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War and Peace
Words: 808 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46780973
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Sociologists do not see war as something humanity is genetically programmed to do, but the result of social forces. Why do they believe this? What is the evidence? If war is not caused by biology, what are some of the social forces that sociologists argue have contributed to it? Illustrate your points with concrete examples from the readings.

According to Howard Zinn, there is no evidence that human beings are innately predisposed to war, biologically or sociologically. War is generated by the actions of governments, not individuals. Zinn justifies his contention by the fact that citizens must be urged through propaganda and monetary rewards to die for the state. This shows that all wars are innately unnatural and totalitarian, given that the state demands that citizens act against their personal interests, such as living to see their children grow up, to die for an abstract concept such as 'national security.'…

Sociological Theory
Words: 3338 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14590401
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Sociological Theory

Sociology as a field of study entails examining and understanding the behavior of human groups and associated social behavior. In understanding these aspects, the sociologists have, their focus primarily concentrated on the human interactions. These human interactions revolve around how the different social relations influence the behavior and attitudes of the people and how the societies originate, form and change. Human interactions are vast, and so is the field of sociology. It covers virtually all the topics of human life, from gender, race, religion, education, politics, health, group behavior and conformity among others. Sociologist focus on how the society and people influence other people since most personal experiences has their origin from external or social forces.

Sociological imagination

The social and external forces exist within the society in the form of interpersonal relationships between families and friends. Additionally, these relations form from the encounters in the academic, religious,…


Schaefer, R.T. (2007). Sociology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Ballantine, J.H., & Roberts, K.A. (2010). Our social world: Introduction to sociology. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press, An Imprint of SAGE Publications.

Giddens, A., & Sutton, P.W. (2009). Sociology. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

King, L., & McCarthy, D. (2009). Environmental sociology: From analysis to action. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Rise of Business and the New Age
Words: 1562 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11553680
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rise of business and the new age of industrial capitalism forced Americans to think about, criticize, and justify the new order -- especially the vast disparities of wealth and power it created. This assignment asks you to consider the nature and meaning of wealth, poverty and inequality in the Gilded Age making use of the perspectives of four people who occupied very different places in the social and intellectual spectrum of late nineteenth-?century America:, the sociologist William Graham Sumner, the writer enry

George, a Massachusetts textile worker named Thomas O'Donnell, and the steel tycoon

Andrew Carnegie.

For Andrew Carnegie, wealth was a good thing. In his "Gospel of Wealth," Carnegies talks about the problem of "our age" which is the proper administration of wealth. e has his own philosophy of how wealth has come to be unequally distributed with the huge gap existing between those who have little and those…

Henry George, Progress and Poverty, Major Problems, pp. 20-?22.

Thomas O'Donnell Testimony before a U.S. Senate Committee, 1885 U.S. Congress,

Capital (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1885

Goffman Since the Research Materials
Words: 1194 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20366252
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11-13). These frames also explain how people see situations differently. For instance, two individuals might frame the same activity as volunteering or work. Without frames, society would consist of numerous unrelated interactions. No one would know how to relate to each other. However, Goffman emphasizes that framing can be inhibited by the social organization, which takes the primary role with framing of experiences in everyday social situations. Experiences are organized by each person into frameworks, keys and keyings, and designs and fabrications. The meaning behind an event can be changed by the key from what it actually seems to be into something else. For example, a person might say something may be perceived as an objective statement or keyed as a pun or joke.

ecently, Deborah Tannen is observing how framing works in different settings, where people are not sure of the meaning behind the words. She gives the following…


Goffman, E. (1959) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Anchor

____ (1961). Asylums. NY: Doubleday

____ (1963) Behavior in Public Places. NY: Free Press

____(1967) Interaction Ritual, Chicago: Aldine.

Old the Very Late Old
Words: 1780 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60410136
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, 2012). When considering housing for this group it is important to make sure that you do not isolate someone sharing their spiritual or religious beliefs. A social worker who does not keep up with the understanding of the individuals with whom they work could be inadvertently setting up a disaster for such an elderly individual. It is always important to discover, praise, and attend to new developments and changes regarding all aspects of the clients with which the social worker involved.


Christensen, H. (2001). What cognitive changes can be expected with normal ageing?

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 768 -- 775.

Escobar-Bravo, M.A., Puga-Gonzalez, D., & Martin-Baranera, M. (2012). Protective effects of social networks on disability among older adults in Spain. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54(1), 109-116.

Hodge, D.., Horvath, V.E., Larkin, H., & Curl, a.L. (2012). Older adults' spiritual needs in health care…


Christensen, H. (2001). What cognitive changes can be expected with normal ageing?

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 768 -- 775.

Escobar-Bravo, M.A., Puga-Gonzalez, D., & Martin-Baranera, M. (2012). Protective effects of social networks on disability among older adults in Spain. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54(1), 109-116.

Hodge, D.R., Horvath, V.E., Larkin, H., & Curl, a.L. (2012). Older adults' spiritual needs in health care settings: A qualitative meta-synthesis. Research on Aging, 34(2), 131-155.

Sociology of Knowledge
Words: 1987 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11528288
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sociological debate between scientific knowledge and religious knowledge has been occurring for most of the last few centuries (Anesi, 2003a). While the concept of "knowledge" is broad, and the definitions for "knowledge" even more broad (Meja & Stehr, 2000), this paper will only examine the concepts of religious and scientific knowledge, and the debate among modern sociologists between the two. This paper will present a definition of religious knowledge, present sociologists on both sides of the debate, and will examine how religious knowledge is used in Western society. This paper will attempt to show, based on the sociological views discussed, that the use of religious knowledge in today's world is warranted, in some cases.

As stated, the concept of a working definition of "knowledge" is difficult. In the broadest sense, "knowledge" can be thought of as awareness and understanding of facts, truths, or information (Gettier, 1963). According to modern sociology,…


Alvin P. (1981) The reformed objection to natural theology. Christian Scholar's Review, 11: 187-198.

Alvin P. (1982) On reformed epistemology. The Reformed Journal, 32, January, pp. 13-17.

Anesi, G. (2003a) On the Application of Scientific Knowledge. Dept. Of Humanities, University of Chicago. Online. Retrieved Oct 20, 2004 from the University of Chicago. Web site:

Anesi, G. (2003b) In Pursuit: Knowledge, Confidence, and Deceit in Descartes and Shakespeare. Dept. Of Humanities, University of Chicago. Online. Retrieved Oct 20, 2004 from the University of Chicago. Web site:

Causes of Prejudice
Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83817162
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organizational resources are by definition scarce, it is important for sociologists conducting research on the issues of racism and prejudice to employ research techniques with proven efficacy. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning optimal methods for sociological research into the areas of racism and prejudice. A discussion concerning the types of research method that would be the most appropriate for such studies on racism and prejudice, including qualitative or quantitative research, the use interviews, surveys, field research, case study, secondary analysis, or participant observation is followed by an examination concerning how sociologists explain the causes of prejudice. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in the paper's conclusion.

eview and Discussion

To date, sociologists have used a wide range of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies to study racism and prejudice (Dion, 2002). For instance, according to one sociologist, "We…


Dion, K. (2002, February). The social psychology of perceived prejudice and discrimination.

Canadian Psychology, 43(1), 1-5.

Farley, J.E. (2005). Majority -- minority relations, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Grinnell, R.M. Jr. & Unrau, Y.A. (2005). Social work research and evaluation: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. New York: Oxford University Press.

Boudon 2001 Theories of Social
Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 87823124
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For example, Tocqueville was able to explain 18th century European aristocrat behavior by looking at social consequences. Like Tocqueville, Marx believed that they could explain individual actions by looking at subconscious class interests. Frey has demonstrated that people will accept individually negative outcomes, if they have positive group benefits.

Nietzsche believed that, while conscious of class interests, individual actions and beliefs should be viewed from an individual perspective, since they are motivated by the positive consequences to the individual actor. In discussing his theory of bounded rationality, Simon seemed to combine elements from the different theorist, by showing how social actions include cognitive dimensions.

3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?

Again, the author does not make it clear how he feels human actions and other forms of human behavior are different. Instead, he explains how various theorists have attempted to differentiate human…

Charles Horton Cooley
Words: 1360 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95707938
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Charles Horton Cooley is a great sociologist who has contributed significantly to the field of sociology. He was born in Michigan State where he studied and work. He was a professor in the University of Michigan and lived near the university with his wife and three children. Looking glass self was one of his greatest works. The paper evaluates some of the sociologist major papers in the field of sociology and economics. The contributions to the conflicts theory and functionalism theory will also be evaluated in the paper. Charles Horton Cooley died in 1929 in the same state he was born of cancer.

Charles Horton Cooley born in 1864 was the forth born in a family of six siblings. His mother was Mary Elizabeth and his father was Thomas Cooley. The family lived in Ann Arbor in Michigan State. He attended the University of Michigan in 1887 where after graduating…


Ju, Biung-ghi. 2010. "Individual Powers and Social Consent: An Axiomatic Approach." Social Choice and Welfare 34(4):571-596

Landon, Charles E. 1960. "Technological Progress in Transportation on the Mississippi River System." The Journal of Business (Pre-1986) 33(1):43-43

Westley, Bruce. 1976. "Setting the Political Agenda what Makes it Change?" Journal of Communication (Pre-1986) 26(2):43

Sociology of Poverty and Welfare
Words: 3817 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79188435
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Interpretive sociology does not agree with the thought that behavior is related to society as effect is related to cause since this entire idea is dysfunctional with that which composes social life in reality. Interpretive sociology holds that understanding of our fellow man should be the pursuit of each day as sense is made of their individual societal existence. Seeking to understand is the concept held in interpretive sociology instead of the seeking of an explanation. Therefore it is understood that "structural" or that of Marxism and Functionalism (i.e. The interpretive/interactionist/social action sociologies) as well as Weber's interactionism, ethnomethodology and the Structural arguments in sociology that a "science of society" is likely. Therefore, there exists an agreement even among the interpretive sociologies. The natural science argument is based on "cause and effect" principles. That claim that the behavior of humans is the effect of some cause in society or class…


Townsend, Peter (1970) the Concept of Poverty. Heinemann Weber, Max (1958) the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Gilbert (1999) Social Research Update No. 27 University of Surrey Department of Sociology

Marx, Karl (1970) first published 1870 capital Vol.1 Penguin.

Sanjeev Prakash is Director of the Environment, Technology and Institutional

Sex and AIDS on How
Words: 998 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77617850
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Sociologist activism in the community that simultaneously brings about information processing and the ideal segment of society for the log run can contribute largely to the containment of the epidemic. (Trickett; Pequegnat, 2005)

The possible solution for the state, where the epidemic ca be spread by a known infected person is to cast a punitive punishment. Perhaps make the event actionable. Thus one of the possible laws that could be brought about to stem the growth of infection could closely follow the laws of pollution and the principles of pollution and the polluter pays principle that is much effective in industrialization. Thus the legal system has procedures to deal with the spread of epidemics although it has been used so far in the case of pollution. Another interesting area where the principle is used and can be cited is the case of cigarettes and the non-smokers inhaling second-hand smoke from…


Andersen, Margaret L; Taylor, Howard Francis. (2005) "Understanding a diverse society" Cengage Learning.

Moore, Melinda; Forst, Martin Lyle. (1996) "AIDS education: Reaching diverse populations" Greenwood Publishing Group.

Murphy, Raymond. (1997) "Sociology and Nature: Social Action in Context." Westview

Press: Boulder, CO.

Controversies in Sociology
Words: 714 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90632133
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Controversies in Sociology

Social Theory Conflicts

Social theory is a fascinating body of work. At its heart is a conglomeration of respected intellectuals, all brilliant in their own right and yet embedded in philosophy that can completely contradict another philosophy. The concept of social theory as a way of understanding society then sometimes seems like a maze of information regarding the beliefs of several individuals, that one either agrees with or disagrees with depending on his/her own knowledge experience and personality. The three sets of social theory that will be examined with in this short work are: conflict theory vs. functionalism, psychological reductionist vs. non-reductionist and value-free vs. value-committed social structure.

Social Conflict theory is one of the earliest recognized forms of social theory. Social conflict theory regards society as a conglomeration of individuals, be they institutions or people all attempting to gain a finite amount of resources. In this…

Works Cited

Homans' social exchange theory May, 07, 2003.

Cronk, George (2000) "George Herbert Mead." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. May 7, 2003. .

Moen, Elizabeth W. (1989) "Causes and Consequences of Poverty: Local Theory in South

India.." May 07, 2003. .

Sociology and Religion Sociological Study
Words: 1646 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66440978
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The emphasis on social stability, as seen in many institutions' suspicion regarding social change, can lead to the perpetuation of social inequality. In some instances, there is even a stronger link between religion and power structures.

The caste system in India privileges the rights of the priestly class. However, political leaders in India have also formed strong ties with the Brahmin class. These ties serve to "legitimize" the power in the political government.

Evaluating conflict theory

Conflict theory provides several important insights regarding the conservative role that religion has played in society. McGuire and Collins' study provide specific cases that uphold Marx's original premise. These studies show how conflict thinking still remains relevant, even until today.

However, the emphasis on the conservative and status quo orientation of religion also glosses over religion's liberating potential. Theologians like Gustavo Gutierrez, a priest who served in a Peruvian slum in the 1960s, argued…

Works Cited

Collins, Randall (1981). Sociology since mid century: Essays in theory cumulation. New York: Academic Press.

Durkheim, Emile. (1912). The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. New York: Oxford University Press

Hunter, James Davison. (1983). American evangelicalism: Conservative religion and the quandary of modernity. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Lawson, R. (1998). From American church to immigrant church: the changing face of seventh-day Adventism in metropolitan new York. Sociology of Religion, Winter 1998. Retrieved Oct 23, 2004, at .

Limitations of Treating Mental Illness
Words: 1524 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90524678
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This is a fact that is virtually undisputed among the sociological and medical school of thought and practice. Many researchers of late have suggested alternative approaches to treating abnormal behaviors evident in persons diagnosed with mental illness.

By far the most common of these is a cooperative approach to care that involves treatment utilizing pharmacological and cognitive or counseling therapies. It is believed that the combination of both of these will work in tandem to best serve the needs of the patient afflicted with a mental illness. A cooperative approach to treating mental illness will also guarantee that both the sociological aspects and physiological aspects of the disease are treated adequately.


Buelow, G., & Hebert, S. (1995). Counselor's resource on psychiatric medications, issues of treatment and referral. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Christensen, O.J., England, J.T. & Scovel, K.A. (2002). "Mental health counselors'

Perceptions regarding Psychopharmacological prescriptive privileges." Journal of…


Buelow, G., & Hebert, S. (1995). Counselor's resource on psychiatric medications, issues of treatment and referral. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Christensen, O.J., England, J.T. & Scovel, K.A. (2002). "Mental health counselors'

Perceptions regarding Psychopharmacological prescriptive privileges." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(1), 36

Hagan, J. (1991). "The disreputable pleasures: Crime and deviance in Canada, 3rd ed."

Poverty Welfare and Sociology Poverty
Words: 2176 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47217994
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" (Barron et. al. 1994) third sociological explanation of individualist precepts is found in social learning theory:

Social learning theory tells us that people adopt others (particularly influential persons) as models for their own behavior. Widespread corruption and lawbreaking by society's leaders may therefore have a profound disinhibiting effect on the rest of the population. According to this thesis, the prevalence of crime and corruption leads to further crime and corruption. Thus, crime is, according to such an explanation, not merely related to antecedent conditions, such as poverty and general disadvantage, but can gather its own momentum. (Gabor, 1990)

Evaluate 2 of the sociological explanations:

The concept that all one needs to stop poverty is "rational self-interest and self-maximizing behavior" is ignorant of the real world at best and cruel beyond words at worst.

Social learning theory, it seems on reflection, would excuse almost any behavior on the grounds that…



Family & Sociology of Marriage the Purpose
Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80928457
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Family & Sociology of Marriage

The purpose and social function of marriage has changed. While marriage was once a binding declaration of commitment and love to another person of the opposite gender, avowed and proclaimed in a holy ceremony, today marriage has become a catch all; a legally binding contract between two people who, for any reason, can choose to end the marriage without stigma or difficulty. Today, half of marriages end in divorce (CDC, 2010). And yet, millions of people remain happily married in America. Why? How? What is it that enables some couples to remain not just married, but happily so? Sociologists have analyzed the social, cognitive, and emotional consequences and detriments to failed marriages on the family. esults seem to indicate that successful marriages are not successful by chance, but rather, the product of hard work, compromise and mutual respect. While these criteria do not guarantee a…


Dankin, J., Wampler, R. (2008). Money Doesn't Buy Happiness, but It Helps: Marital Satisfaction, Psychological Distress, and Demographic Differences Between Low- and Middle-Income Clinic Couples. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 36:300 -- 311.

Freeman, C., Carlson, J., & Sperry, L. (1993). Adlerian marital therapy strategies with middle income couples facing financial stress. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 21(4), 324 -- 332.

Reis, H.T., and Collins, N. (2000).Measuring relationship properties and interactions relevant to social support. In S. Cohen, L.G. Underwood, & B.H. Gottlieb (Eds.), Social support measurement and intervention: A guide for health and social scientists (pp. 136 -- 194). New York: Oxford University Press.

Rogers, S.J. (2004). Dollar, dependency, and divorce: Four perspectives on the role of wives' income. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 59 -- 74.

Right of Death and Power
Words: 886 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9569450
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Overall, Foucault uses a blend of historical analysis and philosophy as his primary method to answer questions about modern societies.

The primary evidence Foucault uses to justify his comments about human society is how sexuality was viewed in classical times compared to how it is viewed today. He says that governments now regulate sexuality because they have to ensure the longevity and health of their population. Because society now values life more than it did in the past, power is more widespread across the population because of wider sovereignty. Foucault's evidence for this point is not always direct, maybe because his research methods are also not always direct. He says that racism and Nazism are proof that biopolitics now exist. "Nazism was doubtless the most cunning and the most naive (and the former because of the latter) combination of the fantasies of blood and the paraoxysms of a disciplinary power"…

Works Cited

Foucault, Michel. "The Right of Death and Power Over Life." History of Sexuality: Vol I.

Head on Directed by Fatih
Words: 1455 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 35689207
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This represents a new kind of immigration that is more global and less structured than previous types of immigration. Author Suarez-Orozco continues, "The cultural models and social practices that we have come to call multiculturalism shape the experiences, perceptions, and behavioral repertoires of immigrants in ways not seen in previous eras of large-scale immigration" (Suarez-Orozco 1). The roles of immigrants are evolving in society, and so are the ways society views immigration, and of course, not all of these views are positive, so immigrants may face even more stresses and disapproval than ever before, which could lead to a resurgence in their embracing their original cultures.

It is not difficult to see how it would be difficult for parents such as Sibel's to quickly accept and approve of their new culture in all areas. Suarez-Orozco continues, "During the course of our research, it has not been difficult to detect that…


Editors. "From Bare to Bear for Ex-Porn Queen." DW-World. 2004. 3 April 2009.


Ramakrishnan, S. Karthick. Democracy in Immigrant America: Changing Demographics and Political Participation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2005.

Stern, Mark J., Susan C. Seifert, and Domenic Vitiello. "Migrants, Communities, and Culture." The Reinvestment Fund.. 2008. 3 April 2009. 1-12.

Problem in Society
Words: 941 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43570695
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contrary, indications of a definite gender pay gap seem to persist. Wanzenreids (2008), for instance, conducted a large-scale study of 108,628 observations on 26,047 executives and 2,598 firms, between the years 1992 to 2003, and showed that women are working for smaller, less profitable firms than men and that female executives earn 14% less than their male colleagues. More so, the gender pay gap is higher towards the upper end of the pay distribution. As recently as 2002, women who worked more than thirty-five hours per week for fifty-two weeks per year earned only 78% as much as men (Giddens, Duneir, & Applebaum, 2003).

Most sociologists (e.g. Alksnis, Desmarais, & Curtis, 2008) seem to think that sexism is the determining factor for the differnce in gender wage, but it may just be that other, less innocuous, reasons may explain the disparity.

These include (1) self-selection by women into female-dominated industries,…


Alksnis, C., Desmarais, S., & Curtis, J. (2008), Workforce segregation and the gender wage gap, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 1416-1441.

Giddens, A., Duneir, M. & Applebaum, R. (2003) Introduction to Sociology, London: Norton & Co.

Wanzenreid, G. (2004). How feminine is corporate America? J. Econ. Inequal, 6, 185-209.

Racial and Ethnic Differences National Contexts a
Words: 1999 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45324950
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acial and Ethnic Differences National Contexts

A sociologist analyze racial ethnic differences national contexts. For, U.S., tend race a . In order develop skill, select analyze a society demonstrating ethnic stratification conflict, including evidence prejudice discrimination.

In sociology, the predominant line of thought has favored new prejudice interpretations, arguing for the continuing relevance of prejudice and discrimination in forming political opinions and in generating discrimination. New prejudice theories have argued that modern prejudice is multidimensional, combining racial and ostensibly nonracial beliefs. Little known to most sociologists, recent psychological research provides a new approach to understanding the sources of racial discrimination that compliments ideas from the new prejudice literature (Livingston, 2002).

esearch has demonstrated that implicit racial attitudes exist even for individuals who score low on measures of explicit racial prejudice and that these implicit beliefs influence judgments and perceptions. This literature provides one way to reconcile differences between continuing high…


Brockner, J., & Wiesenfeld, B. (2000). An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: Interactive effects of outcomes and procedures. Psychological Bulletin, 120(1), 189-208.

Census Bureau U.S. (2001). (2001). The Hispanic population: 1990-2000 growth and change., . Washington DC:: Guzmin.

Feather, N.T. (2002). Values and value dilemmas in relation to judgments concerning outcomes of an industrial conflict. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,, 28(2), 446-459.

Issacharoff, S., Karlan, P.S., & Pildes, R.H. (2002). The law of democracy: Legal structure of the political process (Rev. 2nd ed.). . New York: Foundation Press.

Understanding Youth
Words: 984 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61762942
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Youth Subcultures

Sociologists base their studies of youth subcultures on structured and unstructured interviews, participant observation and analysis of media, texts and music. Unlike similar studies in the 1950s and 1960s, such as Albert Cohen's Delinquent Boys (1955) that described post-World War II youth cultures as a relatively new and unknown phenomenon, more recent research over the past thirty years has been heavily based on feminist and postmodernist theories. These place special emphasis on the diversity and multiplicity within each subculture, while trying to avoid the stereotypes that commonly appear in the mass media. This new type of sociology also appears to me more journalistic than objective, scientific or value free, rejecting the principles and pretensions of Talcott Parsons and his generation of postwar sociologists. Of course, any type of sociology should still consider questions of ethnicity, social class, immigration, poverty, inequality and violence, although the funding to investigate these…


Wilson, B. (2006). Fight, Flight, or Chill: Subcultures, Youth and Rave into the Twenty-First Century. McGill-Queen's University Press.

Wood, R.T. (2006). Straightedge Youth: Complexity and Contradictions of a Subculture. Syracuse University Press.

Family Institutions That Oversee the Bearing and Raising of Children
Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13750686
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Diverse and Changing Face of the Family Structure

The state of marriage has statistically changed in recent years, transforming the familiar structure of the nuclear family into an institution of non-traditional deviations. As with any issue, deviations from the norm pose objections and controversy. In the case of the family, philosophical, theological, and social debates revolve around the question of what constitutes the family structure ideal for raising children. The trend in single parenting, a decline in marriage rates, and the introduction of the homosexual family has led to the conservative opinion calling for a return to traditional family values and ethics to counter the demoralization of America. Sociologists, however, observe that family diversity is healthy and should be supported by society. Thus the depiction of the ideal family framework becomes a struggle between social opinions and political agendas. Society is changing, and the family compositions are reflective of those…


Harms, William. (1999, Nov. 24). "Marriage wanes as American families enter new century,

University of Chicago research shows." The University of Chicago News Office.

Herbst, Matthew T. (2003, July). "Do Family Values Lead to Family Violence?: A Consideration

of the Idea of Family." Quodlibet: Online Journal of Christian Theology and Philosophy. 5:2-3. Retrieved February 17, 2004.

Influential Theories Related to Deviance by Robert
Words: 3803 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29991827
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influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.

The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas

There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…


American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from 

Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.

Bivens, T. (2004). Robert K. Merton Draft. Florida State University Publications

Calhoun, C. (2003). Remembering Robert K. Merton. Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton. 175-220. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Diversity and Environment
Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69139646
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Diversity and Environment

Diversity as an object of sociological analyzation comes from the idea that diversity is an issue that affects everyone. The way society is shaped, the way that it functions, and the way that it is structured all have histories in the way that diversity has interacted with each other (Bonacich 1973). From a sociological perspective, diversity is what defines a society. Focusing on one of its most important and influential aspects, the idea of diversity has guided the way society has formed its ideas of one another, and how its reactions vary from situation to situation, comes this idea that diversity even exists. However, diversity goes beyond that of physical differences from person to person. Diversity is a result of the implications that society has put upon every given diverse group (Smedley & Smedley 2005).

When diversity is brought up as an issue impacting economics, negative connotations…


Bonacich, E. (1973). A theory of middleman minorities. American Sociological Review 38(5), 583-594.

Clark, R., Anderson, N.B., Clark, V.R. & Williams, D.R. (1999). Racism as a stressor for African-Americans: a biopsychosocial model. American Psychologist, 54(10), 805-816.

Duster, T. (2003). The reality of race. Scientific American

Eberhardt, J.L. (2005). Imaging race. American Psychologist, 60(2), 181-190.

Diversity on the Criminal Justice
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As, it will create vast disparities in society that are having negative impacts on: the courts and corrections. This is because the law will: target the lower ends of society and those groups that are considered to within the minority. An example of this can be seen with various vagrancy laws that have been enacted around the country. On the surface, this appears to be a way for communities to impose law and order. However, the reality is that more minorities have been arrested and convicted under these laws in comparison with whites. This is problematic, because it shows how the different regulations will indirectly discriminate against certain social groups within society. (Cote, 2002, pp. 23 -- 34)

Further evidence of this can be seen with observations from Strieb (2007), who wrote, "Recent examples of how the law itself can lead to racial disparities are found in the war on…


Cote, S. (2002). Criminological Theories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

Hil, R. (2002). Facing Change. Western Criminology Review. Retrieved from:

Quigley, B. (2010). Fourteen Examples of Racism. Huffington Post. Retrieved from: 

Siegel, L. (2010). Introduction to Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Diffusion of Innovation 2 in
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High Fructose orn Syrup - Diffusion in the Agricultural Framework - High-fructose corn syrup news and information. (2011). Natural ited in:

Tags: farming, corn, agricultural supplements, high fructose corn syrup

The idea of diffusion has a number of parts; it may become part of culture through innovation; but may also be the modus operendi of a partnership between big business and government (authoritarian figures in culture). One such example is High-Fructose orn Syrup. Excess corn production and increased pressures from farming lobbies created a governmental program that actually subsidizes farmers to sell to oOps that specialize not in feeding livestock but in producing the "new sugar." The process of diffusion in this article shows the real power of change within a small market through to appropriate channels may serve as either agricultural or biochemical change and diffusion. Of course, this also bleeds over to the numerous fast or…

Cited in:

Tags: GPS, Satellite mapping, modern mapping, garmin, mapping software

A GPS system is a devise that receives and utilizes Global Positioning Satellite data for the person of determining that device's location on earth, mapping the terrain, or providing current locations for installed equipment. There are a number of industries in which this technology

Incarcerated Mentally Ill Patients it May Sound
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Incarcerated Mentally Ill Patients

It may sound unbelievable, but on any given day, scholars estimate that almost 70,000 inmates in U.S. prisons are psychotic; and up to 300,000 suffer from mental disorders like depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders. In fact, the U.S. penal system holds three times more people with mental illness than the nation's entire psychiatric hospitals (Kanapaux, 2004). Indeed one of the most telling trends, say some sociologists, is to incarcerate the mentally ill in order to remove them from society. This is sometimes the only alternative because public mental health hospitals have neither the space nor the funding to treat this special population. In fact, the very nature of incarceration tends to have a more traumatic effect on the individual, causing additional damage to their fragile psyche. omen, it appears, are especially vulnerable. These women have often been victimized during an abusive childhood and succession of relationships.…

Works Cited

Majority of Mentall Ill Inmates Don't Get Treatment. (2010, April 7). Retrieved October 2011, from

ACLU. (2007, January 30). Solitary Confinment Called Inappropriate for Mentally Ill. Retrieved October 2011, from 

American Psychatric Assocaition. (2000). Psychiatric Services in Jails and Prisons. Washington, DC: American Psychatric Press.

American Psychiatric Association. (2006, December). The Use of Restraint and Seculusion in Correctional Mental Health Care. Retrieved October 2011, from

Religious Secularization Has Been Increasingly
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(Casanova, n.d., pp. 10 -- 26)

The Secularization by odney Stark

In the article titled Secularization, Stark (1999) is discussing how secularization is having a dramatic impact upon the society. This is because organized religion has not offered any kind of new or creative ideas in over two hundred years (which are leading to its decline). Moreover, many of the more mystical religions are experiencing similar decreases. The combination of these factors are important, in showing how there has been fundamental shift in morals and values. (Stark, 1999, pp. 249 -- 273)

Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Stark who said, "The day will come when religion has been relegated to memory and museums. This will not have been caused by modernization, and the demise of faith will bear no resemblance to the process postulated by the secular doctrine." (Stark, 1999, pg. 269) This is illustrating how…


Casanova, J. (n.d.). Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Stark, R. (1999). Secularization. Sociology of Religion 60 (3), 249 -- 273.

Stark, R. (n.d.). The Dynamics of Religious Economies.

Relationship of Class
Words: 450 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8764175
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Ehrenreich Meets Mills

The sociologist of the 1950's C. right Mills' paraphrases a common American belief that one's work or livelihood is an exuberant expression of the soul, rather than a way to pay for life's necessities and to provide for one's private pleasures. This cliche about the uplifting nature of work reflects a common, American misapprehension particularly prevalent in Millis' day that what one does for a living in a capitalist society can be equated with one's character and self-worth.

Yet, in her work as an undercover journalist in her text, Nickel and Dimed: On Not Getting By in America, Barbara Ehrenreich noted that this ideology was prevalent amongst lower-wage workers as well. hile working at the lower levels of organizations, far away from Millis' white collar workers, Ehrenreich met individuals in so-called menial jobs who were writers like herself during their off hours, and individuals who put their…

Works Cited

Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed: On Not Getting By in America. Houghton Mifflin, 2001.

Mills, C. Wright. The White-Collar Worker. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1951.

Sociology Significant Others
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Self-Image and Significant Others

Self-image refers to the internal picture than people hold of themselves, meaning it is who we think we are. However, in many cases, who we think we are may not the same as how others see us. In my opinion, a great deal of my self-image comes from how my significant others see me.

For example, everybody has an inherited temperament. (arrat, 1991) Combined with various life experiences, this inherited temperament makes up our personality. Some people are naturally shy and quiet; others may be loud or outgoing. It is possible to change outward behaviors and people can learn to be more outgoing or reserved. However, while the outward behavior may change, the inward temperament usually does not. Therefore, someone who has learned to overcome shyness on the outside may still be inwardly introverted.

A person's self-image is made up of natural temperament and input from…


Aboulafia, Mitchell. The Mediating Self: Mead, Sartre, and Self-Determination. Yale University Press, 1986.

Adorno, Theodore. Introduction to Sociology. Stanford University Press, 2000.

Situating the Self: Gender, Community and Postmodernism in Contemporary Ethics. Routledge, 1992.

Barrat, D. & T. Cole) Sociology projects: a students' guide. Routledge, 1991.

Political Science History
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conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement

Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.

Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…


George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 . National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis

Volume Library #2, p. 2146

Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism

McGinnis, National Review Online

Robert Mead
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George Herbert Mead is widely recognized as one of the most influential figures of American sociology. His pioneering work in social psychology helped to establish the reputation the Chicago School of Sociology. His teachings also laid the groundwork for the philosophy of pragmatism in the United States.

This paper focuses on Mead's sociological theory, particularly his contributions to social psychology. The first part of the paper summarizes the key points of Mead's social theory, including an evaluation of his work. The next part then examines how Mead's work can be expanded into other areas of sociological inquiry and sees whether his theories continue to have relevance today.

Mead's Sociological Theory

In his book Mind, Self and Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist, Mead criticizes the then prevailing psychological theories that sought to explain the emergence of consciousness based solely on an individual standpoint. For Mead, a person's consciousness…

Works Cited

Coser, Lewis. Masters of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context. New York: International Thomson Publishing, 1977.

Mead, George Herbert. Mind, Self and Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.

Mills, Charles Wright. The Sociological Imagination. New York: Grove Press, 1961.

Rosenthal, Sandra. Mead and Merlu-Ponty: Towards a Common Vision. Albany: SUNY Press, 1991.

University of Massachusetts Boston
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When I first began my studies at the University of Massachusetts Boston, I had no idea how much that experience would dramatically alter the course of my life. Prior to entering the University of Massachusetts Boston, I had worked for ten years as a paralegal. While I found my job interesting and fulfilling, I longed to make a larger contribution to the world about me. I also wanted to learn more about the world I lived in, and the people who populated it. A major in sociology at the University of Massachusetts Boston was an obvious choice.

A worked hard during university, and graduated with honors four years after I began my program. During that time, I was actively involved in the university community. I participated in study groups with my peers, volunteered with student council, had interesting discussions with my professors, and participated in a number of extracurricular…

Communication and the Social World
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Social World and the Communication Process

Sociological imagination is the essence of sociology. This is imagining that every life of an individual is given form, meaning and significance within the historically specific cultures as well as the ways of organizing social life. Those individuals with a sociological imagination are similar to good sociologists. Social imagination is a standard against which one can judge sociology. Social imagination is therefore a sociological vision a mode of looking at the world, which sees links between the problems of an individual that seem private and important social issues. It is the ability to see things socially and how they interact and bring an influence on one another. This is a concept of being able to think ourselves away from usual routines of one's day-to-day life to view them in a new way. For one to have sociological imagination they have to pull away from…


Crossman, A., (2010).The sociological imagination. Retrieved July 10, 2014 from

Sociology and Communication
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Communication and Sociology

Sociology and Poverty

Poverty, in absolute terms, is defined as a lack of the things considered basic for human survival. There are many causes of poverty; sociologists, however, explain the existence of poverty using two major approaches -- the structural-functionalism approach and the conflict approach (Andersen & Taylor, 2007). The structural-functionalism theory postulates that poverty is inevitable and is in fact one of the human processes that are necessary for the stability and continuity of society (Andersen & Taylor, 2007). Just as is the case with inequality and stratification, poverty is beneficial to society because it creates a balance that ensures that the best people occupy the most important positions, and the less worthy remain at the bottom (Andersen & Taylor, 2007). The conflict approach agrees with the argument that poverty is inevitable, but disputes the idea that it is beneficial, arguing that poverty exists only because…


Andersen, M. & Taylor, H. (2007). Sociology: Understanding a Diverse Society, Updated (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Kornblum, W. (2007). Sociology in a Changing World (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

University of Washington. (2014). Presentation Tips. University of Washington. Retrieved 26 July 2014 from

Netflix Employees Tear Slap and Clack Through
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Netflix employees "tear, slap, and clack" through a day's work can be easily understood within a classic sociological framework, using either a Marxist or a Durkheim lens. Both Marx and Durkheim would have noted that the Netflix model represents quintessential division of labor. The employees perform one task with maximum efficiency. hile Durkheim would focus primarily on the social contracts and organization of the employees within the Netflix organization, Marx would critique the means by which the Netflix associates are distanced from the owners of the means of production, their labor artificially devalued and exploited, especially given the employees come from developing countries in Africa and Asia. However, the way Sheehan describes the Netflix operation shows that Durkheim's concepts of social solidarity, specialization, and interdependence are indeed requisite to human survival and are inescapable, as the sociologists affirms in his dissertation on the function of the division of labor.


Works Cited

Durkheim, Emile. The Division of Labor in Society. New York: The Free Press, 1984.

Lecture Slides.

Marx, Karl. Das Capital. Vol. I

Sheehan, Susan. "Tear, Slap, Clack." The New Yorker. 28 Aug, 2006.

Social Shift from Religion to Spirituality
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Religion and Spirituality in a Broad Sense

Spirituality and religion are two terms that have rather unstable, historically changing definitions, characterized by numerous implied and explicit theological considerations. Further, the general contention is that these definitions are either overly specific or overly generic. A more astonishing fact is, possibly, these researches' level of concurrence that spirituality represents a private, budding, personal and emotional sphere, whilst religion is more public, group-based and fairly stable. Interviews and questionnaire tools arising out of these definitions characteristically undertake measurements of the spirituality element by posing questions with regard to people's self-identity, psychological experiences, and psychological health. By contrast, the element of religion is measured using questions that relate to religious participation, events and undertakings, observance of community or religious code. (Bender 1).

The ideal approach to spirituality would be considering it as a means to know the divine. Individual means to do so are,…

Du Bois vs John Lennon Sociology
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Q1. Research the sociologist W. E. B. Du Bois and discuss his contributions to society.

W. E. B. Du Bois, the author of The Souls of Black Folk, was one of the most notable African-American activists of the early 20th century. In this seminal work, Du Bois outlined what he called the double consciousness of African-Americans, “the sense of looking at one’s self through the eyes of others” (Du Bois 5). Black people were simultaneously excluded from mainstream American society yet also forced to understand it, given that they were rendered into a state of economic dependence on whites, thanks to the legacy of slavery Du Bois also made a claim for African-American culture to be the most American of all cultures, given that it was a unique hybridization of African and European ideas, religion, music, and life.

Du Bois, who received his doctorate from Harvard University and taught sociology…

Sociological Theory in the 21st
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In addition, the views presented by sociologists concerning idealistic tradition is based on the significance of the concerned group that is sort to motivate, influence to belief and the subject of interest. In this regard, sociologists will not disassociate from the scientific data but will involve the subject of interest to attempt to understand the environment in its own context, showing how sociologists have subjective explanations and not objective ones (Adams et al. 267).

ith regard to the above, there exists queries on whether the sociological theory is a micro or a macro understood occurrence. Apart from the philosophical aspects of knowledge, the micro and macro aspects of sociological theory are highly debated in there associations. It inquires on how these sociological theories on character, reactions, and interpersonal procedures can associate with other social influences. Just like in sciences where there exists micro-macro differences which even with the advanced technology…

Works cited

Adams, Bert, et al. Sociological theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. 2001. Print.

Calhoun, Craig, et al. Contemporary sociological theory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007.


Dunaway, Wilma. Emerging Issues in the 21st Century World-system: New theoretical directions for the 21st century world-system. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood

Realism in Sociology and Social Work
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sociological readings. One is by Herbert J. Gans, and the other by Peter L. erger. While the readings are interesting, they are also relevant, even though, in the case of Gans, the narrative goes back to 1971,

The Uses of Poverty: The Poor Pay All

y attempting to associate poverty with "positive functions" Gans is stepping out into a narrative that would seem at the outset to be risky. After all, the image that most people have of poor people, poor neighborhoods in urban areas, rural poverty and "low income" minorities, is not a positive one.

ut Gans makes a somewhat cynical (though valid) point when he says the fact of poverty "makes possible" certain "respectable professions"; those professions include people working in prisons, those involved in criminology, social workers, and those in the public health field. Moreover, Gans points out that poor people do the "dirty work" of taking…


Berger, Peter L. 2011. 'Invitation to Sociology / Invitation to Sociology / Sociology as an Individual Pastime.' Open Road Media.

Gans, Herbert J. 1971. 'The Uses of Poverty: The Poor Pay All.' Social Policy, pp. 20-24.

The Division Classes The Distinctive Aspects
Words: 3046 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46796175
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The Distinctive Aspect of The Division Classes1. PsychologyAccording to the American Psychological Association, Psychology refers to the scientific study of behavior and mind. Psychology is a multifaceted discipline and has several sports, human development, social behavior, cognitive process, health, and sports. Furthermore, the American Psychological Association is a professional body with the mission to improve people\\\'s lives by disseminating and advancing psychological knowledge (Vygotsky, 20). ithin the American Psychological Association are over 50 divisions ranging from comparative and neuroscience psychology, spirituality to exercise, to behavioral psychology (Vygotsky, 21). According to psychologists, there is no specific study on the way people behave and think. However, there is a varying school of thought that has developed in the field of psychology, shaping how human behaviors are investigated. For instance, according to psychologists, some behaviors can be attributed to genetic factors, while others may be attributed to early childhood experiences. The majority of…

Works citedBourdieu, Pierre. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"The specificity of the scientific field and the social conditions of the progress of reason.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Social science information14.6 (1975): 19-47.Coe, Rodney M. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Sociology in medicine.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" (1973): 74-76.Greenwood, Ernest.Experimental sociology. Columbia University Press, 1945.Kennedy, George A.A new history of classical rhetoric. Princeton University Press, 2009.Vygotsky, Lev Semenovich. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"The psychology of art.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" (1972).

Sociology According to Peter Berger There Are
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According to Peter Berger, there are four motifs of sociological consciousness. These are: 1) the debunking motif, 2) the unrespectability motif, 3) the relativization motif, and 4) the cosmopolitan motif. These four things allow sociologists to sort concepts and understand human psychology slightly better than would be possible without this understanding. Sociologists are human and thus equally subject to the same psychological pitfalls as the cultures and populations that they are studying.

The debunking motif is the idea that sociologists will want to ignore or debunk the rules of the social system that he or she sees. Indeed, there may be occasions where the sociologist in question will be faced with the need to eradicate the mythology of the social system as well. hat is most commonly meant by "debunking" is the process of looking beyond or through what is most obvious. The culture or population being investigated will…

Works Cited:

"Cohabit.html." Smart Marriages. Web. 20 Oct. 2011.


Macionis, John J. Sociology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995. Print.

Sociology and Anthropology Because Sociology and Anthropology
Words: 1253 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1536502
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Sociology and Anthropology

Because sociology and anthropology are both social sciences, one might assume that the same research methods would be utilized in the different fields. However, while some of the same approaches can be used in both fields, it is important to realize that the differences in the fields make different approaches possible for each discipline. Sociology specifically examines social life, social change, and the social factors that contribute to individual behavior. Sociologists use surveys, interviews, experiments, observation, and secondary analysis (, 2013). Cultural anthropology examines human culture. Anthropologists employ the following research methods: participant observation, cross-cultural comparison, survey research, interviews, archival research, media analysis, and historical analysis (Donahue-Lynch, 2000). Clearly, the disciplines are related; however, they are not the same. As a result, some approaches that are appropriate for one discipline would not be appropriate for the other discipline. This paper will investigate the different research methods used…


American Anthropological Association. (2014). What is anthropology? Retrieved January 29,

2014 from American Anthropological Association website: 

Donahue-Lynch. (2000). Methods of research in cultural anthropology. Retrieved January 29,

2014 from Quinebaug Valley Community College website:

Sociology Diversity - A Sociological
Words: 868 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77183261
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If students are not able to come up with answers the chances are high there is little diversity, or the diversity prevalent is not part of the culture. However, on asking the same question of a culturally diverse organization, sociologists may find students enthusiastic and willing to talk about events, fairs, classes geared toward cultural understanding and an overall sense of multiculturalism and belief systems on campus.

One interesting insight as to the effects of diversity on the educational environment would be to measure student success outcomes, and the presence or lack thereof of support structures including clubs and fraternities that promote diversity and cultural education and acceptance. Sociologists can look at overall attendance rates, it can look at the student population and sociologists may interview or observe students to identify whether they feel included as part of the university culture or whether they feel excluded or like an outsider…


Andersen, M.L., & Taylor, H.F. (2006). General sociology: Sociology in everyday life. Indiana:

Better World Books.

Morrow, R.A. (1985). Critical theory and critical sociology. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 22(5): 710.

Sociology: Diversity

Globalization and Sociology Sociology or
Words: 1987 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41304614
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For Giddens, the globalization of these abstract systems offers individuals opportunities and crises in which they must continually rebuild their own lives and identities. From his perspective, the increasing integration of systems does not necessarily signify greater worldwide social integration. In fact, the crises that arise from contradictions between the different abstract systems can actually lead to greater problems of social integration.

egardless of whether one looks at globalization from a uni- or multidimensional perspective or an economic or cultural one, it appears that global social integration will remain problematic in the years to come. Globalization is a relatively new phenomenon. The word "globalization," itself, in fact, was not even used much more than over a decade ago. Thus, the sociology of globalization is only in its infancy, and the theories noted here are just a few examples of others that will be argued. More and more, human societies worldwide…


Appadurai, A. (1990) Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy in D. Held and A. McGrew (eds.) The Global Transformations Reader. Cambridge: Polity Press, 239-246.

Busch, A. (2000) Unpacking the Globalization Debate: Approaches, Evidence and Data in C. Hay and D. Marsh (eds.) Demystifying Globalization London: Palgrave, 21-48

Giddens, A. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity in D. Held and A. McGrew (eds.) The Global Transformations Reader. Cambridge: Polity Press, 239-246.

Goldfrank, W.L. (2000). Paradigm Regained? The Rules of Wallerstein's World-System Method. Journal of World-Systems Research 6(2), 150-195

Deductive vs Inductive Reasoning
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Deductive vs. Inductive

The author of this report is given a test case example of a sociologist that is conducting research. The author is being asked to discern whether the sociologist in question is engaging in deductive reasoning or if the sociologists is instead using an inductive approach. The author of this report will first define and quantify what each of those terms means along with examples of each. The author will then summarize the test case that was offered and clearly define which method the sociologist is using. While the two methods of research are similar in some ways, the way in which they start and finish is clearly different.

As defined by Alina Bradford on the Live Science website, there is a clear difference between the two types of reasoning. Bradford explains that deductive reason is a "basic form of valid reasoning." She explains that deductive reasoning, also…


Bradford, A. (2015). Deductive Reasoning vs. Inductive Reasoning.

Retrieved 19 July 2015, from 

Crossman, A. (2015). What's the Difference Between Deductive and Inductive

Reasoning?. Education. Retrieved 19 July 2015, from

Lester Frank Ward Was a
Words: 2855 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 77356342
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He grew up and was educated in an era where scientific progress and rationality were seen as the most effective and promising paradigms for progressive thought and action and there was the cultural belief that science in particular could be the solution to a variety of social ills and problems. This ethos can also be related back to the Enlightenment, which was a period that was seen as a "... new stage in the evolution of humankind, and enabled people to claim a new confidence, a new authority through the operation of reason and its principles." (Traynor, 1999. p. 5) in many ways the theories that Ward propounded can be seen to have been engendered by the faith in progress stemming for the Enlightenment.

Wards extreme faith in human reason has been questioned in modern sociological theory and philosophy. The advent of the sociology of knowledge and the relativistic critique…


Biography: Lester Frank Ward. Retrieved November 18, 2008, at

Civello, P. (1996). Evolutionary Feminism, Popular Romance and Frank Norris's 'Man's Woman.'. Studies in American Fiction, 24(1), 23+. Retrieved November 18, 2008, from Questia database:  

Ethnomethodology the Social Science of
Words: 2885 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91891783
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He wanted to show how conversation analysis and ethnomethodology may elucidate two interrelated matters of continuing concern to the ethnographer: the role of culture in shaping an informants' behavior and the apparent capacity of an investigated culture to compel the fieldworker to follow local habits of thought.

For this research, Watson defined ethnomethodology as "the study of how people, in their everyday lives, constitute the world as a recognizable state of affairs." Similar to conversation analysis, it is concerned with explication of order in social interaction and attempts to replace the existing Parsonian motivational approach to the analysis of social action to one with procedure. It asks not why but how. stipulates four basic moves in conversation analysis of ethnomethodology: 1) Conversation analysis and ethnomethodology look at utterances as tools for the performance of activities, not just things that stand in for other things. Further, activities performed by utterances are…


Button, G. & Dourish, P. (1996) Technomethodology Paradoxes and Possibilities. In Proceedings of ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI

Durkheim Emile. 1933 the Division of Labor in Society. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press

Frances, D. & Hester, S. (2004) an Invitation to Ethnomethodology: Language, Society and Interaction. New York: Sage

French, B. (2005) Issues and Innovations in Nursing Practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing 49(2), 125-134

Sociology According to Giddens 2010
Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 65624239
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What ethical dilemmas do sociologists face?

One dilemma that Sociologists deal with is competence. Many of them do strive to uphold the highest levels of capability in their work. A lot of them try to recognize the limits of their knowledge; and they assume merely those responsibilities for which they are competent by training, education, or knowledge. Sociologists recognize the necessity for continuing education so as to remain professionally competent; and they also apply the suitable scientific, expert, technical, and administrative resources wanted to assure competence in their professional doings. Another dilemma is integrity. Sociologists are fair, honest, and reverent of others in their expert activities -- in teaching, service research, and practice. Sociologists are the ones that do not meaningfully act in ways that risk either their own or others' professional well-being.

What is Culture?

According to Giddens culture is measured by sociologists as something described as the following;…


Adams, B.N. (2001). Sociological Theory. New York city: Pine Forge Press.

Babbie, E.R. (2003). The Practice of Social Research: 10th edition. New York City: Thomson Learning Inc.

Gerber, L.M. (2011). Sociology,. Boston: Seventh Canadian Edition.

Giddens, a. (2010). Essentials of Sociology. New York City: W.W. Norton & Co.

Robert Merton This Is a
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And it is those negative consequences that could, in the long-term, create alterations in those original basic values. Finally, there is Merton's self-defeating prophecy. Worry about being afraid of some consequence motivates people to take action before the problem exists. The non-occurrence of that problem they acted against, is not anticipated as a possibility.

It is interesting to note here that it is not improbable that the reader of this can place himself or herself in several of these situations and, therefore, see the accuracy, and the depth and complexity of Merton's postulations and conclusions.

Manifest and latent functions were first defined by Merton for the science of sociology. He was attempting to focus on the conceptual practices employed in a functional analysis. Functional analysis is the study of the individual elements of a functioning societal structure such as its customs, traditions and institutions. As Herbert Spencer, a 19th century…


Berger, P.L. Excerptom Invitation to Sociology. New York: Doubleday, 1963.

Calhoun, C. "Robert K. Merton Remembered." March 2003. 27 January 2010 .

Crothers, Charles. Robert K. Merton. Oxford, UK: Taylor & Francis, 1987.

Hollander, J. "Renowned Columbia Sociologist and Nationsl Medal of Science Winner Robert K. Merton Dies at 92." 25 February 2003. Columbia University News. 27 January 2010 .

Sociology and the Family Specific
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If the parents are loving and supportive, their own unit will probably remain intact and even grow stronger. Outside forces could create many sociological impacts on the family, from censure to even loss of careers. In addition, the altering of values inside the family may pave the way for sociological change in the family members in the future. As sociologist Noble states, "Today most people continue to spend most of their lifetime in nuclear family relationships though they undergo continuing changes in their aspirations and expectations as the structural and demographic circumstances of their lives change" (Noble, 1998). Thus, the two young children in the family may create families of their own that differ from the makeup of their own family, and recognize the diversity of society and family members. The sociological implications of the problem are many, and the family will have to weather them to stay together and…


Dentler, R.A. (2002). Practicing sociology: Selected fields. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Eatwell, R. (2003). Then theories of the extreme right. Retrieved from the University of Bath staff Web site:  Dec. 2006. (note, this is not an "edu" Web site, but it is a university web site for staff members of the university.

Folsom, J.K. (1934). The family: Its sociology and social psychiatry. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Kearl, M.C. (2006). Sociology of the family. Retrieved from the Trinity University Web site:  Dec. 2006.

Blind Society
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government policy in criminal justice. Specifically it will answer the question: If we are interested in obtaining a "blind" society regarding human rights, why do we insist on asking a person's race, ethnicity, religion, sex and marital status on private and governmental forms. Should we? Why or why not? If we are indeed a society that is "blind" to the melting pot of races that settle our nation, then why indeed is it necessary to fill out our gender, race, and marital status on just about any form, survey, or government document we sign? America is not a blind society at all. acial tensions have existed in this country from the first. In fact, American has a foundation in racial segregation and racism -- first with the Native Americans, who we robbed of their land and consistently pushed West, and second with the African-Americans, (and indentured servants) that the country…


Miller, Steve. Connerly seeks end to race notation; gets criticism from all sides. (2002, April 28). The Washington Times, p. A05.

Snipp, C.M. (2003). Racial measurement in the American census: Past practices and implications for the future. Annual Review of Sociology, Volume: 29. 563+.

Karl Marx Was One of
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Geology was one of the sources of Marx's views about social system and it's structure (the idea of formation). Among the biological discoveries that influenced on Marx's sociological views were the discovery of cell, cell theory of the organism's structure and the most important was evolutionary teaching of Darwin that was stated in work "The origins of species." Marx saw biological analogue of his theories in Darwin's work and it was a stimulus for further work as well.

The basic question of sociology is a question about interaction of material and spiritual values in the life of society.

Marx introduced a new and independent variable in this process, which plays a key role in the relations that exist in society and it was a mode of material production. Besides he supported the views about the initial role of being in relation to society's consciousness, but not in the sense of…


Korsch, Karl Marxism and Philosophy, Article 1923 available on web: 

Marxism, Article available on web: 

Cliff Slaughter Marxism and the class struggle, Article 1975 available on web: 

Blunden, Andy Origins of Marxism Article available on web: