is akin to the way we view human beings. How we treat other sentient beings including animals is related to our worldview. orldview even affects a person's beliefs about health and well-being: some value quality over quantity of life. orldview affects beliefs about aesthetics, what is beautiful and what is artistic or musical. Priorities and values, such as whether restrictions on personal freedom are valuable to protect law and order or whether…
Shimony, Tali Tadmor. Gender Socialization in National Education and the Formation of a New State: Israel as a Case Study. History of Education, v34 n6 p639-656 Nov 2005. Retrieved on ERIC June 21, 2008 at http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ721411&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ721411
Worldview Diversity." Retrieved June 21, 2008 at http://www.teachingaboutreligion.org/WorldviewDiversity/wvdiversity.htm
Young, Mary Isabelle. Pimatisiwin: Walking in a Good Way. Winnipeg: Pemmican, 2005.
This music certainly reflects current developments in politics (anti-Iraq war protests), socioeconomics (the poor in society), and technology (use of new instruments and recording techniques). The music affects our lives in so many ways, from enlightening us to social problems, to entertaining us, and even comforting us in times of stress, which makes it an important, even vital, element of the humanities.
Architecture - a relatively recent architectural work is the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles. This magnificent building seems to be a series of shining free-form flowing sheets of molten metal and spheres, and yet, it is elegant and quite sophisticated. Architecture, like the other humanities, has changed and become much more bold and free flowing, as this building illustrates. Architecture is more than simply designing comfortable living and working spaces, architecture is pleasing to the eye and excites the senses, just as this building does. It…