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Sociological perspective means a way of looking at religion that focuses on the human particularly social aspects of religious belief and practice. There are two characteristics that differentiate it from non-scientific approaches to religion, which are its empirical nature of the approach and the objective inclination that it takes. Sociologists always attempt so much to base their interpretations on empirical evidence. They tend to confirm their explanations and images of social reality through either experimental or experienced evidence. The objectivity is in the sense that they are not trying to assess, accept or reject the religious beliefs' content as indicated by some analysis. Within sociological perspective there is no religion that tends to be superior to the other. Definitely the perspectives do not presume religious merit over non-religious approaches.
There are various ways in which sociological perspective impacts on the way we study religion. The sociological perspective aspects on religion…… [Read More]
There are three main sociological perspectives based on which health care will be discussed in this paper. These perspectives include functionalism, conflict and symbolic interactions. These are the three perspectives that can give a better insight into the healthcare.
Functionalism is when various units of the society come together and form a single unit in order to perform various functions. Functionalism is defined as the theory of mind in terms of contemporary philosophy. The theory was developed as an important alternative to the identity theory of mind as well as behaviorism. One of the main facts highlighted by the theory is that all functional roles are the founders of the mental states of an individual as belief, pain as well as desires. These mental states are the causal relations of the other mental states that include sensory inputs and behavioral outputs. Functionalism can thereby be defined as the…… [Read More]
Sociological Perspectives in Babel
Babel, a hyperlink cinema masterpiece, is a 2006 film by Mexican director Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu and tells the story of four families through four different perspectives. Though these families appear to be unrelated through business or other social arrangement, it is a single object, a .270 Winchester M70 rifle, which unites their stories. Through this object, and the families presented, an analytical approach may be taken to explore the different sociological perspectives presented in the film.
The story is presented in a series of related events that take place in various parts of the world including Mexico, Morocco, and Japan. As it is revealed at the end of the film, it is the rifle given to a Moroccan hunting guide that links the four families through a series of tragic events. While on a hunting trip, Yasujiro Wataya of Japan gave the rifle to his guide,…… [Read More]
Sociological Perspective of W.E.B. Du Bois: Conflict Theory
William Edward Burghardt "W E.B." Du Bois (February 23, 1868 -- August 27, 1963) was an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, author and editor. Born in western Massachusetts, Du Bois grew up in a tolerant community and experienced little racism as a child. Unlike Booker T. Washington, who believed that unskilled blacks should focus on economic self-betterment, and Marcus Garvey, who advocated a "back to Africa" movement, Du Bois demanded that African-Americans should achieve not only economic parity with whites in the United States but full and immediate civil and political equality as well. Also, he introduced the concept of the "talented tenth," a black elite whose duty it was to better the lives of less fortunate African-Americans (Zuberi, 2004). Hence, his sociological view derived from Karl Marx's Conflict Theory.
The life and work of W.E.B. Du Bois
The life and…… [Read More]
In Murray's case, this awareness enabled her to turn her life around by focusing on school so that she could earn more money and remove herself from her troubled past.
The ultimate justification for analyzing Murray's autobiography through the lens of conflict theory is, of course, found in the work's ending. Not only is the author a successful writer with a best seller (and all of its financial rewards) to her claim, she has also been able to capitalize off of a made for television movie based on her story and her eventual graduation from Harvard. Although she lost both of her parents in the process, her economic triumph can be further validated by the fact that she owns her own company, and is a business woman who is encouraging other people to realize their goals and overcome their obstacles. Murray, in essences, has come from being on the receiving…… [Read More]
Social reaction manifests the behavior of an individual, how he reacts with the situation and how he will behave with it. The first reaction is acceptable as long as it is light and tolerable but if you do harm to someone that is not acceptable it is a behavior that is unbearable and punishment should follow to the deviant individual. There are two deviance based on ecker that can be found on the online source, http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/becker.htm:
Primary deviance is the first "step," and this primary act may be either intentional or unintentional (ecker 1963). The second "step" on the way to secondary deviance and a career in crime involves the acceptance of the deviant label (ecker 1963). ecker (1963) describes how certain rule-breakers come to accept the label of "deviant" as their master status.
It is said that there are two steps in deviant behavior, first is the instinct…… [Read More]
Objectivity in Sociological Perspectives
The United States of America is a melting pot of a wide range of beliefs, cultures, and traditions. Some say that the history of this nation will show an even wider variety not only of cultures, but of subcultures, cultures that arise in opposition or nonconformance with the main cultures. As human understanding of how we work in groups increases, some have theorized that there is really no such thing as a counterculture. The basic premise of this argument is that countercultures can't exist where all of us in the United States for example, technically share one culture. The norms, values, and beliefs shared by our culture even if they differ from others, are still part of just that, a larger culture that encompasses all, even those who are traditionally classified to be part of a counterculture.
My goal is to understand if this interpretation of…… [Read More]
Education and Race
Sociological perspective on Education with Regards to Race
Race relations in the United States have seemingly gotten better over the past five decades due to the efforts of civil rights legislation and a public that is more attuned to the issue. However, there remain pockets in where problems still occur and inequities still remain. One of these problem areas is the higher education system. It is difficult to pinpoint a single reason why minorities continue to be underrepresented at colleges and universities, and especially as graduates, but the gap exists and will continue to exist until equitable solutions are determined. This paper looks at race and education from a sociological perspective paying close attention to the theories of symbolic interactionism, social conflict and structural functionalism to try and determine the root causes of the issue.
Background (from Articles)
Desegregation began for American education with the "landmark" Brown…… [Read More]
Sociological Perspectives on the Mass Media
Most of us go about our everyday lives thinking that we are masters -- or mistresses -- of our own lives, making decisions by ourselves and for ourselves, the embodiment of autonomy. We do not like to think of ourselves as being under the control of the major social (and cultural) institutions of our society. And yet, of course, we are in no way independent of these institutions: Family structure, religious traditions, political structures, economic trends, the mass media all sculpt our lives. In this paper I will use three important sociological theories -- functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionism -- to analyze the ways in which the mass media affect the individual in society as well as the other important institutions that in concert construct our social reality.
Functionalism -- or "structural functionalism," to distinguish it from the functionalist school of philosophy -- is…… [Read More]
Thus, in lower income black families, the stresses of poverty, unemployment, and lack of education may translate to divorce and disillusion. Because unemployment is higher among blacks, it makes them a sub-group in our nation, which they have been as a culture almost since they came to this country. This ads to their strong beliefs and values and makes them susceptible to the Functionalist Perspective when it comes to divorce.
Finally, the Internationalist Perspective blends cultures, beliefs, and society into one global perspective. It also blends nationalities into one "human" unit, and it can have a great affect on societies. It can bring them closer together, but it can also push them further apart. This perspective recognizes that all cultures have some commonalities and values, and that so, all cultures should be able to get along together. While this seems to be a viable solution to world problems, it is…… [Read More]
Elaine confronts Gail for it, but later has no choice but to give them to Gail as payment for helping Jerry and George coordinate an unrelated scheme with an NBC executive. The issue culminates in Elaine's eventual admission that she actually enjoys the fact that other people notice her shoes and talk about them with envy. When Jerry asks her to give Gail the shoes, Elaine responds, "No, but these were the only really cool ones like this! Don't you see how everybody likes 'em and how everybody talks about 'em?" That issue comes up again in another episode (the Scofflaw") when an ex- boyfriend (Jake) of Elaine's refuses to tell Kramer where he bought the frames for his glasses. Kramer admires them and asks, "... where did you get those eyeglass frames?"
Jake responds, "I can't tell you that." When Kramer then asks, "So you don't know where you…… [Read More]
Crime Theories and Sociology
Crime theories and sociological perspective
Crime is an overt omission or action through which a person breaks the law, hence the action is punishable and the person may be convicted in the court of law for the said action. It is the subject of great debate in sociology and criminology that what constitutes crime. Since deviation from law has to be considered as crime, the nature and context of deviation becomes important while investigating crime. The investigation regarding crime assumes much importance since defining crime leads to setting up policing arrangements and budgetary allocations for crime prevention and mitigation. Moral and legal boundaries of a society are established by the definitions of crime. Crime is different from sin; hence this paper investigates the sociological perspective of crime and further presents theories regarding crime with respect to modern day.
The sociological perspective
Crime and criminal behavior is…… [Read More]
Healthcare Economics and Perspective of Sociology
Health economics is a term that is relatively difficult to define since it incorporates a wide range of theories, concepts, and topics. However, this term can be described as study of the supply and demand of health care resources and the effect of these resources on a population. One of the concepts in health economics is scarcity, which means limited quantity of health resources with regards to inputs. As a result, scarcity implies that every society must make significant decisions about production, consumption, and distribution of product and services to ensure allocative and production efficiency (Santerre & Neun, 2010, p.4). PPC (Production possibilities curve) is an economic model that shows different mixture of any two goods and services that can be manufactured efficiently in light of stock of technology, resources, and several institutional plans. It is used to determine allocative and production efficiency given…… [Read More]
bag?" "Bottle of wine for my wife." "Good trade," is a joke that plays upon a number of images and ideas (Taylor, 2005, p. 130).
The bottle of wine in a paper bag conjures images of the homeless man drinking in public or the vagrant walking the streets having his alcoholic beverage right out in the open (hidden by the bag of course). Thus, the interpretive/symbolic interaction theory could be applied here, for there is a symbolic representation to this joke -- namely, that the vagrant has such a love of liquor that he has traded his wife for a bottle of it. The joke, of course, is that the wine is for his wife -- not that he traded her for it -- but the humor lies in the fact that the other views such a trade as a "good" one. Also, underlying this joke is a gender/sexual subtext,…… [Read More]
Three Perspectives on Crime
For decades sociologists have debated the causes of crime and criminal behavior and have created three sociological perspectives involving the cause of crime. Schmalleger identifies these three perspectives as Individual esponsibility Perspective, Social Problems Perspective, and Integrated Perspective. A discussion of current criminal activity can easily identify cases in which each of these perspectives can be applied.
The Individual esponsibility Perspective defines criminal behavior as the result of individual personal choices. According to Schmalleger, this perspective states that individuals are ultimately responsible for their own behavior and that some individuals choose to engage in criminal activity as opposed to following the law. HSBC is Europe's third largest bank and in 2013 it agreed to pay a $1.9 Billion fine "to resolve charges it enabled Latin American drug cartels to launder billions of dollars…." (Smythe, 2013) HSBC CEO Stuart Gulliver and Chairman Douglas Flint were accused…… [Read More]
If there is nothing wrong with carrying on a conversation at a restaurant table in person, why would it be any worse to speak in the same tone of voice and volume into a cell phone? If someone talks so loudly to a friend in person that their voices are annoying to other diners, that would justify managerial instructions to lower their voices to an appropriate volume.
On the other hand, why would an appropriately quiet conversation on a cell phone be more annoying than a normal conversation of the type ordinarily permitted between diners? Similarly, in the example given by the store owner in the article, the cell phone user whose conduct precipitated the ban had held up the line of customers behind her to finish her phone conversation. Would the same inconsiderate behavior have been perfectly acceptable if she had been talking to a friend in person instead…… [Read More]
Sociology as a field of study entails examining and understanding the behavior of human groups and associated social behavior. In understanding these aspects, the sociologists have, their focus primarily concentrated on the human interactions. These human interactions revolve around how the different social relations influence the behavior and attitudes of the people and how the societies originate, form and change. Human interactions are vast, and so is the field of sociology. It covers virtually all the topics of human life, from gender, race, religion, education, politics, health, group behavior and conformity among others. Sociologist focus on how the society and people influence other people since most personal experiences has their origin from external or social forces.
The social and external forces exist within the society in the form of interpersonal relationships between families and friends. Additionally, these relations form from the encounters in the academic, religious,…… [Read More]
Sociological Analysis of Hyperconnectivity
Hyperconnectivity is a fairly new concept that it is indigenous to the 21st century. The term was coined only a few years ago by Canadian social scientists as a way to describe how people are connect via machines, networked organizations, and networked societies overall. Thus, this is a term that could have been coined now. "Hyper" is usually an adjective to describe a state of excess excitement and unruly energy; "hyper" as it exists as a prefix coming from the Greek language, means abnormal, unusual, and appearing in quantities beyond what is normal. Both definitions can be useful when considering the global culture or state of hyperconnectivity that much of the world finds itself in during the 21st century. We have mobile devices that connect to the internet wherever we are and wherever there is an internet connection. We have long since had computers and…… [Read More]
Sociological Explanation of Sexual Initiation and Negotiation
Part of the desire to initiate and negotiate sex stems from the sociological desire to couple or be partnered with another human being. Many people grow up with fantasies and notions of finding Mr. Of Mrs. ight, hoping that at some point in their life they will fall into love and have "an affair of the heart" (Michael, et. al, 1994: 67). The reality of existence however is that most meetings that result in long-term relationships can be mundane. Choice of long-term partners and sexual partners can sometimes differ. In general however, most people seek out people that they think are similar in nature and personality to themselves, even without having intimate knowledge of the social context in which the potential partner lives and exists (Michael, et. al, 1994: 69).
The initiation and negotiation of sex often stems from familiarity. Most people fantasize…… [Read More]
Many different views abound on the origins of modern capitalism, causalities that range from economic to political, from religious to cultural, or for some, an amalgamation of societies need to expand and the resources necessary to fuel that expansion. Max Weber's the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a study of the relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of the spirit of modern capitalism. An ascetic Protestant is one who practices self-denial and self-discipline. Weber argues that the religious ideas of groups such as the Calvinists played a role in creating the capitalistic spirit. Calvinism focused on predestination and God's infinite power, a hierarchical system that transcended religion and moved into economic and social activities.
This is true not only in cases where the difference in religion coincides with one of nationality, and thus of cultural development . . . . The same thing…… [Read More]
In addition, the views presented by sociologists concerning idealistic tradition is based on the significance of the concerned group that is sort to motivate, influence to belief and the subject of interest. In this regard, sociologists will not disassociate from the scientific data but will involve the subject of interest to attempt to understand the environment in its own context, showing how sociologists have subjective explanations and not objective ones (Adams et al. 267).
ith regard to the above, there exists queries on whether the sociological theory is a micro or a macro understood occurrence. Apart from the philosophical aspects of knowledge, the micro and macro aspects of sociological theory are highly debated in there associations. It inquires on how these sociological theories on character, reactions, and interpersonal procedures can associate with other social influences. Just like in sciences where there exists micro-macro differences which even with the advanced technology…… [Read More]
Profile of a Terrorist
It is common for people to assume that a potential terrorist might be influenced by political causes or social pressures. hile this may be true in some cases, the actual motivations for joining a terrorist group could be among a plethora of various reasons. Furthermore, it is very difficult to study terrorism. Primarily because a terrorist is unlikely to participate in studies on their own free will (DeAngelis, 2009). Terrorist are not likely to volunteer as experimental subjects or offer reliable data through interviews. Therefore the data pool surrounding terrorism is extremely limited and must of the research takes are more subjective approach given these limitations.
There are three primary approaches to studying terrorism which include macro-sociological, psychological, and psychosocial (de la Corte, 2007). The macro-sociological perspective considers social dysfunctions or conflictive trends in the society and social systems. This perspective will try to identify…… [Read More]
Sociology of Crime
Sociologists claim that crime is a social construction
The term "crime" refers to various forms of misconduct that are forbidden by the law (Eglin & Hester, 2013). There are different justifications as to shy sociologists classify crimes as a social construction. All social problems are the product of social construction; defining, naming and labeling them into place through which people can make sense of them. It is evident that crime is formed socially. The constructionist angle draws on a varying sociological inheritance, one that looks at the society as a matrix of meaning. It gives a primary role to the procedures of constructing, generating and spreading meanings. Under this perspective, it is impossible to understand reality in a direct and unmediated manner. People will often mediate reality by meaning. Proponents of this school of thought believe that what people experience is the "social construction of reality." How…… [Read More]
Sociology of War
War can be understood in terms of the sociological patterns that underpin it. War is by and large about power dynamics between groups of people. In the Sociology of War, Segal and Clever (2013) outline that the sociology of war has long been understood via the relationship between the ruling classes and their societies. ulers seek to use war to enhance their power, by leveraging their power within their own societies. People often prefer not to agitate for war, because of the inherent risks, but they can be convinced to fight based on pay (professional soldiers) or by organizing the society to oppose another society. Societies today react differently to war than they have in the past, in part because there is a better understanding of power dynamics, which has removed some of the taboos surrounding the discussion of war, and the use of war to enhance…… [Read More]
Functionalism is usually defined as viewing society from the aspect of its different parts, and how those parts relate to each other and society as a whole. Many functionalists liken society to a biological form, such as the human body, with its different organs all working in conjunction to keep the body as a whole functioning. Each of the elements of the body has a "function- to maintain the whole, so ensuring the stability or order of the system." (Bissell, 2005, p.41) But while each element has a manifest function, or the function that is expected from it, there are also unexpected functions called latent functions.
On the other hand, Conflict Theory states that the different parts of a society are in a state of conflict over the limited resources available to society. While Functionalism stresses the unity between the different groups, "conflict theory emphasizes strife and friction"…… [Read More]
Sociological Theory: hat Makes Democracy ork?
hen it comes to "Classical Sociological Theory" and "Contemporary Sociological Theory" there are numerous sociological theories that try to inspect and interpret why and how society purposes; looking at the influences such as mass media, education, the family and the church. All of these theories have their own ideas as to how these numerous establishments distress how should be and is -- some facets of these theories intersect with each other and other facets are totally different. Theories for instance Functionalism and Marxism attempt to describe civilization as an 'absolute truth' (they each look at culture on a macro scale) they trust that set development of society is unavoidable; there is a construction to life and civilization that seldom permits for change.
According to Tocqueville (pp.104) concerning Classical Sociological Theory, his argument is that throughout time our world has seen a lot of different…… [Read More]
esearch Caveat - esearch surrounding undocumented workers can often be problematic and unreliable. Primarily this is due to the nature of the subject matter -- individual on both sides of the issue are unwilling to talk because of the volaltility of the subject, language barriers, legal issues, access issues, fear of anything that even remotely feels governmental, and the validity of responses. Briefly, we can view these issues and the mitigating circumstances:
Language barriers -- Any viable research study will need to be dual language based; therefore it must be translated into the appropriate lanage and level (typically Spanish), with an emphasis on clarity, removal of hidden meanings or linguistic variations. In addition, the person or persons administering any research questionnaire would likewise need to be bilingual.
Mistrust -- Undocumented workers are often reluctant to particpate in any project that has a written component; they are mistrustful of the system,…… [Read More]
The DHS is consistent with the larger social trend on a global scale concerning institutional security measures insofar as Risley (2006) reports that "the securitization of an ever-expanding number of realms is a distinguishing feature of the contemporary political landscape." (1) This is to argue that in addition to the events such as 9/11 which can be seen as a clear catalyst to the changes in structure which have been underway since the end of 2001, there is also something of a broader sociological pattern which is reflected in the merger undertaken in the national security sector. The diminishing lines between commerce, governance and military engagement are perhaps best reflected in this parallel between the security community and the corporate world. The sociological implications are therefore rather significant in coming to understand why certain changes have been sought and in producing reasonable expectations as to what these changes may produce.…… [Read More]
Sociological Class Theories - ush
In every society, people are grouped into a variety of categories in order to determine how they earn a living, and how much they earn that actually affects or is affected by the economy. This kind of social stratification is common in virtually all of modern societies, but social class theories can help explain or provide some insight as to why a certain economy works smoothly or inadequately. In effect, the real question becomes, is each social class being served fairly, or does one appear to have a class advantage over the others? The three primary theories of social class are 1) conflict, 2) functionalist, and 3) interactionist. If we examine George ush's economic policies we'd notice that these were implemented for the express purpose of benefiting the upper classes even though tax cuts may at first glance, seem like an equal benefit for all.…… [Read More]
In fact, the cohabitation option serves a valuable function for many couples, especially where living together allows them to discover possible problem areas in their relationship that would have made marriage a bad idea. If anything, that is preferable to the traditional situation where couples really only begin learning about one another after making the lifelong commitment to a marriage. Finally, Congressman McDonald's point about childbirth out of wedlock ignores the tremendous advantages to children born in stable marriages and suggests that high rates of unwanted pregnancies among unmarried couples somehow negates the benefits of planned pregnancies within marriage.
The Functionalist Perspective Applied to Marriage:
In some respects, there are valid criticisms that justify reevaluating certain aspects of modern marriage, including the unfairness of child custody decisions that favor mothers and financial settlements that obligate married partners who supported the marriage financially to share more of what they earned than…… [Read More]
The criminal justice system, according to Karl Marx, is thought to work for the rich while the resulting policies are more concerned with controlling the poor. Seigel and Welsh state that, "conflict theorists observe that while spending has been cut on social programs during the past few years, spending on the prison systems has skyrocketed." This leads to the conclusion that when there is a disparity between police and public and the rich and the poor, the conflict creates or influences antisocial or deviant behavior ( ).
The Secure Communities program exists in certain states and is a Department of Homeland Security initiative, which aims to identify and remove criminal aliens. Law enforcement officials in certain states will fingerprint every person booked into jail and those fingerprints will be run through Homeland Security's national database to check for illegal immigrant status. Morton believes the program could transform the face of…… [Read More]
Conflict between the contestants and the management emerges as they are forced to compete and antagonize each other in order to win the prize. Thus, being a contest, conflict in "Survivor" is inevitable, and it is only through a successful power struggle that one will be able to win over the management, thereby winning $1 million. Among the Survivors, meanwhile, the initial conflict that happens is between groups or "tribes." As each contestant is eliminated, one tribe emerges as more dominant in terms of number, thereby necessitating a fusion of the two tribes. This fusion leads to a tension among each contestant, wherein everyone tries his/her best to remain in the contest; conflict now happens as contestants try to establish allegiances and affiliations with others, which, in the process, results to conflicts with other contestants.
However, the inherent presence of conflict in "Survivor" is mainly based on the daily interactions…… [Read More]
Sociological and Therapeutic Implications of the Brain Disease
Inspiration for professionals who authored the account on chronic brain illnesses came from findings on drugs' impacts on the human brain. The assurance that strong anti-addiction medicines can be found appeared great. The budding scientific branch, addiction biology, implies that addiction --a condition which starts off with the clear, intentional decision to have a go at drugs, spiraling quickly down to an irrepressible, involuntary state --would now be considered seriously, and forever, as an ailment. Using this knowledge, authors hoped to sensitize lawmakers as well as the society to drug-addicts' needs, including improved coverage of private insurance and public treatment access. The agenda also included moderating of puritanical outlooks and smoothing of penal law enforcement. The neuro-centric approach supports unjustified optimism with regard to pharmaceutical treatments, overrating the requirement of professional aid. Conditions characteristically remitted in young adulthood are branded as "chronic."…… [Read More]
From a functionalist perspective, colleges are crucial parts or systems in the society because it promotes and makes possible education for the society. However, from a conflict theory standpoint, colleges can be considered structures or systems through which only those with access to education continue to perpetuate the 'oppression' of the "have-nots" -- people who cannot afford a college education. Symbolic interactionism, meanwhile, looks at colleges as an important tradition and process in the American society, wherein people are expected to be educated and go through the process of entering and having a college education, towards the goal of becoming a productive and/or learned member of the society. Primarily, symbolic interactionism focuses on the tradition of continuing education, and education as a critical part of every person's being and identity in his/her society.
enzetti, C. And D. Curran. (2000). Living Sociology. MA: Allyn and…… [Read More]
Explain how sociological and lay ideas about illness differ from those of biomedicine
Individuals and societies have over the years engaged in identifying the causal factors which can be attributed with an ailment. Illness and its related explanation has been a focal point of health professionals. It is also important to note that the attribution of illness with a specific cause may not be the same in terms of biomedicine and sociological or lay ideas. Sociological ideas tend to lay emphasis on the norms, values and subjective experiences of the individuals as the core elements which formulate their perception about an illness (Blaxter 2010). The layman is more likely to base the explanation of an ailment on social causes rather than exploring the dimensions of the illness through medical explanation. On the other hand, medical professionals (biomedicine) seek causal factors which are linked with the physiological and anatomical aspects…… [Read More]
Current Event Due 11:55p Sunday eek 5 the eek 5 Homework 2 Assignment meets objectives: Apply a sociological perspective social world. Analyze contemporary social issues sociological imagination sociological theories concepts analyze everyday life.
The Ukraine conflict has generated much controversy in recent months as a community of experts has gotten actively involved in discussing the topic and in attempting to provide solution to the crisis. Even with the fact that initial decisions were related to getting an international body to intervene and influence the two belligerent camps to put down their weapons, it gradually became clear that the situation would require more thought and that the people involved are reluctant to yield to their adversaries. Shaun alker and Howard Amos's article "Ukraine civil war fears mount as volunteer units take up arms" provides information with regard to the critical nature of the conflict.
By analyzing matters from a sociological perspective,…… [Read More]
This idea is also strengthen by the example of the inhabitants from the northern region. Yet, the idea is not completely tolerated. There are, of course, groups which benefit from the current context, like the elite groups that one would furthermore refer to when analyzing social stratification.
Along with the political context of Somalia, which is the principal factor of the economical failure of the country, another significant reason consists in Somalia's vulnerability and lack of defense in front of the world's biggest states which transformed it, at the beginning of the 1990s in a sort of testing ground for all the issues they confronted with.
For example, one knows the fact that a significant amount of the local economy before the 1990 stood in natives' activity of fishing, as both the Aden Gulf and the Indian Ocean are known as being rich in piscicultural resources. After becoming independent in…… [Read More]
Paradoxically, states with harsher criminal statutes and higher conviction rates tend to maintain fewer inmate developmental programs because high-volume prisons tend to be run on a for-profit basis that discourages "unnecessary" spending. The most cynical suggestion is that decreasing recidivism is against the financial interests of private prisons and (although to a lesser extent,) those of government-run prisons as well (Schmalleger, 2008).
Other aspects of many types of contemporary criminal trends may also significantly undermine any strategy of deterrence through awareness of strict prosecution and sentencing. In that regard, law enforcement authorities across the nation have catalogued volumes of information about criminal subcultures in general and of the street gang mentality in particular (Pinizzotto, Davis, & Miller, 2007). Urban street gangs in particular have given rise to a culture of remorseless violence and disregard for the consequences of even the most violent crime that largely precludes any real deterrent value…… [Read More]
Police Shooting Incidents
Cities across the United States have experienced numerous incidents of police misconduct, which occur several times in every decade, particularly when a high profile case takes place. Actually, police misconduct including police shooting has always been exposed by high profile cases, which highlight some forms of police abuse and violation of human rights. While police officers are mandated with the task of making several decisions and taking necessary actions in protecting the society, they sometimes use force irresponsibly and end up hurting the people they are supposed to protect. In the past few months, there have been increased incidents of police shooting, which can be effectively examined and understood through a sociological perspective.
The Phenomenon of Police Shooting
The increased cases of police shooting in the past few months are not a new phenomenon that has been highlighted by increased media coverage. This case of increased shooting…… [Read More]
If students are not able to come up with answers the chances are high there is little diversity, or the diversity prevalent is not part of the culture. However, on asking the same question of a culturally diverse organization, sociologists may find students enthusiastic and willing to talk about events, fairs, classes geared toward cultural understanding and an overall sense of multiculturalism and belief systems on campus.
One interesting insight as to the effects of diversity on the educational environment would be to measure student success outcomes, and the presence or lack thereof of support structures including clubs and fraternities that promote diversity and cultural education and acceptance. Sociologists can look at overall attendance rates, it can look at the student population and sociologists may interview or observe students to identify whether they feel included as part of the university culture or whether they feel excluded or like an outsider…… [Read More]
Strategic Perspectives in Management Accounting and Finance
The main reason for differentiation in the accounting studies seemed to occur due to the functionalist perceptions in the expertise of social studies. According to Dellaportas and Davenport (2008) professions are being separated by occupation on the basis of the level of distinctiveness one occupation has from another; a model first designed by Greenwood in 1975.
Abercrombie et al. (1994, p. 335) in their study explained that such distinctiveness is surrounded by the concept which results in more beneficiary outcomes for the public than for an individual's professional interest in providing services. This simply means that it was an original human demand that gave birth to all professions. There's an equality on profession's social compulsion i.e. there is a balance between a professional's job and his obligation to serve the public. In this regard Carey (1965, p. 376) asserted that it was in…… [Read More]
There were several theories that I found interesting as a part of the course, yet the theory that I connected with most personally was Symbolic Interaction. This theory was established first by George Herbert Mead, who coined the phrase "symbolic interactionism" first. The theory has been present in the field of sociology for several decades, and after the death of Mead, other sociologists took on the theory in their own works, studies, and theories. This theory is one of my favorites for a few reasons, one of which is because I believe I have seen it at work in my own life and in the interactions of others in their lives.
I also agree with the validity of this theory because I feel that it coincides with other theories in other fields, such as psychology. There are psychologists, such as Freudian psychologists and Lacanian psychologists that have…… [Read More]
Social Order: Institutions, Socializations, And the Performance of Social Roles
Erving Goffman dramaturgical theory is a seminal theory in the field of sociology. An example of "micro-sociological analysis," it forced sociological analysis back into the examination of things which actually exist, individual behavior, instead of mere concepts. Goffman demonstrated that the examination of real things can not only clarify existing lines of thought, but open up new avenues for the study of social behavior. Thesis: Through his emphasis on the individual's performance of social roles, Goffman demonstrates that, although social organization and dynamics do influence individual behavior, it is the individual herself who determines the final shape of this behavior.
Summary of the Theory
Erving Goffman's work, often classified as "symbolic interactionism," is highly valuable for the study of socialization and the performance of social roles. Erving studied how individuals used symbols in the performance of their social roles and…… [Read More]
Moreover, even content-based restriction would be irrelevant to the competitive strength of market competitors, since they would apply across the board and to all equally. The only likely negative effect on manufacturers of alcohol products is precisely the objective that increased regulation of the content of alcohol product advertising would hope to achieve: namely, reducing the instances of new users responding to advertising and reducing the ability of manufacturers to drive consumer behavior through deliberate psychological manipulation.
In principle, the most appropriate distinction would be between content that presents specific objective attributes of the product (i.e. taste, quality, versatility, company reputation, etc.) and content that is expressly designed to exploit known psychological and social tendencies conducive to increasing alcohol consumption. In practice, alcohol product advertising copy that promoted flavor and quality, (for example), would be permitted; conversely, advertising copy that exploited the psychological influence of sex appeal, social popularity, or…… [Read More]
Suicide and Society
Suicide: An Individual Phenomenon or a Societal Construct?
Statistics show that suicide rates in the U.S. are highly predictable. It is annually expected each year that over 30,000 suicides will occur, as compared to about 17,000 homicides. This stable and predictable estimate of suicide rate stems from a precise analysis of social factors describing four separate categories of suicidal influences: egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic. According to the functionalist theory described by Emile Durkheim, rates are social facts based on other established social facts, and thus have a sociological basis. As suicide rates are social facts, Durkheim set out to provide an empirical basis of social explanation regarding suicide, providing a far different account of trends than the previously perceived notion that suicide is based purely on individual or psychological reasons. Thus, the phenomenon of what actually motivates the occurrence of suicide can be examined from a…… [Read More]
Many cultural studies state that the Qur'an provides for the mercy killing of women who have been failed to have been adequately protected and have, as a result thereof, been raped. In fact, Muslim countries have a disproportionate amount of honor killings; yet, this should be understood as a cultural phenomenon as the scripture and the practice of the Qur'an do not dictate or specifically set forth the proposition that women should die as a result of being assaulted (Quraishi,, 2000).
Conclusion and Commentary:
Importance of Cultural elativism and Understanding the Sociological Differences Between Women of the United States and Women of Islam
After September 11th and the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City by Osaama Bin Laden and his progeny, a cultural relativist approach which bases itself in understanding the Islamic worldview became under attack and, as a society, we have created less understanding,…… [Read More]
Obesity is a significant problem for today's American children. In fact, the NCCC calculates that more than 23 million children and teenagers are overweight. Since 1980, the obesity rate amongst children has more than doubled and amongst children aged 2-5 years almost tripled, whilst it has more than tripled in adolescents aged 12-19 years (Ogden et al., 2008.).
The problems of childhood obesity in children include the following:
Obese children are at a higher risk for asthma
Obese children are more likely to suffer from psychosocial problems, fatty liver, orthopedic-related problems and sleep apnea
Childhood obesity has also corresponded with a rise in with type 2 diabetes, particularly among adolescent minority populations
Obese children are found to be at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and abnormal glucose tolerance
The causes of childhood obesity have been reduced to various…… [Read More]
e. As waitresses.)
II. Social Action
Max eber developed the concept of social action as a means of describing those actions that take into account actions and reactions of other people, then modifying that action based on those occurrences. Sociologists employ social action as a conceptual model as a means of determining how certain behaviors are modified in specific environments. hen we evaluate the norms of social discourse and the customs that prevail in any given society, we see how social action works.
Importantly, social action takes into consideration reactions of others. hen the reaction of an individual or group is not wanted, then the action will be modified accordingly. Sociology is essentially the study of social action, as it takes into account the way society functions and the way human behavior is established in societal structures. According to social action theory, people change their actions according to what social…… [Read More]
Does Socio-economic Status Impact lives of People with HIV and AIDS?
Individuals with a lower socio-economic status are more prone to contracting HIV and AIDS virus. This measure also determines how individual status, relates to proper medical care. Lack of socioeconomic strength associated to the practice of risky sexual behaviors results to HIV contraction. Men engage in sexual intercourse with many partners without using a condom (Will 2000). Women at this lower level engage in riskier sexual behaviors. Homeless people are more vulnerable to infection, women in such situations are prone to rape and, men are most likely drug users. Individuals with low socioeconomic resources are prone to injury, which makes the susceptible to the effects of the virus that affects the central nervous system (Earnshaw, Valerie and Stephenie 2009).
Does HIV Infection Affect the Socio Sconomic Status of Infected Persons?
HIV and AIDS have negative impacts on the productivity…… [Read More]
The emphasis on social stability, as seen in many institutions' suspicion regarding social change, can lead to the perpetuation of social inequality. In some instances, there is even a stronger link between religion and power structures.
The caste system in India privileges the rights of the priestly class. However, political leaders in India have also formed strong ties with the Brahmin class. These ties serve to "legitimize" the power in the political government.
Evaluating conflict theory
Conflict theory provides several important insights regarding the conservative role that religion has played in society. McGuire and Collins' study provide specific cases that uphold Marx's original premise. These studies show how conflict thinking still remains relevant, even until today.
However, the emphasis on the conservative and status quo orientation of religion also glosses over religion's liberating potential. Theologians like Gustavo Gutierrez, a priest who served in a Peruvian slum in the 1960s, argued…… [Read More]
The authors are successful in this aim up to a large extent. However, they have not discussed gender discrimination individually; rather this topic has been explained collectively with the multi-cultural workforce management. The OB theories, models, and organizational justice approaches which the authors have used in writing this book can help in explaining the inequality practices which modern business organizations have adopted at their workplaces.
"The New American Workplace"
By James O'Toole, & Edward E. Lawler
This book is based on the results of a nation-wide survey conducted by the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare in the United States. The purpose of the survey was to analyze the working conditions in the country from the perspective of working patterns, equal opportunities, flexible work options, gender inequality, and the like. The book is co-authored by the Chairman of the team himself. The findings of the research suggest that business organizations…… [Read More]
Symbolic interactionism is the theory suggesting human beings are best understood in "interactive relation to their environment," (University of Twente, 2014). The three core principles of symbolic interactionism including meaning, language, and thought. Meaning refers to the fact that people ascribe meaning to their relationships, institutions, and other social structures. This meaning is what guides human emotion and cognition. Language is the symbolic type of human communication. Like meaning, language also impacts human emotional and cognitive states. Thus, the third component of symbolic interactionism is thought. How a person perceives, judges, and interacts with the world is covered by symbolic interactionism. Symbolic interactionism also suggests that the self is a mirror for others, and vice-versa in what is known as the "looking glass self," ("The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective," n.d.). Symbolic interactionism is an ideal sociological lens through which to understand how social media has transformed the nature of human…… [Read More]
The experiment took place in a busy office building at around five o'clock in the evening. It started on the ground floor and involved walking into an elevator and not turning around. The total number of people who entered the elevator was six, two stopped on the third floor, which was the first stop and the other three stopped on the fifth, which was the last stop. The experiment ended on the fifth floor and took a little over three minutes.
The other five people upon entering the elevator realized that not everybody turned to face the entrance as usual. The group seemed baffled with the occurrence. Two people, a female and a male laughed asking jokingly if they were supposed to turn around. They appeared friendly and continued with interesting comment until they left the elevator. The other three smiled but seemed less concerned. However, the…… [Read More]
economic crisis that hit the international community and the world economies has determined, since 2008, a slow, almost invisible shift in the doctrinal preferences of more and more people in terms of deciding on the right economic approach to be followed in order to avoid such crises from taking place in the future. Although there have been numerous attempts to convince on the benefits of capitalism, the economic crises that have taken place since the 70s on a cyclical basis have been used as counterarguments for the efficiency of capitalism and free market economies as we know it today. In this sense, more and more people, scholars, professors, and even politicians, advocate a more moderate approach to capitalism to include several aspects of apparently long-forgotten economic doctrines such as Marxism. However, Marxism in its purest form is not the solution; yet, it offers the justifications for what is now seen…… [Read More]
Canadian Society: Global Perspectives
This book comprises of a collection of literary works selected by Timothy McCauley and Janice Hill and is especially targeted to provide scholarly insight and understanding for students taking courses on sociology. Imperatively, the book lays emphasis on sociological points of view that take into account aspects such as diversity, ethnicity, identity, race, gender, family, as well as socialization. In this regard, the authors assimilate these sociological issues in the context of Canada and the manner in which it is linked to international patterns and processes. For instance, the authors delineate that different aspects such as the recent downward spiral of the global economy that impacted regions and nations across the world are a reminder that were are all existent in a global system. An additional example employed by the authors is the Highway of Heroes Living Tribute, which is a tribute to both the mean…… [Read More]
They are words that last forever, and when we face challenges where racial inequities and inhumane horrors cause to pause in stunned silence, often times these words of inspiration come to us and move us take action for social justice. Harrell explains Mandela's gift in this regard saying:
"Mandela exhibited the characteristics that made jeremiad in South Africa social protest feasible: he combined lament and call to consciousness in sustaining South Africa's democratic mission. His ultimate success depended upon his rational appeal to those who saw his course of action would be the most sensible choice (7 of 15)."
Indeed, with words so carefully crafted as to emphasize the essences of democracy, Mandela ensured the support of those in South Africa who had long been deprived democracy. He also appealed to those who understood that the only way to bring about a world peace, was to pursue democratic principles, ensuring…… [Read More]
Collective Behavior: Comparisons
Theories of Collective Behavior: Emergent-Norm Theory vs. Value-Added Perspective
Collective behavior, in basic terms, could be defined as a voluntary activity in which individuals engage. The behavior in this case is largely non-institutionalized. There are various theories that have been used over time to explain collective behavior. These include the emergent-norm theory, value-added perspective, and assembling perspective. In this text, I concern myself with two of these, i.e. The emergent-norm theory and the value-added perspective.
The emergent-norm theory according to Stolley (2005, p. 186) posits that "new norms develop (emerge) as events happen." The value added perspective, on the other hand, suggests that "people are likely to engage in social movements and other forms of collective behavior when society has certain characteristics" (Crawford and Novak, 2013, p. 455).
It should also be noted that while the emergent-norm theory largely focuses on the relevance of social norms in…… [Read More]
Therefore, the person who chooses to suspend his interests to comply with those artificial externally-imposed social values for the benefit of others will ultimately always suffer disadvantage because others cannot be counted upon to do so consistently and in a meaningful way, at least not beyond the ability of the state to control and ensure.
To Freud, modern civilization provides various tangible benefits to the individual but only at a tremendous cost. While living in society and with the benefits of government protection against the uncontrolled expression of the selfish will of others is a benefit, the fact that our goals and values, and the component elements of our psychological personas are determined and shaped to such a great extent by external society generates much if not all of the psychological pain and trauma experienced by individuals.
Personal Response and Conclusion
There is substantial value as well as inherent weaknesses…… [Read More]
symbolism, style, tone, setting and perspective in this short story. demonstrated by comparing works of Kate hopin, the "Story of an Hour" and "A Respectable Woman" and "Regret" Using these stories the writer examines how emotions and events are depicted with the positive and negative impacts of marriage and how this may be interpreted by a reader. The bibliography cites Four Sources
Kate hopin: woman out of her time.
Literature is an art form that can be seen as both representative and critical of society. When we consider historical texts they can tell us a great deal about the culture and expectations that may have been prevalent in that society.
In the short story Regret by Kate hopin we see the development of an attitude and the way that it was depicted with different layers to how it affects a person. However, it is the human condition and the deep…… [Read More]
Various Theories on Depression, and Respective Treatments
Depression is a complex mood disorder that is characterized by various emotions, including sadness, self-blame, absence of pleasure and an overall sense of worthlessness, and by physical responses relating to sleep, appetite and motor symptoms. According to statistics, one in four adults will suffer from a depressive episode at some point in life. With a quarter of the population affected by depression, it is no wonder that one sees so many advertisements both on television and on billboards relating to the disorder. It is also understandable that many intellectual fields of study would give an opinion on what depression truly means and how it can be treated. This paper will thus examine psychological, sociological, cultural and biological theories on depression and will describe various treatments that take into account expertise from these various areas of study to better understand this complex…… [Read More]