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Human life is, by definition, fraught with difficulty and challenge. Often, whatever difficulty an individual experiences feels so dire and unique that it is impossible to imagine that others could experience the same, or indeed, that it could be part of a wider sociological issue. Nevertheless, it is possible, with the "sociological imagination" (Mills, 1959) to create a more contextualized or collective vision of suffering and other social phenomena.
Using sociological imagination, an individual can posiion him- or herself within a certain context, period of time, and sociological environment. Doing this makes the individual awar of othr individuals within the same context or environment, which further enables the person to understand that his or her situation might be, after all, echoed in other households as well.
In doing this, the individual can also identify social and historical forces that has led to the conditions experienced by the individual…
American Psychological Association. (2013). Retrieved from: www.APA.org.
Conley, Dalton. (2013). You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist (3rd ed.). NY: Norton
Societies that have obtained and thrived on sociological imagination are usually within countries that experience freedom and have improved cultures. In most cases, social environments or communities without sociological imagination have always experienced ruling regimes as the standard (Maher par, 4). These communities have also have people's lives confined in a modest standard that has continued to plague the particular society for many centuries.
Generally, sociological imagination has several important lessons and insights into life, people and the society or community. For an individual, sociological imagination enables him/her to not only understand his/her own experiences but to also evaluate him/herself within a certain period. Additionally, individuals are also able to understand their chances in life by being aware of the people in their circumstances and social environments. Every individual's life contributes to the shaping of the society he/she lives in and to the history of that society. On the other…
Maher, Josh. "Sociological Imagination." Josh Maher's Blog. WordPress.com., 7 Jan. 2007. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. .
Mills, C.W. "The Sociological Imagination - Chapter One: The Promise." Lewis & Clark College. Lewis & Clark. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. .
Sociological Imagination & Disease Treatment
To a person from a esternized country, illness or disease is a medical problem. For example, a person who is ill sees a doctor, undergoes medical tests, and then follows the doctor's instructions. It is not unusual to find patients battling the disease on their own.
For a friend from est Africa, however, the individual approach to battling disease is incomprehensible. He believes that illness is best addressed in a community context, with a patient surrounded by an army of friends and loved ones.
right Mills believed that people should locate themselves "within his period which he can know his own chances in life only by becoming aware of those of all individuals in his circumstances." This involves developing a worldview which "understand(s) the larger historical scene in terms of its meaning of the inner life and the external career of a variety of individuals"…
Mills, Charles Wright. The Sociological Imagination. New York: Grove Press, 1961.
Some, Malidoma Patrice. The Healing Wisdom of Africa: Finding Life Purpose through Nature, Ritual and Community. New York: Putnam, 1998.
Imagining a different life in a different culture is not so difficult. If I had been born a woman, for example, even a little more than one hundred years ago in the United States, I would certainly have a different life. I would not be able to vote, or have a career outside the home. I would probably be a Christian, but I would certainly view the world differently. The world would be far more mysterious than it is today because there would be no television, no radio, and probably no running water in my home, or electricity, unless I was wealthy. I would not know what was going on around the world until long after it happened and was reported in the newspaper, and I would not understand the plight of third-world countries. I would probably be less tolerant of other races and cultures, and would not…
To be able to do that is to possess the sociological imagination" (1959). In order for one to fully understand the current recession and his/her position within society he or she needs to do two things. The first is be self-conscious of the intimate and personal decisions one has made that has led him/her down his/her current path, the second thing is to understand the structural factors that ultimately precipitate the economic downturn. The aforementioned paragraphs give one, at least, a cursory understanding of why he/she is unemployed or underemployed. The economy, despite several infusions of cash by the Federal Government - TARP (trouble assets relief program) or as it's also known, "the bank-bailout" and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act -- has still not fully recovered. Ironically, the banks are now thriving once again, the stock market has recovered, but many people in the middle class are still struggling,…
Lewis, M. (2010). The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine. New York: W.W.
Norton & Company.
Mills, C.W. (1959). Sociological Imagination. Retrieved from http://legacy.lclark.edu/~goldman/socimagination.html
Mishel, L. (2006). CEO-to-worker pay imbalance grows. Economic Policy Institute.
1415). What could be of great utility from Miller and Stark's theorizing is the understanding of how gender socialization varies among societies, among nations. It aligns itself with classical thinking which states that women are more care-giving and more reserved because of the sexual division of labor (as seen in the results of the study in Japanese society where traditional gender roles persists) and at the same time it departs from this thinking when it said that more liberal, non-traditional roles can now be seen in other societies as well (as demonstrated by the results of the study in American society). As Mills has posited, it is important for us to be able to swiftly shift from one perspective to another. In this case, to shift from the classical Durkheimian sociology of sexual division of labor to the modernist perspective of Miller & Stark, which incorporates how gender roles have…
Clifton, R.A. et al. (2008). Gender, Psychosocial Dispositions, and the Academic Achievement of College Students. Research in Higher Education (49), pp. 684-703.
Entwistle, J. "Sex/Gender" in Core Sociological Dichotomies. Sage Publications: London.
Miller, a. & Stark, R. (2002). Gender and Religiousness: Can Socialization Explanations Be Saved? American Journal of Sociology, 107 (6), pp. 1399-1423.
Mills, C.W. (1959). Sociological Imagination. Middlesex: Penguin Books.
The sociological imagination refers to the ability to see the world as a sociologist would: that is, by viewing individuals and relationships in terms of social structures, institutions, values, and norms. Usually, the sociological imagination addresses squarely the concepts of race, class, gender, and social power. One of the premier American philosophers of the early twentieth century, W.E.B. DuBois had an active sociological imagination. DeBois recognized the relationship between race and social status; between race and socio-economic class; and also between gender and social power. As a co-founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), W.E.B. DuBois foresaw the means by which African-Americans could recognize institutional racism and overcome it. Moreover, DuBois understood the importance of personal and collective identity, especially as identity relates to race, class, gender, and social status. In his premier sociological treatise, The Souls of Black Folk, W.E.B. DuBois works with…
Sociology as a field of study entails examining and understanding the behavior of human groups and associated social behavior. In understanding these aspects, the sociologists have, their focus primarily concentrated on the human interactions. These human interactions revolve around how the different social relations influence the behavior and attitudes of the people and how the societies originate, form and change. Human interactions are vast, and so is the field of sociology. It covers virtually all the topics of human life, from gender, race, religion, education, politics, health, group behavior and conformity among others. Sociologist focus on how the society and people influence other people since most personal experiences has their origin from external or social forces.
The social and external forces exist within the society in the form of interpersonal relationships between families and friends. Additionally, these relations form from the encounters in the academic, religious,…
Schaefer, R.T. (2007). Sociology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Ballantine, J.H., & Roberts, K.A. (2010). Our social world: Introduction to sociology. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press, An Imprint of SAGE Publications.
Giddens, A., & Sutton, P.W. (2009). Sociology. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
King, L., & McCarthy, D. (2009). Environmental sociology: From analysis to action. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Functionalism is usually defined as viewing society from the aspect of its different parts, and how those parts relate to each other and society as a whole. Many functionalists liken society to a biological form, such as the human body, with its different organs all working in conjunction to keep the body as a whole functioning. Each of the elements of the body has a "function- to maintain the whole, so ensuring the stability or order of the system." (Bissell, 2005, p.41) But while each element has a manifest function, or the function that is expected from it, there are also unexpected functions called latent functions.
On the other hand, Conflict Theory states that the different parts of a society are in a state of conflict over the limited resources available to society. While Functionalism stresses the unity between the different groups, "conflict theory emphasizes strife and friction"…
Anderson, Margaret, Howard Francis Taylor. (2008). Sociology: Understanding a Diverse Society. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Print.
Bissell, Paul, Janine Morgall Traulsen. (2005). Sociology and Pharmacy Practice. London: Pharmaceutical Press. Print.
Ritzer, George. (1992). Sociological Theory. New York: McGraw Hill. Print.
Sifferlin, Alexandra. (9 Dec. 2013). "Sandy Hook Families Seek Privacy On Anniversary
e. As waitresses.)
II. Social Action
Max eber developed the concept of social action as a means of describing those actions that take into account actions and reactions of other people, then modifying that action based on those occurrences. Sociologists employ social action as a conceptual model as a means of determining how certain behaviors are modified in specific environments. hen we evaluate the norms of social discourse and the customs that prevail in any given society, we see how social action works.
Importantly, social action takes into consideration reactions of others. hen the reaction of an individual or group is not wanted, then the action will be modified accordingly. Sociology is essentially the study of social action, as it takes into account the way society functions and the way human behavior is established in societal structures. According to social action theory, people change their actions according to what social…
Cohen, Roger. "Her Jewish State." The New York Times Magazine, July 8, 2007.
Mills, C.W. The Sociological Imagination. London: Oxford University Press, 1959.
Current Event Due 11:55p Sunday eek 5 the eek 5 Homework 2 Assignment meets objectives: Apply a sociological perspective social world. Analyze contemporary social issues sociological imagination sociological theories concepts analyze everyday life.
The Ukraine conflict has generated much controversy in recent months as a community of experts has gotten actively involved in discussing the topic and in attempting to provide solution to the crisis. Even with the fact that initial decisions were related to getting an international body to intervene and influence the two belligerent camps to put down their weapons, it gradually became clear that the situation would require more thought and that the people involved are reluctant to yield to their adversaries. Shaun alker and Howard Amos's article "Ukraine civil war fears mount as volunteer units take up arms" provides information with regard to the critical nature of the conflict.
By analyzing matters from a sociological perspective,…
Newman, E., & DeRouen, K. (2014). Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars. Routledge.
Walker, Shaun, & Amos, Howard. Ukraine civil war fears mount as volunteer units take up arms. Retrieved on May 16, 2014, from: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/15/ukraine-civil-war-fears-mount-volunteer-units-kiev-russia
Suicide and Society
Suicide: An Individual Phenomenon or a Societal Construct?
Statistics show that suicide rates in the U.S. are highly predictable. It is annually expected each year that over 30,000 suicides will occur, as compared to about 17,000 homicides. This stable and predictable estimate of suicide rate stems from a precise analysis of social factors describing four separate categories of suicidal influences: egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic. According to the functionalist theory described by Emile Durkheim, rates are social facts based on other established social facts, and thus have a sociological basis. As suicide rates are social facts, Durkheim set out to provide an empirical basis of social explanation regarding suicide, providing a far different account of trends than the previously perceived notion that suicide is based purely on individual or psychological reasons. Thus, the phenomenon of what actually motivates the occurrence of suicide can be examined from a…
Dunman LJ. "Suicide." The Emile Durkheim Archive. 2003. The Bettmann Archive. 18 Mar. 2004. http://durkheim.itgo.com/suicide.html
Henslin JM. Down to Earth Sociology, 12th Edition. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2003.
Knapp P. "The Functionalist Analysis of Deviance." Peter Knapp Homepage. 1994. Villanova
University. 18 Mar. 2004. www94.homepage.villanova.edu/peter.knapp/Intro1-24.ppt
Notably, as a reform-minded Catholic himself, he argues that the Virgin Mary is the first to reach the shore safely, with her baby in tow, and that the Pope is the first to die, following his riches into the sea. His goal of speaking to reform-minded Catholics is achieved through a witty dialog format. This colloquy establishes a metaphorical description of the reform in the Church. While it is difficult to follow for the lay person or the student of history without in-depth knowledge of the Church and the Reformation, it serves its function by bringing history to light in a dramatic and surprising new way.
Zola's Germinal, and the relevant passages which describe the workers' strike presents a grim and realistic view of the state of workers in relation to the owning classes during a coalminer strike in northern France in the mid-1800s. The description of the workers' living…
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…
Introducing Alexa Madison
Basic facts from her childhood
Basic facts from her adolescence
Basic facts from her young adult life
Issues related to race
Detailed analysis of race-related issues in Alexa's life
acial identity in a multicultural society: the factors that help create an individual's racial identity and membership in a specific social group based on race or ethnicity.
Implications for social status; in particular, the self-perception of African-Americans vs. The expectations placed on African-Americans
Link to external sources to present Alexa's life in the broader context of African-American culture, life, and history.
The 2008 film Crips and Bloods: Made in America is about gang warfare and violence in Los Angeles, but the underlying message is that problems impacting black communities in the 21st century have their roots in institutionalized racism.
(a) Alexa might not have had any interaction with gang members, but her experiences reflect…
Anderson, E. (1994). The code of the streets. The Atlantic. May 1994. Retrieved online: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1994/05/the-code-of-the-streets/306601/
Crips & Bloods: Made in America (2008) (excerpt, 41 min.)
Epstein, C.F. (2007). "The Global Subordination of Women." Pp. 283-302 in The Spirit of Sociology: A Reader, 3rd ed., edited by Ron Matson. Boston: Pearson.
Lareau, A. 2010 . "Invisible Inequality: Social Class and Childrearing in Black Families and White Families." Pp. 611-626 in Mapping the Social Landscape: Readings in Sociology, 6th ed., edited by Susan J. Ferguson. New York: McGraw Hill.
The term sociological imagination has numerous connotations. Still, when expressing what this phrase denotes, it is perhaps most cogent to consider the meaning of the individual words. From this perspective, this term is an application of one's imagination to questions, problems, or considerations that are fundamentally psychological in nature. The sociological imagination is what allows one to transcend one's own personal perspective when thinking about a person, event, or occurrence, and to consider the wider sociological ramifications of those things. Such a process innately requires imagination in order to visualize whatever the relevant circumstances are from another. Moreover, it requires doing from a viewpoint that is rooted in the sociological implications that are relevant to such a scenario. Perhaps a more succinct definition of the term is offered by Mills, who posited that one's sociological imagination is "the vivid awareness of the relationship between experience and the wider…
Mills, C. W. (1959). The Sociological Imagination. London: Oxford University Press.
Naiman, J. (2012). How societies work: class, power and change. Winnipeg: Fernwood Publishing.
Social World and the Communication Process
Sociological imagination is the essence of sociology. This is imagining that every life of an individual is given form, meaning and significance within the historically specific cultures as well as the ways of organizing social life. Those individuals with a sociological imagination are similar to good sociologists. Social imagination is a standard against which one can judge sociology. Social imagination is therefore a sociological vision a mode of looking at the world, which sees links between the problems of an individual that seem private and important social issues. It is the ability to see things socially and how they interact and bring an influence on one another. This is a concept of being able to think ourselves away from usual routines of one's day-to-day life to view them in a new way. For one to have sociological imagination they have to pull away from…
Crossman, A., (2010).The sociological imagination. Retrieved July 10, 2014 from http://sociology.about.com/od/Works/a/Sociological-Imagination.htm
The essence of Zapatista philosophy and action is the discovery of a new order of revolution. In the wake of failures of other socialist movements from Lenin to in Russia to the Sandinistas in Nicaragua, the small group of Mayan farmers in southwestern Mexico contend not only with reconstructing revolutionary tactics but also with the massive opposition from dominant governments, including those in Mexico and the United States. Governments that continually uphold the principles of capitalism will find in the Zapatistas an idealistic, hopeless cause of swimming against the tide of globalization. Even before the ratification of the North American Free trade Agreement (NAFTA), Mexicans struggled with political and economic oppression. The indigenous peoples of Mexico, like the Mayan nations of Chiapas, fared worst. Lowest on the scale of economical, social, and political power, these individuals hearkened to the voice of their martyred namesake Zapata, who was murdered on…
De Angelis, Massimo. "Globalization, New Internationalism and the Zapatistas." Capital and Class 70 (2000): 9-35.
Mills, C. Wright. "The Sociological Imagination." The Sociological Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959.
Harvey, Neil. "Globalisation and resistance in post-cold war Mexico: difference, citizenship and biodiversity conflicts in Chiapas." Third World Quarterly 22 (2001): 1045-1061.
Contemporary life presents a set of paradoxes that can be resolved through what C.W. Mills calls the sociological imagination. Mills makes a distinction between the inner world and the outer, highlighting the conflicts that can arise between the two. According to Mills, the predominance of the private world sometimes creates a sense of alienation from the public world. To develop a sociological imagination is to reconnect the private with the public. Placing a person in one's historical, cultural, and social context means developing a greater understanding of both psychology at the individual level and sociology at the collective.
The presence of an online universe characterizes the points of distinction, conflict, and convergence between the public and the private. On the one hand, the Internet can create a universe that is self-obsessed, narrow, and narcissistic. As Mills puts it, "private lives are a series of traps" when the person…
Mills, C. Wright. "The Promise." Chapter 1 in The Sociological Imagination.
My morning ritual begins at 7:30 A.M. when I wake up, wash my face, apply fresh make-up, fix my hair, put my clothes on and let the dogs out. This is a weekday ritual that I have performed everyday, except Saturday and Sunday, for seventeen years. I know that it takes me exactly twenty minutes to get myself ready for work.
At 7:50 A.M., I woke up my 4-year-old grandson and dressed him for Daycare, then I gave him his vitamins and fed him his breakfast, which consisted of an apple and apple juice. hen he has finished eating, he goes to the restroom.
At 8:20 A.M., I let the dogs back into the house and two minutes later my grandson and I walked outside, picked up the newspaper, and headed for Daycare. e arrived at 8:30 A.M. And after goodbyes, I leave the Daycare and stopped at the…
"Excerpt from C. Wright Mills, 'The Sociological Imagination.'"
Takings a playful attitude towards words used to define groups in the profession, creating new classification systems -- all of these can help one's research imagination (Mills10). Consider extremes of human behavior -- think outside the box of existing studies.
Finally, there is value in writing to the layperson, not just the expert. There is great value in communicating important findings to the public and writing lucidly and cleanly can also be useful for the academic writer, to help him or her think better as well as write better (Mills 16). Much of the advice Mills gives would be valuable to an artist as well as to a scholar, and perhaps that is partly his point -- a scholar of sociology is a creative artist when making observations, studying the work of other 'scholar-artists,' creating plans and research constructions, and honing his or her ability to come to a greater…
Mills, C.W. "On Intellectual Craftsmanship." June 8, 2009.
Macro Theory of Sociology
Regarding The Classical tradition and Social Imagination: Overall, what kinds of messages do we inherit from the "classical tradition"? How does the "sociological imagination" inspire and direct our activities as students and practitioners of the social sciences? How might an understanding of the key ideas of long-dead theorists inform how you live your personal life today? How might a reading of the classics benefit your everyday work life?
The Classical tradition of sociology stresses the importance of rational understanding of one's social and economic purpose in life. In other words, to be a fully functioning human entity in an ethical and moral context, one must be philosophically aware of the way one's social context has evolved, historically, and think critically to create an ethical system of morality. Even though the current postmodern conception of the sociological imagination may not be commensurate with, for instance, all of…
He is not longer alienated from the sector of society that she represents. Their relationship bridges the gap and provides the fuel to take the country into a new direction.
However, things are not all rosy for the couple. They have to overcome the prejudices that each group, Mexican and African-American, has for each other as well as battling prejudice and stereotypes from whites.
To recap, the author has considered the novel America by John Debrizzi. hat makes this a bit more difficult to digest the novel's contents is that Debrizzi is a sociologist. To properly understand the novel, one must understand the social theory behind it. Therefore, the author first considered the theoretical implications, specifically Debrizzi's working out of Mills dichotomy between individual and society. In this, they considered how the Marxist dialectic and the alienation from the means of production apply. Finally, they considered the novel, particularly the…
Debrizzi, John . America. Withita Falls, KS: Outskirts Press, 2009.
Mills, C. Wright. The Sociological Imagination. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1959.
Velasquez, Manuel. Philosophy. 8th. Stamford, CT: Wadsworth, 2001.
homelessness an issue that involves the general public of the United States instead of the (relatively) few victims who suffer from this condition. Nearly all of these factors have to do with the notion of the sociological imagination, a concept that was innovated by Charles right Mills and which essentially enables people to look beyond their a particular person's fault to understand how the larger society may have contributed to that person's circumstances (Carl, p.6). From the angle of sociological imagination, then, homelessness is a public issue and not a private one for all of the homeless people because there are several systematic factors that are responsible for people being too poor and for housing being not affordable or not in great enough demand to account for the number of people who need it.
One of the major structural issues that is responsible for these factors and for homelessness is…
Carl, John. Think Sociology 2011. Pearson: New Jersey. 2011. Print.
Using your sociological imagination, consider structural, social barriers that may account for racial or ethnic discrimination in the workplace.
Institutionalized racism often goes unnoticed, especially by members of the dominant culture. However, there are serious structural and social barriers that may account for racial and ethnic discrimination in the workplace. As Dumaine, Overfelt, Spruell, Tanz & Whitford (2003) point out, there are still significant barriers to achieving great strides in business for non-whites, even male non-whites. obert Johnson notes, "It's hard for African-Americans to borrow money from banks or raise money from venture capitalists," (cited by Dumaine, et al., 2003). Lack of access to financial capital is of course a preliminary structural barrier to achieving success in the workplace. The underlying social barrier is exclusion; blacks are not part of the "good old boy" club, which continues to characterize social structures in the workplace (Johnson, cited by Dumaine, et…
Collins, S.M. (2005). Blacks on the bubble. The Sociological Quarterly 34(3): 429-447.
Dumaine, B., Overfelt, M., Spruell, S., Tanz, J. & Whitford, D. (2003). Does race still matter? CNN Money/Fortune. Retrieved online: http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fsb/fsb_archive/2003/12/01/359903/index.htm
Fisher, A. (2005). Is racial bias holding you back? CNN Money/Fortune. Retrieved online: http://money.cnn.com/2005/08/10/news/economy/annie/fortune_annie081005/index.htm
Tahmincioglu, E. (2007). Pregnancy discrimination is on the rise. MSNBC.com. Retrieved online: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18742634/#.T2onV3h9nww
Michael Powell describes the combination of factors that contribute to the harsh and drastic shift in the economic realities of the wealthy, black communities in Memphis, TN. This article was published by the New York Times just over two years ago, certainly during severe economic times during the United States, which have not subsided in the present, a few years later. The article provides a brief and modern history of the growth the black middle class in Memphis and some surrounding towns.
For a time, many black people were employed very well, owned attractive property, and lived comfortable middle class, American lifestyles. As of 2010, there were drastic events occurring with great frequency that changed the lives of many blacks for the worse. The article describes the rise and the descent of the middle class black community in Tennessee during the early 21st century. Additionally, the article provides evidence of…
Farley, Reynolds, & Frey, William H. "Changes in the Segregation of Whites from Blacks During the 1980s: Small Steps Toward a More Integrated Society." American Sociological Association, Vol. 59, No. 1, 23 -- 45.
Powell, Michael. "Blacks in Memphis Lose Decades of Economic Gains." The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/31/business/economy/31memphis.html?pagewanted=all . 2012 July 20.
Freaks, Geeks and Cool Kids, Milner provides a number of provocative statements that are worth contemplating and reacting to. Write a reaction essay to these two arguments. Illustrate knowledge of the Sociological Imagination by reflecting on the connection between the larger macro structure and youth behavior. Use arguments from the readings.
"My argument is that the structure of American secondary education - keeping teenagers in their own isolated world with little economic and political power of few non-school responsibilities - results in the status preoccupation of teenagers. The status concerns, in turn, play a significant contributing role in the development and maintenance of consumer capitalism." (pg. 156)
After reading this, I can't help but to ask the question, when wasn't status a preoccupation of teenagers and adults? I think as long as humans have been around "status" was an integral factor in determining the de facto hierarchy of society. Of…
Social norms are occasionally explicit or even codified into law: we are not supposed to walk around naked; talk to ourselves; or show up an hour late to a meeting. When we break any one of the explicit social norms we pay, either by being criticized, ostracized, or penalized. Breaking a subtle social norm by standing around doing nothing is more difficult to target. No one can point a finger and say, "You shouldn't be doing that," even though some people might think I look funny.
The concept of the sociological imagination as well as Cooley's "looking glass self" illustrate how identity and self-image are sociological constructs. When standing around doing nothing, I felt like an outsider because I was not participating in the normative behavior of the crowd around me. Being alone is in itself not a problem but without at least appearing to have a purpose in standing…
George Herbert Mead is widely recognized as one of the most influential figures of American sociology. His pioneering work in social psychology helped to establish the reputation the Chicago School of Sociology. His teachings also laid the groundwork for the philosophy of pragmatism in the United States.
This paper focuses on Mead's sociological theory, particularly his contributions to social psychology. The first part of the paper summarizes the key points of Mead's social theory, including an evaluation of his work. The next part then examines how Mead's work can be expanded into other areas of sociological inquiry and sees whether his theories continue to have relevance today.
Mead's Sociological Theory
In his book Mind, Self and Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist, Mead criticizes the then prevailing psychological theories that sought to explain the emergence of consciousness based solely on an individual standpoint. For Mead, a person's consciousness…
Coser, Lewis. Masters of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context. New York: International Thomson Publishing, 1977.
Mead, George Herbert. Mind, Self and Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.
Mills, Charles Wright. The Sociological Imagination. New York: Grove Press, 1961.
Rosenthal, Sandra. Mead and Merlu-Ponty: Towards a Common Vision. Albany: SUNY Press, 1991.
ape in Conflict
There are various situations in life that results in rape in conflict;
The feminist perspective on the various forms of violence perpetrated against women does suggest strongly that such acts are a reinforcement of patriarchy. This is portrayed in the unequal bargaining power that exists in the various sexual encounters in the societies that are increasingly patriarchal. The fact that the traditional male privilege has continuously faded away through time has resulted in the increasing use of violence in order to ensure that women are put women "in their place" as indicated by Sheffield (1987).The resulting fear of violence has therefore made women to modify their way of living since they are depraved of certain fundamental freedoms.
Slavery has been note to be a key factor in the occurrence of rape cases. The African-American women were exposed to institutionalized rape while the African-American men…
Brownmiller, S. (1975). Against our will: Men, women and rape. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Davis, a., (1981), "Rape, Racism, and the Myth of the Black Rapist," in Women, Race, and Class, New York: Vintage Books
Fattah, E.A. (1994). Some problematic concepts, unjustified criticism and popular misconceptions. In G.F. Kirchhoff, E. Kosovski, & H.J. Schneider (Eds.), International debates of victimology (pp. 82-103). Moenchengladbach, Germany: World Society of Victimology.
Funk, RE (1993)Stopping Rape: A Challenge for Men (Philadelphia: New Society, 1993), p19.
Comprehending September 11 attacks through the eyes of Emile Durkheim
This research paper discusses a current event through the eyes of a social theorist. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.
Societies form individuals and social orders of different kinds produce different individuals. Hence our research paper will revolve around the following thesis statement:
An individual is the product of his/her own society therefore those who take extreme measures to become what they grow to expect themselves to be and those who strive hard to cooperate with certain groups even at the cost of their own lives, do so as a result of the social external forces that are at work. Both social as well as political elements, primarily cultural components play a pivotal role in forming various groups including the main example of terrorist groups and suicide commandos including those that made the orlds' skyscrapers disintegrate into…
Social Problems. Retrieved April 7, 2003 at http://www.soc.duke.edu/courses/soc11/11syls02.htm
Arthur & Kroker. Terrorism of Viral Power. CTHEORY THEORY, TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE VOL 24, NO 3.
Achenbach J. THE CLASH; Two professors, two academic theories, one big difference. depending on which is right, September 11 may mark a brief battle against terrorism, or an endless struggle between Islam and the., The Washington Post, 12-16-2001, pp W17.
Goska D. Islam & Terror. Retrieved April 7, 2003 from: http://answering-islam.org/Terrorism/islam_terror.html
Race, class, gender, ethnicity, and religion are all variables that impact a person’s identity, worldview, communication style, and behaviors. Applying the sociological imagination to the workplace environment enables a greater understanding of how these factors impact daily interactions and events, with the goals of promoting harmony and resolving conflict. Being aware of race, gender, and religion has helped me function better in teams. The times that I neglected to recognize race, religion, and gender taught me valuable lessons and helped me to become more emotionally and socially intelligent. Race, gender, and religion are all socially constructed variables rather than being absolute categories; therefore it is always important to remember the fluidity of these constructs and to relate to each person individually as opposed to making sweeping generalizations based on stereotypes and assumptions.
Moreover, categories and definitions of race, gender, and religion are not monolithic. What it means to be white,…
Criscenzi and Gagliardi (2012) study on business innovation helped to fuse new ideas about how new ideas can help with striking a competitive advantage within the economic sectors. These researchers asked: Does the mobility of knowledgeable, highly skilled workers have an impact on local economies? To find out they used the Secure Data Service which is now part of the UK Data Service to find out more information on this subject.
The hypothesis is stated "that knowledgeable individuals (such as inventors) with the flexibility to change geographical location, would positively impact the innovative behaviour of firms in the areas they moved to." To track this info they used the UK Innovation Survey dataset to get some answers. They took data from the years 2004 and 2007 and used a firm's performance and compared that variable to the inflow of inventors in to local labor markets. They discovered that only those…
UK Data Service. "Popular social Identities in England 1950-2000." Viewed 11 Sep 2013. Retrieved from http://ukdataservice.ac.uk/use-data/data-in-use/case-study/?id=42
UK Data Service. "Business innovation and the moving workforce." Viewed 11 Sep 2013. Retrieved fromhttp://ukdataservice.ac.uk/use-data/data-in-use/case-study/?id=109
However, Johnson (n.d.) offers an optimistic view showing how patriarchy may be dismantled even in systems in which it appears to be pervasive, such as the military. In "Unraveling the Gender Knot," Johnson (n.d.) points out that it is a myth that gender disparity is inevitable and immutable. In fact, social systems are malleable and changeable. Change begins with "awareness and training about issues of privilege," according to Johnson (n.d., p. 240). Awareness stems from the willingness of all members of the military to recognize their role in the perpetuation of hegemony. African-American males find themselves in a peculiar position knowing that hegemony is a destructive force for the subjugated, but unwilling to surrender the privileges and powers of being at the upper rungs of the social ladder. As Hinojosa (2010) notes, there are distinct and tangible benefits to men in the military.
Power and identity are both socially…
Acker, J. (1992). From sex roles to gendered institutions. Contemporary Sociology 21(5). (Sep., 1992), pp. 565-569.
Fields, J. (2001). Normal queers. Symbolic Interaction 24(2): 165-187.
Hinojosa, R. (2010). Doing hegemony. The Journal of Men's Studies 18(2): 179-194.
Johnson (n.d.). Unraveling the gender knot.
Narco- terrorism can be seen from a number of perspectives. The term is commonly applied to the use of terrorist techniques by drug traffickers and dealers to distract attention from and facilitate drug abuse. An accepted definition in this regard is as follows:
DOD) Terrorism conducted to further the aims of drug traffickers. It may include assassinations, extortion, hijackings, bombings, and kidnappings directed against judges, prosecutors, elected officials, or law enforcement agents, and general disruption of a legitimate government to divert attention from drug operations. (Narco-Terrorism: definition)
From a broader sociological perspective Narco-terrorism can also be seen in terms of its emphasis on the aspect of terrorism per se. From this broader and more inclusive perspective a number assessments of the meaning of the term may be made. Firstly, in this wider context narcotics can be used as another weapon in the terrorist's arsenal to influence and detrimentally affect…
A" Level Sociology Deviance and Social Control. October 27, 2004. http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:_H3h_VLu1H4J:www.sociology.org.uk/devs1.doc+Durkheim%27s+anomie+theory+of+suicide+and+Japan&hl=en
Flynn, Stephen. "Worldwide Drug Scourge: The Response." Brookings Review Spring 1993: 36+. Questia. 2 Nov. 2004 http://www.questia.com/ .
Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.
Laqueur, Walter. The New Terrorism Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
In its current form in the U.S., prostitution is associated with high rates of criminality, but that is likely a function of its illegal status more than of anything inherent in prostitution. Prostitution is also associated with high risks of STDs, but a closer examination of the specific factors to which that is attributable strongly suggest that legalizing prostitution can effectively eliminate that negative element. Ultimately, prevailing negative attitudes about legalized prostitution are much more reflective of the persistence of irrational social stigmas and antiquated definitions of social deviance that originated in the Victorian Age, if not even much earlier.
Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting ealistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:…
Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting Realistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Little Brown & Co.
Kaul, R., Kimani, J., Nagelkerk, N.J. (1997).Risk Factors for Genital Ulcerations in Kenyan Sex Workers Sexually Transmissible Diseases [Vol. 4: 24(7):387-392].
In this context the argument is made from a moral and religious point-of-view that the unborn child is alive and that abortion is tantamount to murder. As Bohan (1999) states in the House of Atreus: Abortion as a Human ights Issue, "No society that truly believes in human rights can fail to recognize the right to life of the unborn. Human rights are, by definition, rights, which inhere in one simply by virtue of being a human "(Bohan, 1999, p. 64).
From the religious perspective the main argument against abortion revolves around the view of the religious and spiritual value of human life. In Christianity this refers to the Commandant, "Thou shall not Kill." The sanctity of life applies as well to the unborn child and in many religions life begins at the moment of conception. Form this normative perspective the murder of a human being is seen to be…
Abortion is every woman's right. Retrieved March 16, 2009 at http://www.socialistworker.org/2004-1/496/496_06_Abortion.shtml
Abortion Laws Worldwide. Retrieved March 16, 2009 at http://www.womenonwaves.org/set-1020.245-en.html
Baer, J.A. (Ed.). (2002). Historical and Multicultural Encyclopedia of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bohan, J.F. (1999). The House of Atreus: Abortion as a Human Rights Issue. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Nursing Case Study
Jane lives a very difficult life when it comes to the everyday implications that she has to deal with. Taking care of one child at a young age is difficult enough; taking care of six by the age of 26, seems to be nearly impossible. It is not surprising to hear that having six children that range from eight months old to nine years old, can become something that not only takes a toll on the soul, but also takes a toll on the physique and health. No matter how someone may seem to someone else, as is the case with Jane and her husband, if Jane does not feel comfortable with herself, and she does not see herself as being productive in society, or even in her own life, it can turn into a downfall situation in something that needs to be resolved at its source.…
Rowen, L. (2009) Overview and summary: Obesity on the rise: What can nurses do?. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 14(1).
Jordan-Welch, M., & Harbaugh, B.L. (2008). End the epidemic of childhood obesity...One family at a time. American Nurse Today. 3(6).
Camden, S. (2009) Obesity: An emerging concern for patients and nurses. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 14(1).
Brown, I., Stride, C., Psarou, A., & Thompson, J. (2007). Management of obesity in primary care: nurses' practices, beliefs and attitudes. JAN Original Research: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sociology, one of the biggest areas that are receiving continuous amounts of focus is the inequalities that exist. Recently, disparities in income levels have become much larger. This is because the top 1% (who controls the majority of the wealth) is earning more at the expense of the other 99%. These are individuals that have to work every day (often controlling little to no amounts of personal assets). Throughout history, this conflict has often been the focus of different labor disputes and social revolutions. (inship)
However, globalization is having a dramatic impact with these divisions becoming even larger. In the article that was written by iniship (2012), he is talking about how these disparities are evolving. Evidence of this can be seen with statistics that were uncovered from the Congressional Budget Office. They found that the income levels of the ultra-wealthy increased from 8% in 1979 to 18% in 2007.…
"The ABCs of the Global Economy." Dollars and Sense, 2011. Web. 18 May 2012
Baurerline, Monkia. "All Work and No Pay. Mother Jones, 2006. Web. 18 May 2012.
Davis, Kingsley. "Principles of Stratification." American Sociololgocial Review 10.2 (1945), 242 -- 249. Print.
Mills, Wright. "The Sociologocial Imagination." Social Sciences, 1959. Web. 18 May 2012
This raises the question if the false ideal of the caveman is white, not black, as when non-white males embody the example of the caveman, they are condemned. McCaughey brings this to light, but her book focuses on gender in contemporary society more than race, even after her intriguing discussion of 19th century racial junk science in the form of Social Darwinism.
Perhaps the discourse of race and gender are not parallel examples of the misuse of science but are intertwined. The caveman myth is intent upon defending white male aggression, as white males are in power, but equally apt to be turned against non-whites. Male aggression becomes a weapon against the disenfranchised, even while it bolsters the right to aggression of the presumably white caveman. hen non-white males are viewed as 'essentially' primitive, this is seen, rightfully so, as prejudice and a way of undercutting their abilities, for white…
McCaughey, Martha. (2008). The caveman mystique: Pop- Darwinism and the debates over sex, violence, and science. New York and London: Routledge.
Definition of Concept/Theory: The American Dream is one of the most pervasive elements of American consciousness and identity. It is the cornerstone of the myth of meritocracy in America, as the American Dream suggests that anyone can achieve upward social mobility simply by working hard. The American Dream is one of the chief motivating factors for foreign immigrants, who flee war-torn, poor, or otherwise problematic places abroad to seek asylum and opportunity. Although the American Dream has come true for many Americans, including immigrants, the achievement of upward social mobility and integration with the dominant culture in America remains elusive. The American Dream is more a myth than a dream.
Example 1: Drash, W., Basu, M. & Watkins, T. (2013). Boston suspects: Immigrant dream to American nightmare. CNN. 20 April, 2013. etrieved online: http://www.cnn.com/2013/04/19/us/Massachusetts-bombers-profiles/index.html?iid=article_sidebar
This article is about the suspects in the Boston marathon terrorist attacks. The article focuses…
Drash, W., Basu, M. & Watkins, T. (2013). Boston suspects: Immigrant dream to American nightmare. CNN. 20 April, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.cnn.com/2013/04/19/us/Massachusetts-bombers-profiles/index.html?iid=article_sidebar
Silver, R. (n.d.). Interviews and stories (personal).
Sociology of Youth
The Structural Arrangements
The class view using the Social-Psychological perspective precipitates a point-of-view in the context of society as the dictator to the actor, the environment perpetuating the role that young individuals play in contemporary society. The social interaction is engaged through the environmental variables that lead to the psychological parameters to which the youth operate within. This approach is ostensibly akin to Ethnomethodology that views humans as a rule ridden species predicated on acting within a given societal or moral framework.
The identity formation of bonded child laborers in India is an example of youth that have no control over their environment and to where their environment or social paradigm shapes their individual thought process. These youth become a function of their environment. Essentially, a product of their environment that is based on exploitation and abuse of the children of the society. The structural arrangements for…
Erikson, Erick H. "Adolescence and the life cycle stage. Identity, youth & crisis,(pp. 128-135). New York W.W. Norton & Co. 1968.
Hostetler, J. "A sectarian society. Amish society (pp. 6-17). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. 1980.
Kovasevic, Natasa. "Child Slavery." Harvard International Review 29.2 (2007): 36,36-39. ABI/INFORM Global.Web. 16 June 2011.
Milner Murray. "Freaks, Geeks and Cool Kids, American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption." (2004) Routledge
Imperialism is destructive to all but a select few persons in positions of financial and political power.
Also, because female migration is often not coerced but undertaken by some degree of choice, the type of imperialism arising from the female labor force is subtle and generally overlooked by sociologists, economists, and policy makers. As a result, humanitarian issues can easily fall by the wayside. For example, the women who leave their countries of origin sometimes leave behind family members and in some cases, husbands and children. The flow of labor from developing to developed nations depletes the sending nations' labor force and further impoverishes them, increasing their dependency on economic powerhouses like the United States. As economies in the third world collapse, workers, farmers, and families suffer from a lack of affordable health care, education and other social services. A potential side-effect in sending countries may be higher rates of…
Daorueng, P. & Yamin, K. (1998). Third World Resurgence 94. Retrieved 30 September 2005 at http://www.twnside.org.sg/title/last-cn.htm
Ehrenreich, B. & Hochschild, A.R. (2002). Global Woman. New York: Metropolitan.
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")
A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre
In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…
Barbiani, E. (2005). Kalighat, the home of goddess Kali: The place where Calcutta is imagined twice: A visual investigation into the dark metropolis. Sociological Research Online, 10 (1). Retrieved from http://www.socresonline.org.uk/10/1/barbiani.html
Barbiani, E. (2002). Kali e Calcutta: immagini della dea, immagini della metropoli. Urbino: University of Urbino.
Cameron, J. (1987). An Indian summer. New York, NY: Penguin Travel Library.
Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York, NY: Routledge & K. Paul.
Alfred Schutz refers to our "paramount reality" as the commonplace, ordinary, familiar and general taken-for-granted world in which we live (Shutz 2010, pp.21-22). The question then remains as to whether or not one can escape this world in the context of contemporary tourism.
Shearing and Stenning's article, "From the Panopticon to Disney World: The Development of Discipline" note that upon arriving in Disney World, a tourist has an altered state of reality that is completely shaped by the creators of the theme park. They note that from the moment on "arrives in the parking lot," they are told by the park staff exactly what to do and expect in the context of how these friendly employees are taught to act around park patrons. Handling the crowds in such an orderly fashion is a task that is enormous but handled with odd structure within the context of the park. Visitors are…
Cohen, S. And Taylor, L. 2002, Escape attempts: the theory and practice of resistance in everyday life, Routledge, New York, NY.
Sawyer, R. 2001, "Emergence in sociology: contemporary philosophy of mind and some implications for sociological theory," in American Journal of Sociology, 107(3): pp. 38-55, Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Shearing, C. And Stennng, P., 1997, "From the panopticon to Disney World: the development of discipline," in Perspectives in Criminal Law: Essays in Honour of John LL.J. Edwards, Harrow and Heston Publishers, Albany, NY.
Shutz, A. 2010, Sociological aspect of literature: construction and complementary essays, contributions to phenomenology, Kluwer Academic Publishers Netherlands, Retrieved from: EBSCOHost Database.
First, evil in Sleepy Hollow is more equating with a satirical view that, in this case, evil is a more benign humor, bumbling, caustic in disrupting the town, and, as it was in Ancient Greek and oman drama, simply more of an irritant than planned destruction. Focusing again on the time period, our first introduction to this theme is one of Dutch New York against Urban New England. The Dutch community is sylvan, nostalgically conceived, changeless, and an Eden for its inhabitants. Ichabod arrives as a Yankee whose spoiling of this Eden simply cannot be tolerated -- and even more, by marrying the daughter of a wealthy and high-ranking community member, becoming part of Eden himself. This simply could not happen to a community that is so "European in nature."
Sleepy Hollow, as a town is clearly Dutch, with Dutch values, culture, and mores, or for riving, "population, manners, and…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Albert, H. (2009). Life and Letters of Edgar Allen Poe, Volume 2. Biblio-Bazaar.
Burstein, A. (2007). The Original Knickerbocker: The Life of Washington Irving.
New York: Basic Books.
Irving. W. (1820). The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Forgotten Books. Cited in:
Charles Horton Cooley is a great sociologist who has contributed significantly to the field of sociology. He was born in Michigan State where he studied and work. He was a professor in the University of Michigan and lived near the university with his wife and three children. Looking glass self was one of his greatest works. The paper evaluates some of the sociologist major papers in the field of sociology and economics. The contributions to the conflicts theory and functionalism theory will also be evaluated in the paper. Charles Horton Cooley died in 1929 in the same state he was born of cancer.
Charles Horton Cooley born in 1864 was the forth born in a family of six siblings. His mother was Mary Elizabeth and his father was Thomas Cooley. The family lived in Ann Arbor in Michigan State. He attended the University of Michigan in 1887 where after graduating…
Ju, Biung-ghi. 2010. "Individual Powers and Social Consent: An Axiomatic Approach." Social Choice and Welfare 34(4):571-596
Landon, Charles E. 1960. "Technological Progress in Transportation on the Mississippi River System." The Journal of Business (Pre-1986) 33(1):43-43
Westley, Bruce. 1976. "Setting the Political Agenda what Makes it Change?" Journal of Communication (Pre-1986) 26(2):43
In this scenario, organizations are not viewed as isolated entities, but instead are a part of the entire system of information and action in the world. This definition makes the most sense because most real-life examples of organizations fit this model. For instance, political organizations from the United States major political parties, like the Republicans and Democrats, special interest groups, like Green Peace, and terrorist organizations are often concerned with their own interests, but are still a part of the swirl of information that ripples around them. Political organizations make appeals to individuals and other organizations; special interest groups rely on the tests of universities and independent researchers, along with other special interest groups; and terrorist organizations are often involved with religious organizations. It is only a conglomeration of organizations that allows any one organization to achieve any accomplishment.
Furthermore, both the rational system definition and the natural system definition…
(362) One additional note on this half of the duel research study was that the pair of applicants with and without fictitious criminal records was rotated throughout the experiment to reduce the odds that a single applicant would alter results if assigned the rigid role of ex-con or clean record applicant.
In the second half of the research study the same set of potential employers was surveyed using a vignette method. The vignette described the scenario of applicants who matched the (tester) applicants. The employers who were screened by asking for the person in charge of hiring at the place of business were then asked to respond to the scenario by answering questions regarding if they would or would not hire or consider hiring the applicant in the vignette. Data was collected utilizing the responses to the survey questions, which avoided direct racial comparisons but simply stated the race of…
Pager, Devah and Lincoln Quillian.. "Walking the Talk? What Employers Say vs. What They Do." American Sociological Review 70: 2005, 355-380.
Gray, Paul S., John B. Williamson, David a. Karp, and John R. Dalphin the Research Imagination: An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
One interesting way of looking at cultural, historical, and sociological trends is to extrapolate the individual into society and vice versa. Trends that occur within the individual -- birth, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, illness, old age, dementia, and death -- also occur within society, albeit at a different pace and severity. The pathology of an empire, for example, the oman Empire, can be compared to more modern interpretations of the stages and psychopathology of the individual, and not only trends examined and compared, but a clear relationship between the way ome declined from within, eventually to merge into something quite different, and ways of looking at individual self-destructive behaviors.
Emile Durkeim (1858-1917) was a French sociologist who many consider to be one of the founders of sociology and anthropology. He was instrumental in establishing sociology as a true, scientific discipline, and also studied education, crime, religion, suicide, and the manner…
Alexander, Jeffrey and P. Smith, (2005), The Cambridge Companion to Durkeim,
Durkheim, E. And Fields, H. (1995). The Elementary Forms of Religious Life.
New York: The Free Press.
Durkheim, Emile and A. Giddens. (1972). Emile Durkheim: Selected Writings.
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…
Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.
Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
For small amounts of viewing, achievement increased with viewing, but as viewing increased beyond a certain point, achievement decreased. That function was found for each of the 3 ages studied, but optimal viewing time -- the apex of the function - was different at each age and decreased with the age of the students. (Razel, 2001)
Research Showing Positive Effects on Children
On the other hand, there is some research that disagrees that television has a profound negative effect on a child's behavior, health and cognitive ability. This research does not support the hypothesis that television is bad for children. There is observation
Television and Children 7 research that shows that television can be a positive influence in a child's learning process. The television can inform, entertain, and educate children in many ways.
Even though there is an abundance of children's shows that promote violence and other generally un-educational topics,…
1. Comstock, George A., Eli A. Rubinstien, and John P. Murray. Television and Social Behavior: Television's Effects: Further Explorations. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health, 1972.
2. Winn, Marie. The Plug-In Drug. New York, NY: Viking Penguin Press, 1985.
3. Children and the News Retreived July 26, 2006 at http://aacap.org/page.ww?name=Children+and+The+News§ion=Facts+for+Families
4. Razel, M. (2001). The complex model of television viewing and educational achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 94, 371-379.
I am unhappy, why not kill myself?' An anomic suicide might say, 'the old gods have been shown to be false, so their prohibitions against suicide are also false, why not kill myself since I am unhappy?' ("Individual and society," Sociology at Hewett, excerpted from Coser, 1977:132-136).
These are the most common types of suicide, although Durkheim also gave some other examples of the social causes of suicide, such as altruistic suicide, which is the opposite of anomic suicide -- altruistic suicide is caused by too much social regulation, including as individuals who commit suicide to avoid dishonoring their family, or in extreme cases, because social conventions compel them to commit suicide like the Hindu practice of the ritual suicide of widows or Japanese harikiri, where samurai warriors kill themselves if their lord is dishonored ("Individual and society," Sociology at Hewett, excerpted from Coser, 1977:132-136).
Individual and society."…
Individual and society." Sociology at Hewett. Excerpted from Coser, 1977:132-136. Retrieved 8 Oct 2007 at http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/CURRIC/soc/durkheim/durkw2.htm
" It is thus unclear how Cohen exactly deems when these silences or transformations occur.
This ambiguous approach to identifying when transformation begins does not negate Cohen's argument regarding the fragmentation in the black community. After all, in her content analysis of media reports, Cohen has shown ample proof of the "silence" regarding the AIDS crisis. However, a discussion of when transformations in leaderships occur will be helpful if future scholars want to replicate Cohen's research in other minority groups.
Another issue that could be raised regarding Cohen's book concerns her argument regarding the transformation of the African-American political agenda in general. Cohen obviously takes a "trickle up" approach to political action. She argues that the political agenda of marginalized groups in general can be reshaped by pressure from below. Based on this framework, gay and lesbian African-Americans had power to shape the thinking of the black community regarding AIDS.…
In both cases, He "is an impersonal force; an indefinable, all-pervading deity. Hinduism recognizes hundreds, even thousands, of lesser gods." (Evangelical.us) the same is true in uddhism, "God is an abstract. In essence, uddhism is an atheistic philosophy." (Evangelical.us) in both Hinduism and uddhism, there are stories of how the divine interacts with humans, but there is no historical proof. Only Christianity has historical proof. Since I am not Asian, I naturally want historical evidence, and I naturally want to follow a religion with a real God who cares about me as a person. Hinduists and uddhists have no sense of self-worth in the scope of the universe. "Humans, as with all living things, are just manifestations of rahman. We have no individual self, or self-worth. The world and everything on it are manifestations of rahman. Sin is committed against oneself, not against God." (Contender Ministries) This idea is opposite…
Christian Response to Hinduism." Apologetics. Contender Ministries. http://www.contenderministries.org/hinduism/christianresponse.php
Comparitive Religions & Christianity." Bibleone.net. 2004. http://www.bibleone.net/print_SF3.html brief comparison of Mohammed to the founders and leading figures of other major religions."
Support the Fight to Acheive Freedom, Secularism, Human Rights and Democracy in Iran. http://www.pcpages.com/ani/pages/isl/moh-comp.htm
How do we know Christianity is the one true way? http://www.evangelical.us/is-christianity-true.html
Her cancer and disfigurement distinguish the subject as being in a specific cultural group due for counseling, with many of the strategies used to engage her centering the culture of sickness and its attendant modes of recovery, rehabilitation and return to normalcy. Current logic supports group-based treatment imperatives for those who may be characterized accordingly. For the subject through, as with most any counseling subject, a number of specific cultural and personal features have made this sickness and its consequences a unique experience. e can also see that her perspective and needs have been formed by dimensions such as the subject's unstable economic upbringing; the sense of difference from wealthy suburban children; and an internal portrayal within the family suggesting a retention of the identity of foreigners in a strange land.
The interplay of these multiple dimensions is discussed in the article by Croteau et al. The article quotes several…
Croteau, J.M.; Talbot, D.M.; Lance, T.S. & Evans, N.J. (2002). A Qualitative Study of the Interplay Between Privilege and Oppression. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 30.
Grealy, L. (2003). Autobiography of a Face. Harper Collins Publishers.
Hwang, W (2006). Acculturative Family Distancing: Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43(4), 397-409.
Leary, K. (1995). 'Interpreting in the Dark': Race and Ethnicity in Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 12(1).
(Needs to be specified by the writer)
When referring to the mechanisms of life and society, one can assume that the most trustful key for understanding the given world with all its issues and particularities is the scientific Sociology, based on research which further leads to elaborated theories. With no intention of underestimating its importance, the current paper work focuses on an alternative method of providing a complete view over social facts: movies.
Along with literature, movies represent a projection of the real world in the fictional area. y presenting an issue from an artistic point-of-view, a good movie not only provides a good understanding of an issue for the large masses of citizens, but it is also a very efficient method for drawing attention to a particular problem that the society faces. A well done movie uses symbolism in order to highlight relevant points, together with an intense…
1. Kaye, Tony. American History X. Perf. Edward Norton. John Morrissey, 1998
2. Singleton, John. Boyz N. The Hood. Perf. Ice Cube, Cuba Gooding, Jr. Steven Nicolaides, 1991
3. Castles, Stephen; Davidson, Alastair. Citizenship and migration: globalization and the politics of belonging. New York: Routledge, 2000
4. Chavez Leo Ralph. The Latino threat: constructing immigrants, citizens, and the nation. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2008
e. managerial, social, political, economic benefits are linked to the study's results) the proposed helpful outcomes are realistic (i.e. dealing with questions that can actually be answered through the type of data gathering and analysis you're proposing. The suggested helpful outcomes do not go beyond the data that's to be collected).
The increase in teen smoking may be abating, or may be taking a pause before it continues the climb seen in the past 10 years, from 1996 to 2005. In either case, reducing smoking at an early age has a lifelong effect on individuals' health, and can lead to better quality of life for millions of people who might otherwise take up smoking. A secondary benefit is that lessons learned may help to reduce the current 3.1 million teen smokers, many of whom try smoking and quit -- it would be useful to know why they started in the…
Bobo, J.H. (2000). Sociocultural Influences on Smoking and Drinking. Alcohol Research & Health, 225-234.
Cooper, T.K. (2003). A prospective evaluation of the relationships between smoking dosage and body mass index in an adolescent, biracial cohort. Addictive Behaviors, 501-512.
Falba, T. (2005). Health events and the smoking cessation of middle aged Americans. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, n.p.
Gies, C.B. (2007). Effect of an Inpatient Nurse-Directed Smoking Cessation Program. Western Journal of Nursing Research, n.p.
That premise states a core value that the framers intended to protect. The intentionalist judge must then supply the minor premise in order to protect the constitutional freedom in circumstances the framers could not foresee. (Bork 15)
Bork's approach was recently critiqued by Daniel Ortiz and some others, one of whom noted, with reference to the Griswold decision on privacy, that Bork saw the decision as "unprincipled" "because [e]very clash between a minority claiming freedom and a majority claiming power to regulate involves a choice between the gratifications of the two groups.
hen the Constitution has not spoken [under an originalist theory of interpretation], the Court will be able to find no scale, other than its own value preferences, upon which to weigh the respective claims to pleasure. (Bork Neutral Principles and Some First Amendment Problems).
Bork thus supports community rights over individual rights to a greater extent than has…
Bork, Robert H. "Original Intent." The Judges' Journal (Summer 1987), 13-17.
Bork, Robert H.
Neutral Principles and Some First Amendment Problems, 47 IND. L.J. 1 (1971).
Giddens, Anthony. Social Theory and Modern Sociology. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1987.
They were not informed of the reason for the code. They were asked "(a) How similar do you think this person is to you? (1 _ not at all similar to 11 _ very similar) and (b) How much do you think this person will like you? (1 _ not at all to 11 _ very much)" and other like preliminary questions to see if subliminal likes were noticed and present (Jones, p. 672).
Students were then asked to remember their "partner's" code number and dismissed.
First, the birthday-association manipulation was modestly associated with anticipated liking, _ _.15, t (107) _ 1.64, p _.10. Second, a multiple regression analysis showed that anticipated liking did predict partner liking, even after controlling for birthday association, _ _.61, t (107) _ 8.23, p _.001. Finally, the same regression analysis showed that the birthday-association effect was eliminated after controlling for anticipated liking, _ _.04,…
Berg, J.H. And McQuinn, R.D. (1986). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 50, No. 5.
Fry, R. (1999). Biology of love. The Health Report. 6 Sep 1999. The effect of love on the chemical state of our brains. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/helthrpt/stories/s49793.htm.
Emanuele, E. Polliti, P, Bianchi, M. Minoretti, P. Bertona, M., & Geroldi, D. (2005). Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love. www.biopsychiatry.comAbstract. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Nov. 09.
Geher, G. (2005). Motivational underpinnings of romantic partner perceptions: Psychological and physiological evidence. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 22, No. 2, 255-281.