Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $1,000 which is half of its cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug-for his wife. Should the husband have done that? (Kohlberg, 1963)."
Kohlberg was not interested so much in the answer to the question of whether Heinz was wrong or right, but in the reasoning for the participant's decision. The responses were then classified into various stages of reasoning"
Van Wagner, K).
Kohlberg's discovered stages were…
Davis, Doug and Clifton, Alan, "Psychosocial Theory: Erikson," Haverford, 1995, retrieved November 18, 2006 at http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J., "Piaget's theory of cognitive development." Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University, 2003 retrieved November 18, 2006 at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html
Mace, K. (2005). Vygotsky's social development theory. In B. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. Retrieved November 19, 2006, at http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/sdtheory/start.htm
Saba Rasheed Ali, University of Iowa and McWhirter, E.H. & Chronister, K.M., University of Oregon, "Self-Efficacy and Vocational Outcome Expectations for Adolescents of Lower Socioeconomic Status: A Pilot Study," JOURNAL of CAREER ASSESSMENT, Vol. 13, No. 1, February 2005, 40-58, 2005 Sage Publications, retrieved November 18, 2006 at http://jca.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/13/1/40.pdf
In doing so, however, teachers must not allow test prep courses to begin shaping their entire curriculum. This essentially means that preparing for such tests should not be done at the expense of real learning, which involves more effective types of instruction. Teachers should also not spend more than whatever time and energy is necessary towards test preparation. Some experts have argued that a short amount of time for test prep is just as effective in helping students achieve good scores as a whole year's worth of preparation. In preparing their students teachers should first of all make test prep sessions as interesting and worthwhile as possible so that students can be more willing to study for it. Secondly teachers should come up with creative ways towards making their students learn the skill of test taking. Finally, teachers should instill confidence in their students and make them understand that these…
Kohn, A. (January 2001). "Fighting the tests: a practical guide to rescuing our schools." Phi Delta Kappan. Retrieved January 9, 2007 from Alfie Kohn's Website at http://www.alfiekohn.org/teaching/ftt.htm
Kohn, A. (September 27, 2000). "Standardized testing and its victims." Education Week. Retrieved January 9, 2007 from Alfie Kohn's Website at http://www.alfiekohn.org/teaching/edweek/staiv.htm
Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition-Greene County" (2005-2006). Retrieved January 9, 2007 from Alabama State Department of Education Website at http://www.alsde.edu/accountability/accountability.asp
Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition-Hale County" (2005-2006). Retrieved January 9, 2007 from Alabama State Department of Education Website at
Socioeconomic Status, Family Structure, and Parental Involvement: The Correlates of Achievement
Do class/socioeconomic status, the attention of a parent, the working patterns of the mother, and familial structure have any impact on a student's academic performance? This particular study seeks to, specifically, describe "the relationship between educational attainment and the components of the SES index as used in the National Longitudinal Surveys conducted by the National Center for Educational Statistics." The 1980 High School and Beyond senior cohort was utilized in the undertaking of this study, with more than fifty eight thousand high school seniors and sophomores (1980) being used as the nationally representative sample. The survey of the samples took place in years 1980, 1982, 1984, as well as 1986.
The research made use of correlational research design. As Privitera (2013, p. 215) points out, correlational research design seeks to "use data to determine if two or…
Status in Hospitality
How Class and Status are Reflected in the Modern Hospitality Industry
Issues of class and status are reflected in the modern hospitality industry as this consumer-driven marketplace seeks to respond more effectively to the demands of a diverse public. Class may be defined as one's "social class [or] socio-economic class -- people having the same social or economic status." (http://www.cogsci.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/webwn?stage=1& word=class). When class is considered together with income, the resulting "socioeconomic status" (SES, or, status) is a powerful demographic indicator that factors into many decisions in the hospitality industry. The hospitality industry is unique in that it combines services with a tangible good, usually a lodging room. Issues of class and status impact on the hospitality industry by requiring the industry to respond to the customer individually, on the level of service delivery as well as product provided.
One way the hospitality industry has responded to a…
Baranowski, Shelley. (2003). An Alternative to Everyday Life? The Politics of Leisure and Tourism. Contemporary European History 12.4. 561 -- 572.
Class (n.d.) Downloaded May 18, 2004 from Wordnet, Web site: http://www.cogsci.princeton.edu/cgi-
Harwood, A. (May 19, 2004). Eggs-Pensive: Our writer's verdict after he shells out for $1,000
Blau and Blau believe that this fact provides one more piece of evidence in favor of their central proposition that "racial socioeconomic inequalities are a major source of much criminal violence.
There is a stereotype that poor class youth are the ones that commit crime. The fact is that many studies conclude that social class has no direct link to crime. It does on the other hand have an indirect link. To further understand the class-crime relationship, more studies are obviously necessary. There is no lack of interest in the subject, but the upper class are not likely to attract much interest in crime research. It is vital to study all aspects of crime so that a comparison can be made and help to further understand crime trends, and fully understand the relationship between socioeconomic status and criminal behavior
Blau, J.., & Blau, P.M. (1982). The cost of inequality:…
Blau, J.R., & Blau, P.M. (1982). The cost of inequality: Metropolitan structure and violent crime. American Sociological Review, 47, 114-117. Pp. 121-127
Blum, R.W., T. Beuhring, M.L. Shew, L.H. Bearinger, R.E. Sieving, and M.D. Resnick. (2000). The Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Income, and Family Structure on Adolescent Risk Behaviors. American Journal of Public Health 90 (12): 1879-84.
Bonczar, Thomas P. (2003), Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974-2001, Bureau of Jus tice Statistics Special Report, NCJ 197976.
Ellwood, D.T., & Jencks, C. (2002). The growing difference in family structure: What do we know? Where do we look for answers? John F. Kennedy School of Government, HarvardUniversity, Cambridge, MA.
Socioeconomic Status, ace and Healthcare
Higher rates of illness among blacks as compared to whites have become a persistent thing over time. At the same time other ethnic/racial minority groups have over the years shown an elevated disease risk for some of the health conditions. This paper will look at how race and socioeconomic status combine to affect health. Health comprises of several dimensions such as loss of functionality, diseases and conditions, disability and even death. The process of health change within a population is thought to start with the onset of diseases and conditions that lead to loss of functionality and impairment and eventually cause disability or even death. The development of some of the chronic diseases, while they are not recognized clinically until one reaches their middle age is affected mostly by lifelong circumstances that are related to race and socioeconomic status. Some factors affect the likelihood of…
Williams, D.(1999). Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Health
The Added Effects of Racism and Discrimination. Retrieved June 10,2014 from http://www.isr.umich.edu/williams/All%20Publications/DRW%20pubs%201999/race,%20SES,%20and%20health.%20the%20added%20effects%20of%20racism%20and%20discrimination.pdf
Crimmins, E., Hayward, M., & Seeman, T.(2010). Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Health. Retrieved June 10, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK25526/
What are the purposes of determining to which social class a person or occupation belongs? How does class background, or current class position influence individual actions?
In creating a democratic form of government, Americans had long prided themselves for creating a radically new society divorced from the Old World social hierarchies. Yet social class stratification persisted in the United States since the birth of the nation. Social class has also intersected with gender and race throughout the history of the country. Class stratification serves several functions, not least of which is the ability of a ruling elite—including the owners of the means of production—to exploit the lower classes for labor. Moreover, the elite social classes possess social and cultural capital in addition to financial capital. Forms of social and cultural capital serve to facilitate the actions of the upper classes, while preventing those with lower status to access positions of…
Juvenile Community Corrections
Corrections in Community-Based Settings
Community-based corrections: Factors to consider when dealing with juvenile offenders
One seemingly self-evident truth regarding juvenile offenders might seem to be that socio-economic status will have a significant impact upon the individual's ability to find adequate treatment. The research does support the idea that individuals of higher socioeconomic status (SES) are less likely commit juvenile crimes. Also, it would seem that a wealthy, well-connected suburban family who is able to offer private counseling to their child is more likely to see the teen transition out of juvenile corrections than one who does not. An overall literature review suggests that lower SES is linked with the likelihood of perpetuating juvenile crimes. In another study of 420 urban youth comparing those from high SES neighborhoods vs. low SES neighborhoods, the high SES youth were half as likely to engage in serious delinquency (Atkins et al.…
Atkins, T., Bullis, M., & Yovanoff, P. (2007). Wealthy and wise? influence of socioeconomic status on the community adjustment of previously incarcerated youth. Behavioral Disorders, 32(4), 254-266. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219677853?accountid=14872
Mincey, Barrett, Maldonado, Nancy, Lacey, Candace H. & Thompson, Steve D. (2008).
Perceptions of successful graduates of juvenile residential programs: Reflections and suggestions for success The Journal of Correctional Education 59(1).
Woolard, Jennifer L., Harvell, Samantha, Graham, Sandra. (2008). Anticipatory injustice among adolescents: Age and racial/ethnic differences in perceived unfairness of the justice system. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 26: 207 -- 226. Retrieved:
Bioecological Theory and the Family and Community Resource Conceptual Framework)
The Case History
"Kerry" has twin girls who are now 4 years old. he had been living with her defacto "Dean" for the past 6 years. he is a qualified beautician and has previously run a small business from home before the birth of the twins. he undertook schooling until year 12 (equal to UA high school diploma) at a public school, is one of two children herself and has supportive parents in a middle income suburb. he left her defacto 10 months ago after two years of domestic violence brought on by the use intravenous "speed." he has an AVO (Aggravated Violence Order) on "Dean" for 12 months. During the previous two years "Kerry" was subjected to physical and psychological trauma, the twins witnessed this abuse. "Dean" is on a fly in fly out basis working in the mines…
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Caspi, J (2008). Building a Sibling Aggression Treatment Model: Design and Development Research in Action, Research on Social Work Practice, 18: 575
Paquette, D & Ryan. J (2001). Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory
Prochaska, J.O., & Norcross, J.C. (2007). Systems of Psychotherapy: A Trans-theoretical Analysis, Sixth Edition. Belmont, CA: Thompson Brooks/Cole.
Children in poverty are "...behind the eight ball from the moment of conception. Fewer of the marginalized children will develop to the full measure of their potential or acquire advanced intellectual competencies and academic skills that are clearly ahead of the norm for their age." (Kitano, 2003, p.2)
The work of rooks-Gunn and Duncan (1997) stated conclusions that the "...negative effects of poverty on IQ and achievement tests are more pronounced for children who experience poverty during the preschool and early school years and, especially, for children who live in extreme poverty or for multiple years. However, the effects of poverty on school attainment (years of schooling completed), while statistically significant, are small. "It is not yet possible to make conclusive statements regarding the size of the effects of poverty on children's long-term cognitive development." (as cited in Kitano, 2003, p.3)
It is stated to be held by some researchers…
Ayoub, Catherine, et al. (2009) Cognitive Skill Performance Among Young Children Living in Poverty: Risk, Change, and the Promotive Effects of Early Head Start. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 1 Apr 2001.
B.J. Casey, Jay N. Giedd, and Kathleen M. Thomas, "Structural and Functional Brain Development and Its Relation to Cognitive Development," Biological Psychiatry 54, nos. 1-3 (2000).
Brooks-Gunn, J., & Duncan, G.J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. The Future of Children: Children and Poverty, 7(2), 55-71.
Kitano, M.K. (2003) Gifted Potential and Poverty: A Call for Extraordinary Action. Journal for the Education of the Gifted. Vol. 26, No. 4, 2003, pp. 292-303. Online available at: http://psych.wisc.edu/henriques/papers/Kitano.pdf
Discrepancies in Achievement: Aspirations vs. Expectations Among Students
HISTOICAL OIGINS OF DIFFEENCES
There is a large body of research that focuses on the educational and occupational aspirations and expectations of minority students as well as between male vs. female students. Expectation is defined as a concrete or realistic plan students have and may differ from aspirations, which are generally more abstract and ideological (Trusty, 2002). As Hanson (1994) describes, a student may well have a high aspiration, as evidenced in the national statistics, such as to achieve a college degree; however many students might not actually expect to earn that degree during the course of their education (Trusty, 2002).
Why the discrepancy? In the past little effort has been made to differentiate between aspirations and expectations; and example given is a study conducted in 1991 by Marjoribanks, who used the term 'aspirations' to describe his study, but actually measured student…
Fisher, T.A., & Padmawidjaja, I. "Parental influences on career development perceived by African-American and Mexican-American college students." Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 27, 1999: 136-152.
Hanson, S.L. "Lost talent: Unrealized educational aspirations and expectations among U.S. youths." Sociology of Education, 67, 1994: 159-183.
Kao, G., & Tienda, M. "Educational aspirations of minority youth. American Journal of Education," 106, 1998: 349-384.
Smith-Maddox, R. "The social networks and resources of African-American eighth
Sociology and Adult Education
Many believe that vessel education and training that that the very foundation of success. A strong educational background can help any individual branch into new opportunities, where individual goals and community goals are intimately intertwined. In addition to traditional education facilities, the United States has a prominent adult education industry which helps bring academic practices and continuous learning to individuals already within a working environment. Essentially, adult education helps empower both the individual and the community through a continual closure to new and useful information that continuously pushes the individual towards more progressive action.
There is a wide variety of types of adult education offers within mainstream American society today. Essentially, what sets adult education apart from traditional educational program is the fact that adults are already within the workforce are returning to an educational civility in order to train on some potentially lucrative…
Brookfield, Stephen. (1993). Self-directed learning, political clarity, and the critical practice of adult education. Adult Education Quarterly, 43(4). Web. http://www.nl.edu/academics/cas/ace/facultypapers/StephenBrookfield_Learning.cfm?RenderForPrint=1
Farmer, Lesley S.J. (2010). Gender impact on adult education. Information Communication Technologies and Adult Education. IGI Global. P 377-394.
Hopey, Christopher. (1999). Technology and adult education: Rising expectations. Adult Education, 10(4), 26-27.
Jarvis, Peter. (2004). Adult Education and Lifelong Learning. 3rd ed. Routledge Falmer.
Consistent with this, other findings propose that women are more likely than men to take part in violence in the home whereas men are more likely than women to take part in violence in public places.
Even though there is some evidence that mental illness is associated with violence, it appears that the bigger contributing factor is that of outside influences. Substance abuse appears to be the greatest contributing factor, but it can be something as insignificant as one's living arrangements or even just their gender. Overall people with mental health problems do not appear to be at an increased risk of violence.
Appelbaum, P.S., Robbins, P.C., Monahan, J. (2000). Violence and delusions: data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157,
Cottle, C. (2004). The role of social context in the prediction and management of violence among persons with mental illness. Dissertation…
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…
Baker, David P. And Deborah Perkins Jones. 1993. "Creating Gender Equality: Cross-national Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance." Sociology of Education 66:91-103.
Bassili, J.N. (2008). Attitude strength. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin, (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change, Frontiers of social psychology. New York, NY; Psychology Press, pp. 261-286.
Cialdini, R.B. 2001. Influence: Science and Practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
achievement of African-American students in civilian public schools vs. African-American students in the Depart of Defense (DOD) school system
The methods section of this dissertation provides the rationale for the proposed study based on my hypothesis comparing African-American students in the DOD school system with African-American students in civilian school systems.
It also highlights the key questions that were examined, how the study was conducted and the measuring criteria for analysis. The paper will provide detailed information that should be a sufficient foundation for anyone who wishes to conduct a parallel study.
This portion of the paper will provide an outline of the following:
Purpose - which will define my reason for doing this study
Background Information - will provide information on the level of measurement I have selected, i.e. The SAT scores and information on the Department of Defense (DOD) school system itself
Procedure - outlines the steps that…
Fact Sheet. The National Center for Fair and Open Testing. Cambridge, MA. August 2001.
George A. Clowes. "Defense Dept. Knows How to Operate Good Schools, Too." School Reform News. January 2002.
Defense Department Taps Distance Learning Tools. www.wtonline.com.Volume13, No.22. February
Generally, the school system appears to try to teach children what they need to know for their age group, based on what developmental psychologists indicate children of that age should be able to grasp. There is no point in trying to teach a child something that the child is not yet old enough to comprehend, and there is also no point in waiting until a child is already involved with something before teaching him or her about it, such as teaching children about substance abuse and sexual activity, which are both serious issues in schools today.
Learning itself generally defies description, as there are so many ways to define it. However, I think that learning is the acquiring of knowledge that one did not have before, that is important for any reason, and that will benefit someone during their lifetime. It does not really matter how that knowledge is acquired,…
Public Health Study on Implications and Ethics of Syphilis
Reverby, Susan. (2003) Tuskegee's Truths: Rethinking the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Studies on Social Medicine.
One of the most infamous actions (or non-actions) in American medicine was that of the Tuskegee Study of this century. The U.S. Public Health Service, on behalf of the U.S. government, observed the effects of advanced and untreated syphilis on four hundred poor black Alabama men. The experiment lasted until 1972.
How could this have occurred? The reasons are twofold -- the perception of syphilis as an illness and the rampant racism prevalent in America at the time. One of the most culturally and politically significant illnesses in human history has been that of syphilis. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that has been blamed for taking some of the greatest minds that ever lived, including Mozart's, as well as many other ordinary individuals. It has been…
Living in both China and the U.S. has been a transformative experience not least in experiencing different kinds and levels of diversity across cultures. This experience will enhance my understanding of patients I see in my professional work, and as a citizen of both my nations on either side of the Pacific. Working as an intern at Weifang Hospital, then at Blanchard Valley Hospital Rehabilitation Findlay Campus, and participating in social organizations outside of school and work have convinced me that despite differences across and within my own multinational experience, we are all more alike than different in the majority of ways. Regardless of demographic characteristics, if the job of therapist is to heal, reduce and prevent pain and disability, then since all peoples share the capacity to experience pain and disability, the therapist has to treat the person, not the class or the gender or ethnicity, even…
Students with ADHD
Education 518, Section B13
Dr. Carolyn McCreight
Qualitative article review: Students with ADHD
Homeschooling is one of the controversial approaches to educate children with 'special needs'. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are preferred to be taught at home by their parents. Instructors for homeschooling are also arranged for this purpose. However, there has been widespread criticism on this method of teaching attention-deficit students. The main purpose of this paper is to review a qualitative study conducted on the topic of providing homeschooling to attention-deficit students. Duvall, Delquadri and Ward (2004) conducted a study to investigate the appropriateness of homeschooling environment for instructing basic skills to children with special needs. The main purpose of this qualitative study was to ascertain whether or not parents of children having attention-deficit as well as hyperactivity disorder could provide their children with instructional environmental that was conducive for facilitating acquisition of…
Duvall, S.F., Delquadri, J.C., & Ward, D.L. (2004). A Preliminary Investigation of the Effectiveness of Home-school Instructional Environments for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 140-158.
An American worldview assumes, for instance, that a person as the right to worship as he or she wishes. Not all cultures value religious freedom.
Religion, culture, gender, socio-economic status, and nationality all impact worldview. orldview in turn affects outlook on life in all its dimensions. Self-concept and identity are products of worldview, as people continually compare themselves to others. Beliefs about fundamental issues like human nature are related to worldview because the way we view the world is akin to the way we view human beings. How we treat other sentient beings including animals is related to our worldview. orldview even affects a person's beliefs about health and well-being: some value quality over quantity of life. orldview affects beliefs about aesthetics, what is beautiful and what is artistic or musical. Priorities and values, such as whether restrictions on personal freedom are valuable to protect law and order or whether…
Shimony, Tali Tadmor. Gender Socialization in National Education and the Formation of a New State: Israel as a Case Study. History of Education, v34 n6 p639-656 Nov 2005. Retrieved on ERIC June 21, 2008 at http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ721411&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ721411
Worldview Diversity." Retrieved June 21, 2008 at http://www.teachingaboutreligion.org/WorldviewDiversity/wvdiversity.htm
Young, Mary Isabelle. Pimatisiwin: Walking in a Good Way. Winnipeg: Pemmican, 2005.
ace Discrimination Justice
ACE DISCIMINATION CIMINAL JUSTICE
ace and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System
acial inequality has long been an issue in the American society. Despite making substantial progress in creating a more racially equal society, there are still many issues involving race and discrimination that can be found today. The criminal justice system was designed to treat all individuals equally under the law. However, covert racism and discrimination still plague the system and many minorities are adversely impacted and are not treated equally under the law. While most judges and public officials profess a strong dedication to remaining racially impartial, the evidence suggests otherwise. This literature review will focus on various points that indicate that there is a substantial amount of inequality to found within the criminal justice system in our modern society.
acial differences in the criminal justice system have been important topics since the…
Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much is Too Much? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 903-932.
Green, E. (1991). Judicial Attitudes in Sentencing - A Study of the Factors Underlying the Sentencing Practice of the Criminal Court of Philidelphia. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 157.
Gross, S. (1997). Crime, Politics, and Race. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 405-416.
Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
" (2008, p. 146) Flegal, Ogden & Carroll stress the need to educate lowering the fat content of the diet through nursing intervention and practice. (2004, p. S147) These nursing interventions can like this work stress the implementation of a program that exposes adolescents to healthier alternatives and builds the efficacy for obtaining them through successfully seeking family behavior changes and building awareness about healthier options and food costing that make such options obtainable.
What interventions have been successful and what interventions have NOT been successful?
It is clear that general nutrition education, in the schools or in the community has not been an effective intervention tool for children in general, especially given what some would consider the deplorable condition of the public school nutrition programs in most states. It is also clear that family focused interventions are rare, but where they have been tried they have proven most successful…
Heiss, G.L. (2008) Chapter 18: Health Promotion and Risk Reduction in the Community. In Maurer, F.A. & Smith C.M. eds. (2008) Community/Public Health Nursing Practice: Health for Families and Populations Philadelphia, PA. Saunders.
Flegal, K.M. Ogden, C.L. & Carroll, M.D. (July 2004) Prevalence and Trends in Overweight in Mexican-American Adults and Children. Nutrition Reviews 62 (7) S144-S148.
Fortmeier-Saucier, L. Savrin, C. Heinzer, M. & Hudak, C. (Third-Quarter 2008) BMI and Lipid Levels in Mexican-American Children Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes World Views on Evidenced-Based Nursing. 142-147.
Kumanyika, S. & Grier. S. (2006) "Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations." The Future of Children 16 (1) 187.
isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique
Major isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique of the esearch Literature
Major isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique of the esearch Literature
The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) estimated that close to 1.4 million adults were overweight in 2008 and of these 500 million were obese. For adults over the age of 20 this implies that 35 and 11% of the global adult population were overweight and obese, respectively. The definition of overweight is a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher, while obesity is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher. While obesity does not directly result in the death of anyone, it is the fifth leading mortality risk globally and is responsible for 2.8 million deaths annually. This is due to obesity representing a significant risk factor for serious comorbid conditions, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, nearly…
Cooper, M. (2012, December 12). Census officials, citing increasing diversity, say U.S. will be a 'plurality nation.' New York Times, p. A20.
Gaskin, D.J., Thorpe, R.J. Jr., McGinty, E.E., Bower, K., Rohde, C., Young, J.H. et al. (2013). Disparities in diabetes: The nexus of race, poverty, and place. American Journal of Public Health, published online ahead of print 14 Nov. 2013.
Goldschmidt, A.B., Wilfley, D.E., Paluch, R.A., Roemmich, J.N., & Epstein, L.H. (2013). Indicated prevention of adult obesity: How much weight change is necessary for normalization of weight status in children? Journal of the American Medical Association -- Pediatrics, 167(1), 21-6.
Hearst, M.O., Pasch, K.E., & Laska, M.N. (2012). Urban v. suburban perceptions of the neighborhood food environment as correlates of adolescent food purchasing. Public Health Nutrition, 15(2), 299-306.
Dr. Semmelweis understood that the hands of physicians and students carried "cadavers' poisons" and infected the genital organs of women in childbirth (Costa, 2002, p. 669). To address the problem, Dr. Semmelweis made a cleansing agent of chlorinated lime solution and ordered all doctors and students wash their hands prior to delivery and vaginal examination. The results were remarkable, and the mortality rate of post-delivery mothers dropped from 18% to less than 3% in the First Division (Costa, 2002). Although Dr. Semmelweis's findings were not widely accepted into medical practice until the turn of the century, his understanding of skin-to-skin germ transmission and hygiene promotion allowed for countless lives to be saved, and delivering in sanitary environments remains the greatest practice to prevent puerperal fever.
Best, M., & Neuhauser, D. (2004). Ignaz Semmelweis and the birth of infection control. Quality and Safety in Healthcare, 13, 233-234. doi: 10.1136/qshc.2004.010918
Best, M., & Neuhauser, D. (2004). Ignaz Semmelweis and the birth of infection control. Quality and Safety in Healthcare, 13, 233-234. doi: 10.1136/qshc.2004.010918
Carter, K., & Carter, B. (2005). Childbed fever: A scientific biography of ignaz semmelweis. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Costa, C. (2002). "the contagiousness of childbed fever": a short history of puerperal sepsis and its treatment. Medical Journal of Australia, 177, 668-671.
Dolea, C., & Stein, C. Evidence and Information for Policy. (2003). Global burden of maternal sepsis in the year 2000. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Few issues could be more important in this era of school shootings and violence. Therefore, it is positive to note a Very Good rating directly on the mark, the best overall composite score of the five scales considered here. This denotes that the schools observed have done relatively well in preventing security breach of staff or student property, that vandalism and destruction of school property are effectively prevented, that the grounds are kept in presentable condition, that a school is a generally safe environment for all in attendance and that the school provides a fair and reasonable regulatory atmosphere for learning.
Based on the findings from this module, it would make a great deal of sense to initiate a school-wide Positive Behavioral Support System (PBSS). It bears noting that while instructors felt that they were doing a positive job of supporting student needs and that the…
Baldwin, S.C.; Buchanan, a.M. & Rudisill, M.E. (2007). What Teacher Candidates Learned About Diversity, Social Justice, and Themselves From Service-Learning Experiences. Journal of Teacher Education, 58(4), 315-327.
Loveless, T. (1999). The Tracking Wars. Brookings Institution Press.
U.S. Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). (2008). Social Skills Instruction. CPACINC.org.
University of Kansas. (2011). Teaching Self-Management Skills. http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu
The gradual decrease in income, eventual dependency on other people and the government for financial resource, lack of activities to do, and the onset of physical and/or physical limitations as a result of aging are known causes of frustration, stress, and even depression among elderly people who have retired (Blekesaune and Solem, 2005, p. 80). In the case of Mrs. a, she has not experienced these negative feelings or emotions as she had been flexibly and intermittently engaging herself in house-, family- and community-related pursuits. However, she did admit that her husband's death had been a pivotal point in her life, when she felt that she, too, must be with her husband because, as far as she is concerned, she has already accomplished what she was supposed to do as a "wife, mother, and woman."
Interestingly, with Mrs. a, work and retirement is not the conventional kind of retirement one…
Bassuk, S. (2002). "Socioeconomic status and mortality among the elderly: findings from four U.S. communities." American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 155, No. 6.
Blekesaune, M. And P. Solem. (2005). "Working conditions and early retirement: a prospective study of retirement behavior." Research on Aging, Vol. 22.
Kilminski, a. (2007). "Cumulative index of health disorders as an indicator of the aging-associated processes in elderly." Mech. Ageing Development, Vol. 128, No. 3.
Maciejewski, P. (2007). "An empirical examination of the stage theory of grief." Journal of American Medical Association, Vol. 297, No. 7.
socioeconomic status and obesity are related. Indeed, there have been major strides on bringing down the number of obese children. However, the one group that always seems to lag behind the others are racial minorities and the poor and those two are quite often one and the same. Tackling obesity for people of all racial and income levels is important because it brings down the average healthcare costs for everyone as it prevents (or at least slows) conditions like diabetes, heart disease and cancer. This report will only cite articles and studies that appear in academic-level journals and that are stored on EBSCO Host. No internet sources or other material shall be used. While entirely stomping out obesity will not likely happen in our lifetime, there are people that are very much at risk and that would be those with lower socioeconomic status and thus the inability to afford quality…
Albaladejo, R., Villanueva, R., Navalpotro, L., Ortega, P., Astasio, P., & Regidor, E.
(2014). Risk behaviors and sports facilities do not explain socioeconomic
differences in childhood obesity: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public
Health, 14(1), 1-18. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1181
Since the peak in residential Black/hite segregation during the 1960s and 1970s, there has been a slow decline in the index of dissimilarity; however, this did not translate into an increase in interactions with different racial groups ("Residential Segregation" 15-19). By the 2010 Census, the average hite person still lives in a predominantly hite neighborhood and the average Black person lives in a predominately minority neighborhood. By comparison, the residential segregation experienced by Hispanics and Asians has remained relatively stable during the latter decades of the 20th century and during the first decade of the new millennium.
The two main competing models are "human ecology" and "socioeconomic status" ("Residential Segregation" 47). The human ecology model proposes that segregation is created by trends in migration and new housing starts, institutionalized discrimination, population growth, an urban center's size and age, and the demographics specific to a region. By comparison, ilson…
Farley, Reynolds and Frey, William H. "Changes in the Segregation of Whites from Blacks during the 1980s: Small Steps Toward a more Integrated Society." American Sociological Review 59.1 (1994): 23-45. Print.
"Farmville: Film Description." POV, American Documentary, Inc. (2009). Web.
Hirschman, Charles. "Immigration and the American Century." Demography, 42.4 (2005): 595-620.
Logan, John R., Stults, Brian J., and Farley, Reynolds. "Segregation of Minorities in the Metropolis: Two Decades of Change." Demography 41.1 (2004): 1-22. Print.
Studies that continue to seek a link between childhood SEP and adult BMI have tended to use "representative national samples," the authors explain. There is "regional variation in the SEP-adiposity relationship," they explain, that "may make a difference in a regionally constrained sample such as ours" (Trotter, p. 1092). "Regionally constrained" is a legitimate conclusion as to why there is such a variance between the Los Angeles sampling and the NHANES data collected between 1999 and 2004 and their own sampling. The NHANES reported a higher (31%) rate of obesity than the Los Angeles findings (20%). These authors admit the Los Angeles data is "regionally constrained."
Measurement: The reader loses faith in the veracity of this research when the authors explain (p. 1092) that there is "missing data" (up to 18% of data missing from "working class status"). Moreover, the "self-reported" weight of participants leaves a reader wondering just…
Trotter, LaTonya J., Bowen, Deborah J., and Beresford, Shirley a.A. (2010). Testing for Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Childhood Socioeconomic Position
and Adult Adiposity. American Journal of Public Health, 100(6), 1088-1094.
divorce rate in the United States is rising at an alarming rate. Just after the Civil War, approximately 5% of marriages in the United States ended in divorce. The divorce rate increased to approximately 10% by the 1920s and approximately 35% by the mid-1960's. y 1990, the divorce rate in the United States had risen to 50%. In a span of 125 years, the divorce rate in the United States increased by 900%. These rising divorce rates have undoubtedly had a profound effect on children. In 1988, 15% of all chil-dren lived with a divorced or separated parent. Presently, more than one mil-lion children per year experience a parental divorce. In the 1960's, almost 90% of children lived in homes with two biological parents. y 1995, approximately 18.9 million children under the age of 18 lived with one. With the rising divorce rate it is important to look at how…
Ham, B. (2003). The Effects of Divorce on the Academic Achievement of High School Seniors. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 38(3/4), 167-185.
Jeynes, W.H. (1999). The Effects of Children of Divorce Living with Neither Parent on the Academic Acheivement of Those Children. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 30(3/4), 103-120.
Jeynes, W.H. (2002a). Does Parental Involvement Eliminate the Effects of Parental Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents? Journal of ivorce and Remarriage, 37(1/2), 101-115.
Jeynes, W.H. (2002b). Examining the Effects of Parental Absence on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents: The Challenge of Controlling for Family Income. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 23(2), 189-210.
Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-of-Age From Lower Socio-Economic Status Compared to Children Birth to 18 Years-of-Age From Upper and Middle Socio-Economic Status? Research Proposal
Research indicates that children from lower socio-economic status are more likely than children from higher socio-economic status to develop childhood obesity, which makes these children more likely to develop health problems later in life. For this reason, childhood obesity is a significant problem. The research proposed in this study is one that recommends that this issue be examined in a research study.
The Prevalence of Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age From Lower Socio-Economic Status Compared to Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age From Upper and Middle Socio-Economic Status?
There is a great dearth of research that indicates that children from lower socio-economic households have a greater risk of developing obesity during their childhood than children from middle and upper socio-economic…
Cecil, JE, et al. (2005) Childhood Obesity and Socioeconomic Status: A Novel Role for Height Growth Limitation. International Journal of Obesity. 29. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v29/n10/full/0803055a.html
Gearhart, R., Gruber, DM, and Vanata, DF (2008) Obesity in the Lower Socio-Economic Status Segments of American Society. Forum on Public Policy. Retrieved from: http://forumonpublicpolicy.com/archivespring08/gearhart.pdf
Gibbs, BG and Forste, R (2013) Socioeconomic Status, Infant Feeding Practices, and Early Childhood Obesity. Princeton University. Educational Papers 130233. Retrieved from: http://paa2013.princeton.edu/papers/130233
Ogden, CL, et al. (2009) Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Children and Adolescents: United States, 2005-2008. NCHS Data Brief. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db51.htm
Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).
Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses
The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:
1. The sample will not be random,
2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,
3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,
4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,
5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,
6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)
major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…
Schiraldi, Glenn. (2000) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition p. 446
Williams, Mary Beth and Poijula, Soili (2002) the PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms. New Harbinger Publications; 1 edition. p. 237
Foa, Edna B. Keane, Terence and Friedman, M. Matthew J. (2000) Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The Guilford Press; 1 edition. p. 388
Wilson, John P. And Keane, Terence M. (1996) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. The Guilford Press; 1st edition. p. 577
(Cattelain, 1997; paraphrased) the work of Cattelain additionally states that as of the beginning of "...July, 1997, approximately 66,000 children born to couples of which one is a Hong Kong resident and one is a mainlanders were waiting to come to Hong Kong, and around 2,000-4,000 children who had entered the territory illegally or overstayed visit permits were estimated to be in Hong Kong." (Cattelain, 1997) Marriage between individuals and the resulting bearing of children has proved problematic to the mainland in terms of regulations and it is stated in Cattelain's work that "One of the first issues that the newly created Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) has had to dealt with his pitted an individual right against a community's capacity to absorb large numbers of new immigrants at one time." (1997)
VII. asic Law Regulating Children orn Outside of Hong Kong with Parent in Hong Kong
Tu, Edward Jow-Ching (2007 Cross-Border Marriage in Hong Kong and Taiwan. International Marriage Migration in Asia. 2007 Seoul. PAK/IPAR Conference.
Chen, Yu-Hua (2007) the Rise of Cross-Border Marriages and Its Impact on Fertility in Taiwan. Comparative Workshop of low Fertility organized by Asia Research Institute and Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. 22-23 February 2007. National University of Singapore. Online available at http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/showfile.asp?eventfileid=265
Cattelain, Chlo (1997) Family vs. Society: Hong Kong's Battle Over Right of Abode for Mainland-Born Children. HRIC. 30 June 1997. Online available at http://iso.hrichina.org/public/contents/article-revision%5fid=4156&item%5fid=4155
Chan, Bernard (nd) Post-1997 Hong Kong: The Social and Environmental Impact. Asia Financial Group and Asia Insurance Co. Ltd. And the Hong Kong Council of Social Service.
Two elements that are extremely useful in the examination of health care. In this regard therefore, quality is also differentiated along SES. Persons who are higher on the socioeconomic ladder experience better "desired health outcomes."
The access to quality health care also has cultural and SES elements to it. Dressler & Bindon (2000) identify cultural consonance as a factor in determining blood pressure in African-American communities. The implications of this work are that cultural elements play a big role in health care quality and access. Whites tend to have greater access to better health care than minority groups. This access is in terms of the proximity of quality physicians, medical services, and facilities.
The ethical implications of the differential access to health care are troubling (Kulczycki, 2007). This is primarily because a health care discussion is a life and death discussion. Quality health care is the right of every citizen,…
Dressler, W.W., Balieiro, M.C., & Dos Santos, J.E.(1988). Culture, Socioeconomic Status, and Physical and Mental Health in Brazil Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series, 12
Dressler W.W., & Bindon, J.R. (2000).The Health Consequences of Cultural Consonance:
Cultural Dimensions of Lifestyle, Social Support, and Arterial Blood Pressure in an African-American Community American Anthropologist, New Series, 102
Health Care Disparities in Infant Mortality
Numerous empirical studies have demonstrated a significant discrepancy in survival rates of newborns of different race. It has been shown that black infants are two times more likely to die within the first month of life than their white counterparts. Identification of these disparaged findings has prompted analysis of health care offered from a demographic perspective, considering racial treatment and socioeconomic conditions. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has examined race-specific mortality information on newborns, and reported a series of noted and persistent trends coinciding with the data differences. It is necessary to address this inconsistency in survival rates between the black and white races to identify potential changes in health care delivery systems and eliminate racial factors in infant mortality.
The U.S. government has identified six classes of racial and ethnic minority discrepancies in health care access, experience, and outcomes. In…
American Academy of Pediatrics (2004). Homepage. Retrieved March 23, 2004, at http://www.aap.org/default.htm
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (2004). Homepage. Retrieved March 23, 2004, at http://www.cms.hhs.gov/schip/default.asp ?
Iyasu, S, & Tomashek, K. (2002, July 12). Infant Mortality and Low Birth Weight Among Black and White Infants -- "United States, 1980-2000. Weekly, 51(27), 589-592. Retrieved March 23, 2004, from Center for Disease Control, Full Text Database, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5127a1.htm
Health and Human Services. (2000). Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health.
What variable(s) and factors does each model include that the other overlooks? Integrate one reading of your choice to your analysis on how social class of families impact school-related processes and educational outcomes.
Laureau finds that the social class of parents affects the parent-school-child triad. Middle class parents get more involved in their children's activities than do working class parents. This involvement has a positive impact on the child's educational attainment. According to Lareau, due to the parents' education, occupation, income, and social networks, middle class parents feel more equal to teachers than do working class parents. This enables them to question and monitor teachers rather than deferring to teachers. Additionally, they have the financial resources to purchase educational resources and usually have more flexibility in their jobs to permit greater involvement. Therefore, they have more frequent abilities to participate in their child's educational pursuits, which results in greater educational…
Eder found that teachers' perceptions of students, and therefore their treatment of students, were based on students' family backgrounds and social mannerisms. Differences in social mannerisms were often misinterpreted as being reflective of the students' abilities. These attitudes toward students' intellectual abilities led to ability grouping in reading and math, which become sort of a self-fulfilling prophecy for these students.
Alexander considered the social class origin of the teacher and his or her perception of student abilities. Alexander found that teachers from high socioeconomic backgrounds perceived lower SES and Black students as lacking in maturity. Additionally, these teachers had lower academic expectations for lower SES and Black students. However, teachers from lower SES backgrounds did not have these perceptions. These perceptions impacted the grades the students received at the end of the year. In classrooms of lower SES teachers, there was no correlation between student's SES or race and his or her year-end grade. Conversely, in classrooms of teachers of high SES backgrounds, students of lower SES and Black students had significantly lower grades than those who were white or of higher SES. Alexander attributes this to the social distance between teachers and students.
According to the Wisconsin Social-Psychological Model, how we see ourselves depend on our interpretations of how other people see us. As has been stated in the other models, when parents and teachers have high expectations of students, they perform better. Mistry et al. (2009) found that both parents' and teachers' expectations of students impacted student achievement. They also found that teacher perceptions were based on the perceptions of earlier teachers, so if as indicated in the Eder and Alexander models, teachers base their expectations on misunderstandings
Interaction between SES and College Performance
wick, R. & Himelfarb, I. (2011). The effect of high school socioeconomic status on the predictive validity of SAT scores and high school grade-point average. Journal of Educational Measurement, 48(2), 101-121.
African-American (AA) and Latino students underperform other racial groups during their first year of college if SAT scores are used in the prediction formula. The reasons for this are unknown, although socioeconomic status (SES) is suspected.
The current study was undertaken to evaluate whether an SES index could improve the predictive performance of a formula incorporating high school grade-point averages (HSGPAs) and SAT scores.
Evaluate the value of including a SES correction factor in the formula used for predicting first-year college grade-point average (FGPA) performance, for the purpose of correcting for errors introduced by the suspected racially-insensitive HSGPAs. The predictive value of the SAT score in relation to SES will also be…
Zwick, R., & Green, J.G. (2007). New perspectives on the correlation of SAT scores, high school grades, and socioeconomic factors. Journal of Educational Measurement, 44, 23 -- 45.
Zwick, R., & Himelfarb, I. (2009, April). The effect of high school quality on the predictive validity of SAT scores and high school grade-point average. Presented by I. Himelfarb at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego.
Zwick, R., & Schlemer, L. (2004). SAT validity for linguistic minorities at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 25(2), 6 -- 16.
The fourth is invading privacy an example for this is having an access to your credit card number while you are having transaction using the Internet this is done usually by many hacker in the Internet.
The fifth is that technology increase delinquency in children attitude this is the cause of most violent computer games nowadays in our country. Even though computer games give fun and entertainment for children it also give some bad benefits especially to their attitude because most of them become aggressive if they are playing such type of computer games.
The sixth is manipulation of the truth; one example for this is the issues and information that we have in the web. This is usually happen to the person that is very famous to the country.
Lastly, pornography which is usually happen to the web that even children can have an access to that without even…
Critical Issue: Using Technology to Improve Student Achievement." North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. 1999. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. 9 Nov. 2004. http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/methods/technlgy/te800.htm
Definition of Technology." 8 Nov. 2004. http://www.bergen.org/technology/defin.html
Life Lessons: Studying Education's Effect on Health." Center for the Advancement of Health. 2001.Center for the Advancement of Health. 9 Nov. 2004. http://www.cfah.org/factsoflife/vol7no12.cfm
Technology and its Effect to Society." Technology and its Effect on Society. 1990. James C. Graves, Jr. 10 Nov. 2004. http://home.xnet.com/~ansible/graves.hist.html
Increasing of skills and knowledge and even knowledge of the society cannot be possible without social interactions. That is the basis of the social cognitive theory as it brings together attitudinal and cognitive effects. The major forms of continuous learning are via the environment, the web, media houses and social communications. The intensity of the effect this new knowledge would have on people is dependent on their individual mindsets. Social communication (as earlier stated) is a major way of increasing knowledge and deriving meaning from these. In this handbook, we have given a thorough breakdown of social cognition and the workings of social communication in its various forms. This topic is very useful for schools, service establishments, research institutes, the government, professional training schools, industries and firms among others. Even the military could benefit from this as it has employees who daily apply their cognitive abilities for various uses such…
The company's foundes and senio manages howeve feaed this would make the company less agile and able to espond to maket equiements (Gammenou, 2009).
Thee have been many socioeconomic and demogaphic changes that have affected Avon's business model in the last two decades. The geatest socioeconomic foce affecting them today is the need fo many women to wok full-time jobs to contibute to thei household's income. This has dastically changed the company's distibution model as thee ae fewe women to wok as pat of thei sales foce. The shift in socioeconomic status is also one that has made competition with stoes even moe focused and aggessive, as etailes have the advantage of being moe of a poduct aggegato than poduct develope. Thei distibution model is shifting significantly as a esult.
Inceasing the ugency of the decision was the fact that demogaphic makets wee changing apidly, as wee the…
references for cosmetics were changing too. Younger, more educated Gen Y women wanted environmentally responsible or "green" cosmetics, as sustainability is very important to them as a value (Prior, 2010). The development requirements in this market of Gen Y consumers however is significantly different than the major cash source of the company today, which according to the case study are women from the Gen X and Baby Boomer generations (Grammenou, 2009). What Avon has had to do is concentrate on how to create effective marketing programs for each of these divergent markets while at the same time attempting to standardize on product components to streamline their supply chains (Tozzi, 2010). Of all factors that the case alludes to, this dynamics is what makes their supply chain operations the most difficult to manage over time. The company has created a very strong word-of-mouth campaign and has an exceptional level of trust in the industry for its products. Attempting to chase
Hispanics Groups in the United States
While many people speak of the Hispanic population, there really is not a single Hispanic population in the United States. The term Hispanic generically refers to Spanish-speakers. Therefore, there is a wide variety in the Hispanic people one may find in the United States. Therefore, this paper will examine four different Hispanic groups, Mexican-Americans, Puerto icans, Cuban Americans, and South Americans. It will do so by looking at the linguistic, political, social, economic, religious, and familial conventions of these different cultures.
When many people think of Hispanics in the United States, they think of Mexican-Americans. This is because Mexican-Americans are the largest U.S. Hispanic group; in fact, the U.S. has the second-largest population of Mexicans, second only to Mexico. Mexican-Americans tend to be Spanish speakers, though they may actually speak a variety of Native American languages, depending on where in Mexico the person originated.…
Buffington, S. (2011). Cuban Americans. Retrieved September 30, 2011 from Countries and their Cultures website: http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr./Cuban-Americans.html
Camarota, S. (2007). Senate amnesty could strain welfare system. Retrieved September 30,
2011 from Center for Immigration Studies website: http://www.cis.org/articles/2007/welfarerelease.html
Pinon, F. (Unk.). Mexican-American politics. Retrieved September 30, 2011 from Cengage
6% of the respondents stated that this was what they did. This number however is not reflected in lower numbers for life style disease and so it must be given greater scrutiny at another time (See table below).
Fruit and vegetable consumption by ethnicity
There are a number of diseases and health conditions that have been linked to life style behaviors and belief systems. The prevalence of these diseases demonstate that while persons may report a certain behavior emperical evidence suggests that another behavior may be taking place. This may occur principally because respondents may over estimate what they do on a daily basis since they are not taking active records of their behaviors.
On several indicators African-Americans have higher rates of the disease and death as a consequency than White populations. The data for diabetes shows that African-Americans are twice as likely to report having diabetes than…
A religious portrait of African-Americans (2009) Retrieved from http://pewforum.org/A-Religious-Portrait-of-African-Americans.aspx
Department of health and senior services New Jersey. (2011).
Dowd, K. (1996). Dietary patterns and physical activity among New Jersey adults. Center for health Statistics 1(3):1-4.
Social Advocacy in Counseling
Social advocacy has been described by some counseling theorists as a "fifth force" paradigm that should be considered to rival if not replace other major counseling psychology paradigms regarding behavior and mental illness (atts, 2009). This paper briefly discusses what social justice/advocacy is, the debate regarding its status as a paradigm in counseling psychology, and how social advocacy can enhance both the client's experience and life and the professional counselor's personal, professional, and ethical obligations to helping others.
Social justice is fairness or impartiality exercised in society, specifically as it is implemented by and within different levels of social classes of a society. A truly socially just populace would be based on the principles of solidarity and equality, would consider and maintain values, human rights, and the dignity of every person in the society (Bell, 1997). Social justice/advocacy theories have in recent years been…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
Bell, L. (1997). Theoretical foundations for social justice education. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice (pp. 3-16). New York: Routledge.
Betancourt, J.R., Green, A.R., Carrillo, J.E., & Park, E.R. (2005). Cultural competence and health care disparities: Key perspectives and trends. Health Affairs, 24, 499 -- 505.
Carlson, N. (2011). Foundations of behavioral neuroscience (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson
patterns of physical activity and exercise indicates that there has been an overall trend of decreasing physical activity levels and increasing levels of inactivity among adolescents and adults (Gordon-Larsen, McMurray, & Popkin, 1999; Van Der Horst, Paw, Twisk, & Van Mechelen, 2007). Inactivity and poor diet are responsible a large number of deaths annually and could soon become one of the leading causes of death in developed countries. esearch continues to reaffirm that there is a dose response relationship between physical activity and all causes of mortality. There is typically a risk reduction of around 30% for those attaining the recommended levels of at least moderately intense physical activity on most days of the week compared with those who are relatively inactive (Lee & Skerrett, 2001). egular physical exercise has long been associated with decreased risk of fatal cardiovascular disease (Powell, Thompson, Caspersen, & Kenderick, 1987), obesity and diabetes (Knowler,…
American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Public Education. (2001). Media violence. Pediatrics, 108, 1222 -- 1226.
Dennison, B.A., Straus, J.H., Mellits, E.D., & Charney, M.D. (1988). Childhood physical fitness tests: Predictor of adult physical activity levels? Pediatrics, 82 (3), 324-330.
Gordon-Larsen, P., Adair, L.S., Nelson, M.C., & Popkin, B.M. (2004). Five-year obesity incidence in the transition period between adolescence and adulthood: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 569 -- 575.
Gordon-Larsen, P., McMurray, R.G., & Popkin, B.M. (1999). Adolescent physical activity and inactivity vary by ethnicity: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Journal of Pediatrics, 135, 301 -- 306.
Fresh: A Biopsychosocial Assessment
In the Yakin-directed film Fresh, a 12-year-old boy -- "Fresh" -- struggles to balance school and a tumultuous home life with the drug-running activities that allow him to make and save money. Though Fresh is intelligent, ambitious, and highly motivated to rise above his current station in life, as an African-American living in the crime-driven projects, his perceived opportunities for advancement are limited. As a result, Fresh makes money in the only way he knows how; as an inner-city drug mule for the number one suppliers of heroin -- "smack" -- and cocaine, referred to as "base." The money he makes, he saves in a tin can hidden by the tracks on the city's outskirts. Says Fresh to his friend osie in scene two, "If I had me a million dollars, I'd get me a Porshe 959." And when osie says it doesn't matter because he'll…
Baker, F.M., & Bell, C.C. (1999). Issues in the Psychiatric Treatment of African-Americans. Psychiatric Services, 50 (3), 362-368.
Bender, L. (Producer), & Yakin, B. (Screenwriter/Director). Fresh [Motion Picture]. (1994). United States: Miramax Films.
Howard, D.E., Feigelman, S., Xiaoming, L., Cross, S., & Rachuba, L. (2002). The relationship among violence victimization, witnessing violence, and youth distress. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31 (6), 455-462.
Human esource Management Book eview:
The Management of a Multicultural Workforce
Tayeb, Monir H. (1996) The Management of a Multicultural Workforce. London, England: John Wiley & Sons.
Issues pertaining to diversity and cultural education that once used to be the sole province of major multinational corporations have now become central issues even in many small and medium-sized companies today. No company can take comfort in its currently enclosed organizational culture and simply assert that 'that is the way things are done,' as an answer to all questions of cultural difference and organizational diversity. Also, Monir Tayeb suggests in the text The Management of a Multicultural Workforce that it is not simply enough that a company pats itself on the back that it has a manifestly, culturally diverse workforce in its demographic makeup. ather, such medium- and small-sized businesses as well as to multinational organizations must institute specific human resource management…
Resources Management by Jack J. Phillips stresses the need for human resources to provide justification for itself as a department in a 'bottom line' fashion that the author deems is most feasible and comprehensible to management, this text by Tayeb provides an even more critical fashion for human resources to remain respected in a functional organization that wishes to become more diverse. Without appropriate human resources intervention, diversity and cultural education may be understaffed and under-appreciated. Likewise, this text also provides an important cultural caveat for the text entitled The Team Trainer, Winning Tools and Tactics for Successful Workouts by William Gorden, Carole Barbato, Erica Nagel and Scott Myers. Some of the methodologies in that eminently readable text on team training might not be immediately amicable to more reserved cultural environments and climates, although it is, I believe, to my own environment, although not to every manager I have talked to in other organizations in my industry.
The Management of a Multicultural Workforce makes a persuasive and useful argument for the value of diversity education in all organizations. The nature of the education may vary according to the organization's size and composition of the employee and employer's backgrounds. Diversity education may seem more necessary in large organizations with individual of varied backgrounds, or reorganizing companies with a work staff from different organizational management environments and cultures. But still, diversity education and flexibility and tolerance in any organization cannot be ignored. The emphasis on the implications of national and organizational cultures for human resource management practices all firms of varying sizes remains key to coping with tomorrow's challenges. The text offers practical solution options as well as a historical context to the evolving concept of what constitutes a culture and notions of diversity. Finally, the text also provides potent statistical and real-life anecdotal evidence of the importance and the richness of such diversity for employees on a personal level, as well as how diversity is an asset, economically, to a company. Most importantly of all, The Management of a Multicultural Workforce highlights in a realistic rather than an idealistic fashion the tensions that will inevitable arise in newly heterogeneous settings at home and abroad, and the way that diversity education in human resource management practices can be translated and transported across borders.
Dental Health Program for Low-Income Children
Oral Health Promotion
A child's socioeconomic status and gender are significant predictors of susceptibility to life-long dental disease (Broadbent, Thomson, Boyens, and Poulton, 2011). Male children and children from low-income households are less likely to brush daily, floss, or visit the dentist as adults, despite suffering from more prevalent and severe dental disease (p < 0.001 for all associations). When the bulk of the 81.5 billion-plus yearly oral health care burden in the United States consists of restorative dental services provided by dentist (Baelum, Van Palenstein Helderman, Hugoson, Yee, and Fejerskov, 2007, p. 878), any program that encourages daily plaque removal in young children would therefore tend to lower oral health care costs over the long-term.
Dental disease during childhood also has an impact on the child's immediate overall health. The pain and discomfort associated with tooth decay can lead to malnutrition, low body…
Baelum, V., Van Palenstein Helderman, W., Hugoson, A., Yee, R., and Fejerskov, O. (2007). A global perspective on changes in the burden of caries and periodontitis: Implications for dentistry. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 34, 872-906.
Broadbent, Jonathan M., Thomson, W. Murray, Boyens, John, V., and Poulton, Richie. (2011). Dental plaque and oral health during the first 32 years of life. Journal of the American Dental Association, 142, 415-426.
Committee on Clinical and Scientific Affairs. (2010). Report on early childhood caries. Canadian Dental Association. Retrieved from http://www.jcda.ca/uploads/pdf/ccsa/ECC-Report-FINAL-April-2010_for-jcda-website.pdf
Gussy, Mark G., Waters, Elizabeth G., Walsh, Oria, and Kilpatrick, Nicola M. (2006). Early childhood caries: Current evidence for aetiology and prevention. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 42, 37-43.
Health and Illness
acism's ole in Health Service Inequalities
acism's ole in Health Service Inequalities
Healthcare has been a divisive topic in the United States for the past two decades in the public and private sectors. This has brought the entire subject to the fore in the eyes of most Americans. Whether an individual is one of the people who has been denied equal access to health care or not, it can be very trying to receive good, fairly priced healthcare in a lot of areas in the United States.
Among the many questions that populate the debate, one is becoming more and more central. There is a divide in the United States that has been present as long as this country has been a recognized nation. That divide is caused by the inequities that do exist, and have existed. This divide is racial in nature and seems to work…
Bhopal, R. (1998). Spectre of race and racism in health and health care: Lessons from history and the United States. Behavioral Medicine Journal, 316. 1970-1973.
Braveman, P. (2006). Health disparities and health equity: Concepts and measurement. Annual Review of Public Health, 27. 167-194.
Fiscella, K., Franks, P., Doescher, M.P., & Saver, B.G. (2002). Disparities in health care by race, ethnicity, and language among the insured: Findings from a national sample. Medical Care, 40(1). 52-59.
GIH. (2010). Racism: Combating the root causes of health disparities. GIH Bulletin.
e. fat storage. These physiological concerns are significant in that programming that was designed to maintain a nurturing position for young children the physiological environment interprets crisis as anything that creates a stressful physical demeanor. The stress and psychology of abandonment is a constant, once the abandonment by the father has occurred. The body does not distinguish between a fasting period associated with unavailable food, or drought and psychological long-term emotional stress. The human body also does not distinguish between a self imposed diet and a period of famine. It reduces its basal metabolic rate, or the rate of metabolism needed to perform its base functions, and then the recovery period would seem to be longer than expected. This is the diet conundrum, though it has also been proven that prolonged periods of psychological stress and/or depression that could be associated with abandonment by the father will also cause a…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19.
Anderson, P.M., Butcher, K.F., & Levine, P.B. (2003). Economic Perspectives on Childhood Obesity. Economic Perspectives, 27(3), 30.
Bifulco, a. (1998). Wednesday's Child: Research into Women's Experience of Neglect and Abuse in Childhood and Adult Depression. London: Routledge.
Caprio, Sonia. (2006) "Treating Child Obesity and Associated Medical Conditions." The Future of Children 16 (1), 209.
HP2020 ('Healthy People 2020') initiative is reducing health gaps in America. Much controversy exists with regard to what the term 'health disparities' actually refers to. Disparities are largely witnessed on the basis of socioeconomic status (SES), and racial/ethnic identity. A number of health indicator-related differences exist among different racial and ethnic groups in America. This paper will endeavor to explain what health disparities implies, the health indicator-related differences among different racial/ethnic populations, causes for such differences, and potential ways to bring about health improvements for underserved populations.
"Health Disparities" Defined
There is considerable debate regarding the precise meaning of "health disparities." One key facet of a majority of accepted meanings is that every health status difference between different population groups is not a disparity; disparities are only differences that systematically and adversely affect socially and economically less-advantaged people. On the American scene, disparities-related discourse has chiefly concentrated on ethnic/racial disparities.…
Since 61% of the total had complete medical records, an estimate of that number would be important. The reader would also benefit by a split-out of the mothers less than 18 and the asthma rates of their babies, in order to establish if low birth weights were more common in such populations, and other confounding variables were different.
How was the sample selection done and what was the final sample size on which the data was analyzed? was there a control group?
The final sample size appeared to be 2,032 or 1,845, depending on the variables analyzed. That is because the patients in the 1,845 group had complete medical data available on all study variables, while the 2,032 included all those with some medical data. This means that there were 187 subjects for whom not all data was available. A subtraction of multiple-birth events brings us to 1,803 in the…
Gordon, L. (2004). Epidemiology. Philadelphia W.B. Saunders.
Nepomnyaschy, L. a. (2006). Low Birthweight and Asthma Among Young Urban Children. Am J. Pub Health, 1604-1610. (Nepomnyaschy, 2006)
Low Birth Weight Babies and Asthma
When it comes to children and how well they do (or do not do) in schools, a lot of the invective and scrutiny is directed towards the teachers at the school and the administrators that govern the same. Whether it be parents showing disdain for how well the students are not doing or whether it be national laws such as No Child Left Behind, the teachers seem to shoulder a lot of the blame when students do not perform as expected or desired. However, to just blame the teachers would be unwise because they are only part of equation and some would argue that teachers are not even the biggest part of the equation. While having adept teachers imparting knowledge to students is important, having parents or guardians of those children that are involved and engaged is even more important.
One of the linchpins of student success…
Harji, M. B., Balakrishnan, K., & Letchumanan, K. (2016). SPIRE Project: Parental Involvement
in Young Children's ESL Reading Development. English Language Teaching, 9(12), 1-
Hemmerechts, K., Agirdag, O., & Kavadias, D. (2017). The relationship between parental
In light of the evidence in this literature review then it is of great import that monitoring of the health of pregnant women is vital in reference to LW infants not only in the sense of present terms but as well to lifelong health considerations for the LW infant which is probably why stated further is: "Given the relative neglect that mothers and newborns have suffered, their centrality to the Millennium Development Goals, and the cost-effectiveness of maternal and newborn health interventions, a greater emphasis on safe motherhood and newborn health is clearly needed within many health sectors." (JHPIEGO, 2003)
Stated in the publication "Shaping Policy for Maternal and Newborn Health: A Compendium of Case Studies (2003) is that: "The health of a newborn is inextricably linked to the health of the mother; the majority of newborn deaths are caused by the poor health of the mother during…
Krieger N. & Smith, G.(2004) Bodies County and body counts: Epidemiology and embodying inequality. Epidemiological Review Journal 200:26:92-103
Coker, AL et al. (2004) Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. Pediatrics Perinatal Epidemiology 2004 Jul; 18 (4): 260-9. University of Texas School of Public Health.
Bohn, D.K. et al. (2004) Influences of Income, Education, Age, and Ethnicity on Physical Abuse before and During Pregnancy. Journal Obstetrics Gynecology Neonatal Nursing 2004 Sep-Oct; 33(5): 561-71.
Salihu, Boy a. (2004) Intimate Partner Violence and Birth Outcomes: A Systematic Review International Journal of Fertility Women's Medicine 2004 Jul-Aug; 49(4): 159-64. Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama.
Figue 1. Demogaphic composition of the United States (2003 estimate).
Souce: Based on tabula data in Wold Factbook, 2007 (no sepaate listing is maintained fo Hispanics).
Fom a stictly pecentage pespective, it would seem that Asian-Ameicans do not epesent much of a theat at all to mainsteam Ameican society, but these mee numbes do not tell the whole stoy of couse. Fo one thing, Asian-Ameicans ae one of the most divese and fastest gowing goups in the United States today (Hong, Kim & Wolfe, 2005). Accoding to Alvaez and Kimua (2001), studies have documented time and again that, consistent with thei histoical teatment, Asian-Ameicans continue to be the tagets of acially motivated popety vandalism, vebal haassment, theft, physical assaults, and in some instances, homicide; futhemoe, othe studies have confimed that a pesistent patten diving anti-Asian violence is the peception of Asian-Ameicans as foeignes who pesent an economic, academic, social, and/o…
Due to skills and abilities
4. Based on what you know and believe, would you agree or disagree with the following statements?
Racism in America is no longer a problem for Chinese-Americans.
Racism in America is no longer a problem for women and minorities
Development of Policy esponses
The first step in the development of these policy strategies was to identify that a problem existed with childhood obesity and frame the problem so that it could brought to light and intervention strategies debated. While some of the framing of this issue may have been based upon misinformation, policymakers did attempt to frame the problem which is in line with the Australian policy development cycle. This initial framing is an example of how misinformation can lead to poor policy decisions. When looking at childhood obesity from a policy perspective it is imperative to understand the difference between obesity prevention and obesity treatment and this has often been confused in attempts to develop policies for the Australian people (O'Dea 2005).
The Australian policy cycle is comprised of stages including problem identification, analysis of policy options, policy instrument, consultation, coordination, decision, implementation, and evaluation. While this policy…
Coveney, J. 2008. The government of girth. Health Sociology Review, 17, pp. 199-213.
De Silva, A.M., Bolton, K., Haby, M., Kremer, P., Gibbs, L., Waters, E., and Swimburn, B. 2010. Scaling up community-based obesity prevention in Australia: background and evaluation design of the Health Promoting Communities: Being Active Eating Well initiative. BMC Public Health, 10, pp. 65.
Henderson, J., Coveney, J., Ward, P., and Taylor, A. 2009. Governing childhood obesity: Framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media. Social Science & Medicine, 69(9), pp. 1402-08.
Hesketh, K., Waters, E., Green, J., Salmon, L., and Williams. 2005. Healthy eating, activity and obesity prevention: a qualitative study of parent and child perceptions in Australia. Health Promotion International, 20(1), pp. 19-26.
attitudes and values of high school students. eforms to the high school system in the United States are also explained. Additionally, the reason why students need not be involved in the planning of reforms is elucidated.
High School Students: their Attitudes and Values
Of a crucial age, climbing a milestone, conscious to their fullest with no fear of prospects, high school students have interested researchers and policy makers for centuries. They have quite a few common traits -- they behave as individuals of their own age group in a rather full-fledged way. They are go-getting to achieve their independence, they are show-offs, impressionable persons desiring to be their best (something to be learned) and to suit the times they live in. Their self-esteem is fragile and they are pretty sensitive to criticism, attention, and dilemmas, for instance, within their families.
Students from different socioeconomic backgrounds behave differently as has been…
Barber, A. (1997. March). Rough language plagues schools, educators say. USA Today, pp 06D.
Committee for increasing high school students' engagement and motivation to learn. National Academies. Internet. http://www4.nas.edu/cp.nsf/Projects+_by+_PIN/BCYF-I-01-01-A?OpenDocument.Available on August 25, 2003.
Doyle, M. Failing to connect: Schools face increased pressure when students flunk classes. The Columbian, March 16, 2003, pp Front Page.
Educational reforms and students at risk: A review of the current state of the art. (1994. January). Internet. http://www.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/EdReforms/.Available on August 25, 2003.
However, homogeneous-grouped classes of high-achieving sophomores and seniors in advanced classes exhibited greater achievement in both mathematics and English. No significant differences were found beyond these results. egarding the effects of ability grouping on within-class achievement, Sorenson and Hallinan's study (1985) found that grouping increases inequality of achievement. Briefly, considering their study at the difference in reading achievement between within-class grouped students and heterogeneous classrooms for fourth through seventh graders from North California, their primary result concerning achievement for within-class grouping was that high-ability groups attained a higher achievement than low-ability groups. These results were bases primarily on data from elementary schools and may not directly apply to secondary students, but this study has been included in this research paper to add insight to the subject of homogeneous vs. heterogeneous effects on achievement.
Testing the effects on the differences between mathematics achievements of within-class ability grouping, heterogeneous and cooperative-learning grouped…
Allan, S.D. (1991). Ability-grouping research reviews: What do they say about grouping?
and the gifted? Educational Leadership, 48(6), 60-65.
Byrne, B.M. (1988). Adolescent self-concept, ability grouping, and social comparison:
Re-examining academic track differences. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Atlanta, GA, August 12-16, 1988.
In this case there are differences due to the income level of the person who is replying.
The Americans who are making more than $34,000 a year generally say that the persons getting aid from welfare could manage their own lives without help from the government if they really tried, while the replies from the lower income groups feel that they could not manage. This continues on in the opinion of the comparatively richer group to say that the people getting poverty assistance could manage without assistance as they get the assistance without having to do anything for it. This continues on with persons having little knowledge of the changes in law that has come up. Only half the respondents were aware of the changes in the law. However of the persons who are aware of the changes in the law 61% think that the new law is working well,…
America's most costly welfare recipients are Fortune 500 companies. Cato Institute News Releases. June 30, 1999. Retrieved at http://www.cato.org/new/catonew-06-99.html . Accessed on 30 June, 2005
Bumpass, Larry. Ryder, N.B. The Changing Contexts of Parenting in the United States. Retrieved at http://parenthood.library.wisc.edu/Bumpass/Bumpass.html . Accessed on 29 June, 2005
Cauchon, Dennis. State, local spending up despite downturn. USA Today. 14 January, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2003-01-14-state-budgets-usat_x.htm . Accessed on 30 June, 2005
Danziger, Sheldon; Loury, Glenn; Murray, Charles; Wilkins, Roger. Does Welfare Cause Illegitimacy? 9 April, 1994. Retrieved at http://www.mugu.com/cgi-bin/Upstream/murray-loury-welfareAccessed on 29 June, 2005
Figure 1 portrays the state of Maryland, the location for the focus of this DR.
Figure 1: Map of Maryland, the State (Google Maps, 2009)
1.3 Study Structure
Organization of the Study
The following five chapters constitute the body of Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter II: Review of the Literature
Chapter III: Methods and Results
Chapter IV: Chapter V: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications
Chapter I: Introduction
During Chapter I, the researcher presents this study's focus, as it relates to the background of the study's focus, the area of study, the four research questions, the significance of the study, and the research methodology the researcher utilized to complete this study.
Chapter II: Review of the Literature in Chapter II, the researcher explores information accessed from researched Web sites; articles; books; newspaper excerpts; etc., relevant to considerations of the disparity in access to health care services between rural and urban residence in Maryland…
Potter, S. (2002) Doing Postgraduate Research. London: Sage.
Qualitative research: Approaches, methods, and rigour, (2008, Nov. 7). Microsoft PowerPoint Qualitative Research AdvC08 RS.PPT. Retrieved March 10, 2009 from www.unimaas.nl/bestand.asp?id=11629
Wolvovsky, Jay. (2008). Health disparities: Impact on Business and Economics Summit. Maryland's healthcare at a glance. The Heart of Community Health Baltimore Medical Syste. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://dhmh.maryland.gov/hd/pdf/2008/oct08/Jay_Wolvovsky.pdf
Gagnon, lain & Nora Bohnert. (2012). "Early life socioeconomic conditions in rural areas and old-age mortality in twentieth-century Quebec." Social Science & Medicine 75: 1497-1504.
The article "Early life socioeconomic conditions in rural areas and old-age mortality in twentieth-century Quebec" by lain Gagnon and Nora Bohnert is an analysis of mortality patterns amongst farmers in rural Quebec. Residing in a rural area was shown to convey substantial advantages to both males and females after age fifty, although females in both urban and rural settings had longer life expectances than their male counterparts (Gagnon & Bohnert 2012: 1499). Socioeconomic status has also been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality, as was the case with the farmers in the study.
Perhaps the most interesting findings revolved around the linkage between mortality and the childhood experiences of specific groups. Rural males raised on a farm and on a farm owned by…
According to the study's designers, it offered a considerable improvement upon previous studies in terms of how it was crafted. Rather than beginning with death records, the study was able to make use of "a random sample of individuals surveyed in the 1901 Canadian Census in childhood to their age at death using vital statistics registers" (Gagnon & Bohnert 2012: 1498). This reduced the risk of selection bias "due to missing death records, which could represent a distinct advantage over typical studies that rely on retrospective surveying of adult respondents" (Gagnon & Bohnert 2012: 1498). The stratified random sample consisted of five percent of the population of the Canadian census and was divided into different categories, representing membership in urban and rural groupings; ownership of the father of the land, wealth, literacy, and gender. From the five percent sample, "the province of Quebec was further sampled at 85% percent of the CFP sample, selecting only households that contained at least one child under the age of fifteen" (Gagnon & Bohnert 2012: 1498).
The sample population was further culled by only selecting individuals born in Quebec between the years 1887 and 1901 and of French ethnicity and Roman Catholic status. This was designed to ensure that other factors would not influence mortality that pertained to race, ethnicity and immigration status: socioeconomic status and rural status was the focus of the study. The authors noted that they were able to control for 'shared frailty' among brothers: some families had unusually high death rates at relatively early ages, and controlling for these unusual genetic patterns further improved the accuracy of the findings (Gagnon & Bohnert 2012: 1502).
Another strength of the study was is longitudinal nature -- it tracked mortality patterns over time, which further reduced the change that idiosyncratic years with high death rates for reasons unrelated to the concerns of the study (such as weather events or epidemics) could skew the results. The disadvantage to its longitudinal design was that it only looked at the statistics from two points in time -- birth and death -- "any childhood effects on adult mortality found in this study must be considered an incomplete picture of the broader causal pathways from early life onto late adulthood" (Gagnon & Bohnert 2012: 1502). Still, the findings overall made a strong case that initial socioeconomic status can have a profound influence upon a child's future wealth and success.