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The laws of South Africa has been constituted and formed, as a result of the influence from the English laws in procedure.
6. Environmental Concerns
Where it has been observed that South Africa is full of resources, on the other hand, it has also come to notice that environmental concerns also loom large as one of the issues that needs grave consideration. Amongst the environmental concerns, air pollution, marine pollution, soil erosion, soil waste, deforestation and desertification are the most common and prevailing.
Coal is one of the essential and vital sources for the production of fuel, which is equally consumed by the local people of South Africa. In order to meet the energy needs, virtually all of the households of the rural community burn fuel wood. This is one of the major reasons that are leading to deforestation within the country.
In fact, collection of the fuel wood is…
Almost a third of the government's total revenue emanate from indirect taxes, mainly from value-added taxes (rand South Africa, Niekerk).
3. privatization -- this process was viewed to create a robust flow of business opportunities in the next many years at a range of 100-150 billion South African Rands (PGI 2012). This is equivalent to U.S.$12-20 billion. There will be estimated and sustained business acquisition opportunities in agribusiness, agriculture and fisheries; hotels, restaurants, resorts and tourism; mining and mineral extraction; forestry, logging and wood products; electricity generation and power reticulation; manufacturing; road and rail transportation; telecommunications and information technology; financial services; and water, waste water and water management. Transactions are likely to be in the form of complete or partial sales, concessions or public-private partnerships (PGI).
4. trade and trade finance and investment -- the Department of Trade and Industry
formulated the trade policy, which the Cabinet adopted in July…
Brand South Africa. South Africa: Economy Overview. Big Media Publisher, 2012.
Retrieved on October 22, 2012 from http://www.southfrica.info/business/economy/econoverview.htm
-. Government in South Africa, 2012. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from http://www.southafrica.info/about/government/gov.htm#.UId
CIA. South Africa. The World Fact Book: Central Intelligence Agency, 2012.
In 1990, Africa had 2% of the world's telephones, but in 2000 it had only 0.8%. (These data, taken from International Telecommunications Union tables, represent fixed lines, not wireless, and there are now more mobile telephone subscribers in Africa than fixed-line subscribers. 3 Nevertheless, with about 12% of the world's population, Africa is far behind in per capita telephone subscribers.) (Hundley, Anderson, Bikson & Neu, 2003, p. 126)
More specifically, even with personal computers and needed telephones there are still major lags in internet access.
egarding Internet access, South Africa again dominates the continent's usage; it has approximately 750,000 dial-up Internet subscribers out of about 1.36 million for all of Africa, or about 55% of the total.... Overall, in 1998, Africa had just 4% of the world's Internet hosts 6 and 0.22% of World Wide Web sites. 7 One must also remember how poor Africa is in general. At an…
Alexander, N. (2003). An Ordinary Country: Issues in the Transition from Apartheid to Democracy in South Africa. New York: Berghahn Books.
Arnold, G. (2000). The New South Africa. Basingstoke, England: Macmillan.
Boyd, L., Spicer, M., & Keeton, G. (2001). Economic Scenarios for South Africa: A Business Perspective. Daedalus, 130(1), 71.
Ferreira, I., & Bayat, M. (2005). Curbing Corruption in the Republic of South Africa: Learn How New Measures Put in Place since the 1996 Constitution, Such as the Drafting of Codes of Conduct, Whistle-Blowing, and Training Initiatives, Are Making Public Officials More Aware of the Need for Ethical Conduct in Their Public Dealings. The Public Manager, 34(2), 15.
Direct political involvement and aid, however, has not been as noticeable or as openly accepted in the past decade and a half.
Part of this resistance to foreign influence is a direct result of South Africa's long submission to colonial or Europeanized rule, first by the Germanic Afrikaners and subsequently by the British (and the Afrikaners at the same time), and finally by the white government that intermingled European settlers from both origins if it ostensibly established "home rule" and full national sovereignty (Frost 2009). This does not mean that foreign powers have not attempted to assert some influence over the national policies and related threats of South Africa -- largely through international bodies like the United Nations -- but the South African government has been quite vocal in its independence and sovereignty as a response to the long period of disenfranchisement and a lack of sovereignty experienced by the…
Baker, D. (2010). South Africa's threat environment: a guide for the National Planning Commission. African Security Review 19(3): 54-64.
Chigwedere, P., Seage, G., Gruskin, S. & Lee, T. (2008). Estimating the Lost Benefits of Antiretroviral Drug Use in South Africa. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 49(4): 410-5.
Coovadia, H., Jewkes, R., Barron, P., Sanders, D. & McIntyre, D. (2009). Towards a Normative Theory of International Relations: A Critical Analysis. Lancet 374(9692): 817-34.
Frost, M. (2009). Towards a Normative Theory of International Relations: A Critical Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.
The epublic of South Africa as it is officially known is a burgeoning international market for trade and investment. Since the establishment of freedom from apartheid in 1994 the country has seen dramatic political, economic, cultural, and legal changes that have brought it to the forefront of international business. The economic picture of the country is a in a growth phase and will continue to be, if the conditions in other areas continue to improve. Though the progress is not an over
South Africa is a middle-income, emerging market with an abundant supply of natural resources; well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors; a stock exchange that ranks among the 10 largest in the world; and a modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers throughout the region. (U.S. Central Intelligence Agency The World Factbook 2003)
In addition to all the positive aspects…
Boyd, L., Spicer, M., & Keeton, G. (2001). Economic Scenarios for South Africa: A Business Perspective. Daedalus, 130(1), 71. Retrieved October 29, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
FXConverter™: Classic 164 Currency Converter © 1997-2004 by OANDA.com
Grobler, P.A. (1996). In Search of Excellence: Leadership Challenges Facing Companies in the New South Africa. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 61(2), 22+. Retrieved October 29, 2004, from Questia database,
South Africa -- Past and Present
Rather than a mere struggle between black and white Marina Ottaway suggests that the conflicts in South Africa that hampered the nation's transition from apartheid to a fuller participatory government lay in the factionalism present in all of the representative bodies involved in the negotiations. (Ottaway, 1993) Although Ottaway's text ends before the configuration of the final ruling government body that governs South Africa, many of the problems she chronicles still persist within the nation to this day, as the state has been transformed from an authoritarian, white-minority rule state into a democratic and pluralistic entity. The state is commonly called 'black' run, but truly it has tried to embrace a pluralistic and multi-racial ideal, albeit with some difficulties, such as the need for proportional representation of the tribes as well as introducing purely democratic elements.
First of all, Ottaway upon the question of…
"Mbuti Warns of Tighter Monetary Policy." (22 Oct 2005) Business Today. Retrieved 22 Oct 2005
'Minister Suspends Chief, Orders Probe." (22 Oct 2005) (22 Oct 2005) Business Today. Retrieved 22 Oct 2005
http://www.businessday.co.za/home.aspx?Page=BD4P1236& ; amp;MenuItem=BD4P1236
South Africa's high rate of unemployment reflects that lack of employment opportunities for the majority black African population. This is an endemic problem for the entire region, as unemployment rates in Swaziland, Lesotho, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Botswana are actually higher. The problem relates specifically to black Africans, and especially in rural areas. The wealthiest province, in terms of performance in poverty indicators, is Western Cape, and this province in Coloured majority with the lowest percentage of black Africans in the country. The next-best performing province is the heavily-urbanized Gauteng. In that sense, it is easy to isolate where the most significant structural problems exist in the country. The other provinces have the worst poverty and also the majority of the country's people.
There are significant structural problems facing the black African population in particular. Education and training, two bedrocks of economic development, was poorest for blacks of all ethnic groups…
The Struggle for Independence
The complexities of the multiple waves of European colonists in South Africa made the struggle for independence in the country a two-stage process (according to the simplest of possible views). The end of World War Two and the large-scale drawback of British imperial forces from its colonies around the world began the first phase of this liberation, though it perpetuated many of the class issues and racial problems that had been established in the nation (Boddy-Evans 2011). The country remained a part of the British Commonwealth until 1961, when the all-white government severed direct ties with Great Britain, but the lack of substantive change demonstrates the failure of revolution that isn't class- and in colonial cases race-driven (USDOS 2011; Fanon 2004).
The 1961 break from the British Commonwealth and/or the 1948 granting of self-rule by Great Britain marks the first phase of liberation in South Africa,…
Boddy-Evans, a. (2011). South African independence. Accessed 6 April 2011. http://africanhistory.about.com/library/bl/bl-Independence-SA2.htm
Fannon, F. (2004). The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Press.
Pontecorvo, G. (1966). The Battle of Algiers. Rizzoli.
Urofsky, M. (2011). Sanctions against South Africa. Accessed 6 April 2011. http://usinfo.org/docs/democracy/56.htm
Throughout its history, South Africa has had a tumultuous relationship with ethnic and racial identity and discrimination, and is still grappling with the reverberating effects of colonialism and apartheid. Furthermore, while colonialism and the apartheid era are the most obvious sources of ethnic and racial strife in South Africa, the effects of these historical forces on the country are far more complex than a cursory examination would lead one to believe, as structural and cultural factors have exacerbated inequality and discrimination in ways that do not align with a tempting but altogether unproductive black-white binary that so often characterizes considerations of ethnic or racial issues. Thus, while colonialism and apartheid did violently insert new racial identities and structural, legal inequalities into South African culture, they also served to exacerbate preexisting divisions between the ethnic groups already present. Therefore, examining the role of ethnicity and ethnic conflict in the…
Epprecht, M. (1995). Democratizing the southern african past. Canadian Journal of History, 30
Matheba, G. (2000). Ethnicity and provisional border disputes in post-apartheid south africa: The case of umzimkhulu. Journal of Cultural Studies, 2 (1), 133-140.
Murray, G. (1997). Opportunity-to-learn issues common to south africa and the United States.
The South African also played a role in its purposeful lack of involvement (Von Feigenblatt 2008).
The eventual outcome of the South African conflict was the establishment of a new government and new constitution in the country, headed for some time by the African National Congress (Von Feigenblatt 2008; Ottoway 1993). This also marked one of the most successful and most peaceful transitions of a post-colonial African government to date, providing a very positive outcome not only for the country of South Africa but for the region as a whole (Von Feigenblatt 2008). New economic standards, policies and frameworks were also established in the country and internationally during this time, with their inclusion in the new South African structure of government a direct result of the conflict and constituting yet another positive outcome of the conflict's eventual resolution (Ottoway 1993).
Of the two primary players in the conflict…
Von Feigenblatt, O. (2008). "The South African Transition: A Holistic Approach to the Analysis of the Struggle Leading to the 1994 Elections." Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences 1(1), pp. 48-80.
Ottoway, M. (1993). South Africa: The struggle for a new order. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings institution.
Exports, Imports and its Place in its Region and World
South Africa is one of Africa's most industrialized nations. However, it faces many challenges stemming from its exorbitantly large HIV / AIDS rates and its long history of apartheid.
Energy is key to South Africa's economy, and coal is one of its most important exports. Although only one-third of coal produced in South Africa is exported, primarily to the European Union (EU) and also to East Asia, and in fact, South Africa was the world's third largest net coal exporter (73.7 mmst) in 2002.
Most of the South African coal exports pass through the aforementioned Richards ay Coal Terminal (RCT). With the capacity to export an amazing 79.4 mmst annually, RCT is the easily world's largest coal export facility. Currently, only shareholders of the RCT Company-- including Ingwe, Anglo, XCSA, Total South Africa, Sasol, Kangra and Eyesizwe, and…
Du Toit, Jaques. ABSA Media Release: Absa releases publication on developments in South Africa's foreign trade. 2001. http://www.absa.co.za/ABSA/Content/PubRef_Content/Article_Files/PubRefArtFile462_1.htm
South African Consulate: www.southafrica-newyork.net
Tilley, Les. SA cities join hands for growth. 2004: http://www.southafrica.info/doing_business/economy/development/citiesnetwork.htm
The instrumental approach is a sound approach, because it involves the psychological and cultural considerations that are tangential to the successful transition of South Africa. esolving the conflict from these perspectives would move the transition towards success so that the more integrated technical problems of economics could be resolved.
The instrumental approach is also appropriate because the unspoken and conflicting agendas of the parties prevented those goals from being consciously recognized by all the parties, because they were unspoken and covert. Certainly the agenda of the white minority would be to maintain as much control as possible over the functions and decisions of government, in part because they distrusted the abilities and experience of the ANC to make sound decisions based on Mandela's careless statement concerning nationalizing of businesses, and his public redress of de Klerk. These goals were, however, recognized by the outside observers of the process.
CIA World Factbook, 2010. South Africa, found online at https://www.cia.gov /library' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Global companies that are sited in South Africa exult about the county's numerous commercial advantages including an idyll bases for exporting products internationally, low labor costs, and excellent infrastructure.
According to Jim Myers, president of the American Chamber of Commerce in South Africa, almost 50% of its members are representatives of Fortune 500 companies and over 90% of these companies have pointers in southern Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, and all across the continent:
The sophisticated business environment of South Africa provides a powerful strategic export and manufacturing platform for achieving global competitive advantage, cost reductions and new market access (Global companies in South Africa.)
Some of the global companies in alphabetical order located in South Africa are the following:
Acer Africa -- occupied with peripherals and printers since 1980.
Agrid South Africa - manufacturers of diesel/petrol engines and agricultural implements for small farmers
Barclays Bank -- world famous.…
Doing business in South Africa.
South Africa under the apartheid system
Apartheid was a socio-political policy of segregating and discriminating the citizens and even visitors in South Africa between 1948 and 1994.The system was put into action by the government of the minority white population. The system's basis of segregation and discrimination was pegged on the color of the skin.
The system categories people into four distinct groups. The groups included blacks, colored, Asians and whites.
The Apartheid policy was made possible and implemented in 1950 by the Population Registration act of 1950.The policy was later referred to as the separate development policy. The Act divided the South Africans into three racial groups. The categories that were originally created included the black African (antu),mixed race (colored), and white. Later on a new category was created which included Pakistanis and Indians. The group was referred to as Asian.
The enactment of the apartheid system was a…
Lodge, Tom "Black Politics in South Africa Since 1945"(1983).. Longman
Allen, John " Apartheid South Africa: An Insider's Overview of the Origin And Effects of Separate Development. "(2005). iUniverse. p. xi.
Leach, Graham "South Africa: no easy path to peace. Routledge. "(1986). p. 68
Beck, Roger B. "The history of South Africa. Greenwood Publishing Group"(2000).
Anglo American PLC south africa, provide answers essay format. answers plagiarize, http://www.scribd./doc/83084974/Anglo-American-PLC -- South-Africa Please provide answer a bullet point question .
Anglo American's decision to adopt an aggressive strategy as a means to experience more rapid results in fighting HIV is certainly controversial. Even with this, the company has had a series of successes as a consequence of its actions:
It influenced other companies to adopt similar attitudes
Its investment in fighting HIV is profitable for society as a whole, with individuals being able to work and to actually have relatively normal lives
Programs have went further than to simply provide for workers, as individuals associated with them also gained access to better healthcare
Anglo American has trouble comprehending the cultural factor of the matter and thus has limited success in treating particular communities
The program is not as effective as it might seem for many workers, as…
South African Fisheries and the Approaches Needed to Solve Them.
The purpose of this paper is to show a current South African issue about policy problems and the official or department that does something about it. This work then produces the necessary research - a memo about policy - to that official about the problems present and the efforts required to resolve them.
The start of the democratic process in South Africa in the year 1994 sparked a law reformation process that aimed to resolve problems in the past and provide a platform to disadvantaged communities. This process was led by the South African Constitution (1996) which was supported by a number of human rights ideals present in the Bill of ights (Witbooi, 2006). The undermining of fishermen on the South African coastline was due to their organized exclusion from the marine communities following many years of industrialization, racism and…
African National Congress (ANC). The reconstruction and development programme (RDP): policy framework. Umanyamo Publications, Johannesburg (1994)
C. Bene, B. Hersoug, E. Allison. Not by rent alone: analysing the pro-poor functions of small-scale fisheries in developing countries. Dev Policy Rev, 28 (3) (2010), pp. 325 -- 358
C. Sharma. Securing economic, social and cultural rights of small-scale and artisanal fisherworkers and fishing communities. MAST, 10 (2) (2011), pp. 41 -- 61
D. Crosoer, L. van Sittert, S. Ponte. The integration of South African fisheries into the global economy: past, present and future. Mar Policy, 30 (2006), pp. 18 -- 29
Moral Leadership in an International Context
South Africa - Johannesburg and Cape Town December 2018 – January 2019
Wow! What an adventure! This trip/course to South Africa with my Candler School of Theology comrades was a full bounty of knowledge and personal growth. The agenda set forth by our instructors Dr. Robert Franklin, Dr. Gregory Ellison, and Dr. Letitia Campbell was chock full of meetings and interviews with current moral leaders and friends of moral leaders from the past. All that being said, I came with my own agenda. I have been incorporating the 23rd Psalm into my daily life a practice.
It is important for me to give you context “The Lord is My Shephard.”
Lord – You are my shepherd I shall not want– I shall not want for more than God (The Divine) gives me.
You make me lie down in green pastures, You lead…
Andersson, Jasmine. \\"What Is Happening to LGBT Rights in South Africa?\\" PinkNews. February 09, 2018. Accessed January 15, 2019. https://www.pinknews.co.uk/2018/02/09/what-is-happening-to-lgbt-rights-in-south-africa/
Boelsma, Marjan. \\"White Allies: A Blessing or a Curse?\\" Vernac News. October 04, 2017. Accessed January 15, 2019. https://vernacnews.co.za/2017/10/04/white-allies-a-blessing-or-a-curse/
Buqa, Wonke. \\"Storying Ubuntuas a Rainbow Nation.\\" Verbum Et Ecclesia36, no. 2 (2015). doi:10.4102/ve.v36i2.1434
History Of Africa
The Zulus, Xhosa, Tswana, Swati, antu and Tsonga are considered to be South Africa's first inhabitants. They arrived in the region from Nigeria, Cameroon and the Congo in the 9th century. What makes them so special is the unique culture and language, which helped them to become some of the nation's largest ethnic groups. In 1818, they formed their own series of states. They controlled vast amounts of land and united the various tribes into several nations.[footnoteRef:2] [2: Francis Colenso, History of the Zulu War (London: Chapman and Hall, 1881), 256 -- 399.]
Until 1879, they were considered to be a major threat to the ritish military and their colonies throughout South Africa. This was a part of an effort, which began in 1814 when the ritish took control of the Dutch Colony of Cape Town. As more people immigrated to the region from Europe, a host…
Du Toit, Brian."Consciousness, Identification and Resistance." Journal of Modern African Studies 21, no.3 (1983), 365-395.
Colenso, Francis. History of the Zulu War. London: Chapman and Hall, 1881.
Vandervot, Bruce "A Historical Atlas," The Journal of Military History 68, no. 3, (2004), 974 -- 982.
Wilmont, Alexander. History of the Zulu War. London: Richardson and Best, 1880.
South Africa Labor elations
This report shall deign to cover the broad topic of employee and employer relations in the country of South Africa. While the overall subject of labor relations is an important and vital topic in all countries to some degree or another, South Africa is absolutely one of those countries that has a rich amount of conflict, discrimination, big questions and bigger answers than most other countries. Indeed, the South African history of Apartheid alone makes this subject rather intriguing to cover. Indeed, slavery ended in the United States in 1865 but the Jim Crow era and other racial injustices lingered far beyond that and in some ways still linger to this day. To be sure, the state of labor relations and human resources in South Africa is no different and that shall be covered at great length.
esearch Questions & Topics
The subjects that shall be…
Beliard, Y. (2009). Imperial Internationalism? Hull Labour's Support for South African Trade-
Unionism on the Eve of the Great War. Labour History Review (Maney Publishing),
74(3), 319-329. doi:10.1179/096156509X12513818419736
Besada, H., Tok, E., & Winters, K. (2013). South Africa in the BRICS. Africa Insight, 42(4), 1-
Negative Impact of Post Apertheid on South Africa Economy
Negative impact of post apartheid on South Africa economy
Apartheid, which refers to separateness in Afrikaans, is a policy of racial segregation that was operating in South Africa from early 1948 to late 1990s. The policy required the separation of South African people based on their colors. The law classified the people into whites, Indians and blacks. The policy specifically prevented non-white people from having a vote or influence and restricting them to separate far away homelands of poor quality. The apartheid policy dates back to 1913 when the white's government passed legislation on land. The legislation required the separation of the whites land and the workplace from other races. Such legislation and separation Acts led to the separation policy termed as apartheid. When the National party (NP) won the 1948 election, they immediately began to implement the apartheid legislation prohibiting…
Beck, B.R. (2000). The History of South Africa. Printed in the U.S.A. Green Wood Press.
Nowak, M. & Ricci, L.A. (2006). Post Apartheid South Africa: The First Ten Years. Washington D.C: International Monetary Fund Publications.
Bhorat, S.M & Kanbur, R. (2006). Poverty and Policy in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Cape Town: HSRC Press.
Lodge, T. (2011). Sharpeville: An Apartheid Massacre and its Consequences. New York: Oxford
Apparently, when taking computers into account, the U.S. dominated the South African market. The U.S. had sales of hundreds of millions of dollars in South Africa, with the South African public system practically becoming addicted to using computers in order to work correctly. Not only had the U.S. collaborated to South Africa, in spite of the extremist regime existing in the country, but it had also sustained it by making it even more effective with the help of computers. The largest group from South Africa to use computers had been the government, with it using computers for a large number of duties.
The South African government largely based its apartheid system on a computerized population registry. IBM officials claimed that their computers did nothing to encourage the unequal racial system, and, that it made no contribution to people being denied their basic human rights. As they had been aware that…
1. Bernasek Alexandra, Porter Richard C. "Private Pressure for Social Change in South Africa: The Impact of the Sullivan Principles." Review of Social Economy, Vol. 55, 1997.
2. Eades, Lindsay Michie. (1999). "The End of Apartheid in South Africa." Greenwood Press.
3. Grundy, Kenneth W. (1991). "South Africa: Domestic Crisis and Global Challenge." Westview Press.
4. Price, Robert M. (1991). "The Apartheid State in Crisis: Political Transformation in South Africa, 1975-1990." Oxford University Press.
The Bantu Authorities Act of 1951 continued the government's social engineering projects. Black Africans were assigned to "homeland" states, independent regions with artificially created governments ("The History of Apartheid in South Africa"). The South African parliament officially ruled the homeland states, but residents of those areas were denationalized under the Bantu Authorities Act ("The History of Apartheid in South Africa"). Between 1976 and 1981, the government of South Africa denationalized nine million Africans by deporting them into the homeland zones ("The History of Apartheid in South Africa"). Denationalization officially stripped black Africans of their legal and political rights and made it almost impossible to create change.
Bombings, poisonings, and beatings were some of tactics sanctioned by the government to enforce apartheid. The government cracked down on protests by invoking a state of emergency to quell crime, authorized under the Public Safety Act and the Criminal Law Amendment Act ("The History…
Ashall, V. & Hillier, M. (2007). Social inequality in South Africa. Retrieved Apr 1, 2009 from http://student.bmj.com/issues/07/07/life/281.php
BBC (2009). Country profile: South Africa. BBC News. Retrieved Apr 1, 2009 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1071886.stm
CIA (2009). "South Africa." CIA World Factbook. Retrieved Apr 1, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov /library' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Solving South Africa's Energy Resource Crisis
The subject of this case study is the role of women in power in South Africa’s energy sector. This case study will answer the question of whether or not South Africa’s first female appointed Minsiter of Minerals and Energy, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, is responsible for the ejection of the foreign national powers which previously controlled South Africa’s energy sector. There is a considerable amount of evidence which suggests that Mlambo-Ngcuka had an influential role in this occurrence. Nonetheless, it must be examined in scope and in the context of the displacement of these predominantly male foreign nationals from controlling South Africa’s energy supply.
Therefore, the decision point of this case study is based around the actions that Mlambo-Ngcuka might have taken which produced this result. Not long after she came to power she was responsible for creating a Women’s Energy Group which helped to…
Bacchi, C. (1999). Women, policy and politics. New York, New York: Sage
Brislin, R. & Worthley, R., MacNab, B. (2006). Cultural intelligence: Understanding behaviors that serve people’s goals, group & organization management. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks: 31, 1 (40-56).
Caiazza, A. (2008). The challenge to act: How progressive women activists reframe american democracy. Institute for Women’s Policy Research, Washington, DC.
Cannon, K.G. (1988). Black womanist ethics. (American Academy of Religion Academy Series) 60, Chapter 6, Atlanta, Scholars Press.
Energy.gov. (2018). Petroleum sources overview. www.energy.gov Retrieved from http://www.energy.gov.za/files/esources/petroleum/petroleum_empowerment.html
Ferguson, K. (1984). The feminist case against bureaucracy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Heidi Hartmann, Editor Gendering Politics and Policy: Recent Developments in Europe, Latin America, and the United States, Journal of Women, Politics and Policy Volume 27, Numbers ½, The Haworth Political Press.
Howes, C. (2009). Who will care for the women? Journal of Women, Politics & Policy, 3, 2-3 (248-271).
There were many groups of people that lived around the South African shores and beyond, long before settlers set foot there. The people named the Khoisan were expert gatherers and hunters while other nomadic tribes also had made home, the coastal strip and the hinterland (Schapera, 1965). Khoisan is a name that was coined from combining the Khoikhoi and the San communities which shared their culture and language. However, it should not be construed that the two were, in any way, a homogenous group. Indeed, they lived separately from each other. They also had different means of survival on the land.
The Khoikhoi people were renowned pastoralists. They kept large cattle herds across the country that they occupied. It has been documented that the Khoikhoi migrated to South Africa from Botswana. Others are said to have moved to the Cape via the Kalahari. Another group headed towards the uplands…
Hobson, J. (2018). Venus in the dark: Blackness and beauty in popular culture. Routledge.
Itumeleng, D. K. (2017). DEATH, MOURNING AND BURIAL RITES AMONGST THE KHOISAN PEOPLE OF BOTSWANA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY. Marang: Journal of Language and Literature, 29, 70-78.
Lee, R. B. (2003). “Indigenous rights and the politics of identity in post-apartheid southern Africa.” In At the Risk of Being Heard: Identity, Indigenous Rights, and Postcolonial States. The University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor, 80-111.
Maylam, P. (2017). South Africa\\'s racial past: The history and historiography of racism, segregation, and apartheid. Routledge.
McGranaghan, M. (2015). ‘Hunters-with-sheep’: The| Xam Bushmen of South Africa between pastoralism and foraging. Africa, 85(3), 521-545.
Russell, T. (2017). ‘Where goats connect people’: Cultural diffusion of livestock not food production amongst southern African hunter-gatherers during the Later Stone Age. Journal of Social Archaeology, 17(2), 115-137.
Sadr, K.. (1997). Kalahari archaeology and the Bushman debate. Current Anthropology 38: 104-I2
Schapera, I. (1965). The Khoisan Peoples of South Africa: Bushmen and Hottentots (Vol. 1). Routledge & Kegan Paul.
South Africa: Electoral and Institutional Arrangements, Party Competition, and Checks and Balances in Government
South Africa's government is a constitutional democracy based upon a system of proportional representation. In other words, its national legislature is a parliament, with two houses, the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces (NCOP). The parliament called the National Assembly awards seats to each political party based upon that party's proportionate support in the national election. Elections for the National Assembly are held every five years. The second general democratic post-apartheid election in 1999 in yielded a majority for the African National Congress (ANC) Party, the party famously lead by the imprisoned Nelson Mandela during the years of apartheid that disenfranchised most of South Africa's majority black population ("Government in South Africa," SouthAfricainfo, 2008).
In addition to the ANC, South Africa has sixteen registered political parties under the Independent Electoral Commission, spanning a variety…
Government in South Africa." Southafrica.info. 24 Mar 2008. http://www.southafrica.info/ess_info/sa_glance/government/gov.htm
South Africa's Political Parties." Southafrica.info. 24 Mar 2008. http://www.southafrica.info/ess_info/sa_glance/constitution/polparties.htm
There are many symptoms that further support this contention, aligned by a rising level of ethnocentrism which is further blinding the company from its outside environment. Second, the lack of congruency of planning to leadership (Guay, 2013) and lack of organizing with delegation (Sengul, Gimeno, Dial, 2012) is leading to employees searching for other positions to further their careers.
In defining the plan for turning around the company, two objectives have been defined using the SMAT method. These objectives are:
1. To complete an audit of managerial and leadership effectiveness of the South African expansion operations including employee satisfaction surveys and 360-degree feedback of leadership strategies.
2. To define minimum performance levels of management and leadership at Australian headquarters in terms of alignment with and strategies to overcome significant differences in Hofstede Cultural Dimension attributes.
Bass, B.M. (1999). Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behavior. Leadership Quarterly,…
Bass, B.M. (1999). Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behavior. Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), 181-217.
Fitzgerald, S., & Schutte, N.S. (2010). Increasing transformational leadership through enhancing self-efficacy. The Journal of Management Development, 29(5), 495-505.
Guay, R.P. (2013). The relationship between leader fit and transformational leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28(1), 55-73.
Hofstede, G. 1998, "Think Locally, Act Globally: Cultural Constraints in Personnel Management," Management International Review, vol. 38, pp. 7-26.
Investment in South Africa
In your judgment, were the possible utilitarian benefits of building the Caltex plant in 1977 more important than the possible violations of moral rights and of justice that may be involved? Justify your answer fully by identifying the possible benefits and the possible violations of rights and justice that you believe may be associated with the building of the plant, and explaining which you think are more important.
The possible utilitarian benefits of building the Caltex plant in 1977 were not more important than the possible -- or actual -- violations of moral rights and justice involved. The violations of moral rights and justices should have been prioritized. Looking back on the situation, of course, we have the benefit of knowing history, and the case of the South African apartheid is an exemplary case for the power of socially responsible investment movement.
In 1977, when the…
1. Jack Magarrell, "U.S. Adopts Stand on Apartheid: Backed on Many Campuses," The Chronicle of Higher Education, 12 March 1979.
2. See Herman Nickel, "The Case for Doing Business in South Africa," Fortune, 19 June 1968, p. 72.
3. Investor Responsibility Research Center, Analysis E-Supplment No. 9, 7 April 1977, p. E 114.
4. Texaco Proxy Statement, 1977, item 3.
Since they had so much invested in South Africa, they were in a position of power, and they could have used that power much more effectively. They might even have been able to bring change about sooner than it occurred. While they did not take their responsibility seriously, companies do have a moral and ethical responsibility to themselves, their communities, and their shareholders. The companies that do not recognize this should not gain support or business from their consumers. It is up to the shareholders to hold the companies responsible for their ethical behavior and to how they manage their investments. The company has a responsibility to make money and to stay healthy, but not at the expense of morals or ethics. It does not have to be difficult to act morally and responsibly. It can become a part of the everyday actions of the business, and it should be…
Author not Available. Case study: Investment in South Africa.
Velasquez, M.G. (2006). Chapter two. Ethical principles in business. Business ethics: Concepts & cases, Sixth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Velasquez, M.G. (2006). Chapter three. The market and business. Business ethics: Concepts & cases, Sixth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
he currency in South Africa is the rand. he rand is a free floating currency meaning that there are few controls on the value of the currency. While the rand is a reference currency in the southern Africa region, it is not considered to be a "hard" currency. he performance of the rand against the USD in the past year is as follows:
he chart shows the downward trajectory of the rand against the dollar. A year ago, the rand traded at 7.73 to the dollar, and today it is 9.12, a decline of 18%. his bodes well for a manufacturing operation in South Africa, where the already-low labor costs would be decreasing over time. It does not bode well for selling in South Africa, however, as the country's currency continues to get weaker, which means profits from South Africa will be worth less in dollar…
The Chinese yuan is not a floating currency. Its exchange rate is managed heavily by the Chinese government and as a result trades within a band set by the Chinese government, on a soft peg to the U.S. dollar. China's currency manipulation may perpetuate the band, but the country is under severe inflationary pressure. This puts the yuan on a steady, long-run appreciation, which can be seen in its chart for the past year:
The yuan one year ago traded at 6.29 to the dollar and today it trades at 6.23. This represents an appreciation of 0.9%. The country face high inflation for much of the year, but that inflation is reported to have dropped to 2.1% in March 2013. This inflation rate is not much different than that of the U.S., which would imply that the exchange rate should remain fairly stable. However, the overriding factor is China's currency band, which is likely to be maintained for the foreseeable future. As a result, the yuan will appreciate in the next year, but only by around the same amount as last year, so that the rate will be around 6.17 yuan to the dollar.
Overall, China represents the best option for Dorchester for selling it televisions. This is almost by default. South Africa is facing a weakening rand amid economic uncertainty. The country still has potential, but the timing is wrong given that the macroeconomic conditions are tough and the rand is depreciating faster than the inflation rate. The situation in Japan is worse. The economy might be better, but the yen is depreciating and there is deflation in the economy. This is bad news all round, and earning yen right now it not wise. This leaves China. China has its own problems -- growth is slowing and currency controls mean that there is a difference between earning yuan and being able to return those earnings to the United States. However, the slow appreciation of the yuan and some overtures to convertibility highlight the reality that China is a fairly safe country in which to invest, in terms of currency exchange rate expectations.
ADS in South Africa
Those of us living in the United States became used to the face of ADS a generation ago. We learned to recognize the particular gauntness that characterized those who had been struck by it, and who would soon be taken away by it. And then, after years of people dying from this disease, we learned that people who had this terrible disease could be healed; not cured, for they still contained the viruses within their bodies, but they could live lives that were happy and meaningful - and long. The terror of ADS subsided, becoming one of only many of the perils of modern life rather than one of the predominant ones.
But the trajectory of ADS in South Africa (as well as in other parts of the developing world, has been very different. Even in the first years of the disease the manifestations of it…
In already unstable societies, this cocktail of disasters is a sure recipe for more conflict. And conflict, in turn, provides fertile ground for further infections (http://www.nkosi.iafrica.com/aids_sa/).
AIDS is both the enemy in South Africa and a potential aid to other enemies. One of the reasons that AIDS has been successfully fought in the United States and Europe is the wealth of these nations; this has certainly been their primary advantage. But they have also benefited in the fight against AIDS from a high degree of social stability; public health measures can only be effective when used in a stable society.
One of the terrible ironies of AIDS in South Africa is that the nation does not have strong enough social structures to allow (at least so far) for the necessary public health measures to be taken. And as AIDS takes a greater and greater toll, the necessary social structures will only become weaker and weaker.
protea, one of the world's most striking flowers, is a crucial part of South African culture, economy, and politics. The largest (and arguably the most spectacular of the proteas), the king protea, has an important place in the country's coat of arms and on the official currency, as well as acting as the nation's national flower. Today, the understanding and preservation of the protea has become an integral part of understanding and preserving the very nature of the nation of South Africa.
The King Protea
The king protea (Protea cynaroides) is the national flower of South Africa. The king protea was first seriously considered for South Africa's official national floral emblem in 1962, when a commission was set up to study its use as a national emblem. The South African Association of Botanists supported the choice of the spectacular flower, the king protea, however the choice of the flower as…
Agriculturalist Online. Protea for flower power in South Africa. 08 December 2003. http://www.new-agri.co.uk/01-5/focuson/focuson8.html
Department of Foreign Affairs. South African Coat of Arms. 08 December 2003. http://www.dfa.gov.za/department/coa.htm
International Marketing Council of South Africa. FLORA: Feast of flora. http://www.safrica.info/ess_info/sa_glance/fauna_flora/flora.htm
Protea Atlas Project. 08 December 2003. http://protea.worldonline.co.za/default.htm
Combating the Human Immunodeficiency Virus in South Africa
Although Swaziland has the highest incidence rate for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at 27.7%, South Africa suffers from the largest number of people living with HIV in the world (6.8 million) (The global HIV / AIDS epidemic, 2016) out of a total population of around 53.5 million (South Africa population, 2016). In fact, during the time required to read this introduction, someone died of HIV in South Africa. Unfortunately, South Africa is certainly not unique in experiencing these high rates of infection and many sub-Saharan African nations are likewise seriously affected by the disease (The global HIV/AID epidemic, 2016). South Africa, though, is also suffering from a number of social problems that have exacerbated the HIV epidemic. In response to these alarming trends, the international community, including the United States, has allocated an enormous amount of resources to help stop the…
Birnbaum, J. K. & Murray, C. J. (2011, April). Exposing misclassified HIV / AIDS deaths in South Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 89(4), 278-281.
du Toit, J. & Burger, A. (2010, Spring). Tackling HIV / AIDS in the workplace: Best practice being developed in South Africa carries an important message for companies everywhere. European Business Forum, 17, 70-73.
Global Fund overview. (2016). Global Fund. Retrieved from http://www.theglobalfund.org/en / overview/.
South African economy. (2016). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov / library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sf.html.
It was often said: "Sport is a religion in South Africa…South Africa is the most sports-mad country in the world" (Anderson et al. 2004).South Africa was banned from the Olympic Games in 1964 because it would only permit whites to represent the nation, on the grounds that only whites could become citizens. FIFA (Federation of International Football Associations) suspended South Africa in 1960 and then finally expelled the national team from competition permanently in 1976. But the more rarefied sports of rugby and cricket were slower to react. These sports were often criticized by anti-apartheid activists within South Africa because unlike football, there were few examples of interracial play under apartheid, given the greater expense and the class as well as racial barriers that existed within these sports.
The end of apartheid has exhibited swift changes in South African cricket: recently, black African Makhaya Ntini recently participated in his historic…
"1970: South Africa cricket tour called off." BBC News. May 22. December 31, 2009.
Anderson, Connie M, Bielert, Troy A, & Jones, Ryan P. (2004). One country, one sport, endless knowledge: The anthropological study of sports in South
Africa. Anthropologica, 46(1), 47-55. Retrieved December 31, 2009, from Ethnic
U.S. Department of Commerce
South Africa’s population of 50 million enjoys the most sophisticated, mature and productive economy on the African continent today (U.S. commercial service, 2014). The country’s GDP represents approximately 33 percent of the sub-Saharan total and the South African economy has experienced sustained growth of 3.2 percent over the past 5 years (US commercial service, 2014). According to the U.S. Department of Commerce, “The U.S. Commercial Service in South Africa is co-located with the U.S. Consulate General [with the] mission to create jobs in the United States by advancing commercial opportunities in South Africa and strategically assisting firms export U.S. products and services” (U.S. commercial service, 2014, para. 2).
World Trade Organization
The World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) most recent policy review (2008) shows that during the period from 2003 through 2008, the percentage of trade in goods and services to South Africa’s GDP rose from 53.8% to…
It is through education that people can understand that AIDS is a disease like any other and there is no reason to keep it taboo. It is also through education that people must be made to understand the risks which this disease implies. The attitude needed in order to approach this issue is a very rational one. African people, starting with very young children, must be taught that there are diseases which cannot be cured, with chemicals or with herbal medicine from the local doctor and that prevention could spare everyone the dramatic consequences of this phenomenon.
My family lives in the U.S.A. And yet the mentality that they have was one of the factors which contributed most to their contamination and that of their spouses and children. This shows that mentality is a key issue all over the world, not just in Africa. Had my cousin not been ashamed…
In "On the concept of function in social science," the author considers what purpose social institutions serve. He starts by looking at Durkheim's definition, and then draws parallels between social life and organic life. He interprets the word "needs" as things that are "necessary conditions for existence." Thus, he views social institutions as directly related to survival. He suggests that societies should be analyzed in terms of morphology, physiology, and evolution or development, just as organisms can be studied in that way. The morphology, or structure, defines the inter-relations within the social institution. The physiology would describe what each component provides for the institution, and the development, how the institution continues itself in time. He notes some problems with this analogy. In particular, a social institution can change its structure in a relatively short period of time while a biological organism cannot. Thus this analogy does not describe…
In the 1990s, South Africa was undergoing a major transformation. This was in response to: the sudden social, economic and political changes in the post-apartheid environment. SAB Miller was able to use this change as a way to solidify their home market and expand to other regions. This is helped the firm to become the second largest beer producer in the world. However, like many multi-national corporations, the firm has been facing tremendous challenges. In some cases, this can be from having large amounts of saturation in particular markets (i.e. The U.S. And Europe). While at the same time, there are issues affecting the ability of the company to take advantage of growth in many emerging economies (i.e. Africa, Asia and Latin America). (Jacob 2009)
To help the firm deal with these issues requires examining the challenges they are facing and how they will be addressed. This will…
Sales Force Automation, 2011, Tech Target. Available from: [30 May 2012].
Jacob, T, 2009, SAB Miller, Scribd. Available from: [30 May 2012].
South African Perspective on United States Africa Command
As the United States continues its drawdown of troops in the Middle East and reevaluates its prosecution of the global war on terrorism following the recent elimination of key Al-Qaeda leaders, most especially Osama bin Laden, it is important to assess the impact of these events on American military forces elsewhere, especially in sub-Saharan Africa in general and South Africa in particular. The so-called BIC (Brazil, ussia, India and China), with China taking the lead, are taking an increasingly active interest in developing improved trade and political ties with sub-Saharan African nations, and misperceptions of American global hegemonic intentions may interfere with the legitimate goals of the U.S. military in establishing improved relations with these countries. To help identify key challenges and potential solutions, this paper reviews the relevant literature to describe current U.S. military strategy in South Africa to provide salient…
"AFRICOM." (2011). (2011). GlobalSecurity.org. [online] available: http://www.globalsecurity.
Gilbert, L. D,. Uzodike, U.O. & Isike, C. (2009). "The United States Africa Command: Security
for Whom?" The Journal of Pan African Studies 2(9): 264-266.
This was largely because the resistance was split along racial lines. For instance, the Afrikaans National Council wanted freedom from foreign oppression without taking into consideration the needs and demands of the Colored. Similarly, the Non-European Liberation League, another group that opposed the current practices, were the proponents of the issues of immediate concern to Colored but African people. This lack of unity proved decisive, taking into consideration the immediate rise to power of the Nationalistic Party in 1948 and the subsequent inability to immediately react to the measures that would be taken in the following years.
The South African society, following the war was left without a well-defined national identity because of the continuous struggle to face the conquering forces of the Dutch and the ritish. Consequently, the rise to power of a nationalistic party can be seen as predictable, taking into consideration the general trend existing in the…
Goldin, Ian. Making race, the politics and economics of colored identity in South Africa. London: Longman. 1987.
Heribert, Adam, and Kogila Moodley. South Africa without apartheid. Dismantling racial domination. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986.
Hofmayer, I., Building a nation from words: Afrikaans language, literature and ethnic identity. University of London, MA thesis, 1983.
Nowak, Michael, and Luca Antonio Ricci. Post Apartheid South Africa: the first ten years. Washington: International Monetary Fund. 2005.
Antjie Krog's Country Of Grief And Grace
Antjie Krog (2000) uses metaphor and extended metaphor throughout the poem "Country of Grief and Grace" -- itself an exploration of existential crisis in South Africa, ravaged by apartheid and violence. Krog descends into this maelstrom to provide the reader a glimpse, a hope, a ray of light that beams through the sludge of hopelessness, despair and grief. Through her use of metaphor and extended metaphor, Krog constructs an alternate way of looking at the world in which she lives -- a framework that invites the reader to question the borders and boundaries of time and space which keep separate the past and the future, the young and the old, the black and the white. By merging or synthesizing the elements of her country into a cohesive whole, Krog shows that all is one -- and in this revelation is the seed of…
As per our previous discussion, there is little doubt anymore but that our HIV / AIDS drugs are well positioned to go to the next level of modern emergent medicine. Whatever treatment modalities that will arise in the future will be ICT-based (Information Communication Technology) and will be executed in practice utilizing mHealth (mobile) practices that are part of a network of eCare (electronic), eServices, eSurvellience and eLearning structures (Sorenson et al., 2008). The past prediction appears accurate that by this year (2012), half of all people in remote but developing areas of the world will have access to mobile technology (Singh, nd). It is therefore incumbent upon GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) to establish itself as a leader in facilitating how these efforts can complement our pharmaceuticals interventions, particularly since it is now well accepted that antiretroviral interventions are the only known approach for slowing the disease progression in infected individuals.…
E1: The first step in this process will revolve around doing further preparation on what constitutes an effective organization that is purposefully developed to take advantage of proven organizational theories (Laguerre, 2010). GSK is already well grounded in this regard, but moving to an eGSK requires contemplating how existing resources can be focused complimentarily on multiple objectives. Our goal should be to not interfere with existing operations or personnel, but instead to tag the new e-model on to what already works well. ICT has the ability to profoundly scale the impact value of what already exists, and it is clear that this project can be an exceptional example of multiple a bottom line ROI (GIIN, 2012). We should be able to extract from each department enough of what is needed for this eLearning experience to ensure that in the future it cannot be easily separated from the other profit-making priorities of the company. An appropriate eTeam (okay, enough of the e's!) will be created to mirror each of the critical departments; and space will be preserved for including either internal or external stakeholders who may be shown to otherwise be excluded because of our business configuration. The team will include lower- and upper management representatives, scientific professionals, operational experts, and creative representatives of stakeholder departments. HR and IT representatives will either be included and/or specialized technical expertise in these and other hands-on components will be made available to the team.
E2: Specific attention in regard to this recommendation will be directed at all of the corporate elements associated with governance, business operations, production, diversity and community/global integration now in place (GSK, 2012). We have established communication and flow diagrammatic representations of these sectors. In reviewing them, the oversight team will be guided by what already exists and will look toward integrating ICT with an eye toward making the organizational documents and flow patterns interactive to support further change.
E3: Our recommended guide for this element comes from the writings of Joshua C. Laguerre (2010) on how to develop leadership utilizing researched and philosophically grounded leadership theories. He bases his findings on Yukl's 2010 "Leadership in Organizations," which he supplements with the findings of other critically reviewed operational foundations. Laguerre chose Yukl because of his comprehensive and appealing definition of leadership, which incorporates the recognized important elements of effective leadership and was geared toward sustaining future leadership development via a dynamic or
In your view, based on what you have seen on the media, journals, etc. Please explain in a short statement; what are the roles of tribal politics/identities, natural resources and the system of distribution resources in the violence in South Sudan?
South Sudan has a rich natural resource base. Oil reserves, estimated to be among the largest in the continent, were recently discovered, not forgetting the large amounts of resources that have over the years remained untapped due to recurring wars and conflict. These natural resources, however, are the main cause of conflict between the country's top political powerhouses; President Salva Kiir of the Dinka community, and Riak Machar of the Nuer Community. The violence currently being experienced, and which can rightly be referred to as an ethnic war between the Dinka and the Nuer, is as a result of the rivalry between these two, both of whom…
South African Breweries
There are a few important trends in the international brewing industry. The first is consolidation (Fletcher, 2011). With slowing demand in major markets, many large brewers are seeking to do two things: improve their economies of scale and gain access to new markets. This has led to successive rounds of consolidation in the industry, with most of the world's largest brewing companies now global conglomerates of strong regional brands. For SAB, this has meant not only consolidating the firm's home territory of Africa, but exploring options outside the continent as well.
The second major trend in the international beer industry is that growth has shifted to emerging markets. In the major beer-drinking markets, consumption is either stagnant or shrinking, and this has led to a quest for growth elsewhere. Many emerging markets have large populations and as these markets become more attuned to beer drinking, some of…
China Daily. (2002). SAB aims to be biggest beer maker. China Daily. Retrieved November 13, 2011 from http://www.china.org.cn/english/investment/27117.htm
Fletcher, C. (2011). SABMiller Chief Mackay forsees more consolidation in global beer industry. Bloomberg. Retrieved November 13, 2011 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-03-29/sabmiller-chief-mackay-foresees-more-consolidation-in-global-beer-industry.html
..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).
This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.
Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.
Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels…
Abbink, J. & Kessel, I.V. (Eds.). (2005). Vanguard or Vandals: Youth, Politics, and Conflict in Africa. Boston: Brill. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=114080610
Bility K.M. (1999) School Violence and Adolescent Mental Health in South Africa: Implications for School Health Programs. "http: Sociological Practice, Vol. 01, No, 4, pp. 285-303 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Carton, B. (2003). The Forgotten Compass of Death: Apocalypse Then and Now in the Social History of South Africa. Journal of Social History, 37(1), 199+. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database:
Africa so Poor?
Why is it that Africa, despite the aid and help and support that she gets from different sources all over the world, is still very much impoverished and in a state of poverty even now? It is a fact that this continent has been availing of outside help and has also been a site where numerous large-scale experiments have been performed over the years in order to improve and reform its economy for its innate betterment, but it has still remained in the same condition in which it has been existing all these pats few centuries. The truth is that none of the above experiments have been able to succeed in achieving a sustained and continuous economic growth in Africa and this has also led to the astonishing fact that most African three dozen nations are, today, even poorer than they were during the 1980's. It is…
African Alternative Framework to Structural Adjustment Programs for Socio-Economic Recovery and Transformation. Retrieved From http://www.africaaction.org/african-initiatives/aafall.htm Accessed on 28 February, 2005
Africa's Development Crisis. Retrieved From http://www.econdad.org/Berlin.htm Accessed on 28 February, 2005
Basu, Anupam; Calamitsis, Evangelos A; Ghura, Dhaneshwar. Promoting Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Monetary Fund. August 2000. Retrieved From
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/issues/issues23 / Accessed on 27 February, 2005
The weaker segments in Africa, women and children, were and are the worst hit by HIV / AIDS, which then is spread to the families and communities. (Bage 2004)
Dealing with this is a great scientific, social, and moral challenge that every organization and country, especially developed countries must rise up to. It is time to mobilize resources and contribute to make changes in the policies so that we at the United Nations can do something worthwhile to combat Africa's problem with this disease. There were commercial interests earlier that would not allow the developed nations to provide subsidized medicine. For instance the United States, there was a stance that there could be no recognition of the problem and a denial of need. This was followed by a policy that placed the solving of the problem on the affected countries. Until George W. Bush, the United States and many developed…
Bage, Lennart. 2004. HIV / AIDS in Africa: Shifting the Horizons of Development. UN
Chronicle, vol. 41, no. 3. September-November, pp: 49-54.
DeConde, Alexander. 1963. A History of American Foreign Policy. Charles Scribner's
Sons: New York.
Apartheid certainly represents some of the darkest times in the history of South Africa as well as the larger world. In the several decades it existed, a white minority exploited and oppressed a black majority in a violent and suppressive manner. Indeed, the very word "apartheid" means separation and being "apart." The brutality in question lasted from just after World War II in 1948 and eventually (and finally) ended in 1994. While the scars are still healing in South Africa and many social/racial problems still exist, a full generation has passed since Apartheid fell.
Apartheid was the brainchild and creation of the National Party and the Broederbond organization but was actually a continuation of what was started by the Dutch when they controlled the area. There was a significant amount of blowback and strife that followed as the black populace oppressed by Apartheid rejected and roiled…
Apartheid Museum. (2014, June 19). Home | Apartheid Museum. Home | Apartheid Museum. Retrieved June 19, 2014, from http://www.apartheidmuseum.org/
History Channel. (2014, June 17). Apartheid. History.com. Retrieved June 17, 2014, from http://www.history.com/topics/apartheid
This can be traced to the conservative view that lacks have in fact no real history in comparison to the richness and significance of European history. "As astonishing as it seems most of the prestigious academics and universities in Europe and America have ridiculed the idea that blacks have any substantive history."
This derogatory view has its roots as well in the colonial attitude that tended to see all lack people as inferior in status and 'ignorant' in order to justify the intrusion and invasion of their lands and territories.
In other words, the justification for conquest and what was in reality the theft of African land and wealth was provided to a great extent by the ' rewriting' of iblical texts. lacks were cast as 'heathen' people who had not achieved the enlightenment that the white group had attained through the ible and Christianity and therefore lacks were seen…
"African Heritage: The Original African Heritage Study Bible," http://kenanderson.net/bible/html/african_heritage.html (accessed September 20, 2010).
BibleGateway, Genesis 2:10- 14,
http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+2%3A10-14&version=NIV (accessed September 20, 2010).
"BLACK HEBREW ISRAELITES," http://www.angelfire.com/sd/occultic/hebrew.html , (accessed September 20, 2010).
total 3000 words: Organisation - Telkom South Africa Questions strategy theory applicacable models 1. Undertake a resource based analysis Telkom, South African telecommunications company comment implications analysis future strategy organisation
Telkom South Africa
The telecommunications industry is the fastest growing industry at an international level. It relies on innovation and developments and it impacts all aspects of life. The telecommunications industry in the Western Hemisphere is generically assumed as the leader of the world, possessing the most impressive resources and developing the most impressive technologies. Aside from the United States however, intense telecommunications is also present in Japan, China or ussia.
In the global discussion of telecommunications, South Africa is often overlooked as a region noteworthy of attention. Nevertheless, the African continent does possess an impressive telecommunications company, which operates in 38 countries and which could easily pose competition to the more commonly known westerner companies. This is the Telkom…
Barney, J.B., Clark, D.N., 2007, Resource-based theory: creating and sustaining competitive advantage, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199277680
Doole, I., Lowe, R., International marketing strategy: analysis, development and implementation, 5th edition, Cengage Learning EMEA, ISBN 1844807630
Grant, R.M., 2005, Contemporary strategy analysis, 5th edition, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 1405119993
Kinyanjui, K., 2011, Telkom South Africa's internet sector merger intensifies surf wars, All Africa, http://allafrica.com/stories/201106030511.html last accessed on August 3, 2011
Needless to underline the difficulty of the this challenge.
Another author who is concerned with why the prevention programmes fail in this specific cultural environment is Catherine Campbell. She believes that while external help is fundamental, so is mobilizing the local community is the direction of prevention. Peer education made in informal scenery is believed to be the first necessary step. Another step would imply reaching the target represented by children and teenagers. This means "promoting peer education in a formal school setting" as well. "Mobilizing stakeholders to prevent HIV" is the third measure which she takes into consideration. "In the past few years, some development practitioners and agencies have attempted to acknowledge the complex and contested nature of local communities through the growing popularity of the concept of the "multi-stakeholder community." The recognition that geographical areas are often home to a range of different "stakeholders" represents an important first…
Attwood, G. REFLECT- Learning circles in the Malealea Community Development project
Campbell, C. Letting them die: why HIV / AIDS intervention programmes fail. Google Books. Retrieved October 5, 2010 from http://books.google.it/books?id=xZME3SMJUwcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=catherine+campbell+letting+them+die&source=bl&ots=L2WZ6lJaV2&sig=Le2k1h7d68hGxxDTBo8HM_nisYs&hl=it&ei=iPqtTIvdGczEswbxxv29DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
Dunton, C. - Audio
Epstein, H. The invisible cure. Retrieved October 7, 2010 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VSPk8K5zK3I
As a case in point, the chapter begins with the case of U.S. Congressman Vito Fossella, who would not visit family when his gay sister was present, but who secretly had a relationship and child with a woman other than his wife. According to the author (p. 123), "Vito and Victoria Fossella represent two of the decidedly unwitting bedfellows who jostle uncomfortably beneath the patchwork quilt of contemporary family forms and values."
nterestingly, the chapter points out that polygamy has historically been much more prevalent than monogamy, which was historically practiced by less than one quarter of the world's population. Again investigating the situation in South Africa, where polygamy is legalized, the author shows that there are several manifestations of this phenomenon. Some men, for example, do not bother to register polygamous marriages, since they started with a civil marriage, which precludes a legal change to polygamy. Although not legally…
Interestingly, the chapter points out that polygamy has historically been much more prevalent than monogamy, which was historically practiced by less than one quarter of the world's population. Again investigating the situation in South Africa, where polygamy is legalized, the author shows that there are several manifestations of this phenomenon. Some men, for example, do not bother to register polygamous marriages, since they started with a civil marriage, which precludes a legal change to polygamy. Although not legally married, they openly practice this. Other men engage in long-term extra-marital affairs, some of which are so culturally acceptable that mistresses are introduced to wives, and husbands divide their time among their different sets of families.
One interesting point the chapter makes is that polygamy in modern societies are on the decline simply for economic reasons, where few can afford more than one wife and family, especially if the wives are not wage earners. The rest of the chapter considers various forms of polygamous marriages in South Africa, all of which are apparently consensual among the husband and wives, although some jealousy issues arise from time to time. The chapter indicates that this type of marriage is likely to gradually vanish as South Africa's economy modernizes.
Stacey, J. (2011). Unhitched: Love, Marriage, and Family Values from West Hollywood to Western China. NYU Press.
Spread of Islam in Africa and Asia Along Trade Routes
The Islam religion spread in Asia and Africa mainly due to trade of such goods as spices, gold, as also due to slaves. The advantages of proximity with the greatly profitable and powerful traders of the Islam religion triggered the conversions of merchants and rulers' into Muslims. Islam spread slowly; it took centuries, but in most places where the conversion took place, people still hold on to the religion (Debrouse). This paper explores the reasons of spread of Islam religion along Asian and African trade routes, particularly centering on the success of Islam in Middle Asia.
Early Trade Connections
Since the era of Muhammad, it has been believed that trade is closely related to the religion as well as its development. Inmecca, the people of the Qurayshtribe were leaders in business. They extended their connections and influence to Syria and…
In the three regional organizations in Africa discussed here, it is important that these entities reaffirm their commitment in joining the war against crime and the fight against terrorist groups; which are an obstacle to the success of Africa's economies (Fulgence, 2015). There is a lot of work cut out for sub-Saharan African countries which are grappling with abject poverty. They have plenty of work to do to attain middle income status in their economies.
The terms of economic cooperation vision would have been trained on food production to fight hunger among populations that are growing fast, reducing poverty levels through a host of economic interventions aimed at reducing unemployment and boosting production. With respect to political cooperation, the organizations in question have plenty of work to do in areas of the rule of law and reduction of abuses against human rights (Fulgence, 2015). Incidence of civil unrest, wars; both…
Governments will not provide public goods to those they mistrust, as they will not expect to be able to collect taxes at a later date. In Africa, this again can be related to ethnic tensions -- governments and regions from different ethnic groups may have mutual mistrust that predates the colonial era.
Every nation will develop in its own way. For the most part, however, specific antecedents to development can be identified. Strong government is essential as lack of security will reduce investment -- both domestic and international -- and thus stifle economic growth. Strong government must nonetheless not confuse the rule of law with a mandate to expropriate wealth. The government will need to tax, but must do so only in accordance with the needs of the region for public goods. At some point, trust will need to be developed between the government and the people of the…
Acemoglu, D. 2005. Politics and economics in weak and strong states. Journal of Monetary Economics. Vol. 52 (2005): 1199-1226.
Herbst, J. 1990. War and the state in Africa.
Acemoglu, D. & Robinson. Economic Structure and Democracy.
Aryeetey, E. 2004. Financing Africa's future growth and development: Some innovations. Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research. 1-44.
AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa?
AIDS in Ghana
AIDS, or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, has devastated much of Africa, hitting this continent worse than any other in the world. In fact, in the year 2000, 80% of the world's total AIDS-related deaths were within Africa. (C 2000) One of the areas hit the hardest by this virus has been the Sub-Saharan region. Ghana, within that region, has also been ravaged by AIDS, but it has a significantly lower percentage of AIDS cases than much of the rest of Africa. While the AIDS within Ghana has many of the same causes and effects on the people who are infected with the disease, it is a unique situation within Africa because of its particular effects on the women of the country, and the fact that there are comparatively fewer AIDS cases within this country.
The first reported cases of AIDS in Ghana were…
BBC. 2003. "Africa's Aids burden." UK: BBC News, Retreived December 1, 2003. ( http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1045156.stm )
Ghana AIDS Commission . 2003. "Brief Statistics on HIV / AIDS." Ghana: Ghana AIDS Commission, Retreieved December 1, 2003. ( http://www.ghanaids.gov.gh/functionalities/statusandimpact/articledescription.asp?ArticleID=13 )
Ghana AIDS Commission . 2003. "Women and AIDS." Ghana: Ghana AIDS Commission, Retreieved December 1, 2003. ( http://www.ghanaids.gov.gh/barefacts/practicalinformation/articledescription.asp?ArticleID=24 )
Ofeibea Quirst-arcton. 2003. "Aids Treatment Plan Begins In January." Accra: AllAfrica.com, Retreived December 1, 2003. ( http://allafrica.com/stories/200311300172.html )
-- but Glaxo contends that Cipla violates the companies' patents and international intellectual- property agreements"(Boseley, 2002). In moral defense of its actions, Glaxo's CEO, told shareholders "Some people might see patents as the obstacle to getting medicines to patients in poorer countries. Nothing could be further from the truth....Even in countries where low cost generics are available millions of people are dying every year because they cannot obtain low cost generic treatments for malaria, TB and other common diseases. e should also remember that 95% of the medicines on HO's Essential Drugs List are not covered by patent protection anywhere in the world, let alone in developing countries, many of which have no effective intellectual property laws" (Samson, 2001).
Still, a recent scandal revealing that "nearly $18 million worth of reduced-price HIV drugs intended for impoverished Africans have been intercepted by profiteers and shipped back to Europe to be sold…
Boseley, Sarah (6 Sept. 2002). "Glaxo cuts AIDS drug prices in Africa." The Guardian. Retrieved 20 Jan 2007 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,786919,00.html
Glaxo: Cheap AIDS drugs not enough." (25 May 2001) BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1351153.stm
HIV Drugs for Africa Diverted to Europe. (3 Oct 2002). Centers for Disease Control.
International News. Retrieved 20 Jan 2007 at http://www.thebody.com/cdc/news_updates_archive/oct3_02/hiv_drugs.html
Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica
Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.
Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.
In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are…
Akan" is an ethnographic and linguistic term used to refer to a cluster of culturally homogenous groups living in central and southern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern Cote d'Ivoire. The Akan constitute two broad subcategories: the inland Asante, Bono, Akyem, Akwapem, and Kwawu, who speak the Twi, and the coastal Fante, who speak a dialect of the same name. The Akan dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. Most of these ethnic groups constituted autonomous political systems in the pre-colonial period. www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=55458430" (Adjaye 1994, 57)
Studies of Akan time perceptions and calendrical systems have been limited despite the fact that the existence of institutions and mechanisms for time-reckoning have been noted in the literature on the history and ethnography of the Akan for nearly two centuries. Beyond early sparse references by Rattray (1923) and Danquah (1968), a full-length monograph on the subject did not appear until Deborah Fink "Time and Space Measurements of the Bono of Ghana" (1974); however, the author's primary concern was with the applicability of Bono terminologies for measuring volume, weight, and time to formal education, rather than with time-marking systems P.F. Bartle brief five-page paper, "Forty Days: The Akan Calendar" (1978), was an exploratory essay into a single calendrical framework, the 40-day (adaduanan) cycle. Its treatment is consequently restrictive and limited to the 40-day calendrical structure. Similarly, Tom McCaskie "Time and the Calendar in Nineteenth-Century Asante: An Exploratory Essay" (1980) and Ivor Wilks ' "On Mentally Mapping Greater Asante: A Study of Time and Motion" (1992) are concerned primarily with a specific aspect of time: the scheduling of diplomatic and other governmental business in Asante.
(Adjaye 1994, 57)
Future of Global Neoliberalism
One of the harsh realities of life in the 21st century is that the vast majority of the world's population continues to struggle to survive in the face of dwindling arable land and governmental policies that serve to constrain rather than promote economic development. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to explain why some theorists have maintained that the state continues to be a central agent that facilitates the advancement of global neoliberalism. A discussion concerning the rationale in support of this position, including an analysis of the possibilities and barriers that neoliberalism creates for genuine long-term sustainable human development; the objectives, strategies, and achievements of social movements as well as the barriers they face; and state-led models of development that run counter to the neoliberal agenda. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings…
Abahlal. (2009, August 7). Winning our land back -- the Landless People's
Movement wins a major court victory. Abahlali baseMjondolo. Retrieved from http://abahlali.org/node/5622/ .
Butt, S. (2013, June 26). Incredible India: Home to modern slavery. The Real
News. Retrieved from http://therealnews.com/t2/index.php?option=com_
There have been numerous debates over the right choice between breast feeding and other substitutes in the conditions of mothers infected with HIV. Due to the possibility of infecting the infant with the virus, many women prefer bottled milk or other substitutes. However, unlike western countries where the issue of hygiene is no longer a problem, not even in the remotest corners of the countries, the situation is Africa is greatly related to the idea of a clean environment for women and their newborns. In this sense, the lack of financial possibilities determines the state and the population to be unable to provide a proper environment and to be unable to afford one respectively. Thus, the milk other than the maternal one is subjected to all sorts of bacteria, viruses, and even diseases. Therefore, on the one hand, there is the risk of the child to become infected with HIV;…
Afolabi, et al. (2001) Malaria in the first 6 months of life in urban African infants with anemia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol 65, Issue 6, 822-827. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/reprint/65/6/822
Andersson, H. (2005). Niger's children continue dying. BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4274728.stm
Andersson, H. (2005). Niger children starving to death. BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2008, from, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4695355.stm
Aneki (2008) Countries with the Highest Infant Mortality Rates in the World. Aneki Web page. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://www.aneki.com/mortality.html
Culture among Immigrant Women from Sub-Saharan Africa Diagnosed with Chronic Diseases, Living in Grande Prairie, Alberta
The concept culture is defined as learned beliefs revealing the method people interact with their physical and social environment generally shared among a large segment of the population and transmitted from one generation to the other. These beliefs can include body size, habit and food habit. This proposal discusses the impact culture among immigrant women from Sub-Saharan Africa diagnosed with chronic diseases, living in Grande Prairie, Alberta. The review of the literature and its outcomes reveal that SSA women in Canada still prefer using the traditional medicine rather than western medicine. Moreover, African women in Canada diagnosed with chronic disease continue indulging unhealthy lifestyle that includes overeating to gain body weight because of the cultural beliefs that overweight is associated with wealth and prestige. Moreover, many women from Sub-Saharan Africa still rely on traditional…