Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Around 21 billion of co2 is launched into the environment annually which is too much for the environment of Earth to neutralise or utilise normally. The manufacturing of co2 from burning non-renewable fuel sources is among the most considerably important contributing greenhouse gases. The boost of greenhouse gases in the environment is developing a substantial increase in worldwide temperature level which is a direct link in between non-renewable fuel sources and superior Global Warming. Global Warming has a considerable effect on biodiversity. As the environment warms due to superior Global Warming, the place of the weather envelopes will move substantially which could potentially lead to termination of types. Types should relocate with the altering environment by migrating to cooler environments. An instance of this is a type of Alpacas located on a lesser component of mountain and migrates further up the mountain due to increasing temperature levels. The environment greater…
Alan Davison. (2012). Alternative Energy. Retrieved from Alternative Energy Solutions for the 21st Century: http://www.altenergy.org/
Bradford, T. (2006). Solar Revolution, the MIT Press, Massachusetts.
Cass, S. (2009). Solar power will make a difference-eventually. London: Oxford, 2009. Print
Crabtree, G, & Lewis, N. (2008). Solar Energy conversion. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1044(1), 309-321.Retrieved September 14th, 2012-2009, from EBSCO (10.1063/1.293729)
At the present energy set-up nuclear energy provides around 20% of world's electricity. This energy is produced naturally -- by the sun and other stars making heat and light- and artificially-electricity from nuclear power plants. The nuclear power plants produce more energy using less fuel compared to the fossil fuels and hence it is seen as an environmentally friendly energy source (Ansolabehere, et al., 2003). However, the true scope of the consequences of developing nuclear energy has been realized through rather very unfortunate lessons. When names like Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Hiroshima and Fukushima are mentioned the only thought that runs the minds of many must be disaster. Nuclear plants pose a great danger to the surrounding community in case of any accident. Although, the chances of an accident ever happening are very minimal this has not counteracted the fear people have towards nuclear energy producing plants.
The Fukushima explosion…
Ansolabehere, S., Deutch, J., Driscoll, M.M., Gray, P.E., Holdren, J.P., Joskow, P.L., et al. (2003). The Future of Nuclear Powe,. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts.
Bradford, T. (2006). Solar Revolution, the MIT Press, Massachusetts.
Reyes, V. d. (2007). Bio-fuel,. De La Salle University, Dasmarinas.
Scheer, H. ((1995)). Solar energy's economic and social benefits. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 555-568.
The primary benefit of the implementation of solar power remains the lowering of our carbon footprint in our pursuit for a pleasurable and feasible life within the modern world. According to research, "solar power panels generate zero CO2 emissions," (Simple Earth Media 2009). Thus, more focus on the implementation of solar power would drastically reduce the harmful gases being emitted into the atmosphere by traditional power sources. With no carbon dioxide or other harmful greenhouse gases, the application of solar power has great potential to help curb the environmental damage that has already wreaked havoc on the natural ecology of the globe. Thus, research is correct to assert that "A major benefit of substituting biomass for fossil fuels is that, if done in a sustainable fashion it would greatly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases," (Union of Concerned Scientists 2010). This would also help extend the benefits of using power into…
EcoGeneration Solutions. (1999).Monocrystalline silicon. Solar Energy Systems. Retrieved May 17, 2010 from http://www.cogeneration.net/monocrystalline_silicon.htm
Johansson, Thomas B. & Burnham, Laurie. (1993). Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuels and Electricity. Island Press.
Scheer, Hermann. (2005). The Solar Economy: Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Global Future. Earthscan.
Simple Earth Media. (2009). What are the benefits of solar power? Green Living Ideas. Retrieved January 13, 2010 from http://greenlivingideas.com/topics/alternative-energy/solar-energy-photovoltaics/what-are-the-benefits-of-solar-power
solar energy is interesting in that it makes some environmental claims that seem to be rather tilted in favor of the "save the environment" standpoint. he presentation attempts to make a strong case for converting from the world's current use of oil and gas to a world that primarily uses only solar energy. However, the overall case is not strong enough that it would move an outsider to be impressed. However, it does present some interesting possibilities on a more individual basis throughout Australia.
he presentation starts with an introduction to Solar Shop, an Australian company that produces solar energy panels. It continues from there by presenting facts and figures showing the growth in Australia, as well as around the world, in the use of solar panels to generate not only electricity for individual homes but excess energy as well. According to the presentation that growth has been strong especially…
The second presentation deals with a new approach to rebuilding societies that have been decimated. It uses as an example of one society the country of Cambodia, which has been in dire straits since the 1970's and only recently has begun to change its overall approach to rebuilding. The presentation ends with a Helen Keller saying "So much has been given to me, I have not time to ponder over that which has been denied." This is an excellent ending to a presentation that focuses on that attitude as one method for changing Cambodia (and other countries that might be in the same boat).
2. The presentation touts an approach that is more a bottom up than a top down approach. The presentation also uses the history of Cambodia to show how a country can adopt a tone of complete failure, but it also presents a method for overcoming that sense of defeat. A couple of slides list what the program is all about; 1) ownership 2) development takes time 3) the in-line dilemma 4) flexibility 5) incentives matter 6) training 7) build up 8) build capacity 9) plan for turnover 10) plan to leave 11) consider culture 12) expectations 13) be creative.
It's interesting to read through how an entirely different approach such as the one being touted in this presentation could provide improved results and conditions, not only on an individual or company level, but for an entire country. If such a system truly works, then it could be used throughout the world in a variety of situations.
Solar energy is still a relatively new phenomenon in terms of serving as a new energy supply to rival the use of fossil fuels. However, as Fares and Webber (2017), Lewis (2016) and other researchers show, solar energy has its uses—but also its limitations. Understanding where solar energy is capable of being advanced and where it has run into walls in terms of utilization are key to developing pathways to greater research and development opportunities (Lewis, 2016). Simply storing solar energy in an effective way has proved problematic (Sinsermsuksakul, Sun, Lee et al., 2014)—but even here, advancements are being made to help show how creative solutions are being proposed to harness solar energy efficiently (Assuncao, Moura & Almeida, 2016). Still, as Luthra, Kumar, Garg and Haleem (2015) point out, not all of the limitations of solar energy are technology-related: some of these limitations are social, political, economical and…
Assunção, A., Moura, P. S., & de Almeida, A. T. (2016). Technical and economic assessment of the secondary use of repurposed electric vehicle batteries in the residential sector to support solar energy. Applied Energy, 181, 120-131.
Fares, R. L., & Webber, M. E. (2017). The impacts of storing solar energy in the home to reduce reliance on the utility. Nature Energy, 2(2), 17001.
Lewis, N. S. (2016). Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization. Science, 351(6271), aad1920.
Luthra, S., Kumar, S., Garg, D., & Haleem, A. (2015). Barriers to renewable/sustainable energy technologies adoption: Indian perspective. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 41, 762-776.
Sinsermsuksakul, P., Sun, L., Lee, S. W., Park, H. H., Kim, S. B., Yang, C., & Gordon, R. G. (2014). Overcoming Efficiency Limitations of SnS?Based Solar Cells. Advanced Energy Materials, 4(15).
She writes, "Utility companies are offering 'buy-down programs,' which grant rebates to customers who purchase solar equipment in order to help them bear the initial costs of the system" (Woloski). If more utility companies and governments would offer these programs, more people could afford solar energy and that would help break our dependence on fossil fuels by reducing the need for coal-fired electrical plants that pollute and depend on non-renewable energy.
There is another major problem with the development of large solar developments capable of producing electricity for thousands of homes. Currently, they take up a massive amount of space. Another writer notes, "But the biggest objection -- the massive quantities of land needed for large-scale solar development -- remains. Solar energy output large enough to displace our current consumption of fossil fuel might easily require 53,000 square miles of land in the desert Southwest" (Stein). There are large-scale developments…
Editors. "Solar Energy Basics." National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 2009. 27 Feb. 2009. http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_solar.html
Resch, Rhone, and Noah Kaye. "The Promise of Solar Energy: A Low-Carbon Energy Strategy for the 21st Century." UN Chronicle June 2007: 63+.
Stein, Steve. "Energy Independence Isn't Very Green." Policy Review (2008): 3+.
Woloski, Andrea. "Fuel of the Future: A Global Push toward New Energy." Harvard International Review 27.4 (2006): 40+.
Thank you for the opportunity to present to you and Solar City our proposal for bringing solar power to the government buildings of Trenton, New Jersey. In order to best appreciate the situation in which we find ourselves, we must undertake an explanation of why bringing solar power to the city is in everyone's best interest. This proposal, therefore, includes the reasons why solar panels are beneficial, how they help to reduce the carbon footprint, save on energy costs, and allow the city to demonstrate effective corporate social responsibility (CS) by going green and helping the environment. You will, no doubt, find this proposal to be exactly the type of activity to which you are drawn, given your background as CEO of Solar City and extensive work in the energy sector.
My purpose in writing to you of our proposal is to identify a problem related to Trenton's…
Andrews, C. S. (2007). New Jersey acts on energy and climate change. IEEE Technology
and Society Magazine, 6-7. (2007) doi: 10.1109/MTS.2007.
Benefits of Renewable Energy Use. (2015). Union of Concord Scientist Retrieved on April website http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/our-energy-choices/renewable-energy/public-benefits-of-renewable.html#
Botsman, R. (2010). What's Mine is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption.
Solar Energy for Thermal Desalination
Desalination of seawater is a process that is becoming increasingly important due to the falling water tables worldwide in addition to the projections of water shortage that is likely to occur in the near future. Various processes exist that can be utilized in desalination of seawater however; the Multi-Effect Desalination process is touted to be one that is more effective and economical than the others.
The question that the research proposed in this study addresses is why it is that multi-effect is becoming the most efficient and economic desalination process?
The study has as its purpose the examination of desalination processes and the determination of why the multi-effect is the desalination process that is most efficient and economic.
The methodology chosen for the proposed research study is one of a qualitative nature and one that will involve an extensive review of literature in this…
Review of CSP and Desalination Technology (2007)
Blanco, J. et al. (2008) Solar Energy and Feasible Applications to Water Processes. 5th European Thermal-Sciences Conference, The Netherlands, 2008.
Blanco, J. And Alarcon, D. (2007) The PSA Experience on Solar Desalinati9on: Technology Development and Research Activities. Springer, 2007.
Sagie, D. Weinberg, J. And Mandelberg. E. Commercial scale Powered Desalination. Israeli Ministry of National Infrastructure.
Harness of Solar Energy
Harnessing of Solar Energy
elation of photosynthesis and the semi-conductor-based solar cell
Harnessing of Solar Energy
Both photosynthesis and the semi-conductor solar cells are important in regards to the human lifestyle. Photosynthesis helps in the manufacture of carbohydrates that are used for food by humans. Semi-conductor-based solar cells provide energy in the form of electricity that is also consumed by humans.
Photosynthesis in its broader definition is a process that entails the change of light into cellular energy of any kind. The photosynthetic process involves different stages, among them; energy is absorbed using antenna complexes, undergoing of photochemical reactions and conversions into chemical energy. Not only green plants involve photosynthesis for the energy to grow (trees, scrubs, water lilies among others) but also some algae and bacteria (Burghardt, May & Micha, 2009, pg 4).
Semi-conductor-based solar cell
A solar cell, which can also be referred…
Burhardt, I May, V. & Micha, A. V (2009) Energy Transfer Dynamics in Biomaterial Systems: New York, Springer publishers
Cau, G. & Brinker, C. J (2008) Annual Review of Nano Research: New York, World Scientific
Holzner, S (2011) Physics 1 for Dummies: New York, John Wiley and Sons
Speech for How Solar Energy Works
Specific purpose: To inform listeners how solar energy offers a beneficial source of renewable clean energy
Central idea: Using solar energy offers a realistic source of clean energy, but governments and people must be willing to make the necessary changes to use it.
Informative speech: How solar energy works
Solar energy is perhaps the oldest form of power ever used by human beings. People have used the energy derived from the sun to light their homes; grow crops; tell time; and guide their lives since human civilization began. However, solar energy has only recently become regarded as a potentially feasible way of dealing with the nation's energy crisis. This paper will describe how solar energy works, why it is so potentially beneficial for humankind, and some cultural obstacles to using solar energy.
On a very basic level, houses can be redesigned to better use…
How solar energy works. (2012). Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved:
Top 10 countries using solar power. (2013). One Block Off The Grid. Retrieved:
Use these Tax Credits to create standard to addresses universal requirements for interconnection of elements and their impact on network distribution systems. Abnormal conditions, power quality, islanding, and test specifications and requirements for design, production and lastly standards for disposing panels to keep environment clean.
Pros: Using Tax Credits to maintain standards will bring uniformity among various firms who are producing equipments for renewable energy
Cons: Following the standards and proper disposal will increase cost but it would save the environment
Work with foreign counterparts and the WTO to develop a strong, effective and enforceable rules-based international trading system that promotes free and open trade.
Pros: No tariff and duty would be imposed on exporting and importing respectively which will result in lower prices.
Cons: With free trade system, it becomes hard to impose anti-dumping strategies.
Get intellectual property and grand equity and take that to WTO
WTO acts a…
Solar is the Solution, author Steve Heckeroth argues that solar energy is the key to alleviating climate change. Heckeroth builds his argument on the statement that "Solar is a promising source of future energy supplies because not only is it clean, it's remarkably abundant." Another one of Heckeroth's claims is that "relying on coal, oil and natural gas threatens our future with toxic pollution, global climate change and social unrest caused by diminishing fuel supplies." These statements are internally valid; although Heckeroth does not provide quantitative data to back up these statements, they are easy to reference. Moreover, Heckeroth establishes his own credibility as an author qualified to write about environmental science by stating "I have been studying our energy options for more than 30 years." Of course, "studying" something for thirty years does not automatically make a person an expert. Heckeroth is admitting that he is a layperson who…
Heckeroth, Steve. "Solar is the Solution." Dec-Jan 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.motherearthnews.com/Renewable-Energy/2007-12-01/Solar-is-the-Solution.aspx?page=6
In this regard, some exceptions have been given to the insurance companies while the other companies should follow these principles.
In the year 2005, the commercial sector of the United Kingdom spent $16,500 million for fossil fuels of 350,000 GWh. On the other hand, researchers have reported that a decline of energy consumption has been observed in the tertiary sector of the United Kingdom (Probst & oecker, 2011, pg 109-124).
Hot water consumption
Probst (2011) stated that hot water is consumed around three percent in industries and fifteen percent I the fossil energy. This shows that a total of 22,000GWh of hot water is consumed each year.
The high and low temperature hot water from the hot water boilers is used in a number of things such as apace heating, washing and in some industrial processes. The direct and straight use of hot water is in washing. Modern hot water…
Abbasi, T., & a., a.S. (2011). Renewable Energy Sources . New Delhi: PHI.
Council, E.R. (2004). Renewable Energy in Europe: Building Markets and Capacity. London: James & James.
DeWinter, F. (1990). Solar Collectors, Energy Storage, and Materials. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.]: MIT Press.
Herring, H., Hardcastle, R., Phillipson, R., & Energy, G.B. (1988). Energy use and energy efficiency in UK commercial and public buildings up to the year 2000. London: HMSO.
A light insulation causes a reduction of 14.5% in the efficiency obtained with full insulation. The wind effect is much more limited. The increase of wind velocity from zero to 3.6 mph yielded a slight reduction (2%) in the still performance.
Repeated tests have shown that the higher the operating temperature of the still, assuming insulation is equal, correlates with higher efficiency. For example, with each 6 degrees Celsius increase in ambient temperature, a still's output increases 7-8%. The application of this finding means that a still operating in a hot desert climate will produce typically as much as one-third more water than the same unit would produce in a cooler climate.
Production of distilled water is also associated with the thermal efficiency of the still itself. Efficiency may range from 30 to 60%, depending on the construction of the still, the amount and type of insulation used, ambient temperatures,…
Energy use is expanding and includes several different ways to harness power. From hydropower, to solar energy, to wind energy, the world is using the elements to create electricity for homes and businesses. While some favor solar power for use as the new kind of energy; businesses and those aiming to power many homes, opt for wind energy. Regardless of what is used, there is still a long way to go before people move away from traditional forms of energy like hydropower to more cost-effective ways like solar. I myself use hydropower or batteries to get through my days and understand the need to save energy and increase my power source options.
Most of the sources of energy I use are non-renewable except my re-chargeable solar batteries. These can be charged with sunlight and thus recharged from a renewable source. A second way I use energy each day is cooking.…
What causes solar storms? Why should people nearly a hundred million miles away on Earth care so much about them? Massive explosions of electrified plasma from the sun are identified as Solar Storms but often they just cause a beautiful light show in the farthest points of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The reason why human beings need to understand and care about solar storms is that they have the potential to cause devastating effects on the planet Earth. Those effects include problems that may affect daily life such as knocking out satellites, blacking out power grids, and completely altering the atmosphere and climate. Scientists have gathered plenty of information over the years to explain Solar storms and have even built a system to protect the Earth's energy. However, the earth is still vulnerable to solar activity, much of which remains a mystery to science. Scientists are also…
Chivers, Tom (2010). Solar storm hitting Earth causes spectacular aurora displays. The Telegraph. Retrieved online: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/space/7926176/Solar-storm-hitting-Earth-causes-spectacular-aurora-displays.html
Johnston, Colin. "Deep Time: Earth's History and Future." Retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:YypdcDGO_5wJ:www.armaghplanet.com/pdf/AstroTopics/Solar%2520System/Deeptime.pdf+earth+history+sun&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgPEamf05LM8LE4Gs9KC4_SQJcE1wqvom3EwYg3fT6H4MzHhcgTbPBBszBjrWA7LWXwW7neAE-uf3a85n06b81ogO6znQmrUK51bsIMGALP2uQHhYfBZoY6jIT-dnkVLhOM7EHV&sig=AHIEtbSkFAb9K1cTFm9tzvpnhlhV4ZznzQ
O'Neill, Ian. (2010). Zombiesat Attack! Solar Storm Fries Satellite's Brain. Discovery News. Retrieved online: http://news.discovery.com/space/zombiesat-attack-solar-storm-fries-satellites-brain.html
Phillips, T. (2009). Severe space weather: social and economic impacts. NASA. Retrieved online: http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2009/21jan_severespaceweather/
Nuclear energy possesses perhaps the largest potential for growth over the next few decades. The reason for this is the simple fact that it creates a relatively small amount of environmental pollution and can be adapted for use in nearly any part of the world. It certainly poses some security risks if it this technology is misused or mishandled, but the benefits certainly outweigh the costs. This type of energy production does not create smog, or direct environmental wastes, and many scientists, entrepreneurs, and engineers are looking at low cost, micro-nuclear solutions for small cities and towns (Kruger, 2006). Instead of building huge, multi-billion dollar power plants, the focus has shifted to creating small, sustainable, community nuclear power plants. The sustainability level of nuclear power is quite high given that a very small amount of nuclear waste is created for a huge amount of power output, unlike coal-fired power plants…
Hekkert, Marko P.; Hendriks, Franka H.J.F.; Faaij Andre P.C. And Maarten L. Neelis.. (2005).
"Natural Gas as an Alternative to Crude Oil in Automotive Fuel Chains Well-to-Wheel Analysis and Transition Strategy Development," Energy Policy: Vol. 33: Iss. 5, pp. 579-594.
Hoffmann, Peter. (2002). Tomorrow's Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet. MIT Press: Cambridge.
Kruger, Paul. (2006). Alternative Energy Resources: The Quest for Sustainable Energy.
solar flares and how they go on to cause global warming. Global warming has been an ongoing phenomenon and there are many reasons it has occurred. Apart from the green house effect, global warming could have been due to the solar flares that have occurred. Different researches and theories regarding this matter are discussed in the paper.
Global warming is a phenomenon that has amazed and frightened everyone ever since it came into being. The consequences and end results of global warming is what goes on to alarm and frighten everyone on earth. If looked at it literally, global warming is basically in increase in the temperature of the Earth's atmosphere. This change and elevation has been occurring ever since the 19th century and is known to increase even more. The change in the global temperature is dangerous because it goes onto increase the sea levels and alterations…
Lu, Jian et al. "Expansion of the Hadley cell under global warming." Geophysical Research Letters, 34. 6 (2007): 1-10. Print.
Deforest, Craig. "Solar Storms." The World and I 2004: Print.
Hansen, J et al. "Climate forcings in Goddard Institute for Space Studies." J. Geophys Res, 107. D18 (2002): 4347. Print.
Herring, David. "ClimateWatch Magazine -- Climate Change: Incoming Sunlight." n.d.. Web. 14 Apr 2013. .
Ecological Preservation at the Hart of Dynamic Boca de Iguanas Development (2008) St. Michael Strategies (SMS) Press Release. PR.com online available at http://www.pr.com/press-release/35513
Jeffrey Chow, Raymond J. Kopp, Paul R. Portney. (2003). Energy resources and global development. Science, 302(5650), 1528-31. Retrieved September 5, 2008, from Research Library database. (Document ID: 490116241).
Mattson, K.M., and Angermeier, P.L. (2007) Integrating Human Impacts and Ecological Integrity into a Risk-Based Protocol for Conservation Planning Journal of Environmental Management Vol. 39, No. 1 Jan 2007. Online available at http://www.springerlink.com/content/t13674l78j31jq05/
Maximizing building performance: through environmental strategies (2003) Buildings 1 July 2003. Online available at http://www.allbusiness.com/operations/facilities/601308-1.html
Negative Secondary Impacts from Oil and Gas Development (nd) the Energy & Biodiversity Initiative. Online available at http://www.theebi.org/pdfs/impacts.pdf
Santopietro, George D. (2005) Raising Environmental Consciousness vs. Creating Economic Incentives as Alternative Policies for Environmental Protection Journal; Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 29, 1995. Excerpt online available at http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5000322449
( Manion, 2002). The ethics of sustainable development in the sciences also includes the "precautionary principle." This refers to the view that, "When an activity raises threats of harm to human health and the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically" (Manion, 2002).
In the light of the above brief overview of way that ethics and social responsibility have become part of the ethos of the contemporary scientific world, it becomes clear that a focus on technologies such as solar still production is one way in which engineers can enact their ethical and social responsibilities in this age. This project also takes into account the social and cultural needs and context of the people of the region, especially in areas where there is a lack of resources.
From an ethical perspective, professional engineering organizations have made an important contribution…
'AMREF Canada. Water and Sanitation Lesson Plan -- Science Experiment and Activity', viewed 9 September, 2010, http://canada.amref.org/silo/files/water-science-experiment-grade-11-12.doc.
'ASCE Code of Ethics', viewed 7 September, 2010,
'DEFINING SUSTAINABILITY', viewed 6 September, 2010,
Future Energy: Guiding Decisions Evidence in order reduce negative environmental impacts growing human population increasing demands energy technological advances continue, individual countries, states, cities households opportunity shift energy sources renewable
Most consumers are unaware of the extreme negativeness surrounding their consumption of goods and that it inevitably leads to environmental degradation. However, there seems to be a more conscious effort to go around the negative impact of consumption of energy by choosing renewable sources. In this essay, we will assess a particular region in America and that is the state of Florida with specific references to certain areas in order to observe what sources of energy are currently used and what renewable sources may be best suitable and least suitable in the area, considering climate and the environment.
With climate changes accelerating at a fast pace, Miami, which is already subject of the increase of Earth's temperatures and rise of…
Miami -- Dade County. N. y. Energy -- Electricity and Fuel [Data File] Retrieved from http://www.miamidade.gov/greenprint/planning/library/milestone_one/energy.pdf
Natural Resources Defense Council. N. y. State Profiles -- Florida [Data File] Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/energy/renewables/florida.asp
Ultra Long-Term Perspectives World Energy
Energy is a very important part of our lives and the world that we live in today. It has always been important since the time that the humans used to do all their work by themselves to the times when they started using animals and even today when we make use of the energy sources around us to produce energy such as electricity.
Today our main source of energy are the fossils fuels that won't last forever as, they take millions of years to form and very little time to get used as a source of energy. One of the very important concerns of today's time is the speed with which we are consuming these fossil fuels and how it will be very difficult for us to keep up with the increased demand which is expected to double by 2050 as the population is expected…
European Renewable Energy Council EREC. (2010). Re-thinking 2050 - A 100% renewable energy vision of EU. Retrieved from http://www.erec.org/media/publications/re-thinking-2050.html
Jess, A. (2010). What might be the energy demand and energy mix to reconcile the world's pursuit of welfare and happiness with the necessity to preserve the integrity of the biosphere? Energy Policy, 38(8), 4663 -- 4678. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421510003009
Khatib, H. (2011). IEA World Energy Outlook 2010 -- A comment. Energy Policy, 39(5), 2507 -- 2511. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421511000930
Khatib, H. (2012). IEA World Energy Outlook 2011 -- A comment. Energy Policy, 48, 737 -- 743. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421512005149
But the of the efficiency of the design requires further proof. It is necessary to ensure that the all of the rays "directed to the virtual elliptic receiver at the exit aperture are reflected by the concentrator to some point on this receiver" (Garcia-Botella, et al.). The explanation of the math for this process is explained in a long section of the report from Garcia-Botella, et al.;
"Three properties of one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator geometry are useful: (1)
All meridional sections of a one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator are hyperbolas, (2)
all cross sections of a onesheet hyperbolic concentrator are ellipses and (3) the tangent plane, at any point P. Of a one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator, is defined by the bisector of the angle FPF0, where F. And F0 are the foci of the hyperbola in the meridional plane (Fig. 2), and the tangent line to the elliptic cross section at P. All the…
Ali, Imhamed M. Saleh, Tapas K. Mallick, Peter a. Kew, Tadhg S. O'Donovan, and K.S.
Reddy. "Optical Performance Evaluation of a 2-D and 3-D Novel Hyperboloid
Solar Concentrator." World Renewable Energy Congress, 2010. Print.
Chaves, Julio. Introduction to Non-Imaging Optics. New York: CRC Press, 2008. Print.
Alternate Energy in Daily Life
Imagine that you could travel in time, much like Doc Brown and Marty McFly in the movie Back to the Future. uppose you traveled back to 1955 with the Doc and Marty and asked a resident of 1955 what the year 2011 would be like. Would he predict hybrid cars, or flying cars? Would he believe that the United tates has a moon base -- or that is has no moon program at all? Would he believe that kids carry cell phones but that the only commercial viable robot is the Roomba vacuum? omeone living in 1955 would probably predict a future much different from the one we are actually living today. When you consider how life in the future was depicted in movies, TV programs, and books in the middle of the 20th century, it easy to see that our predictions about the future…
Sources." (February 21, 2009.) Retrieved April 27, 2011 from the Alternative Energy website at http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/hydrogen-fuel-from-non-food-sources/
IBM. (2000.) "Flying Cars Commercial." Retrieved April 26, 2011 from YouTube.com at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzm6pvHPSGo
Johnson, Keith. (August 10, 2009.) "Blown Away: Wind Power Makes Electricity Cheaper in Texas." Retrieved April 28, 2011 from the Wall Street Journal at http://blogs.wsj.com/environmentalcapital/2009/08/10/blown-away-wind-power-makes-electricity-cheaper-in-texas/
Kobayashi, Teruo. (December, 2005.) "Progress of Electric Railways in Japan." Japan Railway and Transport Review issue 42. Pp 62-69. Retrieved from http://jrtr.net/jrtr42/pdf/s62_kob.pdf
Loftin, Josh. (April 18, 2011.) "Home renewable energy for focus of Utah conference." Retrieved April 27, 2011 from Business Week at http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9MM3JV80.htm
It is yet to be seen whether alternative energy will eventually replace petroleum products or whether they will simply enhance the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and availability of energy in the future. BP's move into alternative energy will help it to position itself as a leader regardless of which direction the market decides to go. BP's move makes sense from many perspectives. It makes sense for a marketing perspective because it will help to improve BP's image to one that is more environmentally friendly and in line with current public consciousness. It will help it to make better use of natural resources from production to end use of all of its product lines.
One advantage that BP has over many of the other companies entering into the alternative energy field is that it has experience in providing the needs of mass consumers. It understands the technical difficulties of supplying energy to…
BP Solar International Inc. BP Solar has over 30 years experience in the solar industry: a legacy of quality, service, performance and innovation all around the world. 2006. http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=3050457&contentId=3050613 .
Accessed October 29, 2006.
Community's Source of Energy
An Examination of Energy Sources in the Willows Community of Gilbert, Arizona
The community of Willows is located in the city of Gilbert, Arizona. It is an HOA community of single family homes, with a number of amenities included. As with any community, it has power usage needs that have to be considered. Before the community was built, the issue of how to get power to the area and how much power might be used by the residents there was considered. Then, the community was built and the houses were sold. That raised the amount of power that was needed in Gilbert, which is a growing city with a strong population base and many things for residents to enjoy. The power needs of any community are important, because residents want to be assured that they have enough of what they need to power their homes (Aitken,…
Aitken, D.W. (2010). Transitioning to a renewable energy future. NY: International Solar Energy Society.
Lovins, A. (2011). Reinventing fire: Bold business solutions for the new energy era. NY: Chelsea Green Publishing.
Makower, J, Pernick, R., & Wilder, C. (2009). Clean Energy Trends. NY: Clean Edge.
Renewable energy. (2014). SRP. Retrieved from http://www.srpnet.com/environment/renewable.aspx
Global energy and climate objectives have contributed to the increased development and use of renewable sources of energy that focus on lessening the environment impact of generating energy. The conventional sources of energy have contributed to significant environmental impacts, especially climate change. The environmental impacts that are brought by emission of greenhouse gases from conventional energy sources are endangering the world's ecosystems and human life. As a result, renewable energy sources are considered as suitable alternatives to help lessen environmental impacts while meeting energy needs. There are various renewable energy sources that are regarded as suitable alternatives to conventional sources including solar, wind, and electric energy. Even though these sources have minimal environmental impacts compared to conventional sources of energy, they are not cost-effective yet.
Solar, Electric and Wind Energy
Wind energy has been considered as one of the cheaper energy generation methods unlike conventional sources of energy…
Barbaric, M. & Loncar, D. (2016). Energy Management Strategies for Combined Heat and Electric Power Micro-grid. Thermal Science, 20(4), 1091-1103.
Berman, B. (2014, October 14). What Is an Electric Car? Retrieved October 11, 2016, from http://www.plugincars.com/electric-cars
Bounce Energy. (n.d.). Residential Solar and Wind Systems: What are the Costs? Retrieved October 11, 2016, from https://www.bounceenergy.com/articles/green-energy/residential-solar-and-wind-systems
Hirth, L., Ueckerdt, F. & Edenhofer, O. (2016). Why Wind Is Not Coal: On the Economics of Electricity Generation. The Energy Journal, 37(3), 1-27.
However, they are worth considering on the long haul. Since the oil and gas reserves are suffering from a chronic shortage, a major company such as Exxon should think strategically and expand into this area. The discussion is more complex, in the sense that intensive research and development efforts are needed to both improve the above mentioned alternatives and to discover new sources of energy.
Exxon Financial esults
Due to the high crude-oil and natural gas prices, in the context of a busy hurricane seasons in the Gulf of Mexico, Exxon has reported record figures for 2005, mounting up to $36 billion in net income and 31% return on average capital.
Source: Exxon Mobil 2005 Company eport
The results Exxon reported for the 2005 fiscal year are impressive:
record earnings of $36 billion, up 46%;
net income per common share of $5.76;
net income to average shareholder's equity of 339%…
Armstrong, M. 2003, Human resource management practice, (9th ed.), Kogan Page Limited, London
Litle, J. 2005, Get Rich - While Exxon Goes Broke, Retrieved Online from URL: http://news.goldseek.com/DailyReckoning/1162413657.php
Logan, A. And Grossman D. 2006, ExxonMobil's Corporate Governance on Climate Change, Ceres & the Investor Network on Climate Risk
Maxwell C. And Feshbach B., Energetic Discussion, Retrieved Online from URL: http://www.weedenco.com/welling/archive/li/v06i04lilogo.asp
Energy is the basis of industrial civilization and modern society. There is little doubt that without energy, modern life would cease to exist. Over the last two hundred years, human beings have relied heavily on fossil fuels for their energy needs. Fossil fuels, however, are non-renewable and in limited supply and if we continue to use the earth's fossil fuel resources at the present rate, we would soon run out of the earth's fuel reserves. Moreover, burning of fossil fuels contributes to air pollution, acid rain, and global warming that could ultimately make life unsustainable on our planet. ith several promising alternate energy sources such as 'geothermal,' 'nuclear,' 'wind' and 'solar' power having proved either too expensive, too dangerous or impractical, the need for a new invention that provides an alternate fuel was never more urgent as it is today. The invention that I have in mind is the…
Lindemann, Peter DSc. "Where in the World is all the Free Energy?" Extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 8, Number 4. (2001) September 23, 2003 http://www.nexusmagazine.com/freeenergy.html
Patch, Kimberly. "Sunlight turns Water to Fuel." Technology Research News. January 9, 2002 September 23, 2003 http://www.trnmag.com/Stories/2002/010902/Sunlight_turns_water_to_fuel_010902.html
Since nuclear energy is derived from uranium -- a finite resource -- it is a non-renewable resource
Kimberly Patch (2002). "Sunlight turns water to fuel" Technology Research News
Who is Leading the International Clean Energy Race?
The race for clean energy is already underway, but some countries are in vanguard while others remain heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Unfortunately, even the winners of the clean energy race fail to realize the full range of benefits that can accrue to renewable energy sources as long as other countries continue to rely on fossil fuels for their energy needs. To determine the facts about what is happening today and likely outcomes for the future, this paper reviews the relevant literature to describe how developing countries can reach 100% renewable energy as well as some of the more severe challenges that are involved in providing clean energy in developing regions of the world. In addition, a discussion concerning whether the goal of achieving clean energy access for all humanity by 2030 is achievable or not is followed by an analysis of…
passive solar architecture is nothing new. Socrates observed, more than 2400 years ago, that when a house is facing to the south, the sun's rays penetrate through the windows of the house in the winter, giving heat to the inside, and shines right above the house in the summer, giving shade and cooling on the inside. At that time, this house probably lost heat as fast as it was collected, because of the convective and radiation losses. ut the idea was there, which the Romans built upon, by using windows, covered with glass, to trap the solar energy. This caused the internal temperature to stay constant throughout the night.
Passive solar architecture has come a long way since the time of Socrates. Most passive solar homes have the same characteristics in each that make them more energy efficient than they were back then. In the Northern Hemisphere, the windows are…
Holloway, Dennis R. Architecture Solar Virtual Reality Native American Archaeology. 6 December 2002. www.taosnet.com/architectVRe/html/SolarDesignb.html
Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Page. Arizona Solar Center. 6 December 2002. www.azsolarcenter.com/technology/pas-2.html
Hodges, Laurent. The Hodges Passive Solar Home in Ames, Iowa. 6 December 2002. www.public.iastate.edu/'envr_stu_324/house.htm
Passive Solar Architecture and Energy Efficient Houses -- Renewable Energy in the Home. The Australian Greenhouse Office. 6 December 2002. www.greenhouse.gov.au/renewable/home/passive_solar.html
Namaste Solar; Case Insight
Namaste Solar is a successful solar energy company located in Boulder Colorado. Founded in 2005, the firm was set up by three people who all shared a vision; a firm where there was shared risk and reward, corporate social responsible ethics and democratic decision making. The firm has been highly differentiated in the developed culture that is based and extends these ideals, with a commitment to shared equity where and employees bought shares and ownership was vested over five years. 37 employees owned equity and no owner had a majorly share. The democratic decision making was facilitated with big picture meetings (BPM). However, the initial direct democratic process required adaptation to include indirect processes as the firm expanded. By 2008 the firm achieved 20% - 25% of the residential and small commercial solar market in Colorado, and with the growth of U.S. solar energy installations…
eduction of Energy Consumption Among Corporations
The following are suitable ways to lower energy consumption
Encouraging reuse and recycling of waste materials.
Installing solar systems to provide alternative source of energy.
Having in place efficient manufacturing systems and machines that demand lesser energy than outdated models.
Harnessing of wind energy.
Change from the traditional bulbs to the light emitting diode (LED) bulbs that consume far much less.
The corporations need to instill in their employees the value of unplugging or switching off all appliances that are not being used especially when closing office for the night or for long holidays.
All energy consuming appliances need to be serviced regularly to make them more efficient, for instance the aid conditioners in the offices.
Corporations need to make their buildings as insulated as possible to help cut down on the heating costs (Pace University, 2000).
Having shade trees and painting of houses…
Natural Resources Defense Council, (2015). How to Reduce your Energy Consumption. Retrieved January 28, 2016 from http://www.nrdc.org/air/energy/genergy.asp
Pace University, (2000). Twenty Tjings you can Do to Conserve Energy. Retrieved January 28, 2016 from http://www.powerscorecard.org/reduce_energy.cfm
Waste and Energy Presentation
The first waste product is organic food waste. This ends up in landfills, and there are a number of negative outcomes. Food waste releases methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. Landfills are 20% of all methane emissions in the United States. Further, organic food waste is material that could be composted, but usually is not, representing a lost opportunity to create valuable compost for growing food. In addition, prior to making its way to the landfill, food waste is often stored in back alleys and in garbage cans, where it attracts rodents and other vermin (EPA, 2015).
Nuclear waste is a by-product of nuclear energy production. Nuclear waste comes in a number of categories, but it generally must be treated before it is deposited, and usually it must be turned to glass, stored in ceramics and then buried deep in the earth. Nuclear wastes have a long…
EPA.gov (2015). The food recovery hierarchy. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved June 1, 2015 from http://www.epa.gov/foodrecovery/
Tollefson, J. (2015). U.S. government seeks sites for nuclear waste storage. Nature. Retrieved June 1, 2015 from http://www.nature.com/news/us-government-seeks-sites-for-nuclear-waste-storage-1.17183
Greenpeace (2014). Coal impacts on water. Greenpeace. Retrieved June 1, 2015 from http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/climate-change/coal/Water-impacts/
SourceWatch (2015). Fracking and water pollution. SourchWatch.org. Retrieved June 1, 2015 from http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Fracking_and_water_pollution
Economics of Energy
There are different theories with respect to energy. Mearns argues that people should save energy, because there is a limit to how much proved reserves of hydrocarbons and there may even be limits to how much non-hydrocarbon energy available. It is necessary, therefore, to be highly efficient in our energy use (IanMearns.co.uk, 2014). His views contrast with those of someone like Christof uhl, who is the chief economist for BP. uhl argues that such efficiency is already occurring, that the West is experiencing lower levels of energy intensity and demand is primarily being driven by the developing world. Changes in the fuel mix are also a factor, he argues, and when developing nations follow the West in lowering their energy intensity, energy demand will start to stabilize (uhl, 2014).
The EIA release (2014) supports uhl's contention that energy use in the U.S. is starting to stabilize, and…
EIA. (2014). AEO 2014 early release overview. U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved March 23, 2014 from http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/er/pdf/0383er%282014%29.pdf
Gilding, P. (no date). Carbon crash solar dawn. Paul Gilding. Retrieved March 23, 2014 from http://paulgilding.com/cockatoo-chronicles/carbon-crash-solar-dawn.html
IanMearns.co.uk. (2014). Entire website. Retrieved March 23, 2014 from http://www.ianmearns.org.uk/press.htmhttp://www.ianmearns.org.uk/press.htm
Ruhl, C. (2014). Over the hump for oil demand. BP. Retrieved March 23, 2014 from http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/about-bp/energy-economics/energy-blog/over-the-hump-for-oil-demand.html
The last major x-ray flare occurred in 2003 ("O'Dell). Most of the energy from an x-ray flare is absorbed by the earth's ionosphere ("O'Dell). Thus, a CME can be far more dangerous for human societies than an x-ray flare.
The first and most subtle observable phenomenon signaling an upcoming solar storm are known as coronal loops, which are "kinks in the magnetic flux form" forced to the surface of the sun due to a buildup of magnetic energy (O'Dell). Dark spots on the sun's surface then appear, usually in the "footprint" of the coronal loops ("O'Dell). The dark spots visibly signal the buildup of magnetism. NASA describes the phenomenon of solar flares as occurring in three stages: a precursor stage, an impulsive stage, and a decay stage. During the precursor stage, the release of magnetic energy is only triggered and leads to "soft x-ray emissions," ("What is a Solar Flare?").…
Hadhazy, Adam. "A Scary 13th: 20 Years Ago, Earth Was Blasted with a Massive Plume of Solar Plasma." Scientific American. Mar 13, 2009. Retrieved Mar 20, 2009 at http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=geomagnetic-storm-march-13-1989-extreme-space-weather
O'Neill, Ian. "2012: No Killer Solar Flare." Universe Today. June 21, 2008. Retrieved Mar 20, 2009 at http://www.universetoday.com/2008/06/21/2012-no-killer-solar-flare/
What is a Solar Flare?" Retrieved Mar 20, 2009 at http://hesperia.gsfc.nasa.gov/sftheory/flare.htm
The urban village is being constructed on brownfield land that was formerly being used by an oil refinery that was called the Llandarcy Oil efinery that was owned by BP. This oil refinery was constructed between the years 1918 and 1922 and it has been labeled as the first crude oil refinery in the country. Since there were some economic changes, the site was closed in the year 1997 (Brownfield renewal in Wales and South West egion, 2007).
Planned Outputs of the Urban Village
According to the plan that has been prepared for Coed Darcy, the community will comprise of 4,000 homes along with employment space, community facilities as well as open space that covered an area of 1,300 acres. The estimate of the development of this community is about 1.2 billion pounds. Moreover, four new schools have also been planned for this community. These schools include 2…
"Brownfield renewal in the South West and Wales region" (2008). Investor Site Visit - 1st October 2007. St. Modwen Properties PLC.
"Coed Darcy gets outline planning permission" (2007). WalesOnline.
"Coed Darcy Name Revealed at Llandarcy Development Exhibition" (2008). Neath Port Talbot County Borough Council.
"Coed Darcy Urban Village" (2008). The Prince's Foundation.
One of the biggest risks that companies face is advanced persistent threats.
Advanced persistent threats can be very harmful to a company and can come in various forms as hackers have a variety of methods in their tool belt; however, on the receiving end, companies should be prepared for cyber attacks -- and yet they often are not, because of carelessness, neglect, lack of oversight, regulation, accountability, transparency, review, and an ability to conduct proper assessment. APTs are happening all the time and can be traced to origin locations all over the world (Norse, 2016). Cyber security should be therefore a number priority for any and all businesses that utilize information systems software and hardware. As the Norse Map shows, countries in both the East and the West are waging cyber war against one another; cyber security is therefore a real going concern for all (Norse, 2016).
Boyens, J., Paulsen, C., Bartol, N., Moorthy, R., Shankles, S. (2012). Notional Supply
Chain Risk Management Practices for Federal Information Systems. Retrieved from http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/drafts/nistir-7622/second-public-draft_nistir-7622.pdf
Earned Value Analysis. (2012). Project Management Guru. Retrieved from http://www.projectmanagementguru.com/eva.html
Fleming, Q., Koppelman, J. (2000). Earned Value Project Management. PA: Project
Energy in Bloomington Indiana 11/16/2010 Mary Sullivan
The objective is to reduce city energy consumption in Bloomington Indiana by 6% by November 15, 2015 through installation/retrofitting of high-efficiency direct and indirect lighting systems in city-owned property. This objective is important because energy reduction is a vital component of both fiscal and environmental responsibility and vitalization. In the 2010 State of the City address, the Mayor of Bloomington stressed two intended approaches to economic vitalization. The first was to strengthen what they already have, and second to pursue what they still need to "achieve a strong, diversified, local economy." Since lighting is one of the most basic, important, and visible uses of energy it is a prime candidate to be strengthen and improved via an energy reduction initiative. Nationally, the cost of lighting presents approximately 20% of the overall energy consumed. Indiana statistics are consistent with this figure. Commercial and public…
Establishment Energy Cooperation
Establishment of Energy Cooperation System East Asia
The economic growth and its sustainability of any developing and developed country are dependent on the basis of its energy requirements (Lincoln, 2004). The countries in East Asian region are also no exception. The energy requirements of the region are swelling with the increased focus on its development. The regional focus has also established grounds for the political and industry leaders to focus on the requirements and prepare their countries for future energy needs. The region is also dependent on the energy imports especially the fuel for energy including oil and gas. The increasing energy production requirements are also creating an issue for the local governments to manage the energy prices within the affordable range of its consumers.
The local cooperation among various countries in the region is affected by the political and territorial issues. However the regional cooperation organizations…
Dent, C.M. (2008). East Asian Regionalism. USA: Routledge.
Dincer, I., & Rosen, M.A. (2012). Exergy: energy, environment and sustainable development. USA: Elsevier.
Economides, M.J., & Wood, D.A. (2009). The state of natural gas. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 1(1), 1-13.
Fujita, M., Kuroiwa, I., & Kumagai, S. (Eds.). (2011). The Economics of East Asian Integration: A Comprehensive Introduction to Regional Issues. USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
S. pp). For more than ten years, Chinese officials have stated that production from Chinese firms investing overseas is more secure than imports purchased on the international market (U.S. pp). In order to secure more reliable access, Chinese firms are being directed to invest in projects in the Caspian region, Russia, the Middle East and South America (U.S. pp).
The National Intelligence Council's report also states that Europe's energy needs will probably not grow to the same extent as those of the developing world, partly because of Europe's expected lower economic growth and more efficient use of energy (U.S. pp). Europe's increasing preference for natural gas, combined with depleting reserves in the North Sea, will provide an added boost to political efforts that are already under way to strengthen ties with Russia and North Africa, since gas requires a higher level of political commitment by both sides in designing and…
"Globalization and Energy Supply: Strategic Risk in the 21st Century."
A Deloitte Research Viewpoint. May 2004.
Harris, Martha Caldwell. "The Globalization of Energy Markets."
Downside of Nuclear Energy:
Energy production has been a major issue that has attracted huge concerns in the recent past because of the negative environmental impacts associated with generating energy through burning of fossil fuels. A growing interest in nuclear power has significantly increases during this period as it is considered as a real solution to energy security and means of dealing with climate change. Actually, there have been concerns on whether nuclear power is the solution or answer to a warming planet or it is dangerous and expensive to meet the future energy needs of the modern society. hile some people have argued in support of the use of nuclear energy as a solution to these problems, others have opposed such attempts. These varying opinions have been based on arguments and counter-arguments that demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy.
Increased Attention on Nuclear Power:
As previously mentioned,…
Adamson, Greg. We All Live on Three Mile Island: The Case against Nuclear Power. Sydney: Pathfinder, 1981. Print.
"The Case against Nuclear Power and the Case for Real Solutions to Energy Security and Climate Change." Greenpeace International. GREENPEACE. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Totty, Michael. "The Case For and Against Nuclear Power." The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 30 June 2008. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Williams, Chris. "The Case against Nuclear Power." ISR - International Socialist Review. The Center for Economic Research and Social Change. Web. 31 May 2014. .
My energy use varied depending on the day. In general, heating oil is used, so this will increase on days that are cooler or wetter. Electrical reflects appliance usage for the most part. There is a baseline of electrical usage for things like lights, coffee maker and other daily essentials. Electricity usage spikes on laundry day in particular. There is a small solar component to the heating, providing heat for a couple of rooms. Auto gas reflects car usage, which fluctuates. There is a commuting baseline for five out of seven days, and so non-commuting days can see lower gasoline usage.
The local energy company uses primarily coal as its power source, but also makes use of a small percentage of nuclear power as well. The utility posts this information on its website. The different power sources are all outlined, so consumers can effectively understand the source of the…
EDF (2011). California's global warming solutions act. Environmental Defense Fund. Retrieved October 31, 2011 from http://www.edf.org/climate/AB32
As the term suggest, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been reduced to a liquid by cooling it to minus 161°C thereby eliminating oxygen, carbon dioxide and other unwanted components to achieve almost pure methane (Liquefied Natural Gas 2012). According to one LNG producer, "In the liquefaction process, impurities are removed from the gas before it is cooled. The cooling of natural gas to -162°C causes it to liquefy at which point it takes up 1/600th of its original volume. This allows the gas to be stored and transported safely and economically in large vessels" (LNG Liquefaction Process 2012, p. 2). Interestingly, Chandra (2012) points out that after natural gas is cooled to -- 161.5° C ( -- 260° F) and reduced, the actual volume shrinkage is about 610 times; however, 600 times reduction is typically cited in the literature. Because of its highly cooled and liquid…
Akimoto, K., Sano, F., Odo, J., Homma, T., Rout, U.K. & Tomoda, T. (2008). 'Global Emission
Reductions through a Sectoral Intensity Target Scheme.' Climate Policy, vol. 8, pp. 46-
Ben-Moshe, S., Crowell, J.J., Gale, K.M., Peace, B.A., Rosenblatt, B.P. & Thomason, K.D>
Mounted on the side of the pole are 2 solar panels made by F3 Solar that are capable of generating up to 80 W. Of power.
-No lamp changes -- sealed for life.
-Fully controllable with excellent colour rendition
-Multi combination outputs.
-LED Life expectancy -- 25 years +
Prices vary by distributor
Green Column (http://www.wirefreedirect.com / green_column.asp)
The wind and solar powered solution delivers free, renewable energy which is stored in a battery ready to be consumed when darkness falls. Green Columns are already in use all over the UK on footpaths, playgrounds and car parks. (Note: Product's current battery lasts up to 10 days in mild weather, but only 4-5 days in inclement weather conditions.)
Prices vary by distributor
The following questions will be submitted to potential vendors for the solar and wind powered street LED light systems needed for the initiative envisioned herein.
Alsos, G.A., Isaksen, E.P. & Ljunggren, E. (2006). New venture financing and subsequent business growth in men- and women-led businesses. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 30(5), 667-670.
Hildrum, J.M., Finsrud, H.D. & Klethagen, P. (2009). The next generation of national R&D
programmes in Norway: Consequences for action research and regional development.
International Journal of Action Research, 5(3), 255-257.
Energy: A Bright Future Through Diversification
The energy industry has been a lucrative and growing one for generations, and will continue to be so in the future. Multiple sectors depend on the robustness of the energy industry for their long-term success, ensuring the relevance of and reliance on the energy business for the foreseeable future. From space exploration and military technology to utilities and essential services, quality energy sourcing, processing, generation, and distribution are all crucial to life on earth. Furthermore, the world's population is growing at an alarming rate, necessitating new products, services, and innovations to fit growing energy needs. The industry's ability to adapt to change, mitigate risks, and manage market forces makes it certain that my future in the energy field is a bright one.
Granted, a "massive transformation" is predicted for the future of the energy industry due to the boom in solar projects around the…
Electromagnetic waves are energy waves produced by the oscillation or acceleration of an electric charge. They include radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays. Their wavelengths in meters are: radio waves (0.1 to 1000), microwaves (1 x 10-3 ~ 1 x 10-1); infrared (7 x 10-7 ~1 x 10-3); visible light (4 x 10-7 ~ 7 x 10-7); ultraviolet rays (1 x 10-8 ~ 4 x 10-7); x-rays (1 x 10-11 ~ 1 x 10-8) and gamma rays (< 1 x 10-11).
Scientists have inferred that such great amounts of energy as produced by the Sun (4x1026 watts per second) can only be the result of nuclear fusion
If such energy were produced through the most efficient chemical reaction, the Sun would not last for more than a few thousand years. Evidence suggests that the lifespan of the Sun is in billions of years;…
The modern world has been characterized with several environmental issues in the recent past including natural resource depletion, climate change, pollution, and overpopulation. However, climate change has attracted significant attention because of increased environmental impact of industrialization and globalization. Climate change is largely attributable to the current energy sources, which continue to affect the environment. As a result, the search for a suitable energy source with little to no environmental effect has become a major issue for policymakers, governments, and environmentalists. Despite conventional views that nuclear power is unsuitable, recent studies and statistics have considered it a clean energy source. This has contributed to arguments and counter-arguments on whether nuclear energy is clean and safe for the environment. Despite having little to no emission of dangerous gases, nuclear energy is unsustainable when considered from an economic and social perspective.
The Case for Nuclear Energy
In the past few…
Cavanagh, R. & Cochran, T. (2013, November 6). Nuclear Energy Film Overstates Positives, Underplays Negatives. CNN. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/06/opinion/pandora-nuclear-energy-opinion-cavanagh-cochran/
Kemfert et al. (2015, November). European Climate Targets Achievable Without Nuclear Power. DIW Economic Bulletin, 5(47), 619-625.
Koffler, D. (2008, July 8). The Case for Nuclear Power. The Guardian. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2008/jul/08/nuclearpower.energy
Totty, M. (2008, June 30). The Case For and Against Nuclear Power. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB121432182593500119
Future of Energy: Guiding Decisions ith Evidence
In order to reduce the negative environmental impacts of an ever growing human population and increasing demands for energy as technological advances continue, individual countries, states, cities and even households have the opportunity to shift their energy sources to those that are renewable. However, not all locations are equally amenable to any particular form of energy. This analysis will look at personal consumption of energy of the course of a normal routine and attempt to determine the major sources of energy use that are present in my life. It was found that heating and cooling and transportation were among the leading items that contributed to my total energy consumption. There are various ways in which these energy consumption sources could be minimized to create a better conservation of energy strategy in my normal routine.
The world is facing environmental crises from…
EIA. (2013, March 7). Heating and cooling no longer majority of U.S. home energy use. Retrieved from U.S. Energy Information Administration: http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=10271&src=%E2%80%B9%20Consumption%20%20%20%20%20%20Residential%20Energy%20Consumption%20Survey%20 (RECS)-f1
Eichholtz, P., Kok, N., & Quigley, J. (2009). Doing Well by Doing Good? Green Office Buildings. American Economic Review.
Gordon, R., Kinsey, G., Nayaak, A., & Garboushian, V. (2010). 30% CPV Module Milestone. AIP Conference Proceedings, 171-174.
Kunzig, R. (2014, September 19). A World With 11 Billion People? New Population Projections Shatter Earlier Estimates. Retrieved from National Geographic: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/09/140918-population-global-united-nations-2100-boom-africa/
Technology Saving Environment
The author of this response has been asked to write an argumentative essay that centers on whether human technology can save the world when it comes to things like climate change. The question is not an easy one to answer. There are those that say that even if the data set known to humankind is not complete, this cannot persuade us not to act because we should not wait until it is too late. There are others that suggest that the planet will impose its will on humankind no matter what humans do or do not do and the presence or use of technology will not change that. However, most people fall somewhere in the middle or perhaps even believe that the way to save the planet is already known and just needs to be implemented. hile it sounds good to suggest that humans can plot the…
Chatsko, Maxx. "Bill Gates' Dream For A Nuclear-Powered Future Is Almost Here -- The Motley Fool." The Motley Fool. n.p., 2016. Web. 6 June 2016.
Chivers, Tom. "12 Technologies Which Could Save the World." BuzzFeed. n.p., 2016. Web. 6 June 2016.
Kemp, Rene. "World Environment Day: Can Technology Save Us? - Our World." Ourworld.unu.edu. n.p., 2016. Web. 6 June 2016.
Kho, Jennifer. "Can Technology Save the World?." Greentechmedia.com. n.p., 2016. Web. 6 June 2016.
Cost and CO2 reduction analysis were performed using local data available from both commercial and professional bodies. A majority of current thermal rating programs require the equipment to be tested in accordance to a standard test under specified testing conditions. This approach provides reliable data because it is possible to replicate such tests within an accepted uncertainty band. There are, however, some rating programs which combine a standard test and a calculation procedure to produce a performance rating. Such is the case for the energy guide label for electric and gas hot water heaters. A similar method has been developed to provide a practical rating system with the goal of presenting an easily understood comparison between SDHW systems and conventional hot water systems. Note that the performance any individual commercial enterprise will experience may differ due to location and hot water usage.
The thermal performance rating is based on the…
Abbasi, T., & a., a.S. (2011). Renewable Energy Sources . New Delhi: PHI.
BRE (2002), BREDEM-8 Model Description: 2001 Update, BRE, UK ? BSI (1989), BS5918:
British Standard Code of Practice for Solar Heating Systems for Domestic Hot Water,
Bradford, J. & Bean, F. (2011). 'Here comes the sun: a field trial of solar water heating systems.' The Energy Saving Trust. [PDF]
South Florida, especially Broward County, has showed the most eagerness, with eighty seven percent in favor of solar energy investment. Central Florida and the Gulf Coast were close behind, and eighty percent of those living in North Florida also favored more state venture for solar energy. hile voters of all ages said they approved of spending more on solar, ninety three percent of those between eighteen and thirty four agreed. Statewide, the accord crossed party lines, with eighty two percent of Republicans favoring more public capital for solar energy, compared with eighty seven percent of Democrats. The poll also showed strong support for solar energy even if it led to an increase in utility bills. Overall, eighty one percent of those polled said they were willing to pay more each month on their utility bill to sustain solar energy (Poll: Support up for solar energy investment, 2008).
The sun is…
Borenstein, Severin. 2008. "The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity
Production." Web. 29 March 2011.
"Clean Energy Never Looked So Good." 2011. Web. 29 March 2011.
"Environmental Effects of Solar Energy." 2011. Web. 29 March 2011.
The research showed that today's dominant energy model remains the centralized, large-scale energy production approach that is focused on satisfying increasing demand in an efficient fashion. The research also showed that the move is on to decentralized energy production through smaller production facilities and so-called micro-systems that supplement and even replace traditional sources of energy. Taken together, it is reasonable to conclude that the successor to today's large-scale centralized energy production will be decentralized, downsized alternatives that are designed to meet peak demands in a more efficient ways.
Barclay, .A. (2010, Summer). Feed-in tariffs: Too much of a good thing? Management
Quarterly, 51(2), 35-37.
Blumsack, S. (2007, January 1). Measuring the benefits and costs of regional electric grid integration. Energy Law Journal, 28(1), 147-150.
Bluvas, K. (2007, Fall). Distributed generation: A step forward in United States energy policy.
Albany Law eview, 70(4), 1589-1592.
Cohen, L.. (2001). The technology…
Barclay, R.A. (2010, Summer). Feed-in tariffs: Too much of a good thing? Management
Quarterly, 51(2), 35-37.
Blumsack, S. (2007, January 1). Measuring the benefits and costs of regional electric grid integration. Energy Law Journal, 28(1), 147-150.
Bluvas, K. (2007, Fall). Distributed generation: A step forward in United States energy policy.
According to Dr. David Thompson, assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry at Memorial, long-term goal is to make fuel from sunlight, a field known artificial photosynthesis. The larger question revolves around whether a system can be designed to take captured solar energy and create molecules that can be utilized as fuels (Hester, 2007).
The general idea, of course, is that the Petroleum Era will be replaced by the Hydrogen Era. Because hydrogen is so prevalent in the universe, it will require only the technological acumen to harness this most abundant element in order to produce a clean, unlimited, reliable, and endless supply of power. Enough scientists believe in this technology that in January 2003, President G.W. Bush announced a $720 million commitment towards the development of hydrogen fuel (www.hydrogenassociation.com). Modern society has the technology to change behaviors, or at least the vision to develop this alternate paradigm, but perhaps…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Alternative Energy Institute 2006, "Powering Our Future: An Energy Sourcebook for
Sustainable Living." Cited in:
Gibilisco, S. (2006), Alternative Energy Demystified, McGraw
Cells are known as the basic units of life. One thing that plant cells and solar cells have in common is that they are very important to humans and living things on earth. One main difference between plant cells and solar cells is how each harnesses solar energy. Plants harness solar energy to use photosynthesis. Solar cells harness solar energy to convert it to electricity.
One of the main duties of photosynthesis is changing solar energy into chemical energy. Anything that can be digested and all fossil fuels are products of photosynthesis. Many organisms are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis. Organisms carry out this task by converting CO2 or carbon dioxide to organic material. The outcome of this chemical reaction is electrons that are converted to protons and oxygen. The remaining energy from this chemical reaction is then absorbed by carotenoids and chlorophylls.
Solar cells are composed of many semiconducting…
" Farabee, M.J. (2001). Laws of Thermodynamics. Retrieved on January 26, 2010 from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEner1.html
STOEGER, WILLIAM R. "Thermodynamics, Second Law of." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. The Gale Group Inc. 2003. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404200511.html
J. Whitmarsh and Govindjee (1995), "Photosynthesis" by published in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics (Vol. 13, pp. 513-532) by VCH Publishers, Inc.
The combination of the factors is showing how the Ukraine is the ideal environment for GE to construct this kind of plant. ("Ukraine's Solar Energy Industry")
Evidence of this can be seen with Activ Solar. This Australian-based firm; is the owner of one of the largest solar power plants in all of Europe. At the same time, they have tremendous operations producing components for the facility. This is allowing the firm to reduce their costs and become one of the largest players (for alternative energy). In the case of GE, this is an ideal location that will help the company to establish itself inside the sector. ("Ukraine's Solar Energy Industry")
The Ukraine vs. The Philippines Political Situation
In contrast to the Philippines, the government has been slow to respond in dealing with challenges such as improving infrastructure. At the same time, they are ineffective in collecting tax revenues and using…
"Philippines." CIA, 2012. Web. 30 Sept. 2012
"Ukraine." CIA, 2012. Web. 30 Sept. 2012
"Ukraine's Solar Energy Industry." Renewable Energy Eilat, 2011. Web. 30 Sept. 2012
MLA Format https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/08/
CEFC and the Future of Environmental Finance
The Clean Energy Finance Corporation (CEFC) represents the most aggressive environmental finance initiative sponsored by the Australian Government to date. The CEFC is an independent entity established as part of the Clean Energy Future Policy by the Australian government. As of March 2012, funding for the program totaled AUS $10 billion in government backed investments for the commercialization and deployment of clean energy technologies. This research will explore the CEFC and its role in the development and deployment of environmentally friendly energy sources and alternatives.
Governments around the world recognize the need for developing clean and renewable energy sources that reduce their environmental impact. The topic of global warning and climate change has increased the need for the development of less energy intensive and environmentally damaging energy sources. Although the role of human beings in these changes is a topic of debate, it…
Business Innovation & Skills. 2011. The economics of the Green Investment Bank: Costs and Benefits, rationale and value for money. [online] Available at: http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/biscore/business-sectors/docs/e/12-554-economics-of-the-green-investment-bank.pdf [Accessed 10 June 2012].
Clean Energy Council. March 2012. Design Features of the Clean Energy Finance Corporation.Deloitte. [online] Available at: http://www.cleanenergycouncil.org.au/...CEFC.../ ... [Accessed 10 June 2012].
Commonwealth of Australia. 2011. Clean Energy Finance Corporation, Expert Review. [online] Available at: http://www.cefcexpertreview.gov.au/content/Content.aspx?doc=report/default.htm [Accessed 10 June 2012].
Department for Business Innovation and Skills. 2012. UK Green Investment Bank. [online] Available at: http://www.bis.gov.uk/greeninvestmentbank [Accessed 10 June 2012].
However, not every element of renewable energy will prove advantageous for us to implement. All of the forms of renewable energy have not been mass implemented on a large scale in the past. This means that we would have o completely redesign our energy plans in order to accommodate these new technologies. This will prove labor intensive and costly in the initial implementation stages (Hick 2009).
Yet, despite disadvantages, these new renewable energy sources are crucial to a better life tomorrow. Some prove much too costly to implement with any sort of immediate returns, such as massive wind energy plants. However, solar energy is much less costly, easier to access from an individual standpoint, and completely unlimited. Solar energy proves one of the most desirable and cost effective renewable energy sources for today, and can be implemented while we develop more strategies for the future.
Hick, Matthew. (2009). Advantages…
Hick, Matthew. (2009). Advantages and disadvantages of renewable energy. Renewable Energy Today. Retrieved October 11, 2009 at http://renewableenergy-today.com/Renewable-Energy/Advantages-Disadvantages-Renewable-Energy.html
White, Dowl. (2009). The advantages of renewable energy. Ezine Articles. Retrieved October 11, 2009 at http://ezinearticles.com/?the-Advantages-of-Renewable-Energy&id=1436956
This presents challenges because neither high-pressure compressed hydrogen gas nor cryogenic liquefied hydrogen can easily be handled at home." (Panasonic, p. 1)
This underscores the reality noted by this proposal and cast to further examination in the research justified by this proposal that any real implementation of an energy source transformation would be a considerable commercial, political, economic and practical endeavor.
All of that noted, it still remains that case that hydrogen has the potential to light the way for a better fuel economy, a more efficient society and a more pristine environment in Singapore. This is because at its root, hydrogen carries not just the potential for clean-burning but also for greater energy-storing capacity. According to the Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Association (FCHEA) "hydrogen is the lightest gas and also the most energy-dense fuel per mass. One pound of hydrogen holds 52,000 Btu, three times the energy of…
Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Association (FCHEA). (2010). Hydrogen Energy Overview. FCHEA.org.
Linde Group (LG). (2010). Hydrogen Energy. Linde Industrial Gases.
Ministry of the Environment and Water Sources (MEWR). (2010). Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. http://app.mewr.gov.sg
National Climate Change Committee (NCCC). (2008). Singapore's National Climate Change Strategy. app.mewr.gov.sg.
There is injustice done to the ratepayers through higher rates. Some others will benefit by the subsidized energy efficient products such as light bulbs, refrigerators, consultation services, and to cap it is argued that a utility service provider is in no position to fix the benefits as much as the customers and since it depends on many individuals and therefore the energy efficiency and the interest rates and the price of electricity are all subjective.
Thus the allowing of corporations to fleece the customer on their interpretation of the Demand analysis is wrong because the Corporations often attempt to have a very high rate exceeding 12% for capital Such irreversible investments would often require a rate of return of over twenty percent that makes the service affordable only for the very upper class leaving the rest in darkness. Since the investment cannot be reversed, there is a risk of the…
Haugland, Torleif; et al. (1998) "Energy Structures and Environmental Futures." Oxford
University: New York.
Edge, Chris. (2009) "Demand Side Management Progress Energy Overview"
Retrieved 4 March, 2012 from http://www.asiapacificpartnership.org/pdf/PGTTF/ddsm/presentations/DSM_at_Progress_Energy_-_Chris_Edge.pdf