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.." while more than sixty percent of women in the developing world represent those employed in domestic work, street trading and other low paying jobs lacking in "security, benefits, and legal protections..." (2005) Within the informal sector of employment there exists a hierarchy and Stoparic states that employers running small informal enterprises "women are disproportionately represented in the lowest-paying categories, and even within those subcategories they earn less than men, further increasing their risk of poverty.
The work of Heyzer entitled: "When Work Just Traps People in Poverty" published in the Herald Tribune states that: "Rural women spend backbreaking hours on family plots often for no payment at all. Those in urban areas work in unregulated factories, earning pennies for products shipped to markets far away." (Heyzer, 2005) Furthermore, "In virtually all countries, women still bear the primary responsibility for taking care of children, the ill and the elderly, limiting…… [Read More]
Many reality television shows go from the ridiculous to the absurd, and that is an understatement. There are ample examples of mindless reality shows, including such inane shows like "Born in the ild," about couples that want to experience the birthing experience in the great outdoors. This paper zeros in on a sociological view of reality television, including using symbolic interaction theory, functionalism, and conflict theory.
Symbolic Interaction and Reality Television
Symbolic interaction (or symbolic interactionism) delves into the meaning that people "develop and rely upon in the process of social interaction" (Crossman, 2012). In other words, people tend to behave in response to their own personal, subjective interpretation of how they perceive the world around them. The events, the interactions, and the behaviors that people witness and experience as they go through a day leave a subjective impression, according to Crossman, writing in about.com. hat people believe…… [Read More]
Sociological Analysis of Hyperconnectivity
Hyperconnectivity is a fairly new concept that it is indigenous to the 21st century. The term was coined only a few years ago by Canadian social scientists as a way to describe how people are connect via machines, networked organizations, and networked societies overall. Thus, this is a term that could have been coined now. "Hyper" is usually an adjective to describe a state of excess excitement and unruly energy; "hyper" as it exists as a prefix coming from the Greek language, means abnormal, unusual, and appearing in quantities beyond what is normal. Both definitions can be useful when considering the global culture or state of hyperconnectivity that much of the world finds itself in during the 21st century. We have mobile devices that connect to the internet wherever we are and wherever there is an internet connection. We have long since had computers and…… [Read More]
Sociology as a field of study entails examining and understanding the behavior of human groups and associated social behavior. In understanding these aspects, the sociologists have, their focus primarily concentrated on the human interactions. These human interactions revolve around how the different social relations influence the behavior and attitudes of the people and how the societies originate, form and change. Human interactions are vast, and so is the field of sociology. It covers virtually all the topics of human life, from gender, race, religion, education, politics, health, group behavior and conformity among others. Sociologist focus on how the society and people influence other people since most personal experiences has their origin from external or social forces.
The social and external forces exist within the society in the form of interpersonal relationships between families and friends. Additionally, these relations form from the encounters in the academic, religious,…… [Read More]
Functionalism is usually defined as viewing society from the aspect of its different parts, and how those parts relate to each other and society as a whole. Many functionalists liken society to a biological form, such as the human body, with its different organs all working in conjunction to keep the body as a whole functioning. Each of the elements of the body has a "function- to maintain the whole, so ensuring the stability or order of the system." (Bissell, 2005, p.41) But while each element has a manifest function, or the function that is expected from it, there are also unexpected functions called latent functions.
On the other hand, Conflict Theory states that the different parts of a society are in a state of conflict over the limited resources available to society. While Functionalism stresses the unity between the different groups, "conflict theory emphasizes strife and friction"…… [Read More]
Sociological theories have helped widen people's scope on social behaviors and societies. In fact, the study of sociological theories makes one develop a comprehensive understanding of sociology's past, present and future. There are a number of sociological theories namely: symbolic interaction theory, conflict theory, functionalist theory, feminist theory, critical theory, labeling theory, social learning theory, and structural strain theory among others (Giddens, 1997).
Government, religion, education, economics and family are some of the five major social institutions that have been there for quite some time. This term paper seeks to evaluate the impacts of functionalism, conflict, and interaction theories on the family institution. The paper will address how each of the theories apply to the family as a social institution; the similarities and differences that exist; how each theory affects the views of an individual who is a member of the family unit; how each of the theories affect approach…… [Read More]
Sociological Issue for Specific Neighborhood
Single Parent Sociological Issues in San Leandro
San Leandro is a small city located in Alameda County. It is one of the major cities in the state of California and has the largest number of white residents as compared to other cities in the state. Despite having a majority of white people, San Leandro has a multi-racial culture attached to it. According the 2010 census, the city has a population of around eighty four thousand nine hundred and fifty, which consists of over 25,000 Asians, 642 Pacific Islanders, 23,237 Latinos and about 16,050 people of other races. One of the sociological issues in the city is increasing number of single female householders who have children, otherwise known as single parents. My literature review will shed light on this issue by highlighting what issues are faced by single parents. We will also take a look at…… [Read More]
The DHS is consistent with the larger social trend on a global scale concerning institutional security measures insofar as Risley (2006) reports that "the securitization of an ever-expanding number of realms is a distinguishing feature of the contemporary political landscape." (1) This is to argue that in addition to the events such as 9/11 which can be seen as a clear catalyst to the changes in structure which have been underway since the end of 2001, there is also something of a broader sociological pattern which is reflected in the merger undertaken in the national security sector. The diminishing lines between commerce, governance and military engagement are perhaps best reflected in this parallel between the security community and the corporate world. The sociological implications are therefore rather significant in coming to understand why certain changes have been sought and in producing reasonable expectations as to what these changes may produce.…… [Read More]
The sociology of Max Weber (Question No. 1)
Max Weber's sociology involved two important concepts: Protestant ethic and capitalism. Establishing a causal connection between this two concepts, Weber presented in his discourse, "Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism," how the Protestant ethic was the catalyst that propelled Western societies towards social progress through capitalism. This causal connection was developed through a string of observations and ideas that helped Weber analyze the course of human history and interaction as it moved from 19th towards the 20th century.
In establishing his thesis, Weber centered his observations by looking into the interaction or social action among people in Western societies. This methodology enabled him to create descriptions, implications, and meanings in determining the origin of capitalism and how it developed. Social action was explicated by Weber as 'action that is social' -- that is, social action that has "subjective meaning…… [Read More]
esearch Caveat - esearch surrounding undocumented workers can often be problematic and unreliable. Primarily this is due to the nature of the subject matter -- individual on both sides of the issue are unwilling to talk because of the volaltility of the subject, language barriers, legal issues, access issues, fear of anything that even remotely feels governmental, and the validity of responses. Briefly, we can view these issues and the mitigating circumstances:
Language barriers -- Any viable research study will need to be dual language based; therefore it must be translated into the appropriate lanage and level (typically Spanish), with an emphasis on clarity, removal of hidden meanings or linguistic variations. In addition, the person or persons administering any research questionnaire would likewise need to be bilingual.
Mistrust -- Undocumented workers are often reluctant to particpate in any project that has a written component; they are mistrustful of the system,…… [Read More]
The criminal justice system, according to Karl Marx, is thought to work for the rich while the resulting policies are more concerned with controlling the poor. Seigel and Welsh state that, "conflict theorists observe that while spending has been cut on social programs during the past few years, spending on the prison systems has skyrocketed." This leads to the conclusion that when there is a disparity between police and public and the rich and the poor, the conflict creates or influences antisocial or deviant behavior ( ).
The Secure Communities program exists in certain states and is a Department of Homeland Security initiative, which aims to identify and remove criminal aliens. Law enforcement officials in certain states will fingerprint every person booked into jail and those fingerprints will be run through Homeland Security's national database to check for illegal immigrant status. Morton believes the program could transform the face of…… [Read More]
Sociological Explanation of Sexual Initiation and Negotiation
Part of the desire to initiate and negotiate sex stems from the sociological desire to couple or be partnered with another human being. Many people grow up with fantasies and notions of finding Mr. Of Mrs. ight, hoping that at some point in their life they will fall into love and have "an affair of the heart" (Michael, et. al, 1994: 67). The reality of existence however is that most meetings that result in long-term relationships can be mundane. Choice of long-term partners and sexual partners can sometimes differ. In general however, most people seek out people that they think are similar in nature and personality to themselves, even without having intimate knowledge of the social context in which the potential partner lives and exists (Michael, et. al, 1994: 69).
The initiation and negotiation of sex often stems from familiarity. Most people fantasize…… [Read More]
Sociological and Therapeutic Implications of the Brain Disease
Inspiration for professionals who authored the account on chronic brain illnesses came from findings on drugs' impacts on the human brain. The assurance that strong anti-addiction medicines can be found appeared great. The budding scientific branch, addiction biology, implies that addiction --a condition which starts off with the clear, intentional decision to have a go at drugs, spiraling quickly down to an irrepressible, involuntary state --would now be considered seriously, and forever, as an ailment. Using this knowledge, authors hoped to sensitize lawmakers as well as the society to drug-addicts' needs, including improved coverage of private insurance and public treatment access. The agenda also included moderating of puritanical outlooks and smoothing of penal law enforcement. The neuro-centric approach supports unjustified optimism with regard to pharmaceutical treatments, overrating the requirement of professional aid. Conditions characteristically remitted in young adulthood are branded as "chronic."…… [Read More]
Many different views abound on the origins of modern capitalism, causalities that range from economic to political, from religious to cultural, or for some, an amalgamation of societies need to expand and the resources necessary to fuel that expansion. Max Weber's the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a study of the relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of the spirit of modern capitalism. An ascetic Protestant is one who practices self-denial and self-discipline. Weber argues that the religious ideas of groups such as the Calvinists played a role in creating the capitalistic spirit. Calvinism focused on predestination and God's infinite power, a hierarchical system that transcended religion and moved into economic and social activities.
This is true not only in cases where the difference in religion coincides with one of nationality, and thus of cultural development . . . . The same thing…… [Read More]
In fact, the cohabitation option serves a valuable function for many couples, especially where living together allows them to discover possible problem areas in their relationship that would have made marriage a bad idea. If anything, that is preferable to the traditional situation where couples really only begin learning about one another after making the lifelong commitment to a marriage. Finally, Congressman McDonald's point about childbirth out of wedlock ignores the tremendous advantages to children born in stable marriages and suggests that high rates of unwanted pregnancies among unmarried couples somehow negates the benefits of planned pregnancies within marriage.
The Functionalist Perspective Applied to Marriage:
In some respects, there are valid criticisms that justify reevaluating certain aspects of modern marriage, including the unfairness of child custody decisions that favor mothers and financial settlements that obligate married partners who supported the marriage financially to share more of what they earned than…… [Read More]
In addition, the views presented by sociologists concerning idealistic tradition is based on the significance of the concerned group that is sort to motivate, influence to belief and the subject of interest. In this regard, sociologists will not disassociate from the scientific data but will involve the subject of interest to attempt to understand the environment in its own context, showing how sociologists have subjective explanations and not objective ones (Adams et al. 267).
ith regard to the above, there exists queries on whether the sociological theory is a micro or a macro understood occurrence. Apart from the philosophical aspects of knowledge, the micro and macro aspects of sociological theory are highly debated in there associations. It inquires on how these sociological theories on character, reactions, and interpersonal procedures can associate with other social influences. Just like in sciences where there exists micro-macro differences which even with the advanced technology…… [Read More]
Despite having diverted to the employment sector for ten years to make ends meet, I am still determined to be what I had intended to be in the initial times and the high level if determination points to my inward motivation. I am also independent in that I make sound decisions on my own, I decided to let go of my "career" initially to pursue employment and now I have decided to further my career. If it were not for enthusiasm, I could have already let go of my dream to be a nurse which I still hold on to dearly. Self-confidence is played out in the fact that I never allowed the unpleasant interaction between sexuality and gambling waste my life ahead. The job of being at a casino, especially for that long, requires someone who is extremely outgoing and sociable.
Bearing the fact that I wanted to have…… [Read More]
Various Theories on Depression, and Respective Treatments
Depression is a complex mood disorder that is characterized by various emotions, including sadness, self-blame, absence of pleasure and an overall sense of worthlessness, and by physical responses relating to sleep, appetite and motor symptoms. According to statistics, one in four adults will suffer from a depressive episode at some point in life. With a quarter of the population affected by depression, it is no wonder that one sees so many advertisements both on television and on billboards relating to the disorder. It is also understandable that many intellectual fields of study would give an opinion on what depression truly means and how it can be treated. This paper will thus examine psychological, sociological, cultural and biological theories on depression and will describe various treatments that take into account expertise from these various areas of study to better understand this complex…… [Read More]
Social Order: Institutions, Socializations, And the Performance of Social Roles
Erving Goffman dramaturgical theory is a seminal theory in the field of sociology. An example of "micro-sociological analysis," it forced sociological analysis back into the examination of things which actually exist, individual behavior, instead of mere concepts. Goffman demonstrated that the examination of real things can not only clarify existing lines of thought, but open up new avenues for the study of social behavior. Thesis: Through his emphasis on the individual's performance of social roles, Goffman demonstrates that, although social organization and dynamics do influence individual behavior, it is the individual herself who determines the final shape of this behavior.
Summary of the Theory
Erving Goffman's work, often classified as "symbolic interactionism," is highly valuable for the study of socialization and the performance of social roles. Erving studied how individuals used symbols in the performance of their social roles and…… [Read More]
Moreover, even content-based restriction would be irrelevant to the competitive strength of market competitors, since they would apply across the board and to all equally. The only likely negative effect on manufacturers of alcohol products is precisely the objective that increased regulation of the content of alcohol product advertising would hope to achieve: namely, reducing the instances of new users responding to advertising and reducing the ability of manufacturers to drive consumer behavior through deliberate psychological manipulation.
In principle, the most appropriate distinction would be between content that presents specific objective attributes of the product (i.e. taste, quality, versatility, company reputation, etc.) and content that is expressly designed to exploit known psychological and social tendencies conducive to increasing alcohol consumption. In practice, alcohol product advertising copy that promoted flavor and quality, (for example), would be permitted; conversely, advertising copy that exploited the psychological influence of sex appeal, social popularity, or…… [Read More]
Suicide and Society
Suicide: An Individual Phenomenon or a Societal Construct?
Statistics show that suicide rates in the U.S. are highly predictable. It is annually expected each year that over 30,000 suicides will occur, as compared to about 17,000 homicides. This stable and predictable estimate of suicide rate stems from a precise analysis of social factors describing four separate categories of suicidal influences: egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic. According to the functionalist theory described by Emile Durkheim, rates are social facts based on other established social facts, and thus have a sociological basis. As suicide rates are social facts, Durkheim set out to provide an empirical basis of social explanation regarding suicide, providing a far different account of trends than the previously perceived notion that suicide is based purely on individual or psychological reasons. Thus, the phenomenon of what actually motivates the occurrence of suicide can be examined from a…… [Read More]
Many cultural studies state that the Qur'an provides for the mercy killing of women who have been failed to have been adequately protected and have, as a result thereof, been raped. In fact, Muslim countries have a disproportionate amount of honor killings; yet, this should be understood as a cultural phenomenon as the scripture and the practice of the Qur'an do not dictate or specifically set forth the proposition that women should die as a result of being assaulted (Quraishi,, 2000).
Conclusion and Commentary:
Importance of Cultural elativism and Understanding the Sociological Differences Between Women of the United States and Women of Islam
After September 11th and the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City by Osaama Bin Laden and his progeny, a cultural relativist approach which bases itself in understanding the Islamic worldview became under attack and, as a society, we have created less understanding,…… [Read More]
Career counseling is not limited to a particular trade or skill or type of people but includes a wide range of individuals who possess all kinds of skills, passions, and values as well as career motivations. In this paper, we investigate the practical applicability of Super's Developmental Self-Concept Theory-based model for career counseling. This theory or model of counseling encompasses the entire lifespan of an individual and divides it into a number of segments. This paper tries to understand how each of the stages identifies the needs and aspirations of individual clients and sets a benchmark that best suits the needs in every stage. This theory is based on self-concept and hence is applicable at an individual level. The paper also looks into the possible assessment tests for career counseling. Such tests are based on personality or psychology of a client, the interest of that individual and the aptitude of…… [Read More]
Explain how sociological and lay ideas about illness differ from those of biomedicine
Individuals and societies have over the years engaged in identifying the causal factors which can be attributed with an ailment. Illness and its related explanation has been a focal point of health professionals. It is also important to note that the attribution of illness with a specific cause may not be the same in terms of biomedicine and sociological or lay ideas. Sociological ideas tend to lay emphasis on the norms, values and subjective experiences of the individuals as the core elements which formulate their perception about an illness (Blaxter 2010). The layman is more likely to base the explanation of an ailment on social causes rather than exploring the dimensions of the illness through medical explanation. On the other hand, medical professionals (biomedicine) seek causal factors which are linked with the physiological and anatomical aspects…… [Read More]
e. As waitresses.)
II. Social Action
Max eber developed the concept of social action as a means of describing those actions that take into account actions and reactions of other people, then modifying that action based on those occurrences. Sociologists employ social action as a conceptual model as a means of determining how certain behaviors are modified in specific environments. hen we evaluate the norms of social discourse and the customs that prevail in any given society, we see how social action works.
Importantly, social action takes into consideration reactions of others. hen the reaction of an individual or group is not wanted, then the action will be modified accordingly. Sociology is essentially the study of social action, as it takes into account the way society functions and the way human behavior is established in societal structures. According to social action theory, people change their actions according to what social…… [Read More]
This is the foundation of the psychiatric classification of antisocial personality disorder. obins also thought that antisocial personality is evident early in life and that it tends to persevere from childhood to adulthood, with dissimilar behavioral demonstrations (Farrington, 2002).
Normally, psychological theories often comprise motivational, inhibiting, decision-making, and learning processes. The most ordinary motivational notion is that individuals, particularly kids are naturally self-indulgent and self-centered, looking for pleasure and staying away from pain, and thus that kids are naturally antisocial. Another characteristic notion is that individuals are provoked to uphold an optimal level of stimulation. If their level falls below the best, they will try to augment it, while if it is above the best they will try to reduce it (Farrington, 2002).
Sociological theories put forth that crime is caused by anomie or the dissociation of the person from the shared conscience. This can happen by social disorganization; by…… [Read More]
Role-playing activities, a traditional aspect of the way children play, has attracted attention by both educational theorists and markets for children's games. The use of role-playing as a method of instruction is a crucial element in social studies instruction. There are a number of key reasons for this. First, child's play has always been characterized by role-playing. Children will usually adopt a number of roles when playing with other children; they reap enjoyment from the processs of emulation. In past generations, children have played 'cops and robbers,' 'cowboys and Indians,' and any number of games that require that they characterize themselves as actors. riters and game manufacturers have capitalized on this process, and have introduced an array of ever more intricate games that involve problem solving, social interaction, and a precise understanding of the context in which game-players must operate.
One of the most important concepts that teachers must convey…… [Read More]
The authors are successful in this aim up to a large extent. However, they have not discussed gender discrimination individually; rather this topic has been explained collectively with the multi-cultural workforce management. The OB theories, models, and organizational justice approaches which the authors have used in writing this book can help in explaining the inequality practices which modern business organizations have adopted at their workplaces.
"The New American Workplace"
By James O'Toole, & Edward E. Lawler
This book is based on the results of a nation-wide survey conducted by the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare in the United States. The purpose of the survey was to analyze the working conditions in the country from the perspective of working patterns, equal opportunities, flexible work options, gender inequality, and the like. The book is co-authored by the Chairman of the team himself. The findings of the research suggest that business organizations…… [Read More]
The emphasis on social stability, as seen in many institutions' suspicion regarding social change, can lead to the perpetuation of social inequality. In some instances, there is even a stronger link between religion and power structures.
The caste system in India privileges the rights of the priestly class. However, political leaders in India have also formed strong ties with the Brahmin class. These ties serve to "legitimize" the power in the political government.
Evaluating conflict theory
Conflict theory provides several important insights regarding the conservative role that religion has played in society. McGuire and Collins' study provide specific cases that uphold Marx's original premise. These studies show how conflict thinking still remains relevant, even until today.
However, the emphasis on the conservative and status quo orientation of religion also glosses over religion's liberating potential. Theologians like Gustavo Gutierrez, a priest who served in a Peruvian slum in the 1960s, argued…… [Read More]
Police Shooting Incidents
Cities across the United States have experienced numerous incidents of police misconduct, which occur several times in every decade, particularly when a high profile case takes place. Actually, police misconduct including police shooting has always been exposed by high profile cases, which highlight some forms of police abuse and violation of human rights. While police officers are mandated with the task of making several decisions and taking necessary actions in protecting the society, they sometimes use force irresponsibly and end up hurting the people they are supposed to protect. In the past few months, there have been increased incidents of police shooting, which can be effectively examined and understood through a sociological perspective.
The Phenomenon of Police Shooting
The increased cases of police shooting in the past few months are not a new phenomenon that has been highlighted by increased media coverage. This case of increased shooting…… [Read More]
The Sociological Implications of Plato's Allegory of the Cave
Social enlightenment is an abstract concept indeed, and one that is tied closely to collective ways of understanding and perceiving complex cultural dimensions such are hierarchies, forms of governance and variances of individual economic burden. However, our understanding of this abstract concept may be enhanced by Plato's well-known "Allegory of the Cave." Comprising Chapter VII of Plato's critically important The Republic, the allegory examines the experience of socially-imposed ignorance and the consequences of enlightenment. In doing so, it offers an extremely compelling discussion on the human condition that is remarkable in its relevance to our lives today. Namely, the allegory forces us to examine our conceptions of awareness and to reflect on that which we truly know as opposed to that which we believe we know. Indeed, the most compelling aspect of the Plato allegory is the degree to…… [Read More]
Juvenile Delinquency and Deterrents
Explain how the threat of punishment does or does not deter juvenile delinquency.
Punishment of juvenile delinquents has been a hot button issue in many jurisdictions because of the need to prosecute crime but also the desire to shield young people from harm. Usually when a young person commits a crime, he or she is sentenced to detention in either a juvenile facility or perhaps even an adult prison facility for a length of time appropriate to their crime. General deterrence is a theory that states that the fear of punishment will be enough to prevent crime. For those that are not deterred by the thought of punishment, there is always detention. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, nearly 70% of juvenile delinquency cases will end in a juvenile court (Shoemaker 2009,-page 39). his means that the offender will receive a lesser…… [Read More]
economic crisis that hit the international community and the world economies has determined, since 2008, a slow, almost invisible shift in the doctrinal preferences of more and more people in terms of deciding on the right economic approach to be followed in order to avoid such crises from taking place in the future. Although there have been numerous attempts to convince on the benefits of capitalism, the economic crises that have taken place since the 70s on a cyclical basis have been used as counterarguments for the efficiency of capitalism and free market economies as we know it today. In this sense, more and more people, scholars, professors, and even politicians, advocate a more moderate approach to capitalism to include several aspects of apparently long-forgotten economic doctrines such as Marxism. However, Marxism in its purest form is not the solution; yet, it offers the justifications for what is now seen…… [Read More]
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…… [Read More]
In this context the argument is made from a moral and religious point-of-view that the unborn child is alive and that abortion is tantamount to murder. As Bohan (1999) states in the House of Atreus: Abortion as a Human ights Issue, "No society that truly believes in human rights can fail to recognize the right to life of the unborn. Human rights are, by definition, rights, which inhere in one simply by virtue of being a human "(Bohan, 1999, p. 64).
From the religious perspective the main argument against abortion revolves around the view of the religious and spiritual value of human life. In Christianity this refers to the Commandant, "Thou shall not Kill." The sanctity of life applies as well to the unborn child and in many religions life begins at the moment of conception. Form this normative perspective the murder of a human being is seen to be…… [Read More]
This is a fact that is virtually undisputed among the sociological and medical school of thought and practice. Many researchers of late have suggested alternative approaches to treating abnormal behaviors evident in persons diagnosed with mental illness.
By far the most common of these is a cooperative approach to care that involves treatment utilizing pharmacological and cognitive or counseling therapies. It is believed that the combination of both of these will work in tandem to best serve the needs of the patient afflicted with a mental illness. A cooperative approach to treating mental illness will also guarantee that both the sociological aspects and physiological aspects of the disease are treated adequately.
Buelow, G., & Hebert, S. (1995). Counselor's resource on psychiatric medications, issues of treatment and referral. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Christensen, O.J., England, J.T. & Scovel, K.A. (2002). "Mental health counselors'
Perceptions regarding Psychopharmacological prescriptive privileges." Journal of…… [Read More]
doind a research project pay green?
I collected an articles .
Joe right's 2005 motion picture "Pride and Prejudice" involves a series of elements related to ideas like family, faithfulness, and marriage. By presenting the central characters as individuals who struggle to remove social status boundaries, the film makes it possible for viewers to gain a more complex understanding of thinking during the late eighteenth century. Elizabeth Bennet is the film's protagonist and by looking at matters from her perspective viewers are able to learn more about her surrounding environment and about the feelings present in a society that promotes a strict set of legislations that are focused both on rational and on moral ideas.
Elizabeth Bennet is a very complex character and it is actually intriguing how her intellect virtually pushes individuals who are unable to adapt on a social level to the limits of her community. Elizabeth gradually…… [Read More]
Alfred Schutz refers to our "paramount reality" as the commonplace, ordinary, familiar and general taken-for-granted world in which we live (Shutz 2010, pp.21-22). The question then remains as to whether or not one can escape this world in the context of contemporary tourism.
Shearing and Stenning's article, "From the Panopticon to Disney World: The Development of Discipline" note that upon arriving in Disney World, a tourist has an altered state of reality that is completely shaped by the creators of the theme park. They note that from the moment on "arrives in the parking lot," they are told by the park staff exactly what to do and expect in the context of how these friendly employees are taught to act around park patrons. Handling the crowds in such an orderly fashion is a task that is enormous but handled with odd structure within the context of the park. Visitors are…… [Read More]
The law recognizes the right of a competent adult to make an advance directive instructing his or her physician to provide, withhold, or withdraw life-prolonging procedures. In Terri's case there was a feud between Terri's husband and her parents in that there was not a clear cut answer, as to what she wanted or would have wanted. They both had conflicting views, which ended up in a feuding battle.
In conclusion, my view on the case is that I believe since there was no clear cut decision as to what Terri wanted, she should have been able to live. It is a moral, ethical, political, and legal decision that was a battle for many, but especially for Terri. God rest her soul.
Cassel, E. (2005). The Terri Schiavo case: Congress rushes in where only courts should tread. Retrieved April 24, 2005, from eb site: http://writ.news.findlaw.com
Dorf, M. (2003).…… [Read More]
This researcher rejects the existence of online communities because computer mediated group discussions cannot possibly meet this definition. Weinreich's view is that anyone with even a basic knowledge of sociology understands that information exchange in no way constitutes a community.
For a cyber-place with an associated computer mediated group to be labeled as a virtual settlement it is necessary for it to meet a minimum set of conditions. These are: (1) a minimum level of interactivity; (2) a variety of communicators; (3) a minimum level of sustained membership; and (4) a virtual common-public-space where a significant portion of interactive computer mediated groups occur (Weinreich, 1997). The notion of interactivity will be shown to be central to virtual settlements. Further, it will be shown that virtual settlements can be defined as a cyber-place that is symbolically delineated by topic of interest and within which a significant proportion of interrelated interactive computer…… [Read More]
Morals of Criminal Justice
Examine the moral requirements of criminal justice. In your analysis examine the issues of authority, power, and discretion. In addition, examine the role of individual behavior and how it reflects on institutional morality and how the code of conduct impacts individual behavior. Defend your answer with research.
In criminal justice, ethics and morals determine the standard of fairness by enabling professionals to; i) develop the reasoning abilities and analytical skills needed for the execution of their duties, ii) recognize the moral principles and ethical consequences of an action, iii) adequately make decisions involving due process, force, and discretion, iv) make adequate decisions regarding deterrence and rehabilitation, and v) effectively engage in criminal justice research (Williams & Arrigo, 2011). Criminal justice professionals face numerous moral dilemmas in the execution of discretion, power and authority.
Legislators have the discretionary power to criminalize behavior and have to use moral/ethical…… [Read More]
What are the existing resources on a micro, mezzo, and macro level that address the needs of this particular group?
On a micro level, health professionals and counselors can help elderly individuals live in a manner that honors their independence in a realistic fashion. eligious leaders can play a role in helping families engage in difficult discussions about an elderly person's transition into a new phase of life. On a mezzo level religious groups provide the individual with a community and opportunities to volunteer. On a macro level, people must become more aware of the complex needs of the elderly that must be honored, including elderly person's right to decent healthcare and assisted living, and protection through anti-discrimination laws. eligious communities can act as advocates for the needs of the elderly on a social and legislative level as well as on a micro level.
What are the gaps in services…… [Read More]
A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations
This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of tools, skills, and verbal and non-verbal communication techniques that may assist the negotiator in closing deals with what have been "traditionally" perceived as "difficult people." This study concludes that there are no such "difficult people," but rather only unprepared negotiators. The study takes a phenomenological approach to negotiations, with the researcher immersing himself in the world of negotiation training from 2012-14, for several major multinational corporations, intuiting the failings of the negotiators with whom he comes in contact,…… [Read More]
g. A Police Office in a large metropolitan area like New York will have different duties and dangers than a County Sheriff in a rural Oklahoma area) (Barlow, 2000).
ightly so, modern society has a certain level of expectations for its military and law enforcement branches. While it is known that both must, at times, deal with the underside of society, it is also assumed that the group will rise above base and animalistic reactions and upload both the law and a sense of compassion -- coupled with self-preservation and safety. Officers are often in danger of infectious disease, motor vehicle fatalities, apprehension of persons under substance abuse, and line of duty deaths are not uncommon. For instance, approximately 200 police officers die per year in the United States, with over half of those deaths from direct assaults from suspects or criminals (obert, 2008). Still, individuals are sociologically drawn to…… [Read More]
History Of Social Psychology: Past and Future Directions
The fields of psychology and social psychology owe their existence to the earlier philosophical thinkers including Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Locke, Hume and Kant. However, the recognized founder of the field (by most historians) is the German scientist Wilhelm Wundt (Farr, 2003). In 1862 Wundt proposed that there psychology should consist of two branches: a social branch and a physiological branch of psychology (Farr, 2003). From Wundt's view psychology was more concerned with studying immediate conscious experience as opposed to studying overt behavior. However, in 1890 Wundt published the first volume of a classic 10-volume set of social psychology which described and analyzed a wide variety of social thought and social behaviors. Although Wundt's ideas and writings carried significant influence in Europe, his writings were not translated into English until sometime later. The behaviorist view became the more influential paradigm in the United…… [Read More]
There are many factors that are not dealt with within the ambit of the theory; for example the extent to which the Hispanic culture has become a part of the mainstream culture. Therefore there are many critics of this theory who believe that it is an oversimplification of the reality on the ground. "Many scholars of criminology, however, believe the alien conspiracy theory is an oversimplification of the very complex and multi-ethnic nature of crime..." (Historical interpretations on Prohibition and organized crime)
In the final analysis Hispanic street gangs are a phenomenon that is strongly related to ethnic and social factors and to the way that the individual perceives of him or herself in relation to the larger society. While both ational Choice Theory and Alien Conspiracy Theory can explain aspects of the Hispanic gang phenomenon, they often do not account for all the factors affecting Hispanic street…… [Read More]
Divorce Affects Children and Teenagers
This paper presents a discussion about how divorce affects children and teenagers. The writer takes a sociological path in exploring the long-term affects on the individuals and then how that related to society. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
During the last four decades the divorce rate began to climb not only in America but also across the globe. As families began to live in separate houses researchers took on the task of studying the affects of the divorce on children and teenagers (Dunn, 1999). Now, four decades later the results are in and the experts agree divorce has an undeniable negative impact on children and teenagers. This is not to say the negative impact cannot be counterbalanced but it must be recognized as a given for groups of people affected by divorce if the world wants to correct the affects from…… [Read More]
isk Management of Terrorism in the UK
The issue of designing a risk management strategy for terrorism in the UK is dependent upon understanding and identifying the commensurate risks attendant with the various extremists groups that are perceived as threats to the UK's safety and infrastructural stability. Challenges include adopting an intelligence and surveillance system, educating the public regarding attendant trouble spots (such as retaliatory violence and discrimination as well as purpose of surveillance) and adopting a position in the global network that facilitates the overall mitigation of threats. The benefits are evident in control and prevention results and good practice recommendations are provided in the conclusion. This study gives a contextual assessment of the risks facing the UK, analyzes the components of risk management that can be utilized to alleviate these risks, defines the term "terror," examines the historical challenges that coincide with these components, and discusses the benefits…… [Read More]
etiology of schizophrenia and the ways in which researchers, psychologists, philosophers, and different cultures in different ages have attempted to understand the disease. It also examines the prevalence of schizophrenia on both a global and domestic front and discusses it in terms of individual patients according to age, gender and ethnicity. Finally it examines the disease from the standpoint of diagnostic criteria as well as evidence-based treatments and what the dropout rate of each might signify. It concludes by asserting that researchers may benefit from approaching schizophrenia from a sociological perspective since the psychosocial therapy appears to have the best clinical results and lowest dropout rate among the various treatments available.
Eugene Blueler first used the term "schizophrenia" in the early 20th century as a means of re-defining what earlier psychologists had described as a form of dementia. Blueler's term described a "split mind" -- a phenomenon that…… [Read More]
U.S. Policy and the War on Terror: An Ineffective Strategy
Since 9/11 the U.S. government has pursued a policy of combating terrorism with all of its resources (intelligence, technology, military, economic sanctions, etc.). However, the question remains, nearly a decade and a half later, with terror attacks occurring more and more frequently around the world, whether the U.S. has been effective in its countering of terrorism. According to various studies, it can be shown how far from actually eradicating terrorism, the policies of the U.S. government have actually helped to foster the spread of terrorism. Now, as Russia steps into the Middle East to fight ISIS at the request of Syria, a disinformation campaign in the West has been put into practice by the mainstream media to show how Russia and Syria are hurting the war against terrorism, when the reality is that Russia has been far more effective in…… [Read More]
In the first instance there were no control groups or references to studies that showed possible alternative results from the same sample group. The argument can therefore be criticized for being far too spurious and general with little clear definition of terms.
Furthermore it must be mentioned that the argument itself is not always clear and well expressed and there is very little effort to show consistency between some of the findings. For example the connection between geophysical aspects and both homicide and suicide is based on a very little reference to other studies or to any factual and consistent evidence.
Summary and Conclusion
The above article has both positive and negative aspects. From a positive point-of-view the investigation of a rather unorthodox theory about extreme human behavior is to be applauded. There is some proof and evidence that geophysical aspects can and do have an influence on human behavior.…… [Read More]
Health Disparities in Louisville KY
Health inequities have become a major problem in the United States. Hofrichter stresses in Tackling Health Inequities Through Public Health Practice:
A Handbook for Action ( 2006) that, "The awareness of the existence of inequities in health, health status and health outcomes between racial and ethnic groups in America is as old as the nation itself" (Hofrichter, 2006,P. vii). As will be discussed in this paper, these inequalities have a wide range of repercussions, including social and psychological implications. A definition of health disparity is: "... The difference in the incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist among specific population groups" ( Samuels, 2005).
There is also a consensus in the literature that inequalities in health and healthcare throughout the world are on the increase. This is largely due to the increasing gap between rich…… [Read More]
Young adults are on the threshold between youthful behaviors and the adult world. Humans in their late teens begin to accept responsibilities for their own lives and learn to depend upon themselves financially, socially, and psychologically. This is also the time when they make life choices which will ultimately shape their futures and the people they eventually become. Renowned theorist Daniel Levinson defines adult development in the age between 17 and 33 as the novice phase, because this is the point where the young person takes on new responsibilities in the same way as an amateur or novice in a specific occupational field. According to theorist Erik Erikson:
In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. Intimacy refers to one's ability to relate to another human being on a deep, personal level. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship…… [Read More]
Transformational and Transactional Leadership
The global market place that is today's business environment is highly competitive, and organizational survival is increasingly perceived as being dependent upon the efficiency and effectiveness of its leadership. Changes such as the online markets and workforce, alteration of ethical and legal issues, demographic and social trends (global 'graying' of the populace), technological advances and increased globalization mean that leaders of businesses must re-evaluate and alter their styles as necessary to bring about and maintain success. Competitive advantage is the predominant goal of most business strategies - how to sustain it once achieved, and how to achieve it in the first place. Thus, understanding the effect(s) of leadership, its role in an organization, and how leadership style impacts an organization is fundamentally important. As stated by Ekuma (2014) the manner in which a company is directed affects its internal and external ethics as well as the…… [Read More]
sexual orientation and proclivity, the times are definitely changing. Once, tolerance was something that people simply talked about and did not actually have to practice. Today, tolerance is something that people need to simply keep pace with a number of developments that have impacted various members of the gay, lesbian, and transgender community. Gay pride has become more and more common; there are specific time periods dedicated to this sort of pride. Personally, I have mixed feelings about these developments. There are some scientific and sociological aspects of this phenomenon that seem unsettling, although there are also some noteworthy advancements related to tolerance for which this movement deserves commendation.
One of the most notable aspects of the changes that have affected the lesbian, gay and transgender community pertains to the military. Once, homosexuals were not allowed in the military. It was not uncommon for those who did infiltrate the ranks…… [Read More]
Husserl, Language & Consciousness: econciliation of Edmund Husserl's Fourth Logical Investigation and Fifth logical investigation
Husserl's theory of consciousness in the fifth Logical Investigation is reported to be "one of the most profound and one of the most difficult theories of consciousness to have as yet been developed." (Smith, 1977) The account of consciousness given by Husserl is descriptive "in terms of a sensation, an intentional act that interprets the sensation, and an intentional object that is referred to by means of the interpretation of the sensation." (Smith, 1977)
The primary efforts of Husserl are committed to an analysis of the relation between what he refers to as 'matter' and 'quality' of the intentional act, and how these two components can be used to understand Brentano's famous proposal that "every act is either a presentation or is founded upon presentation." (Smith, 1977) It is stated that no matter the "brilliance…… [Read More]
The data compiled pointed to some interesting conclusions, and they were not what many people would imagine causes police stops. This is not what most readers would expect, and it seems that while racial profiling may take place initially, it is not always the final aspect of behavior that causes an office to actually pull over a car or confront a citizen. The authors concede there are many variables in their research, and that they do not "address the question of police fairness" (Alpert, Macdonald and Dunham 427). Their data was presented completely and in detail, and was still easy enough to understand that most laymen would understand the issue and the results.
The value of this paper was twofold. The data the authors finally compiled was quite useful in really understanding just what causes an officer to find something unusual - unusual enough to make a stop or confront…… [Read More]
Eliot, L. (2009, Septmber 8). Girl Brain, Boy Brain? Retrieved November 2010, from Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=girl-brain-boy-brain&page=3
This article takes a number of academic studies and syntheizes into a more popular explanation and format. The author acknowledges that there are verified physical and morphiological differences between the male and female brain, but also strongly suggests that these are predispositions, and it is the experience and social/cultural expectations that help male and female behaviors become dominant.
urphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.
This book takes a global perspective in assessing gender difference in the school system, finding that traditionally, girls have more limited opportunities, but tend to outperform boys both socially and intellectually. Because this is global in scope, it has a broader socio-cultural approach and shows how traditional values within a culture often contribute to a widening of the…… [Read More]
com, 2010). Jordan's retail fashion scene is similar to that of the UAE with an emphasis on high fashion (AME Info, 2007), although not on as grand a scale as the opulent malls of Dubai and Abu Dhabi. Despite restrictions on ladies' dress in the UAE, the market for estern fashions is strong, as women wear these fashions in the home and at women's only social events. Morocco's retail fashion industry is more nascent, and is focused on Casablanca, giving it a market structure similar to that of Jordan (CPP Luxury.com, 2010).
Other sources of information can come from chambers of commerce for the respective countries, as well as from news reports concerning the experiences of other retailers. However, as media in these countries is not free, the information is not always trustworthy. That said, first hand experience can also be valuable, as the company's managers can see the state…… [Read More]
As these two issues will tell you what specific factors could affect the performance of the student. This information is useful, because it can be corroborated with the other sources, to highlight what specific factors could be contributing to higher Hispanic dropout rates.
Clearly, the literature review uncovered a number of different factors that are contributing to higher dropout rates in Hispanics the most notable include: social / cultural differences, government policies that are to broad, bullying and the self-image of the individual. In general, the findings from the research are answering the basic questions. However, there are existing flaws that are occurring along with obvious gaps in the research to include: not isolating enough specific factors that could be affecting Hispanics and the possible impact of augmenting curriculum to cultural needs. This is important, because it shows the study we will be conducting can build off the information presented…… [Read More]