South Africa Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

South Sudan in Your View Based on

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38151398

South Sudan

In your view, based on what you have seen on the media, journals, etc. Please explain in a short statement; what are the roles of tribal politics/identities, natural resources and the system of distribution resources in the violence in South Sudan?

South Sudan has a rich natural resource base. Oil reserves, estimated to be among the largest in the continent, were recently discovered, not forgetting the large amounts of resources that have over the years remained untapped due to recurring wars and conflict. These natural resources, however, are the main cause of conflict between the country's top political powerhouses; President Salva Kiir of the Dinka community, and Riak Machar of the Nuer Community. The violence currently being experienced, and which can rightly be referred to as an ethnic war between the Dinka and the Nuer, is as a result of the rivalry between these two, both of whom…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Violence at Schools in South

Words: 4378 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58268265

..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).

This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.

Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.

Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels…… [Read More]

References www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114080610

Abbink, J. & Kessel, I.V. (Eds.). (2005). Vanguard or Vandals: Youth, Politics, and Conflict in Africa. Boston: Brill. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114080610

Bility K.M. (1999) School Violence and Adolescent Mental Health in South Africa: Implications for School Health Programs. "http: Sociological Practice, Vol. 01, No, 4, pp. 285-303 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684

Carton, B. (2003). The Forgotten Compass of Death: Apocalypse Then and Now in the Social History of South Africa. Journal of Social History, 37(1), 199+. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684

Center for Justice and Crime Prevention. Retrieved January 2, 2009, at  http://www.cjcp.org.za/
View Full Essay

Why Is Africa'so Poor

Words: 5480 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73371208

Africa so Poor?

Why is it that Africa, despite the aid and help and support that she gets from different sources all over the world, is still very much impoverished and in a state of poverty even now? It is a fact that this continent has been availing of outside help and has also been a site where numerous large-scale experiments have been performed over the years in order to improve and reform its economy for its innate betterment, but it has still remained in the same condition in which it has been existing all these pats few centuries. The truth is that none of the above experiments have been able to succeed in achieving a sustained and continuous economic growth in Africa and this has also led to the astonishing fact that most African three dozen nations are, today, even poorer than they were during the 1980's. It is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

African Alternative Framework to Structural Adjustment Programs for Socio-Economic Recovery and Transformation. Retrieved From http://www.africaaction.org/african-initiatives/aafall.htm Accessed on 28 February, 2005

Africa's Development Crisis. Retrieved From http://www.econdad.org/Berlin.htm Accessed on 28 February, 2005

Basu, Anupam; Calamitsis, Evangelos A; Ghura, Dhaneshwar. Promoting Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Monetary Fund. August 2000. Retrieved From

http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/issues/issues23 / Accessed on 27 February, 2005
View Full Essay

Funding for AIDS in Africa

Words: 3546 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1779188

The weaker segments in Africa, women and children, were and are the worst hit by HIV / AIDS, which then is spread to the families and communities. (Bage 2004)

Dealing with this is a great scientific, social, and moral challenge that every organization and country, especially developed countries must rise up to. It is time to mobilize resources and contribute to make changes in the policies so that we at the United Nations can do something worthwhile to combat Africa's problem with this disease. There were commercial interests earlier that would not allow the developed nations to provide subsidized medicine. For instance the United States, there was a stance that there could be no recognition of the problem and a denial of need. This was followed by a policy that placed the solving of the problem on the affected countries. Until George W. Bush, the United States and many developed…… [Read More]

References

Bage, Lennart. 2004. HIV / AIDS in Africa: Shifting the Horizons of Development. UN

Chronicle, vol. 41, no. 3. September-November, pp: 49-54.

DeConde, Alexander. 1963. A History of American Foreign Policy. Charles Scribner's

Sons: New York.
View Full Essay

African Beginnings Africa Was the

Words: 8160 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90731928

This can be traced to the conservative view that lacks have in fact no real history in comparison to the richness and significance of European history. "As astonishing as it seems most of the prestigious academics and universities in Europe and America have ridiculed the idea that blacks have any substantive history."

This derogatory view has its roots as well in the colonial attitude that tended to see all lack people as inferior in status and 'ignorant' in order to justify the intrusion and invasion of their lands and territories.

In other words, the justification for conquest and what was in reality the theft of African land and wealth was provided to a great extent by the ' rewriting' of iblical texts. lacks were cast as 'heathen' people who had not achieved the enlightenment that the white group had attained through the ible and Christianity and therefore lacks were seen…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"African Heritage: The Original African Heritage Study Bible,"  http://kenanderson.net/bible/html/african_heritage.html  (accessed September 20, 2010).

BibleGateway, Genesis 2:10- 14,

http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+2%3A10-14&version=NIV (accessed September 20, 2010).

"BLACK HEBREW ISRAELITES,"  http://www.angelfire.com/sd/occultic/hebrew.html , (accessed September 20, 2010).
View Full Essay

Total 3000 Words Organisation - Telkom South

Words: 3168 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20351831

total 3000 words: Organisation - Telkom South Africa Questions strategy theory applicacable models 1. Undertake a resource based analysis Telkom, South African telecommunications company comment implications analysis future strategy organisation

Telkom South Africa

The telecommunications industry is the fastest growing industry at an international level. It relies on innovation and developments and it impacts all aspects of life. The telecommunications industry in the Western Hemisphere is generically assumed as the leader of the world, possessing the most impressive resources and developing the most impressive technologies. Aside from the United States however, intense telecommunications is also present in Japan, China or ussia.

In the global discussion of telecommunications, South Africa is often overlooked as a region noteworthy of attention. Nevertheless, the African continent does possess an impressive telecommunications company, which operates in 38 countries and which could easily pose competition to the more commonly known westerner companies. This is the Telkom…… [Read More]

References:

Barney, J.B., Clark, D.N., 2007, Resource-based theory: creating and sustaining competitive advantage, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199277680

Doole, I., Lowe, R., International marketing strategy: analysis, development and implementation, 5th edition, Cengage Learning EMEA, ISBN 1844807630

Grant, R.M., 2005, Contemporary strategy analysis, 5th edition, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 1405119993

Kinyanjui, K., 2011, Telkom South Africa's internet sector merger intensifies surf wars, All Africa, http://allafrica.com/stories/201106030511.html last accessed on August 3, 2011
View Full Essay

HIV AIDS in South

Words: 1153 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76499556

Needless to underline the difficulty of the this challenge.

Another author who is concerned with why the prevention programmes fail in this specific cultural environment is Catherine Campbell. She believes that while external help is fundamental, so is mobilizing the local community is the direction of prevention. Peer education made in informal scenery is believed to be the first necessary step. Another step would imply reaching the target represented by children and teenagers. This means "promoting peer education in a formal school setting" as well. "Mobilizing stakeholders to prevent HIV" is the third measure which she takes into consideration. "In the past few years, some development practitioners and agencies have attempted to acknowledge the complex and contested nature of local communities through the growing popularity of the concept of the "multi-stakeholder community." The recognition that geographical areas are often home to a range of different "stakeholders" represents an important first…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Attwood, G. REFLECT- Learning circles in the Malealea Community Development project

Campbell, C. Letting them die: why HIV / AIDS intervention programmes fail. Google Books. Retrieved October 5, 2010 from http://books.google.it/books?id=xZME3SMJUwcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=catherine+campbell+letting+them+die&source=bl&ots=L2WZ6lJaV2&sig=Le2k1h7d68hGxxDTBo8HM_nisYs&hl=it&ei=iPqtTIvdGczEswbxxv29DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false

Dunton, C. - Audio

Epstein, H. The invisible cure. Retrieved October 7, 2010 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VSPk8K5zK3I
View Full Essay

Growth & Development That Africa

Words: 1569 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76867067

Governments will not provide public goods to those they mistrust, as they will not expect to be able to collect taxes at a later date. In Africa, this again can be related to ethnic tensions -- governments and regions from different ethnic groups may have mutual mistrust that predates the colonial era.

Conclusions

Every nation will develop in its own way. For the most part, however, specific antecedents to development can be identified. Strong government is essential as lack of security will reduce investment -- both domestic and international -- and thus stifle economic growth. Strong government must nonetheless not confuse the rule of law with a mandate to expropriate wealth. The government will need to tax, but must do so only in accordance with the needs of the region for public goods. At some point, trust will need to be developed between the government and the people of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Acemoglu, D. 2005. Politics and economics in weak and strong states. Journal of Monetary Economics. Vol. 52 (2005): 1199-1226.

Herbst, J. 1990. War and the state in Africa.

Acemoglu, D. & Robinson. Economic Structure and Democracy.

Aryeetey, E. 2004. Financing Africa's future growth and development: Some innovations. Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research. 1-44.
View Full Essay

Why Does Ghana Has Less AIDS in the Sub-Saharan Africa

Words: 1000 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9618147

AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa?

AIDS in Ghana

AIDS, or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, has devastated much of Africa, hitting this continent worse than any other in the world. In fact, in the year 2000, 80% of the world's total AIDS-related deaths were within Africa. (C 2000) One of the areas hit the hardest by this virus has been the Sub-Saharan region. Ghana, within that region, has also been ravaged by AIDS, but it has a significantly lower percentage of AIDS cases than much of the rest of Africa. While the AIDS within Ghana has many of the same causes and effects on the people who are infected with the disease, it is a unique situation within Africa because of its particular effects on the women of the country, and the fact that there are comparatively fewer AIDS cases within this country.

The first reported cases of AIDS in Ghana were…… [Read More]

Bibliography

BBC. 2003. "Africa's Aids burden." UK: BBC News, Retreived December 1, 2003. (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1045156.stm)

Ghana AIDS Commission [1]. 2003. "Brief Statistics on HIV / AIDS." Ghana: Ghana AIDS Commission, Retreieved December 1, 2003. (http://www.ghanaids.gov.gh/functionalities/statusandimpact/articledescription.asp?ArticleID=13)

Ghana AIDS Commission [2]. 2003. "Women and AIDS." Ghana: Ghana AIDS Commission, Retreieved December 1, 2003. (http://www.ghanaids.gov.gh/barefacts/practicalinformation/articledescription.asp?ArticleID=24)

Ofeibea Quirst-arcton. 2003. "Aids Treatment Plan Begins In January." Accra: AllAfrica.com, Retreived December 1, 2003. (http://allafrica.com/stories/200311300172.html)
View Full Essay

AIDS Drugs in Africa Glaxo's

Words: 891 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82440709

-- but Glaxo contends that Cipla violates the companies' patents and international intellectual- property agreements"(Boseley, 2002). In moral defense of its actions, Glaxo's CEO, told shareholders "Some people might see patents as the obstacle to getting medicines to patients in poorer countries. Nothing could be further from the truth....Even in countries where low cost generics are available millions of people are dying every year because they cannot obtain low cost generic treatments for malaria, TB and other common diseases. e should also remember that 95% of the medicines on HO's Essential Drugs List are not covered by patent protection anywhere in the world, let alone in developing countries, many of which have no effective intellectual property laws" (Samson, 2001).

Still, a recent scandal revealing that "nearly $18 million worth of reduced-price HIV drugs intended for impoverished Africans have been intercepted by profiteers and shipped back to Europe to be sold…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boseley, Sarah (6 Sept. 2002). "Glaxo cuts AIDS drug prices in Africa." The Guardian. Retrieved 20 Jan 2007 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,786919,00.html

Glaxo: Cheap AIDS drugs not enough." (25 May 2001) BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1351153.stm

HIV Drugs for Africa Diverted to Europe. (3 Oct 2002). Centers for Disease Control.

International News. Retrieved 20 Jan 2007 at http://www.thebody.com/cdc/news_updates_archive/oct3_02/hiv_drugs.html
View Full Essay

Cultural Perceptions of Time in Africa Time

Words: 6951 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52859355

Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica

Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.

Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.

In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are…… [Read More]

Akan" is an ethnographic and linguistic term used to refer to a cluster of culturally homogenous groups living in central and southern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern Cote d'Ivoire. The Akan constitute two broad subcategories: the inland Asante, Bono, Akyem, Akwapem, and Kwawu, who speak the Twi, and the coastal Fante, who speak a dialect of the same name. The Akan dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. Most of these ethnic groups constituted autonomous political systems in the pre-colonial period. www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=55458430" (Adjaye 1994, 57)

Studies of Akan time perceptions and calendrical systems have been limited despite the fact that the existence of institutions and mechanisms for time-reckoning have been noted in the literature on the history and ethnography of the Akan for nearly two centuries. Beyond early sparse references by Rattray (1923) and Danquah (1968), a full-length monograph on the subject did not appear until Deborah Fink "Time and Space Measurements of the Bono of Ghana" (1974); however, the author's primary concern was with the applicability of Bono terminologies for measuring volume, weight, and time to formal education, rather than with time-marking systems P.F. Bartle brief five-page paper, "Forty Days: The Akan Calendar" (1978), was an exploratory essay into a single calendrical framework, the 40-day (adaduanan) cycle. Its treatment is consequently restrictive and limited to the 40-day calendrical structure. Similarly, Tom McCaskie "Time and the Calendar in Nineteenth-Century Asante: An Exploratory Essay" (1980) and Ivor Wilks ' "On Mentally Mapping Greater Asante: A Study of Time and Motion" (1992) are concerned primarily with a specific aspect of time: the scheduling of diplomatic and other governmental business in Asante.

(Adjaye 1994, 57)
View Full Essay

Effecting Meaningful Change in the Global South

Words: 1920 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80342862

Future of Global Neoliberalism

One of the harsh realities of life in the 21st century is that the vast majority of the world's population continues to struggle to survive in the face of dwindling arable land and governmental policies that serve to constrain rather than promote economic development. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to explain why some theorists have maintained that the state continues to be a central agent that facilitates the advancement of global neoliberalism. A discussion concerning the rationale in support of this position, including an analysis of the possibilities and barriers that neoliberalism creates for genuine long-term sustainable human development; the objectives, strategies, and achievements of social movements as well as the barriers they face; and state-led models of development that run counter to the neoliberal agenda. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings…… [Read More]

References

Abahlal. (2009, August 7). Winning our land back -- the Landless People's

Movement wins a major court victory. Abahlali baseMjondolo. Retrieved from  http://abahlali.org/node/5622/ .

Butt, S. (2013, June 26). Incredible India: Home to modern slavery. The Real

News. Retrieved from http://therealnews.com/t2/index.php?option=com_
View Full Essay

Infant Feeding Practices in Africa

Words: 2718 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62766667



There have been numerous debates over the right choice between breast feeding and other substitutes in the conditions of mothers infected with HIV. Due to the possibility of infecting the infant with the virus, many women prefer bottled milk or other substitutes. However, unlike western countries where the issue of hygiene is no longer a problem, not even in the remotest corners of the countries, the situation is Africa is greatly related to the idea of a clean environment for women and their newborns. In this sense, the lack of financial possibilities determines the state and the population to be unable to provide a proper environment and to be unable to afford one respectively. Thus, the milk other than the maternal one is subjected to all sorts of bacteria, viruses, and even diseases. Therefore, on the one hand, there is the risk of the child to become infected with HIV;…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Afolabi, et al. (2001) Malaria in the first 6 months of life in urban African infants with anemia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol 65, Issue 6, 822-827. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/reprint/65/6/822

Andersson, H. (2005). Niger's children continue dying. BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4274728.stm

Andersson, H. (2005). Niger children starving to death. BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2008, from,  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4695355.stm 

Aneki (2008) Countries with the Highest Infant Mortality Rates in the World. Aneki Web page. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at  http://www.aneki.com/mortality.html
View Full Essay

Cultural Influence among Immigrant Women from Sub Saharan Africa in Canada

Words: 2723 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51475943

Culture among Immigrant Women from Sub-Saharan Africa Diagnosed with Chronic Diseases, Living in Grande Prairie, Alberta

The concept culture is defined as learned beliefs revealing the method people interact with their physical and social environment generally shared among a large segment of the population and transmitted from one generation to the other. These beliefs can include body size, habit and food habit. This proposal discusses the impact culture among immigrant women from Sub-Saharan Africa diagnosed with chronic diseases, living in Grande Prairie, Alberta. The review of the literature and its outcomes reveal that SSA women in Canada still prefer using the traditional medicine rather than western medicine. Moreover, African women in Canada diagnosed with chronic disease continue indulging unhealthy lifestyle that includes overeating to gain body weight because of the cultural beliefs that overweight is associated with wealth and prestige. Moreover, many women from Sub-Saharan Africa still rely on traditional…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Diamond Wars in Western Africa

Words: 2548 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58696568

Diamond ars in estern Africa

Throughout estern Africa, the quest for diamonds has taken control of many of people and affected the stability of economic and governmental status throughout the nation. The diamond mines have caused civil wars, which have resulted in many casualties over the years.

Possibly the major cause of the diamond wars is human nature, as it is human nature that sparks the desire to own diamonds. Due to the amount of people who are seeking diamonds and the limited resources of the mineral, the diamond market has become a major source of conflict in estern Africa.

Throughout estern Africa, rebel groups have formed in an effort to gain control over diamond mines in Angola, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. The Diamond ars have destroyed these areas, which could potentially become well-developed nations if the conflicts did not exist. hile countries like Botswana and Namibia are using diamonds…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Campbell, Greg. Blood Diamonds: Tracing the Deadly Path of the World's Most Precious Stones. Westview Press, 2002.

Collier, Paul, "Economic Causes of Civil Conflict and Their Implications for Policy," World Bank. 15 June 2000.

Epstein, Edward Jay, "Have You Ever Tried to Sell a Diamond?" The Atlantic Monthly, February 1982. at: www.theatlantic.com/issues/82feb/8202diamond1.htm

Kerlin, Katherine "Diamonds Aren't Forever: Environmental Degradation and Civil War in the Gem Trade," The Environment Magazine. Sept. 2001.
View Full Essay

Working in Africa HR Solutions

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25838587

Expanding in Africa: H Plan

An organization expanding its offices into sub-Sahara Africa will want to utilize a solid human resources plan in order to strategically facilitate its expansion and sustainability efforts. In this scenario, the business will be ECIG, an e-cigarette company that manufactures and sells vaporizers, e-cigs, and e-liquids. Expansion is occurring rapidly throughout sub-Saharan Africa and the countries that are prime targets are Nigeria and South Africa.

The expansion is taking place by leasing headquarter bases that will be used for receiving shipping and for stocking of retail kiosks that will be established in the countries' major cities. The kiosks will be managed by the ECIG employee transfers and they will be tasked with hiring locals for the staffing of the kiosks. The headquarters in each of the two countries will also be managed by the transfers, who will also be responsible for hiring local talent for…… [Read More]

References

Alesina, A., Algan, Y., Cahuc, P., Giuliano, P. (2015). Family values and the regulation of labor. Journal of the European Economic Association, 13(4): 599-630.

Kissack, H., Callahan, J. (2010). The reciprocal influence of organizational culture and training and development programs: Building the case for a culture analysis within program planning. Journal of European Industrial Training, 34(4): 365 -- 380.

Singh, N., & Krishnan, V. R. (2008). Self-Sacrifice and Transformational Leadership:

Mediating Role of Altruism. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 29(3): 261-274.
View Full Essay

What Is China's Role in Globalization Why Is it Significant

Words: 7994 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75280432

AFICA'S PETOLEUM AND CHINA'S ECONOMIC GOWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

How Africa's Petroleum Supply Is Important to China's Economic Growth and Development

While China continues to grow, its oil demand is poised to grow rapidly. For China to ensure its oil security, it must obtain oil from the global world because it lacks adequate domestic resources to quench the thirsty appetite of the country's rapid economic development. Any approach for growth that the country takes in its demand for oil is likely to affect the global oil market and influence existing system and order of international oil. As one of its oil strategy, China's firms are reaching every corner of the world to purchase oil or invest in oil fields showing to have opportunities disregarding the possible enormous risks. Some of China's national oil enterprises have made outstanding investment activities in African countries (Ma, 2010). Today, China's largest imports from Africa continue…… [Read More]

References

Bhaumik, T.K. (2009). Old China's new economy: The conquest of a billion paupers. New Delhi: SAGE.

Brewer, J. & Miklancic, M. (2013). Convergence: illicit networks and national security in the age of globalization. Published for the Center for Complex Operations Institute for National Strategic Studies By National Defense University Press Washington, D.C.

Buss, T.F. (2011). African security and the African command: Viewpoints on the U.S. role in Africa. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.

Cheung, Y.-W., & Haan, J. (2013). The evolving role of China in the global economy. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
View Full Essay

Childhood in South Childhood Dynamics

Words: 3306 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91769287

" Hence, images of children are often used to "reproach the rest of the adult world for its misdemeanours"; and in presenting that picture, children connote "both the future and a moral voice of the 'good self'..."

Burman generalizes that the "universalization of Northern childhood thus mirrors the Northern colonial domination of the South." And interfaced with that dynamic, she continues, is the "Christian symbolism associated with colour ("white-child-angel, black child-devil")... [and] the fact that where "black and white children are portrayed together [in commercials or public service announcements for aid-related agencies] the white figure adopts a protective...and sometimes enveloping...stance towards the black, which...extends beyond the human to the portrayal of animals." And in contemporary aid and development literature, childhood "has been fractured so that only children of the North develop, while children of the South are primarily portrayed as those whose childhoods have been stolen." Children of the North's…… [Read More]

References

An-Na'Im, Abdullahi, 1994. Cultural Transformation and Normative Consensus on the Best Interests of the Child. in: P. Alston, ed. The Best Interests of the Child: Reconciling Culture and Human Rights. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994, 62-81.

Burman, Erica, 1999. Appealing and Appalling Children. Psychoanalytic Studies, 1(3), 285-301.

Burman, Erica, 1995. The Abnormal Distribution of Development: policies for Southern women and children. Gender Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 2(1), 21-37.

Freeman, Michael, 1997. The Moral Status of Children: Essays on the Rights of the Child. The Hague, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
View Full Essay

Sudan When it Split Into North and South

Words: 2652 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70243656

Sudan Split

Grade Course

Sudan's existence can be traced back to approximately 9 million years. It is a state in Africa which was formerly conquered by its neighbor; Egypt as well as Turkey. However, rebellion against this ruling regime gave Britain an opportunity to step in. consequently, it was in 1899 when an agreement was signed between Egypt and Britain under which Sudan was to be jointly administered by these two countries. It was not until 1955 when Sudan got its independence and was ultimately granted the right to self-govern. In addition, in 1916, Darfur joined the protectorate. As a matter of fact, while Sudan was under Anglo-Egyptian rule, it kept the North and the South separate. egardless of this divide, most of the development was focused in the North as compared to the South and other areas such as Darfur remained economically as well as politically marginalized. Although the…… [Read More]

References

Dagne, Ted. The Republic of South Sudan: Opportunities and Challenges for Africa's Newest Country. CSR Report for Congress: Congressional Research Service, 2011.

Goulty, A. "United We Stand, Divided We Fall: The Sudan's After the Split," Woodrow Wilson International Working Paper No. 2. http://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/FINALAFR120228_policy5T_0329_rpt.pdf, (accessed 30th July, 2012).

Jhonson, Douglas. The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars: Peace or Truce (USA: Boydell & Brewer Ltd., 2003).

Latcher, Wolfram. South Sudan: International State Building and its Limitations (Berlin: Stiftung Wissenchaft, 2012).
View Full Essay

Strategic Context of Sub-Saharan Africa

Words: 2614 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55250803

Strategic Context of Sub-Saharan Africa

In response to the political administration of United States, interest in Africa changes. It is either decreased or increased. Cuba, China, France and Soviet Union are among those countries that have been influences for decades by the African continent which had pulled attraction of many towards itself. Africa has also been assisted by an economically powerful country i.e. United States. This continent had been able to gather a large number of consumers that were around 600 million. But this potential for the economic investment and growth was slowed down because of the instability. Another reason for this was the increase in the rate of migration (AEC, 2010).

Because of the foreign policy, Africa and United States were not able to maintain a close relationship as cold war came to an end. The strategy that had been used by United States was to make efforts to…… [Read More]

References

AERC (African Economic Research Consortium) (2010), Proceedings from the Conference on Africa-China Relations, Hilton Hotel, Addis Ababa, 28-30 September.

African Union (2010), "African Union Commission-Regional Economic Communities Common Position Paper on EPAs," AU Conference of Ministers of Trade, 6th Ordinary Session, Kigali, 29 October -- 2 November 2010.

AUC (2006), The Review of Millennium Development Goals and the Millennium Declaration: An African Common Position, African Union Commission, Addis Ababa.

Cumbo, J.E. (2003) U.S. Foreign Policy towards Africa. U.S. Army War College: Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania.
View Full Essay

African Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa

Words: 2155 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33417207



In addition to these external factors, Thomson (202) notes two colonial and post-colonial economic policies and developmental strategies that proved to be erroneous in the long-term, having an ultimately damaging effect upon the ability of African countries to make sound, profitable investments. The first of these is that African governments focused excessively upon import substitution, while the second is that too much revenue was invested in the expansion of state institutions. This paradigm emerges from the success of European and other Western economic developments. However, such strategies were far from suitable for the African continent, as it resulted in a lack of investment in Africa's richest resources: agricultural and mineral development.

Maponga and Maxwell (97) mention the concentration of national economies as a further factor that may lead a lack of concomitant growth for countries (and in particular African countries) that are rich in natural resources. In addition to the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Maponga, Oliver & Maxwell, Philip. Are Abundant Mineral and Energy Resources a Catalyst for African Development? (Issue 6). Minerals and Energy, 2001.

Thomson, Alex. An Introduction to African Politics. London & New York: Routledge, 2004.