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Other samples of primary groups in my life include such important social groups as my club soccer team, whom I play with three times a week, and several academic related organizations I am involved in.
Secondary groups, on the other hand, are essentially the opposite of primary groups. Although members of a secondary groups do interact with one another, they tend to do so on a less personal level than the members of a primary group. Further, the relationships of the members of a secondary group are more typically temporary, as opposed to long lasting. Usually secondary groups are created to serve a specific purpose or function and the individual members' roles are interchangeable instead of fixed. An example of a secondary group in my life is my summer job, which is essentially a temporary group put together to complete the given tasks. Although we get along and interact at…… [Read More]
Companies practically make it mandatory for these people to employ a "nicer than natural" attitude and thus influence them to feel estranged from their emotions. Even with the fact that flight attendants manage to avoid being stressed as a result of their coping mechanism, their thinking can turn in an occupational hazard. Employing such attitudes can lead to serious problems as flight attendants feel detached from their jobs and basically come to express no actual interest in the well-being of passengers.
* Hochschild's theory concerning emotions can be applied to Goffman's understanding of people's attitudes when interacting with others. People communicate through emotions and depending on how they see other people they feel more or less inclined to express intense sentiments. An 'actor' thus shares information with his or her audiences depending on the information that his or her audiences provide him or her with. Hochschild goes in depth with…… [Read More]
Sociology and Racism
Sociologists recognize that social stratification is a cultural universal, an aspect present in every society. In many societies, these social hierarchies are based on factors like class, gender or kinship. In the United States and most advanced industrialized capitalist countries, for example, being wealthy can significantly improve a person's life chances.
In a society as diverse as the United States, racial and ethnic categories are another key factor in determining social hierarchy and one's life chances. In the 2000 Census, respondents were given a choice of 15 racial groups to choose from. Additionally, respondents were given the option of choosing two or more races when appropriate.
For many people, these racial categories are a crucial determinant of identity.
In addition to how people are grouped by race, sociologists are also interested in the social meanings and significances that people attach to race.
For sociologists, race should be…… [Read More]
The sociological perspective is a perspective on how human activity and behavior relates to society. By looking at the relationship between individuals and social structures, the sociological perspective emerges as one that identifies functions, conflicts and interactions within society and among people. In other words, the sociological perspective allows researchers to see how people and society relate to one another, what connects them, what drives them, and what shapes their evolution.
There are many different ways in which researchers can study people and society. The methods used by sociologist to study society include survey research, interviews, participant observation, and secondary/historical analysis. Survey research is conducted when a researcher constructs a set of questions with a list of options to choose from when answering the question. For example, a question might provide a participant with a choice of five different answers to choose from. The sociologist will survey a…… [Read More]
For many years, sociologists, criminologists, and other scientists have been examining crime and what deviant behavior to help understand and gain control on society and prevent potential victims and fairly treat offenders who do commit crimes. However, many experts like Emile Durkheim feel there is a lot to be considered besides what is deemed as wrong. Durkheim, a French sociology expert from the late 1800s, who felt that deviance was a typical part of a society in order for it to function normally because it sets the moral margins of a society that lets people know what is and what is not tolerated (Henry, Lanier 1-80). Theories and conflicts of crimes and the assumptions and contrasting arguments of what influences and provokes deviance within a given culture have caused people to develop different views and beliefs.
People, like Stuart Henry and Mark Lanier, who examine crime and the subsets…… [Read More]
However, many as he notes, are trying "to live 'better' lives within the framework of their own and society's weaknesses" (Duneier 158). Thus, just like other viable members of any society, these people are doing what they can to make ends meet and still live decent and fulfilled lives. They fill the definition of many growing and changing societies; they are just doing it in the microcosm of Greenwich Village, instead of in the boardrooms of high-powered firms. It is unmistakable that some of these vendors could certainly fit into that environment, but simply choose not to.
Third, this microcosm of society has formed its own hierarchy, which stretches from Hasan, who functions as a sort of unofficial leader, down through the ranks of magazine and book vendors and "support" people who help move, store, and place merchandise, and even hold desirable spots on the sidewalks for some of the…… [Read More]
William Graham Sumner was a sociologist during the 19th century who conducted extensive studies on the sociology of society and human interaction. In his study of the dynamics of society, Sumner focuses on the function of social norms for the society. In his discourse, he posits that social norms and traditions that have influenced societies for a long time are the main reason why there is an impediment in the introduction and implementation of social changes or reforms. Moreover, Sumner explains how social reform is an essential part of society's development, and also because changes are an integral part of humankind's natural right to liberty: "The truth is that the social order is fixed by laws of nature precisely analogous to those of the physical order... The evils of society are to a great extent the result of the dogmatism and self-interest of statesmen... Instead of studying the natural laws…… [Read More]
Sociologists do not see war as something humanity is genetically programmed to do, but the result of social forces. Why do they believe this? What is the evidence? If war is not caused by biology, what are some of the social forces that sociologists argue have contributed to it? Illustrate your points with concrete examples from the readings.
According to Howard Zinn, there is no evidence that human beings are innately predisposed to war, biologically or sociologically. War is generated by the actions of governments, not individuals. Zinn justifies his contention by the fact that citizens must be urged through propaganda and monetary rewards to die for the state. This shows that all wars are innately unnatural and totalitarian, given that the state demands that citizens act against their personal interests, such as living to see their children grow up, to die for an abstract concept such as 'national security.'…… [Read More]
Sociology as a field of study entails examining and understanding the behavior of human groups and associated social behavior. In understanding these aspects, the sociologists have, their focus primarily concentrated on the human interactions. These human interactions revolve around how the different social relations influence the behavior and attitudes of the people and how the societies originate, form and change. Human interactions are vast, and so is the field of sociology. It covers virtually all the topics of human life, from gender, race, religion, education, politics, health, group behavior and conformity among others. Sociologist focus on how the society and people influence other people since most personal experiences has their origin from external or social forces.
The social and external forces exist within the society in the form of interpersonal relationships between families and friends. Additionally, these relations form from the encounters in the academic, religious,…… [Read More]
rise of business and the new age of industrial capitalism forced Americans to think about, criticize, and justify the new order -- especially the vast disparities of wealth and power it created. This assignment asks you to consider the nature and meaning of wealth, poverty and inequality in the Gilded Age making use of the perspectives of four people who occupied very different places in the social and intellectual spectrum of late nineteenth-?century America:, the sociologist William Graham Sumner, the writer enry
George, a Massachusetts textile worker named Thomas O'Donnell, and the steel tycoon
For Andrew Carnegie, wealth was a good thing. In his "Gospel of Wealth," Carnegies talks about the problem of "our age" which is the proper administration of wealth. e has his own philosophy of how wealth has come to be unequally distributed with the huge gap existing between those who have little and those…… [Read More]
11-13). These frames also explain how people see situations differently. For instance, two individuals might frame the same activity as volunteering or work. Without frames, society would consist of numerous unrelated interactions. No one would know how to relate to each other. However, Goffman emphasizes that framing can be inhibited by the social organization, which takes the primary role with framing of experiences in everyday social situations. Experiences are organized by each person into frameworks, keys and keyings, and designs and fabrications. The meaning behind an event can be changed by the key from what it actually seems to be into something else. For example, a person might say something may be perceived as an objective statement or keyed as a pun or joke.
ecently, Deborah Tannen is observing how framing works in different settings, where people are not sure of the meaning behind the words. She gives the following…… [Read More]
, 2012). When considering housing for this group it is important to make sure that you do not isolate someone sharing their spiritual or religious beliefs. A social worker who does not keep up with the understanding of the individuals with whom they work could be inadvertently setting up a disaster for such an elderly individual. It is always important to discover, praise, and attend to new developments and changes regarding all aspects of the clients with which the social worker involved.
Christensen, H. (2001). What cognitive changes can be expected with normal ageing?
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 768 -- 775.
Escobar-Bravo, M.A., Puga-Gonzalez, D., & Martin-Baranera, M. (2012). Protective effects of social networks on disability among older adults in Spain. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54(1), 109-116.
Hodge, D.., Horvath, V.E., Larkin, H., & Curl, a.L. (2012). Older adults' spiritual needs in health care…… [Read More]
sociological debate between scientific knowledge and religious knowledge has been occurring for most of the last few centuries (Anesi, 2003a). While the concept of "knowledge" is broad, and the definitions for "knowledge" even more broad (Meja & Stehr, 2000), this paper will only examine the concepts of religious and scientific knowledge, and the debate among modern sociologists between the two. This paper will present a definition of religious knowledge, present sociologists on both sides of the debate, and will examine how religious knowledge is used in Western society. This paper will attempt to show, based on the sociological views discussed, that the use of religious knowledge in today's world is warranted, in some cases.
As stated, the concept of a working definition of "knowledge" is difficult. In the broadest sense, "knowledge" can be thought of as awareness and understanding of facts, truths, or information (Gettier, 1963). According to modern sociology,…… [Read More]
organizational resources are by definition scarce, it is important for sociologists conducting research on the issues of racism and prejudice to employ research techniques with proven efficacy. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning optimal methods for sociological research into the areas of racism and prejudice. A discussion concerning the types of research method that would be the most appropriate for such studies on racism and prejudice, including qualitative or quantitative research, the use interviews, surveys, field research, case study, secondary analysis, or participant observation is followed by an examination concerning how sociologists explain the causes of prejudice. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in the paper's conclusion.
eview and Discussion
To date, sociologists have used a wide range of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies to study racism and prejudice (Dion, 2002). For instance, according to one sociologist, "We…… [Read More]
For example, Tocqueville was able to explain 18th century European aristocrat behavior by looking at social consequences. Like Tocqueville, Marx believed that they could explain individual actions by looking at subconscious class interests. Frey has demonstrated that people will accept individually negative outcomes, if they have positive group benefits.
Nietzsche believed that, while conscious of class interests, individual actions and beliefs should be viewed from an individual perspective, since they are motivated by the positive consequences to the individual actor. In discussing his theory of bounded rationality, Simon seemed to combine elements from the different theorist, by showing how social actions include cognitive dimensions.
3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?
Again, the author does not make it clear how he feels human actions and other forms of human behavior are different. Instead, he explains how various theorists have attempted to differentiate human…… [Read More]
Charles Horton Cooley is a great sociologist who has contributed significantly to the field of sociology. He was born in Michigan State where he studied and work. He was a professor in the University of Michigan and lived near the university with his wife and three children. Looking glass self was one of his greatest works. The paper evaluates some of the sociologist major papers in the field of sociology and economics. The contributions to the conflicts theory and functionalism theory will also be evaluated in the paper. Charles Horton Cooley died in 1929 in the same state he was born of cancer.
Charles Horton Cooley born in 1864 was the forth born in a family of six siblings. His mother was Mary Elizabeth and his father was Thomas Cooley. The family lived in Ann Arbor in Michigan State. He attended the University of Michigan in 1887 where after graduating…… [Read More]
Interpretive sociology does not agree with the thought that behavior is related to society as effect is related to cause since this entire idea is dysfunctional with that which composes social life in reality. Interpretive sociology holds that understanding of our fellow man should be the pursuit of each day as sense is made of their individual societal existence. Seeking to understand is the concept held in interpretive sociology instead of the seeking of an explanation. Therefore it is understood that "structural" or that of Marxism and Functionalism (i.e. The interpretive/interactionist/social action sociologies) as well as Weber's interactionism, ethnomethodology and the Structural arguments in sociology that a "science of society" is likely. Therefore, there exists an agreement even among the interpretive sociologies. The natural science argument is based on "cause and effect" principles. That claim that the behavior of humans is the effect of some cause in society or class…… [Read More]
Sociologist activism in the community that simultaneously brings about information processing and the ideal segment of society for the log run can contribute largely to the containment of the epidemic. (Trickett; Pequegnat, 2005)
The possible solution for the state, where the epidemic ca be spread by a known infected person is to cast a punitive punishment. Perhaps make the event actionable. Thus one of the possible laws that could be brought about to stem the growth of infection could closely follow the laws of pollution and the principles of pollution and the polluter pays principle that is much effective in industrialization. Thus the legal system has procedures to deal with the spread of epidemics although it has been used so far in the case of pollution. Another interesting area where the principle is used and can be cited is the case of cigarettes and the non-smokers inhaling second-hand smoke from…… [Read More]
Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty
Major Schools of Thought and Actors
In Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty, Elaine L. Graham addresses Traditional, Postmodern, Empirical, Liberation and Feminist perspectives on Theology and ultimately on Pastoral Theology. In order to address these perspectives, Graham traces the historical development of each, current theological realities, and prospective "horizons." The result is an extensive review of the Pastoral Theolog (y)(ies) of the Church and its faith communit (y)(ies), viewed very strongly through the feminist pastoral perspective.
As presented by Graham, the Traditional perspective is built on Scripture that is rife with patriarchy and an overarching patriarchal hierarchy. hile providing conventionally binding values and norms, the Traditional perspective is decidedly male-centered: traditionally-based pastoral theology tended to focus on the traits of a good male pastor and was essentially restricted to the pastoral ministry of ordained males.…… [Read More]
Controversies in Sociology
Social Theory Conflicts
Social theory is a fascinating body of work. At its heart is a conglomeration of respected intellectuals, all brilliant in their own right and yet embedded in philosophy that can completely contradict another philosophy. The concept of social theory as a way of understanding society then sometimes seems like a maze of information regarding the beliefs of several individuals, that one either agrees with or disagrees with depending on his/her own knowledge experience and personality. The three sets of social theory that will be examined with in this short work are: conflict theory vs. functionalism, psychological reductionist vs. non-reductionist and value-free vs. value-committed social structure.
Social Conflict theory is one of the earliest recognized forms of social theory. Social conflict theory regards society as a conglomeration of individuals, be they institutions or people all attempting to gain a finite amount of resources. In this…… [Read More]
The emphasis on social stability, as seen in many institutions' suspicion regarding social change, can lead to the perpetuation of social inequality. In some instances, there is even a stronger link between religion and power structures.
The caste system in India privileges the rights of the priestly class. However, political leaders in India have also formed strong ties with the Brahmin class. These ties serve to "legitimize" the power in the political government.
Evaluating conflict theory
Conflict theory provides several important insights regarding the conservative role that religion has played in society. McGuire and Collins' study provide specific cases that uphold Marx's original premise. These studies show how conflict thinking still remains relevant, even until today.
However, the emphasis on the conservative and status quo orientation of religion also glosses over religion's liberating potential. Theologians like Gustavo Gutierrez, a priest who served in a Peruvian slum in the 1960s, argued…… [Read More]
This is a fact that is virtually undisputed among the sociological and medical school of thought and practice. Many researchers of late have suggested alternative approaches to treating abnormal behaviors evident in persons diagnosed with mental illness.
By far the most common of these is a cooperative approach to care that involves treatment utilizing pharmacological and cognitive or counseling therapies. It is believed that the combination of both of these will work in tandem to best serve the needs of the patient afflicted with a mental illness. A cooperative approach to treating mental illness will also guarantee that both the sociological aspects and physiological aspects of the disease are treated adequately.
Buelow, G., & Hebert, S. (1995). Counselor's resource on psychiatric medications, issues of treatment and referral. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Christensen, O.J., England, J.T. & Scovel, K.A. (2002). "Mental health counselors'
Perceptions regarding Psychopharmacological prescriptive privileges." Journal of…… [Read More]
" (Barron et. al. 1994) third sociological explanation of individualist precepts is found in social learning theory:
Social learning theory tells us that people adopt others (particularly influential persons) as models for their own behavior. Widespread corruption and lawbreaking by society's leaders may therefore have a profound disinhibiting effect on the rest of the population. According to this thesis, the prevalence of crime and corruption leads to further crime and corruption. Thus, crime is, according to such an explanation, not merely related to antecedent conditions, such as poverty and general disadvantage, but can gather its own momentum. (Gabor, 1990)
Evaluate 2 of the sociological explanations:
The concept that all one needs to stop poverty is "rational self-interest and self-maximizing behavior" is ignorant of the real world at best and cruel beyond words at worst.
Social learning theory, it seems on reflection, would excuse almost any behavior on the grounds that…… [Read More]
Family & Sociology of Marriage
The purpose and social function of marriage has changed. While marriage was once a binding declaration of commitment and love to another person of the opposite gender, avowed and proclaimed in a holy ceremony, today marriage has become a catch all; a legally binding contract between two people who, for any reason, can choose to end the marriage without stigma or difficulty. Today, half of marriages end in divorce (CDC, 2010). And yet, millions of people remain happily married in America. Why? How? What is it that enables some couples to remain not just married, but happily so? Sociologists have analyzed the social, cognitive, and emotional consequences and detriments to failed marriages on the family. esults seem to indicate that successful marriages are not successful by chance, but rather, the product of hard work, compromise and mutual respect. While these criteria do not guarantee a…… [Read More]
Overall, Foucault uses a blend of historical analysis and philosophy as his primary method to answer questions about modern societies.
The primary evidence Foucault uses to justify his comments about human society is how sexuality was viewed in classical times compared to how it is viewed today. He says that governments now regulate sexuality because they have to ensure the longevity and health of their population. Because society now values life more than it did in the past, power is more widespread across the population because of wider sovereignty. Foucault's evidence for this point is not always direct, maybe because his research methods are also not always direct. He says that racism and Nazism are proof that biopolitics now exist. "Nazism was doubtless the most cunning and the most naive (and the former because of the latter) combination of the fantasies of blood and the paraoxysms of a disciplinary power"…… [Read More]
This represents a new kind of immigration that is more global and less structured than previous types of immigration. Author Suarez-Orozco continues, "The cultural models and social practices that we have come to call multiculturalism shape the experiences, perceptions, and behavioral repertoires of immigrants in ways not seen in previous eras of large-scale immigration" (Suarez-Orozco 1). The roles of immigrants are evolving in society, and so are the ways society views immigration, and of course, not all of these views are positive, so immigrants may face even more stresses and disapproval than ever before, which could lead to a resurgence in their embracing their original cultures.
It is not difficult to see how it would be difficult for parents such as Sibel's to quickly accept and approve of their new culture in all areas. Suarez-Orozco continues, "During the course of our research, it has not been difficult to detect that…… [Read More]
contrary, indications of a definite gender pay gap seem to persist. Wanzenreids (2008), for instance, conducted a large-scale study of 108,628 observations on 26,047 executives and 2,598 firms, between the years 1992 to 2003, and showed that women are working for smaller, less profitable firms than men and that female executives earn 14% less than their male colleagues. More so, the gender pay gap is higher towards the upper end of the pay distribution. As recently as 2002, women who worked more than thirty-five hours per week for fifty-two weeks per year earned only 78% as much as men (Giddens, Duneir, & Applebaum, 2003).
Most sociologists (e.g. Alksnis, Desmarais, & Curtis, 2008) seem to think that sexism is the determining factor for the differnce in gender wage, but it may just be that other, less innocuous, reasons may explain the disparity.
These include (1) self-selection by women into female-dominated industries,…… [Read More]
acial and Ethnic Differences National Contexts
A sociologist analyze racial ethnic differences national contexts. For, U.S., tend race a . In order develop skill, select analyze a society demonstrating ethnic stratification conflict, including evidence prejudice discrimination.
In sociology, the predominant line of thought has favored new prejudice interpretations, arguing for the continuing relevance of prejudice and discrimination in forming political opinions and in generating discrimination. New prejudice theories have argued that modern prejudice is multidimensional, combining racial and ostensibly nonracial beliefs. Little known to most sociologists, recent psychological research provides a new approach to understanding the sources of racial discrimination that compliments ideas from the new prejudice literature (Livingston, 2002).
esearch has demonstrated that implicit racial attitudes exist even for individuals who score low on measures of explicit racial prejudice and that these implicit beliefs influence judgments and perceptions. This literature provides one way to reconcile differences between continuing high…… [Read More]
Sociologists base their studies of youth subcultures on structured and unstructured interviews, participant observation and analysis of media, texts and music. Unlike similar studies in the 1950s and 1960s, such as Albert Cohen's Delinquent Boys (1955) that described post-World War II youth cultures as a relatively new and unknown phenomenon, more recent research over the past thirty years has been heavily based on feminist and postmodernist theories. These place special emphasis on the diversity and multiplicity within each subculture, while trying to avoid the stereotypes that commonly appear in the mass media. This new type of sociology also appears to me more journalistic than objective, scientific or value free, rejecting the principles and pretensions of Talcott Parsons and his generation of postwar sociologists. Of course, any type of sociology should still consider questions of ethnicity, social class, immigration, poverty, inequality and violence, although the funding to investigate these…… [Read More]
Diverse and Changing Face of the Family Structure
The state of marriage has statistically changed in recent years, transforming the familiar structure of the nuclear family into an institution of non-traditional deviations. As with any issue, deviations from the norm pose objections and controversy. In the case of the family, philosophical, theological, and social debates revolve around the question of what constitutes the family structure ideal for raising children. The trend in single parenting, a decline in marriage rates, and the introduction of the homosexual family has led to the conservative opinion calling for a return to traditional family values and ethics to counter the demoralization of America. Sociologists, however, observe that family diversity is healthy and should be supported by society. Thus the depiction of the ideal family framework becomes a struggle between social opinions and political agendas. Society is changing, and the family compositions are reflective of those…… [Read More]
influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.
The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas
There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…… [Read More]
Diversity and Environment
Diversity as an object of sociological analyzation comes from the idea that diversity is an issue that affects everyone. The way society is shaped, the way that it functions, and the way that it is structured all have histories in the way that diversity has interacted with each other (Bonacich 1973). From a sociological perspective, diversity is what defines a society. Focusing on one of its most important and influential aspects, the idea of diversity has guided the way society has formed its ideas of one another, and how its reactions vary from situation to situation, comes this idea that diversity even exists. However, diversity goes beyond that of physical differences from person to person. Diversity is a result of the implications that society has put upon every given diverse group (Smedley & Smedley 2005).
When diversity is brought up as an issue impacting economics, negative connotations…… [Read More]
As, it will create vast disparities in society that are having negative impacts on: the courts and corrections. This is because the law will: target the lower ends of society and those groups that are considered to within the minority. An example of this can be seen with various vagrancy laws that have been enacted around the country. On the surface, this appears to be a way for communities to impose law and order. However, the reality is that more minorities have been arrested and convicted under these laws in comparison with whites. This is problematic, because it shows how the different regulations will indirectly discriminate against certain social groups within society. (Cote, 2002, pp. 23 -- 34)
Further evidence of this can be seen with observations from Strieb (2007), who wrote, "Recent examples of how the law itself can lead to racial disparities are found in the war on…… [Read More]
High Fructose orn Syrup - Diffusion in the Agricultural Framework - High-fructose corn syrup news and information. (2011). Natural News.com. ited in: http://www.naturalnews.com/high-fructose_corn_syrup.html
Tags: farming, corn, agricultural supplements, high fructose corn syrup
The idea of diffusion has a number of parts; it may become part of culture through innovation; but may also be the modus operendi of a partnership between big business and government (authoritarian figures in culture). One such example is High-Fructose orn Syrup. Excess corn production and increased pressures from farming lobbies created a governmental program that actually subsidizes farmers to sell to oOps that specialize not in feeding livestock but in producing the "new sugar." The process of diffusion in this article shows the real power of change within a small market through to appropriate channels may serve as either agricultural or biochemical change and diffusion. Of course, this also bleeds over to the numerous fast or…… [Read More]
Incarcerated Mentally Ill Patients
It may sound unbelievable, but on any given day, scholars estimate that almost 70,000 inmates in U.S. prisons are psychotic; and up to 300,000 suffer from mental disorders like depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders. In fact, the U.S. penal system holds three times more people with mental illness than the nation's entire psychiatric hospitals (Kanapaux, 2004). Indeed one of the most telling trends, say some sociologists, is to incarcerate the mentally ill in order to remove them from society. This is sometimes the only alternative because public mental health hospitals have neither the space nor the funding to treat this special population. In fact, the very nature of incarceration tends to have a more traumatic effect on the individual, causing additional damage to their fragile psyche. omen, it appears, are especially vulnerable. These women have often been victimized during an abusive childhood and succession of relationships.…… [Read More]
(Casanova, n.d., pp. 10 -- 26)
The Secularization by odney Stark
In the article titled Secularization, Stark (1999) is discussing how secularization is having a dramatic impact upon the society. This is because organized religion has not offered any kind of new or creative ideas in over two hundred years (which are leading to its decline). Moreover, many of the more mystical religions are experiencing similar decreases. The combination of these factors are important, in showing how there has been fundamental shift in morals and values. (Stark, 1999, pp. 249 -- 273)
Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Stark who said, "The day will come when religion has been relegated to memory and museums. This will not have been caused by modernization, and the demise of faith will bear no resemblance to the process postulated by the secular doctrine." (Stark, 1999, pg. 269) This is illustrating how…… [Read More]
Ehrenreich Meets Mills
The sociologist of the 1950's C. right Mills' paraphrases a common American belief that one's work or livelihood is an exuberant expression of the soul, rather than a way to pay for life's necessities and to provide for one's private pleasures. This cliche about the uplifting nature of work reflects a common, American misapprehension particularly prevalent in Millis' day that what one does for a living in a capitalist society can be equated with one's character and self-worth.
Yet, in her work as an undercover journalist in her text, Nickel and Dimed: On Not Getting By in America, Barbara Ehrenreich noted that this ideology was prevalent amongst lower-wage workers as well. hile working at the lower levels of organizations, far away from Millis' white collar workers, Ehrenreich met individuals in so-called menial jobs who were writers like herself during their off hours, and individuals who put their…… [Read More]
Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners
ESEACH QUESTION AND JUSTIFICATION
On average, women make up about 7% of the total federal and state incarcerated population in the United States. This has increased since the 1980s due to stricter and more severe laws that focus on recreational drug use, a lack of community programs, and fewer treatment centers available for outpatients (Zaitow and Thomas, eds., 2003). According to the National Women's Law Centers, women prisoners report a higher than statistically normal history of domestic violence in their immediate past, and the fastest growing prison population with a disproportionate number of non-Whites forming over 60% of the population. In fact, over 30% of women in prison are serving sentences for murder involving a spouse or partner. The incarceration of women presents far different cultural and sociological issues than those of men -- issues with children, family, sexual politics and more (NWLC, 2012).
The…… [Read More]
Self-Image and Significant Others
Self-image refers to the internal picture than people hold of themselves, meaning it is who we think we are. However, in many cases, who we think we are may not the same as how others see us. In my opinion, a great deal of my self-image comes from how my significant others see me.
For example, everybody has an inherited temperament. (arrat, 1991) Combined with various life experiences, this inherited temperament makes up our personality. Some people are naturally shy and quiet; others may be loud or outgoing. It is possible to change outward behaviors and people can learn to be more outgoing or reserved. However, while the outward behavior may change, the inward temperament usually does not. Therefore, someone who has learned to overcome shyness on the outside may still be inwardly introverted.
A person's self-image is made up of natural temperament and input from…… [Read More]
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…… [Read More]
George Herbert Mead is widely recognized as one of the most influential figures of American sociology. His pioneering work in social psychology helped to establish the reputation the Chicago School of Sociology. His teachings also laid the groundwork for the philosophy of pragmatism in the United States.
This paper focuses on Mead's sociological theory, particularly his contributions to social psychology. The first part of the paper summarizes the key points of Mead's social theory, including an evaluation of his work. The next part then examines how Mead's work can be expanded into other areas of sociological inquiry and sees whether his theories continue to have relevance today.
Mead's Sociological Theory
In his book Mind, Self and Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist, Mead criticizes the then prevailing psychological theories that sought to explain the emergence of consciousness based solely on an individual standpoint. For Mead, a person's consciousness…… [Read More]
When I first began my studies at the University of Massachusetts Boston, I had no idea how much that experience would dramatically alter the course of my life. Prior to entering the University of Massachusetts Boston, I had worked for ten years as a paralegal. While I found my job interesting and fulfilling, I longed to make a larger contribution to the world about me. I also wanted to learn more about the world I lived in, and the people who populated it. A major in sociology at the University of Massachusetts Boston was an obvious choice.
A worked hard during university, and graduated with honors four years after I began my program. During that time, I was actively involved in the university community. I participated in study groups with my peers, volunteered with student council, had interesting discussions with my professors, and participated in a number of extracurricular…… [Read More]
Social World and the Communication Process
Sociological imagination is the essence of sociology. This is imagining that every life of an individual is given form, meaning and significance within the historically specific cultures as well as the ways of organizing social life. Those individuals with a sociological imagination are similar to good sociologists. Social imagination is a standard against which one can judge sociology. Social imagination is therefore a sociological vision a mode of looking at the world, which sees links between the problems of an individual that seem private and important social issues. It is the ability to see things socially and how they interact and bring an influence on one another. This is a concept of being able to think ourselves away from usual routines of one's day-to-day life to view them in a new way. For one to have sociological imagination they have to pull away from…… [Read More]
Communication and Sociology
Sociology and Poverty
Poverty, in absolute terms, is defined as a lack of the things considered basic for human survival. There are many causes of poverty; sociologists, however, explain the existence of poverty using two major approaches -- the structural-functionalism approach and the conflict approach (Andersen & Taylor, 2007). The structural-functionalism theory postulates that poverty is inevitable and is in fact one of the human processes that are necessary for the stability and continuity of society (Andersen & Taylor, 2007). Just as is the case with inequality and stratification, poverty is beneficial to society because it creates a balance that ensures that the best people occupy the most important positions, and the less worthy remain at the bottom (Andersen & Taylor, 2007). The conflict approach agrees with the argument that poverty is inevitable, but disputes the idea that it is beneficial, arguing that poverty exists only because…… [Read More]
Netflix employees "tear, slap, and clack" through a day's work can be easily understood within a classic sociological framework, using either a Marxist or a Durkheim lens. Both Marx and Durkheim would have noted that the Netflix model represents quintessential division of labor. The employees perform one task with maximum efficiency. hile Durkheim would focus primarily on the social contracts and organization of the employees within the Netflix organization, Marx would critique the means by which the Netflix associates are distanced from the owners of the means of production, their labor artificially devalued and exploited, especially given the employees come from developing countries in Africa and Asia. However, the way Sheehan describes the Netflix operation shows that Durkheim's concepts of social solidarity, specialization, and interdependence are indeed requisite to human survival and are inescapable, as the sociologists affirms in his dissertation on the function of the division of labor.
hereas…… [Read More]
Religion and Spirituality in a Broad Sense
Spirituality and religion are two terms that have rather unstable, historically changing definitions, characterized by numerous implied and explicit theological considerations. Further, the general contention is that these definitions are either overly specific or overly generic. A more astonishing fact is, possibly, these researches' level of concurrence that spirituality represents a private, budding, personal and emotional sphere, whilst religion is more public, group-based and fairly stable. Interviews and questionnaire tools arising out of these definitions characteristically undertake measurements of the spirituality element by posing questions with regard to people's self-identity, psychological experiences, and psychological health. By contrast, the element of religion is measured using questions that relate to religious participation, events and undertakings, observance of community or religious code. (Bender 1).
The ideal approach to spirituality would be considering it as a means to know the divine. Individual means to do so are,…… [Read More]
Q1. Research the sociologist W. E. B. Du Bois and discuss his contributions to society.
W. E. B. Du Bois, the author of The Souls of Black Folk, was one of the most notable African-American activists of the early 20th century. In this seminal work, Du Bois outlined what he called the double consciousness of African-Americans, “the sense of looking at one’s self through the eyes of others” (Du Bois 5). Black people were simultaneously excluded from mainstream American society yet also forced to understand it, given that they were rendered into a state of economic dependence on whites, thanks to the legacy of slavery Du Bois also made a claim for African-American culture to be the most American of all cultures, given that it was a unique hybridization of African and European ideas, religion, music, and life.
Du Bois, who received his doctorate from Harvard University and taught sociology…… [Read More]
In addition, the views presented by sociologists concerning idealistic tradition is based on the significance of the concerned group that is sort to motivate, influence to belief and the subject of interest. In this regard, sociologists will not disassociate from the scientific data but will involve the subject of interest to attempt to understand the environment in its own context, showing how sociologists have subjective explanations and not objective ones (Adams et al. 267).
ith regard to the above, there exists queries on whether the sociological theory is a micro or a macro understood occurrence. Apart from the philosophical aspects of knowledge, the micro and macro aspects of sociological theory are highly debated in there associations. It inquires on how these sociological theories on character, reactions, and interpersonal procedures can associate with other social influences. Just like in sciences where there exists micro-macro differences which even with the advanced technology…… [Read More]
sociological readings. One is by Herbert J. Gans, and the other by Peter L. erger. While the readings are interesting, they are also relevant, even though, in the case of Gans, the narrative goes back to 1971,
The Uses of Poverty: The Poor Pay All
y attempting to associate poverty with "positive functions" Gans is stepping out into a narrative that would seem at the outset to be risky. After all, the image that most people have of poor people, poor neighborhoods in urban areas, rural poverty and "low income" minorities, is not a positive one.
ut Gans makes a somewhat cynical (though valid) point when he says the fact of poverty "makes possible" certain "respectable professions"; those professions include people working in prisons, those involved in criminology, social workers, and those in the public health field. Moreover, Gans points out that poor people do the "dirty work" of taking…… [Read More]
According to Peter Berger, there are four motifs of sociological consciousness. These are: 1) the debunking motif, 2) the unrespectability motif, 3) the relativization motif, and 4) the cosmopolitan motif. These four things allow sociologists to sort concepts and understand human psychology slightly better than would be possible without this understanding. Sociologists are human and thus equally subject to the same psychological pitfalls as the cultures and populations that they are studying.
The debunking motif is the idea that sociologists will want to ignore or debunk the rules of the social system that he or she sees. Indeed, there may be occasions where the sociologist in question will be faced with the need to eradicate the mythology of the social system as well. hat is most commonly meant by "debunking" is the process of looking beyond or through what is most obvious. The culture or population being investigated will…… [Read More]
Sociology and Anthropology
Because sociology and anthropology are both social sciences, one might assume that the same research methods would be utilized in the different fields. However, while some of the same approaches can be used in both fields, it is important to realize that the differences in the fields make different approaches possible for each discipline. Sociology specifically examines social life, social change, and the social factors that contribute to individual behavior. Sociologists use surveys, interviews, experiments, observation, and secondary analysis (Sociology.com, 2013). Cultural anthropology examines human culture. Anthropologists employ the following research methods: participant observation, cross-cultural comparison, survey research, interviews, archival research, media analysis, and historical analysis (Donahue-Lynch, 2000). Clearly, the disciplines are related; however, they are not the same. As a result, some approaches that are appropriate for one discipline would not be appropriate for the other discipline. This paper will investigate the different research methods used…… [Read More]
If students are not able to come up with answers the chances are high there is little diversity, or the diversity prevalent is not part of the culture. However, on asking the same question of a culturally diverse organization, sociologists may find students enthusiastic and willing to talk about events, fairs, classes geared toward cultural understanding and an overall sense of multiculturalism and belief systems on campus.
One interesting insight as to the effects of diversity on the educational environment would be to measure student success outcomes, and the presence or lack thereof of support structures including clubs and fraternities that promote diversity and cultural education and acceptance. Sociologists can look at overall attendance rates, it can look at the student population and sociologists may interview or observe students to identify whether they feel included as part of the university culture or whether they feel excluded or like an outsider…… [Read More]
For Giddens, the globalization of these abstract systems offers individuals opportunities and crises in which they must continually rebuild their own lives and identities. From his perspective, the increasing integration of systems does not necessarily signify greater worldwide social integration. In fact, the crises that arise from contradictions between the different abstract systems can actually lead to greater problems of social integration.
egardless of whether one looks at globalization from a uni- or multidimensional perspective or an economic or cultural one, it appears that global social integration will remain problematic in the years to come. Globalization is a relatively new phenomenon. The word "globalization," itself, in fact, was not even used much more than over a decade ago. Thus, the sociology of globalization is only in its infancy, and the theories noted here are just a few examples of others that will be argued. More and more, human societies worldwide…… [Read More]
Deductive vs. Inductive
The author of this report is given a test case example of a sociologist that is conducting research. The author is being asked to discern whether the sociologist in question is engaging in deductive reasoning or if the sociologists is instead using an inductive approach. The author of this report will first define and quantify what each of those terms means along with examples of each. The author will then summarize the test case that was offered and clearly define which method the sociologist is using. While the two methods of research are similar in some ways, the way in which they start and finish is clearly different.
As defined by Alina Bradford on the Live Science website, there is a clear difference between the two types of reasoning. Bradford explains that deductive reason is a "basic form of valid reasoning." She explains that deductive reasoning, also…… [Read More]
He grew up and was educated in an era where scientific progress and rationality were seen as the most effective and promising paradigms for progressive thought and action and there was the cultural belief that science in particular could be the solution to a variety of social ills and problems. This ethos can also be related back to the Enlightenment, which was a period that was seen as a "... new stage in the evolution of humankind, and enabled people to claim a new confidence, a new authority through the operation of reason and its principles." (Traynor, 1999. p. 5) in many ways the theories that Ward propounded can be seen to have been engendered by the faith in progress stemming for the Enlightenment.
Wards extreme faith in human reason has been questioned in modern sociological theory and philosophy. The advent of the sociology of knowledge and the relativistic critique…… [Read More]
He wanted to show how conversation analysis and ethnomethodology may elucidate two interrelated matters of continuing concern to the ethnographer: the role of culture in shaping an informants' behavior and the apparent capacity of an investigated culture to compel the fieldworker to follow local habits of thought.
For this research, Watson defined ethnomethodology as "the study of how people, in their everyday lives, constitute the world as a recognizable state of affairs." Similar to conversation analysis, it is concerned with explication of order in social interaction and attempts to replace the existing Parsonian motivational approach to the analysis of social action to one with procedure. It asks not why but how. stipulates four basic moves in conversation analysis of ethnomethodology: 1) Conversation analysis and ethnomethodology look at utterances as tools for the performance of activities, not just things that stand in for other things. Further, activities performed by utterances are…… [Read More]
What ethical dilemmas do sociologists face?
One dilemma that Sociologists deal with is competence. Many of them do strive to uphold the highest levels of capability in their work. A lot of them try to recognize the limits of their knowledge; and they assume merely those responsibilities for which they are competent by training, education, or knowledge. Sociologists recognize the necessity for continuing education so as to remain professionally competent; and they also apply the suitable scientific, expert, technical, and administrative resources wanted to assure competence in their professional doings. Another dilemma is integrity. Sociologists are fair, honest, and reverent of others in their expert activities -- in teaching, service research, and practice. Sociologists are the ones that do not meaningfully act in ways that risk either their own or others' professional well-being.
What is Culture?
According to Giddens culture is measured by sociologists as something described as the following;…… [Read More]
And it is those negative consequences that could, in the long-term, create alterations in those original basic values. Finally, there is Merton's self-defeating prophecy. Worry about being afraid of some consequence motivates people to take action before the problem exists. The non-occurrence of that problem they acted against, is not anticipated as a possibility.
It is interesting to note here that it is not improbable that the reader of this can place himself or herself in several of these situations and, therefore, see the accuracy, and the depth and complexity of Merton's postulations and conclusions.
Manifest and latent functions were first defined by Merton for the science of sociology. He was attempting to focus on the conceptual practices employed in a functional analysis. Functional analysis is the study of the individual elements of a functioning societal structure such as its customs, traditions and institutions. As Herbert Spencer, a 19th century…… [Read More]
If the parents are loving and supportive, their own unit will probably remain intact and even grow stronger. Outside forces could create many sociological impacts on the family, from censure to even loss of careers. In addition, the altering of values inside the family may pave the way for sociological change in the family members in the future. As sociologist Noble states, "Today most people continue to spend most of their lifetime in nuclear family relationships though they undergo continuing changes in their aspirations and expectations as the structural and demographic circumstances of their lives change" (Noble, 1998). Thus, the two young children in the family may create families of their own that differ from the makeup of their own family, and recognize the diversity of society and family members. The sociological implications of the problem are many, and the family will have to weather them to stay together and…… [Read More]
government policy in criminal justice. Specifically it will answer the question: If we are interested in obtaining a "blind" society regarding human rights, why do we insist on asking a person's race, ethnicity, religion, sex and marital status on private and governmental forms. Should we? Why or why not? If we are indeed a society that is "blind" to the melting pot of races that settle our nation, then why indeed is it necessary to fill out our gender, race, and marital status on just about any form, survey, or government document we sign? America is not a blind society at all. acial tensions have existed in this country from the first. In fact, American has a foundation in racial segregation and racism -- first with the Native Americans, who we robbed of their land and consistently pushed West, and second with the African-Americans, (and indentured servants) that the country…… [Read More]