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There seems to be several situations in Southeast Asia that have the potential of greatly influencing other parts of the world.
One disturbing element in Southeast Asia is the growth of al Qaeda there during the past decade and its link with local radical Islamists (Palmer Pp).
The organization has developed strong roots in Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Indonesia with Indonesian agents working in close partnership with al Qaeda in promoting terrorism in the region (Palmer Pp). According to Ronald Palmer the "Jemaah Islamiya goal of establishing an Islamic state encompassing Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Southern Philippines is only in its early stages and has been stymied for the time being," however, it appears that the al Qaeda cells which have thus far been discovered may only be the "tip of a terrorist iceberg of unknown dimensions" (Palmer Pp). Local governments face severe challenges to maintain security,…
Torchia, Christopher. "Bush, Clinton Reassured on Tsunami Aid"
AP Online; 2/20/2005; Pp.
Stewart, Mart; Lan, Ly. "Avian Flu Takes Wing in Southeast Asia."
Seattle Post-Intelligencer (Seattle, WA); 2/11/2005; Pp.
Several international conferences planned for China were postponed or changed venues
Yu p. 91)
SARS also had some positive effects in terms of media coverage. Studies claim that the outbreak in 2003 not only emphasized the importance of good media coverage in alerting the international community to epidemics but also "... raised standards of government preparedness and border control." (ibid) The importance of rapid communication and the role of the media became evident during the epidemic. This was also to show up the lack of media awareness in China. In this regard the epidemic highlighted the importance and value of the independent media in China, which was able to act in a way that alerted the international community to the epidemic.
In recent years, so-called "fringe media" publications have emerged in China. These fringe media are less controlled by government; these independent publications enjoy more autonomy than mainstream media and…
Altman L.K. Chinese bat identified as home of SARS virus
The New York Times, 2005. Accessed October 7, 2005. http://www.iht.com/articles/2005/09/30/news/sars.php
Basic Information About SARS, CDC, 2005. Accessed October 5, 2005. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/sars/factsheet.htm http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002020361
Bi, Jianhai. "China's SARS Crisis: Jianhai Bi Discusses China's Efforts to Containthe SARS Virus' Spread and the Consequences for Chinese Politics." New Zealand International Review 28.5 (2003): 16+.
Vietnam and Indonesia, for example were governed by democratic powers, nowadays leaning more and more towards liberalization. These countries did not enclose themselves within the geographical boundaries of the territory, but initiated business relationships and partnerships with neighbor countries or across the globe countries. These countries understood the concept of compared advantages and applied them in practice.
One of the most relevant examples of economic success due to international trade based on imports and exports is Indonesia, which has been able to increase its inhabitants living standards throughout trade activities.
The economic status of the southeastern Asian countries was highly disputed along the years. "Analyzes of economic growth have drawn on the experiences of the East Asian newly industrializing countries to highlight the contribution of cohesive and autonomous states in the resolution of market failures."
Whichever the current situation of the countries in southeastern Asia, fact remains that…
Richard F. Doner, Limits of State Strength: Toward an Institutionalist View of Economic Development
Hutchcroft, Paul. 1998, Booty Capitalism
Jomo, K.S. And Chen Yun Chung, 1997. Southeast Asia's
Misunderstood Miracle: Industrial policy and economic development
ritish Westernize Southeast Asia
Introduction- What is 'westernization'
Westernization is when the European countries would impose their way of life on the colonies they rule to include: the economic system, values, religion and beliefs. The idea was that European views were more progressive and superior to those of the indigenous population. As result, the ultimate objective was to have everyone in the various colonies to accept these different principals in one form or another. The East India Company was an extension of the ritish government's attempts to impose Westernization on Southeast Asia. (Phillips, 2008)
Initial Government in engal - 'dual government'
There were two forms of government that were mainly utilized under this system to include: regions that company would exercise direct control and those that they controlled through treaties. The regions that were controlled by the company would have increased amounts of jurisdiction, in all areas of government and…
Phillips, C. (2008). The East India Company. New York, NY: Rutledge.
The population in Indonesia is 202,110,000, with people speaking the Javenese language. The religion of Indonesia is unni Muslim, and the majority of people there live to be 63 years old, with 1 out of 100 people owning cars. Indonesia is a mixed economy with many socialist institutions and central planning but with a recent emphasis on deregulation and private enterprise. Indonesia has extensive natural wealth, yet, with a large and rapidly increasing population, it remains a poor country. In Indonesia, underemployment is widespread, a result of about 2.3 million workers annually entering the labor force. Once the world's largest rice importer, Indonesia is now nearly self-sufficient.
The oil sector dominates the external economy, generating more than 20% of the government's revenues and 40% of export earnings, however, the economy's growth is highly dependent on the continuing expansion of non-oil exports. The Indonesian form of currency is called the rupiah,…
Scholastic Inc. Atlas of the World. (United Kingdom: Miles Kelly Publishing Ltd., 2001), 157.
Scholastic Inc. Atlas of the World. (United Kingdom: Miles Kelly Publishing Ltd., 2001), 156.
Sunsite.nus, "South-East Asia Information"; Available at http://sunsite.nus.edu. Accessed 21 Sept. 2007.
The year 2003 was marked by a number of natural disasters throughout the world, but none more devastating and threatening than the outbreak of a new virus now known as SARS. In this paper, I will focus primarily on the economic affect of the disease to the tourism industry in Southeast Asia. I argue that the magnitude of the affect SARS had on the tourism industry is attributable to three factors: the nature of the virus, the reaction by World Health rganization officials, and finally, the inadequacy in which local governments (specifically the Chinese) handled the epidemic. Finally, I will touch on the affects SARS has had on the tourism industry thus far, and its future implications.
In order to understand the effects of SARS in the world economic climate, specifically that of tourism, it is important to explore the disease itself. SARS (Sever Acute Respiratory Syndrome) is a form…
Online Version) http://184.108.40.206/focus/f-news/898390/posts .
Runckel, Christopher. Tourist Arrivals Plunge as Government Tries to Restore Region as Touris
Destination. Business in Asia Website. Accessed June 24, 2003. (Online Version) http://www.business-in-asia.com/sars_article1.html.
The goal was to eliminate the communist threat and stop "the domino effect" of South East Asian countries falling to the threat of communism. However, after over a decade of fighting and thousands of American deaths, the U.S. pulled out of Vietnam and the central city of Saigon fell into the communist Vietcong hands.
mpact on the Political Climate of the American 1950's
Red Scare -- the increasing involvement in South East Asia provided an element of fear and further control in American politics. The dealings with South East Asia only heightened the nation's fear of communists which had been most solidified with the U.S.S.R. The communist scare sent shivers down the American public, and the political atmosphere became more and more conservative in response. This was the era of Senator McCarthy, who meticulously hunted down and exposed reported communists. Government entities began meddling into normal American life. Entire Senate…
Impact on the Political Climate of the American 1950's
Red Scare -- the increasing involvement in South East Asia provided an element of fear and further control in American politics. The dealings with South East Asia only heightened the nation's fear of communists which had been most solidified with the U.S.S.R. The communist scare sent shivers down the American public, and the political atmosphere became more and more conservative in response. This was the era of Senator McCarthy, who meticulously hunted down and exposed reported communists. Government entities began meddling into normal American life. Entire Senate hearings were based on putting normal civilians on communist "black lists." This conservative backlash served as protection from possible invasions from communists spies and agents.
Korean War -- the United States entered into the Korean War to help the South Koreans regain control of the Korean peninsula from the communist North Koreans. However, this failed and the country is still divided even today. The war did, however, stimulate the economy and lay down the country's entrance in the Vietnam War.
229). The John Howard government cemented the lesson as a "significant shift in our dealings with the South Pacific," (quoted in McDougall and Sherman, p. 178) and as a result Australia now effectively reserves the right to step in to maintain (or restore) the rule of law throughout the region.
If anything, Australia's relationship to Papua New Guinea is stronger than its interest in the Solomon Islands (Wainwright 2003, p. 26), given its colonial history there. Somewhat more recently, Australia provided tacit material support for Papua's invasion of the breakaway Bougainville faction (McMillan 1997, p. 8) before the Sandline mercenary scandal and ensuing general strike made policy makers rethink their role in the affair and, by extension, the nightmare prospect of a true state failure in the region:
In today's globalized world, the failure of [a] modern nation state would not simply mean that its people would revert to the…
Anthony, MC, 2005, Regional security in Southeast Asia: beyond the ASEAN way, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore.
Checchi, F, Elder, G, Schafer, M, Drouhin, E, & Legros, D, Jul 5, 2003, "Consequences of armed conflict for an ethnic Karen population, "The Lancet, vol. 362, pp. 74-5.
Cheesman, N, 2002, "Seeing 'Karen' in the union of Myanmar," Asian Ethnicity, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 199-220.
Dixon, G, Gene, M, & Walter, N, 2008, Joint review of the enhanced cooperation program (ECP), Governments of Australia & Papua New Guinea: Canberra & Port Moresby, viewed 30 March, 2010, http://www.ausaid.gov.au/publications/pdf/ecp_final_report2008.pdf.
Threats to security are seen to come not only from external military aggression but also from a myriad of internal challenges -- separatist movements, social unrest, or the collapse of the political system." -- Anwar 2003,
With the international attention given to "military aggression," especially external military aggression, in recent years, it is easy to allow one's idea of was security means to become clouded with Hobbesian and Machiavellian notions of armed conflict, with "war on terror" images of military and intelligence operations hunting down terrorists, and with the debate on nuclear proliferation in developing (or underdeveloped) nations like Iran and North Korea. What these definitions of security lack, however, is a full understanding of the term; military operations and protection from terrorist attacks are most certainly important factors in a nation's security, however, they are far from being the total measure of peace and stability in a society.
Stockholm Initiative on Global Security and Governance, 1991. Common Responsibility in the 1990s. Stockholm: Prime Minister's Office.
Timothy, K., 2004. "Human Security Discourse at the United Nations," in Peace Review, 16(1), pp. 19-24.
United Nations Development Program, Human Development Report, 1994. http://hrd.undp.org/reports/global/1994/en/.
Confucianism is one of the major factors that influenced gender views and perception in traditional East Asia, particularly in relation to the treatment of women in these societies. Confucianism is primarily a teaching that was brought by Confucius, a philosopher, political figure, and educator. The teachings of Confucius formed the foundation of education in the traditional societies in East Asia, especially in China, Korea, and Japan. Confucius teachings affected many things in these societies including fixing gender roles between women and men. Based on these teachings, which influenced nearly every facet of life in the conventional Korean, Japanese and Chinese societies, placed women at a disadvantaged position. The teachings contributed to the development of a patriarchal environment in these societies, which worked to the disadvantaged of women. This paper examines how women exerted power and influence in a patriarchal environment in these three societies and what it teaches us about…
Spread of Islam in Africa and Asia Along Trade Routes
The Islam religion spread in Asia and Africa mainly due to trade of such goods as spices, gold, as also due to slaves. The advantages of proximity with the greatly profitable and powerful traders of the Islam religion triggered the conversions of merchants and rulers' into Muslims. Islam spread slowly; it took centuries, but in most places where the conversion took place, people still hold on to the religion (Debrouse). This paper explores the reasons of spread of Islam religion along Asian and African trade routes, particularly centering on the success of Islam in Middle Asia.
Early Trade Connections
Since the era of Muhammad, it has been believed that trade is closely related to the religion as well as its development. Inmecca, the people of the Qurayshtribe were leaders in business. They extended their connections and influence to Syria and…
opportunities in Asia (South East and South Asia) are huge and so are the challenges
For the last decade the countries like Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Hong Kong and South Korea that collectively forms the part of South East Asia have registered consistent growth year after year making an impressive position in the economic development on the international level (Pempel, 1999). These countries have shown the growth in terms of Gross Domestic Product at an average rate of 6% to 9% annually. The dawn of 1997 has darkened the glory of these courtiers with a major slump in the economic conditions and financial development. Asian financial crisis that erupted in 1997 has miserably affected the local stock market and currency market of the Asian countries. The Stock market of these countries had declined by 70% and with the same figure the currency of has also depreciated against dollar, forcing them…
Allen, F, & Gale, D 2000, 'Financial contagion', Journal of Political Economy, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 1 -- 33.
Brunnermeier, M 2009, ' Deciphering the liquidity and credit crunch 2007-2008', Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 77 -- 100.
Bulow, J, Geanakoplos, J, and Klemperer, P 1985, ' Multimarket oligopoly: strategic substitutes and strategic complements', Journal of Political Economy, vol. 93, pp. 488-511.
Burnside, C, Eichenbaum, M, & Rebelo, S 2008, 'Currency crisis models', New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd ed.
Such loans have been immersed by the government or sold to private investors. The lenders and borrowers were also stimulated by Governments with entering into negotiations to reformulate the existing debts or to implement necessary measures for foreclosure. The private investors also were seen to have obtained or infused their funds in banks or low potential borrowers. However, the strategy of adjustment is not finished. The shortage of capital is still being felt by some of the banks in the region that reduces their lending capacity. The poor performance and liquidity crisis confronted by heavily indebted borrowers also adversely affected the financial strategies. (Moreno, 5)
It has been observed that the financial strategies of East Asia in the past have resulted in fast growth rates and also safeguarded the interests of lenders and borrowers that discouraged the efforts for taking precautions against potential risks involved. The continuing measures for developing…
Denis, Hew. Introductory overview: rethinking the east Asian development model.
ASEAN Economic Bulletin. April, 2002. Volume: 14; No:1; pp: 56-60
East Asia, the Pacific, and the U.S.: an economic partnership. Department of State bulletin, April, 1989. pp: 6-10
Eberstadt, Nicholas. Asia tomorrow, gray and male - demographic trends in East Asia. The National Interest. Fall, 1998. Volume: 12: No: 1; pp: 32-37
China in the South China Sea
The geopolitical and economic consequences of China's occupation of the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea can perhaps best be measured the est's (or simply ashington's) response to China's move. As Durden notes, the South China Sea is not just important to China; it is important to ashington, too, which is accused of "militarizing the region" by the Chinese. But this is essentially what the U.S. is accusing China of, while Japan meanwhile claims that China is siphoning natural gas from its side of the "economic zone" (Durden). Thus, by building islands and runways in the Spratlys and expanding itself in the South China Sea, China is provoking a host of reactions from other nations (estern or estern-supported), indicating that there is a serious economic and geopolitical clash at hand over this issue. The main economic consequence coming from the U.S. will be…
Assange, Julian. "The Trans-Pacific Partnership: Secretive Deal Isn't about Trade, but Corporate Control." Democracy Now! Democracy Now, 27 May 2015. Web. 24 September 2015.
Butool, S. (2013). "Pakistani Responses to AfPak Policy Local Narratives and an Ending Global War?" Asian Survey, 53(6): 1005-1036.
"China's Maritime Disputes." Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign
Relations, n.d. Web. 24 September 2015.
The British Empire gained significant land share within North America through its conquests and emigration. From the founding of Jamestown to the growth of the greater New England region, the North American territories represented a significant portion of the British Empire. Following the Seven Years War, England won the entire territory of New France and doubled the territory possession within North America. Although from a trade perspective North America was not the furtive economic zone that Britain originally envisioned, it did become a several exporter of tobacco, cotton and rice to the British Empire, as well as naval material and furs from the northern region. The American Revolution affected the British Empire in several different ways, it proved to be a symbolic blow the largest empire of the European Continent, and it provided a model for liberation and freedom throughout the rest of the colonial territories. The American Revolution occurred…
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…
Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5
Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)
Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received
Gray highlight means writer found this source
This is because they are interested in increasing their overall bottom line numbers at all costs. While, their American counterparts want to see an increase in market share and address a host of social issues. As they believe that the community is playing a vital role in helping to support the organization and its success. This is significant, because it shows how American entrepreneurs want to offer everyone some kind of program that will help to address a host of problems affecting their communities. (Studwell)
A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than idu.com. What happened was the firm was established by Google based on a desire to rapidly expand into China. At first, Google was considered to be the dominant player in the industry. However, the Chinese government began to impose a host of restriction on what content was available. Reluctantly, the company agreed…
Jeffries, Ian. Political Developments in Contemporary Society. New York: Rutledge, 2010, Print.
Studwell, Joe. Asian Godfathers. London: Profile Books, 2007. Print.
Vietnamese people are generally polychromic, in particular with respect to privacy and family relations. They are high-context people who value and gather information about their world to be used later to guide behavior in different situations. Vietnam is a high power distance culture, where roles are formally defined and accepted. The have high uncertainly avoidance. For example, when meeting somebody they will first ask that person's age because age guides certain rules of etiquette. It would be awkward for a Vietnamese to not know somebody's age because they would be unsure of how to address that person or of that person's formal authority with respect to their own.
Vietnam is a masculine country as well (Nguyen & Hau, 2007). The people are ambitious, as the explosive growth of their economy indicates. They have clearly defined gender roles as well. Yet, they are a collectivist country. The family remains the strongest…
Where, he would portray himself as a staunch anti-communist that supported the ideas of liberty. Yet, when he had taken control of the country he immediately began to rule with an iron fist. This authoritarian rule and the way that Diem was able to single-handedly throw elections, would set the tone as to what kind of President he would be. Then, when you combine this with the fact that just 10% of the country was Catholic; and that the Catholics held a position of privilege in the country. Meant that the actions by Diem; would be seen as even more illegitimate by the people. This is especially troubling when the French had raised concerns about a rising uddhist threat, as 70% of the population was uddhist. These two elements allowed for the overall actions against the Diem government to increase during his reign as President. Where, both the North and…
South Vietnam -- DCI Briefing. GWU. 1963. 21 Feb. 2010
Carter, James. Inventing Vietnam: The United States and State Building 1954 -1968. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Jacobs, Seth. America's Miracle Man in Vietnam: Ngo Dinh Diem, Religion,
and U.S. Intervention in Southeast Asia. Durham, Duke University Press, 2005.
East Asia's economies began expanding through the exporting of low-value, labor-intensive goods such as textiles (Qin-Hilliard & Suarez-Orozco 2004).
There are several countries in Africa that have been globalized. Somalia is a prime example of an African nation that has many different factors that can and will result in the success or failure of globalization. On the one hand, there is a great deal of terrorist issues that arise out of the region that complicate the World's perception of Somalia and impedes its efforts to globalize. According to Bradshaw et al. (2004) Somalia was once governed by corrupt leadership from 1969 to 1990. After the fall of this government there were many insurrections which resulted in political and civil unrest. The United States attempted to aid in recapturing stability in the region but efforts failed and the United States withdrew troops in 1995 (Bradshaw et al. 2004). However, the…
Bradshaw M. White, G.W., Dymond J.P. (2004) Contemporary World Regional Geography: Global Connections. Local Voices McGraw Hill. New York, New York
Qin-Hilliard, D.B. And Suarez-Orozco, M.M.. (2004) Globalization: Culture and Education in the New Millennium. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA.
Saunders P.J. (2001) Why "Globalization" Didn't Rescue Russia. Policy Review. Page Number: 27.
International Political Economy of East Asia
As growth of the economy is something most governments in most developing countries would like to have, the interplay between the politics and economics of such growth-oriented policies becomes all-important.
The East Asian region is one of the most diversified regions in the world where neighboring countries can be so different economically, politically, and culturally that it is impossible to draw any common factors that can be used to explain the patterns of their lives or livelihood. One thing is quite common; however, most of the countries in East Asia gained their independence after the Second World War, and started to develop their countries in their own separate ways.
Despite all these adverse effects and undesirable consequences, the Second
World War combined with the intrusion of Japanese military power into Southeast
Asia had helped shatter both the mystique and the institutions of Western Colonialism.…
Yalta Convention marked the beginning of the Cold ar. Franklin Roosevelt inston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin met at the former palace of Czar Nicholas between February 4th and 11th, 1945. Before the end of orld ar II, the three world leaders had carved up the world. Germany and Poland were divided. The U.S. agreed to withdraw troops within two years, and Stalin agreed to hold free elections. Russia got land in Outer Mongolia and agreed to enter the Asian ar. Korea was split at the 38th Parallel.
Three months later, victory is declared in Europe and three months after that, Japan surrendered. Stalin declared war on Japan two days after the first nuclear bomb was dropped on Hiroshima and seven days before VJ Day. The Allies split Indochina into two zones, north and south of the 16th Parallel with the Chinese occupying the north and the British controlling the south.…
When Harry Truman became president, he and Stalin exchanged hostile words. Truman spoke of Communism being the greatest danger in the free world while Stalin declared that Communism and Capitalism were incompatible. In 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China.
Southeast Asia was as a major interest to the United States and they supported the French Colonialist government against the Communist North under Ho Chi Minh, and the British in Malaysia. Americans feared Communist expansion. Politicians used that fear to their advantage. Senator Joseph McCarthy announced that 57 Communists (or 205 or 81) worked in the State Department. That fear grew in 950 when Stalin and Mao, the Soviet Union and Peoples' Republic of China, signed a 30-year alliance.
By mid-1954, the French knew they had lost their hold on Indochina, and supported the Geneva Accord agreement to settle the Indochina War. Vietnam was to become an independent nation. Elections were to be held under international supervision. Until then, Vietnam would be split. Although the North was pressured by China and the Soviet Union to concede, the U.S. was firmly committed to a policy of sabotaging the Geneva Accords and trying to make South Vietnam an independent country. Foreign policy in Southeast Asia went from military training to direct intervention. American Involvement in Southeast Asia would be a tragic decision that would ultimately cost innumerable lives.
ASEAN-EU Regional Integration
Coordination between ASEAN and EU started in 1980 after the formulation of a cooperation agreement. The EU has twenty five member countries and engages in several multilateral trade cooperation and relations. The EU is influential because of its extensive economic cooperation with other regional organizations through trade agreements. It is also a central player in the world trade organization.
ASEAN is exemplary for demonstrating consistent excellence in improving and fostering peace, political stability and economic development among its member countries. Other strategies including regional integration have a central contribution towards the achievement of its ASEAN's vision 2020 (Das 139). ASEAN-EU Regional Integration, therefore, is of vast importance in enhancing development in Eastern Asia and Europe through trade.
Comparison between EU and ASEAN
The institutional orientation of the two, ASEAN and the EU, vary on grounds of their formation. Intergovernmental cooperation is the basis of the agreement among…
Cheritel, Meriem. ASEAN: AFTA and other Free Trade Agreements - Development and Impact on the International Automotive Industry. Munich, Germany: GRIN Verlag, 2006. Print.
Christoph, Marcinkowski., Chevallier-Govers, Constance and Harun, Ruhanas. Malaysia and the European Union: Perspectives for the Twenty-First Century. New Jersey, NJ: LIT Verlag Munster, 2011. Print.
Das, Sanchita. Achieving the ASEAN Economic Community 2015: Challenges for Member Countries & Business. Panjang, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2012. Print.
Doidge, Matthew. The European Union and Interregionalism: Patterns of Engagement. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2011. Print.
Social dynamics, meanwhile, look into the prevalent perception of JI's society and the international viewpoint on radical Islamism. Lastly, the political dynamics centers on the viewpoints supporting and opposing JI activities, specifically its linkage with Al-Qaeda.
Explicated earlier is the ultimate goal of JI in establishing itself as an Islamic militant group: to create an Islam-centered social order, starting specifically in Indonesia. Jones' (2005) analysis of the history of JI as a terrorist organization delved deeply into the events surrounding its early establishment in Indonesia, and its later development as one of the Muslim groups who subsisted to jihad to promote this main objective.
Jihad is an important concept in the lives of JI members, for this became the manner in which it succeeded in increasing its membership and strengthening its network of Muslim militant groups, both locally and internationally. Among the initial contacts that JI had in…
9/11." (2006). Foreign Policy, Issue 156.
Chehab, Z. (2006). "Al-Qaeda: Still a step ahead." New Statesman, Vol. 135, Issue 4799.
Jones, S. (2005). "The changing nature of Jemaah Islamiyah." Australian Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 59, Issue 2.
Kaplan, D. (2003). "The shadow over the summit." U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 135, Issue 13.
During the Eisenhower Administration, America underwent a number of radical changes in its political and social arenas, the most important being the rapid rise in consumerism which before Eisenhower was limited to the wealthy and those in the upper classes. When World War II ended, American factories began to manufacture a huge range of goods which were then purchased by average Americans for use in their homes and businesses. This immense increase quickly led to the creation of millions of jobs which allowed consumerism to climb to new heights, thus creating an economic boom for all Americans.
In the late 1950's, the Civil ights Movement became a powerful American entity, mostly due to the influence of the Brown v. The Board of Education decision by the Supreme Court which made school segregation illegal. After the passage of a bill by Congress which enforced the 14th and 15th amendments of the…
Lubell, Samuel. (1956). Revolt of the Moderates. New York: Random House.
Politics of Consensus." (2006). FAQFarm. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.faqfarm.com/Q/What_is_meant_by_the_term_political_consensus .
Schultz, Stanley K. (1999). "Dynamic Conservatism." American History 102. Internet. Retrieved at http://us.history.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture25.html.
While the investors preview at buying stocks, among the various other matters, they concentrate on 'price/earnings ratio'. Simple arithmetic proves that 1.2 billion people existing in China along with an yearly economic rate of growth of around 10% in the coming years, the enhance in the purchasing power will be of a great dimension which has not yet been visualized. In addition to this about 1 billion Indians and also in Southeast Asia of around 500 million people, and they far offset any enhancement in purchasing power of U.S.. This is specifically correct as an increasing middle class emerges which has a purchasing power which is very strong. A stock may indicate a traditional p/e of, about for example 15, however, if we make additions in the growth probabilities from Asian market, a much increased p/e does not seem to be impossible. While p/e is higher than the…
Personal Statement: Regarding My Future Pharmacy Career
Even a casual reader of today's newspapers will know that the modern drug industry has been subjected to increasingly rigorous scrutiny and litigation. In the current climate, it is easy to forget what it is like to live in a land where antibiotics are not a phone call to the doctor away, and research dollars for drug research are scarce, not the subject of a highly theoretical media debate about ethics. In the country I grew up, the rare sight of the face of a pharmacist was always a welcome one. I remain infused with my childhood faith, now grounded in study and experience, of the power of drugs to heal the human body, not to harm them.
As a young girl in Southeast Asia I suffered from acute bronchitis. I was profoundly grateful for the relief that pharmaceuticals could bring to my…
. This measure led to the creation of the country's financial power and allowed the peasantry to work in the urban sectors.
Therefore, the productivity growth, the great behavior of the workforce, the low salaries, the good education, and maybe most important of all, the hard work and social peace have lead to the occurrence of another Asian Tiger. "In the 80's, Taiwan had become an economic power with a mature and diversified economy, solid presence in international markets and huge Foreign exchange reserves." Its companies diversified their activities and started to export their products, especially in China and United States. The higher salaries, a better organization and the reduction of the exports quotas allowed these companies to move their production to China and Southeast Asia as well. The civil society started to fight for democracy, and the first step to adopt this regime was done through the arrival of…
Association of Southeast Asian Nations, at http://www.aseansec.org/64.htm
World Trade Organization, at http://www.wto.org/
The Taiwan Miracle, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiwan_Miracle
Both World War I and II were world events that left territories, countries, nations, and individuals exhausted from the effort and from loss. These wars proved ultimately ironic when the term "the war to end all wars" proved tragically inaccurate with the outbreak of World War II. In addition to the devastation, however, were significant changes, developments and effects on the world and its paradigms. Decolonization, for example proved to be one of the most important effects. Whereas colonization was a mainly European paradigm as means of transport and new discoveries enabled increasing voyages across the world, the World Wars created the ability of territories to become autonomous, searching for their own identity rather than identities that were associated with those of their colonizers. For Italy, World War II also held its own specific events and paradigm shifts as the country became a territory affected by war and…
This era is significant because it was dominated by peace at a local level, political constancy, and economic growth as a result of a dictatorship created by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The moment when he became shogun was very important in Ieyasu's life, as he was provided with the opportunity to commence a plan that he was thinking of long before he came to rule Japan. He sent many of his allies to rule over areas that he considered being potentially hostile in an attempt to have people there change their opinions regarding his personae. This individual was well-acquainted with the fact that control was one of the most effective tools that a leader could use and thus focused on having as much control as possible. Ieyasu's successor further continued his predecessor's system of gaining control over his people and influenced all of the Daimyos in Japan to live in Edo for…
Henshall, Kenneth, "A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower," (Palgrave Macmillan, 15.05.2012)
Lambert, Tim, "A BRIEF HISTORY of KOREA," Retrieved October 16, 2012, from the a World History Encyclopedia Website: http://www.localhistories.org/korea.html
Miles, Nancy, "Footbinding," Retrieved October 16, 2012, from the UCLA Website: http://www.international.ucla.edu/shenzhen/2002ncta/miles/index.htm
Seth, Michael J. "A Concise History of Korea: From the Neolithic Period Through the Nineteenth Century," (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006)
In histoy, in most of the Indian families, the inheitance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the yea 1956, the law in India has always teated females and males as equals in mattes of inheitance whee thee is no legal will witten. Cuently, Indians have become wise and ae using legal wills fo the inheitance and succession of popety. The usage of legal wills at of the yea 2004 stands at about 20%.
The ate of divoce in India is extemely low. It stands at 1% as compaed to 40% which is expeienced in the U.S. These statistics of divoce do not, howeve, give a complete pictue of the divoce situation in India. This is because many maiages that end up being split do so without a fomal divoce. Thee is a eseach gap in the scientific studies…
references. [Article]. Journal of Food Science, 69(4), SNQ191-SNQ192. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb06362.x
Johnson, H. (2007). 'Happy Diwali!' Performance, Multicultural Soundscapes and Intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand. [Article]. Ethnomusicology Forum, 16(1), 71-94. doi: 10.1080/17411910701276526
Kurien, P.A. (2006). Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian-Americans. Social Forces, 85(2), 723-741.
Mandair, a. (2007). Interdictions: Language, Religion & the (dis)Orders of Indian Identity. [Article]. Social Identities, 13(3), 337-361. doi: 10.1080/13504630701363978
Mintz, S.W., & Bois, C.M.D. (2002). The Anthropology of Food and Eating. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 2002 / Copyright © 2002 Annual Reviews), 99-119.
Low Cost Airline in Thailand
The Study on Improvement of Low Cost Airline in Thailand
Geography of Thailand
Nature of Airlines
Variables under Study
The Profitability of Low Cost Airlines in Thailand
Operating esults, Selected Airlines, Financial Year 1999
The Economies of Scale Attained By Airline Industry
Human esource Practices
The future of low cost Thailand Airlines
Contrasting Qualities of State Owned and Non-State Owned Airlines
The Study on Improvement of Low Cost Airline in Thailand
Thailand is a global source for customers seeking cheap labor or material inputs. The country is rich in natural resources -- tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, and timber being a few examples. The country is a major source for agricultural products1a.
Thailand also has an abundant supply of low-skilled labor with high participation rates in the workforce 86% for males and 67% for females in 1995. At the same time, the country…
Aharoni, Y. & Nachum, L. (Eds.). (2000). Globalization of Services: Some Implications for Theory and Practice. London: Routledge. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102764448
Alagappa, M. (Ed.). (1998). Material and Ideational Influences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=35541491
Asia Top Companies by Sales. (2000, June). Business Asia, 8, 38. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001764374
Beirman, D. (2003). Restoring Tourism Destinations in Crisis: A Strategic Marketing Approach / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102031189
Asian Economic Crisis
In the summer of 1997, an economic and currency crisis rocked the Asian markets. One by one, southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, Indonesia, Korea and Japan saw their economies crash in the wake of heavy foreign investment. An economic boom had made the region an attractive investment opportunity for much of the 1990s. y 1997, however, domestic production and development had stalled, and foreign investors grew nervous. A divestment run on the Thai baht triggered the crash. Large corporations, extremely dependent upon the confidence of foreign investors failed to meet debt obligations and began to fail throughout southeast Asia. Currencies throughout the region faltered and nosedived from their mid-1990s positions of stability. The causes of the Asian economic crisis are varied. Lax oversight of corporations had ramifications in economic downturns that were not a concern in the mid-90s boom. Macroeconomic policies of the southeast Asian countries…
Chronology of the Asian Currency Crisis.(n.d.). Retrieved July 1, 2004 from Web site: http://www.stern.nyu.edu/globalmacro/AsiaChronology1.html
Corsetti, G., Peneti, P., & Roubini, N. (1998). What caused the Asian currency and Financial crisis? Part I: A macroeconomic overview. Downloaded June 26, 2004 from Stern School of Business, NYU, Web site: http://www.stern.nyu.edu/globalmacro/asiacri1.pdf
Khor, M. (2000). The economic crisis in East Asia: Causes, effects, lessons. Downloaded June 28, 2004 from World Bank. Web site: http://www.worldbank.org/poverty / wdrpoverty/malaysia/khor.pdf
Lee, Y-S. (1998). A political economy analysis of the Korean economic crisis. Journai of Asian Economics, Vol. 9, No. 4, 627-636.
Countries in ASEAN have virtually started to justify human rights violations through claiming that they support Asian values by doing so.
People in ASEAN feel that they will risk breaking off economic growth if they reform their systems in accordance with human rights. ASEAN leaders are unwilling to recognize human rights as being universal, considering that human rights as devised by estern countries are different from what ASEAN understands through human rights.
Apparently, ASEAN believes that "the economic, social, and political rights in the region are improving, while in Europe and North America, their democratic systems are rendered ineffective due to an overemphasis on individual rights" (Manan). Numerous people in ASEAN consider that the est's attempt to have them accept human rights convention is an example of its reluctance to recognize East Asia as a world centre.
In their struggle to refrain from having to have anything to do with…
1. Manan, Wan A. "A Nation in Distress: Human Rights, Authoritarianism, and Asian Values in Malaysia," SOJOURN: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 14, no. 2 (1999): 359.
2. Mohamad, Maznah "Towards a Human Rights Regime in Southeast Asia: Charting the Course of State Commitment," Contemporary Southeast Asia 24, no. 2 (2002)
3. Sheng, Lijun "China-ASEAN Free Trade Area: Origins, Developments and Strategic Motivations," Retrieved August 21, 2010, from the Institute of South East Asian Studies, Singapore Website: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/ipsi12003.pdf
Maznah Mohamad, "Towards a Human Rights Regime in Southeast Asia: Charting the Course of State Commitment," Contemporary Southeast Asia 24, no. 2 (2002)
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…
Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088
Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53424557
Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691923
Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691822
In this regard, Francis adds that, "The determining factor will be ASEAN's ability to provide the leadership necessary to create a strong, independent East Asian Union" (Francis, p. 77). In addition, Bowles (2002) notes that the ongoing efforts to create improved Asia/Pacific regional cooperation are fundamentally efforts intended to balance the influence of the United States on the region and the world in general.
4. What are the main hypotheses of the work?
The guiding hypotheses of the proposed study are as follows:
H1: Encouraging China to participate in as a coalition leader in an East Asian Union in the future would serve to ensure that the price it would have to pay in terms of loss of trade and investment if it acts against the interests of the union's other members would be prohibitively high.
H2: Former Cold War alliances will be replaced by new ones in the future…
Bowles, Paul. 2002. "Asia's post-crisis regionalism: Bringing the state back in, keeping the (United) States out," in Review of International Political Economy (London) 9(2): 244- 270.
Francis, N. 2006. For an East Asian Union: Rethinking Asia's Cold War alliances. Harvard International Review 28(3): 76-77.
Gowan, P. 2003, July-August. "U.S. Hegemony Today." Monthly Review 55(3): 30-31.
Gratton, C., & Jones, Ian. 2003. Research Methods for Sport Studies. New York: Routledge.
Greater integration of global economies and capital flow has also become more and more prevalent. Weiss states, "The post-war trend towards greater trade integration, especially marked since the 1960s has been weakening." (Weiss, 1997, pp. 7). Greater integration was, at one time thought to be a boon for developing nations. This was certainly not the case for Thailand as an example, and this premise needs to be completely rethought in order to more adequately allow nations to successfully develop individually. Integration was the core of the old model of globalization, but more and more, economists and scholars are arguing for a nation-centric view of economic growth, one where the nation sets the economic parameters because they quite obviously know their own limitations and strengths better than outsiders; and they know how to grow their own economy in ways that are beneficial to the local population and local investors (Cook…
Athreye, Suma and John Cantwell. (2007). "Creating Competition? Globalization and the Emergence of New Technology Producers." Research Policy Vol. 36, No. 2. pp. 209-226.
Boyer, Robert. And Daniel Drache. (1998). States Against Markets: The Limits of Globalization. Routledge: New York, NY.
Cook, Paul and Colin Kirkpatrick. (1997). "Globalization, Regionalization, and Third World Development." Regional Studies Vol. 31, No. 1. pp. 55-66.
Feenstra, Robert C. And Gordon H. Hanson. (1996). "Globalization, Outsourcing, and Wage Inequality." The American Economic Review, Vol. 86, No. 2, Papers and Proceedings of the Hundredth and Eighth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association San Francisco, CA, January 5-7, 1996 (May, 1996), pp. 240-245.
In this regard, Meyers concludes that, "As for Flory, environment has been too much for him, for he is not really alcoholic or crapulous by nature, and he regrets it when a girl from England arrives to stay at Kyauktada; she is a poverty-stricken little snob on the look-out for a husband, but he has not seen a spinster for a decade, and he succumbs on the spot whereupon his discarded Burmese mistress makes a scene in front of her and every one else, and he ends by committing suicide" (Meyers 52). hile it may seem that Flory simply got what he deserved given his wishy-washy nature and lack of fortitude when it came to standing up for his friend, Dr. Veraswami when put to the test, but the suicide of the protagonist provides a useful literary vehicle whereby Orwell advances the plot and highlights just how shallow the friendship…
Aung-Thwin, Maitrii. 2003, "Brave Men of the Hills: Resistance and Rebellion in Burma, 1824-
1932." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 34(2): 376-377.
Brunsdale, Mitzi M. Student Companion to George Orwell. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press,
39 It was against this background that ASEAN Foreign Ministers during their retreat at Cebu in the Philippines in April 2005 decided to lay down three main criteria for the membership of the EAS: 1. Substantive relations with ASEAN; 2. Full Dialogue Partner status; and 3. Accession to the ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Co-operation. The Foreign Minister of Singapore had stated that, India obviously qualifies on all three counts and it will be included in the first EAS. e hope that Australia and New Zealand which have not acceded to the TAC, will agree to the TAC in the coming months (Battese & Coelli, 1992-page 18). If so, we would welcome them to the EAS in Kuala Lumpur. The Minister further added that ASEAN alone will decide the future members of all subsequent summits and ?this is to ensure that ASEAN remains in the driver's seat of the EAS…
Anderson, Kym; Bernard Hoekman; and Anna Strutt. 1999. "Agriculture and the WTO: Next Steps." Revised version of a paper presented at the Second Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis, Avernaes Conference Centre, Helnaes, Denmark, June 20-22, 1999.
Barshefsky, Charlene. 1999. Press briefing at the WTO Ministerial Conference, Seattle, WA.
Bhagwati, Jagdish. 1999. "Globalization: The Question of Appropriate Governance." Sang-don Suh prize-acceptance speech, Taegu. Republic of Korea, October 7, 1999
Birdsall, Nancy, and Robert Z. Lawrence. 1999. "Deep Integration and Trade Agreements: Good for Developing Countries?" In Kaul, Grunberg, and Stern, ed., Global Public Goods, 128-51.
S. For its weapons sales to Taiwan. (Janbo)
It must also be noted that China's Naval expansion is a departure from what many experts conjectured in the recent past. Like many before, Lee Lai To commented just a few years ago that China, regardless of its even then obvious desire to expand its naval might would be very unlikely to challenge the U.S. In any significant way. To argues that:
"U.S. military deterrence and U.S. interests -- particularly with regard to maintaining the security of the sea-lanes and forward deployment of the U.S. military in the Asia-Pacific region, including the South China Sea area -- have made and will continue to make China extremely cautious about engaging in actions that might draw Washington into the South China Sea disputes. (To 26)" (Wong)
To was also quick to note that up to the time of his research and work in 2003…
"China tells U.S. that'd. China Sea is 'core interest' in new policy." Associated Press 3 July 2010: http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=D9GNI5600&show_article=1 .
"Gates on China: Speaking the truth makes the Pacific a safer place." Wals Street Journal Opinion 6 June 2010: http://online.wsj.com/article/NA_WSJ_PUB:SB10001424052748704183204575289743788180892.html .
Janbo, Jian. "China Takes New Tack in Maritime Diplomacy ." Asia Times Online 14 July 2010: http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/LG14Ad01.html.
Kate, Daniel Ten. "U.S. Criticism of China's Military May Overshadow Asian Security Meeting." Bloomberg 15 July 2010: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-07-15/u-s-criticism-of-china-s-military-may-overshadow-asian-security-meeting.html .
The Japanese government has a onstitution created in 1947. It is founded on three principles, respect for fundamental human rights, sovereignty of the people, and renunciation of war. There are also three branches of the government. The legislative or Diet, executive or cabinet, and judicial or courts.
The highest organ of state power, the Diet, is Japan's national parliament. They are the singular law-making organ of the states. There are 480 seats in the House of Representatives, 242 seats in the House of ouncillors, all a part of the Diet. Furthermore, all Japanese citizens, once they are 20, can vote in election.
Diet members elect not a president, but a prime minister from amongst the group. The cabinet, from where the prime minster leads, is responsible to the Diet. Things like currency are run by the Diet. On page 21 of hoi's book, he explains the connection between the…
Cummings, William K, and Philip G. Altbach. The Challenge Of Eastern Asian Education. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997.
Wade, Robert. Governing The Market. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004.
Walter, Lynn. Women's Rights. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001.
Expatriate Education for Thailand
Access your site's tools and features through your member area. You can login any time by going to http://thailand-intranet.50megs.com/cgi-bin/login and using the username and password below. Check back often for ideas, updates, and new features.
Developing an Effective International SBU Intranet-based Employee Manual Outline and Intranet Listing for Thailand
The average cost of sending an employee and his or her family on an overseas assignment is between three and five times the employee's predeparture salary; consequently, it is important for these expatriate employees to be prepared for their assignment to the maximum extent possible (Sims, 2002). While there are a number of strategic approaches available to assist in the planning and management of international human resources, an intranet would be a particularly useful vehicle to assist XYZ Import and Export Company's ("XYZ") expatriate employees become familiar with their new country of assignment, in this case Thailand…
Ashbaugh, S., & Miranda, R. (2002) Technology for human resources management: Seven questions and answers. Public Personnel Management, 31(1), 7.
Askew, M. (1997). Thai images: The culture of the public world. SOJOURN: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia, 14, 37.
Creating communities. (2005). [Online]. phpBB Open Source. [Online]. Available:
ship called the MV Sun Sea carrying 490 asylum seekers from Sri Lanka, was intercepted off the B.C. coast. The arrival of these Tamil migrants sparked a controversy as to how Canada should receive Tamil and other potential refugees fleeing Southeast Asia. On one side of the controversy, Canadian officials voiced concern that the migrants could be criminals and terrorists, and should not be allowed to enter Canadian borders. On the other hand, these accusations could have been utterly baseless, originally espoused by the Sri Lankan government for the purpose of deflecting international attention from their human rights abuses. Indeed, screenings of 76 Tamil migrants who arrived from Sri Lanka in October 2009 revealed that all were eligible to claim political refugee status, despite rumors that they might have had criminal ties. The recent debate regarding whether to accept the Tamil migrants on the MV Sun Sea was reminiscent of…
Human rights organizations have reported that in spite of official denials throughout the 1980s through the present, the government has initiated political killings, abductions, and armed clashes with the Tamils. Currently, the UN is investigating thousands of unresolved disappearances of innocent civilians there. The separatist resistance group, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), which formed in opposition to government repression, have also violated human rights and engaged in terrorist acts, mostly within Sri Lankan territory. Nonetheless, it is dangerous and irresponsible for the Canadian government and media to espouse speculative rhetoric that Tamil migrants are terrorist or have links to al-Qaeda.
Like the Tamils of Sri Lanka, the Ghadar was an organization founded by Punjabi Indians in Canada with the aim to liberate India from oppressive British colonial rule. The movement began with a group of immigrants who settled in Canada. It is important to note that migrants and migrants from Southeast Asia have been an integral part of Canada's culture and history for over a century, although they have faced long-standing resentment and prejudice from our white majority. For example, around the time of the 1914 arrival of the Komagata Maru at Vancouver, which carried Indians escaping the oppression of British colonial rule, British Columbia passed stringent laws discouraging Indians from immigrating to Canada. Indians were also denied the right to vote, prohibited to run for public office, serve on juries, and were not permitted to become professionals. Many race-based laws were enacted against Japanese and Chinese nationalities, who were also immigrating in large numbers to abandon challenging circumstances at home. At the same time, however, massive numbers of white European immigrants were welcomed into Canada. White Canadians seemed to specifically fear that darker-skinned people would take their jobs, a fear that may remain today.
However, there is one example of white refugees who were refused entrance into Canada pursuant to anti-Semitic fear in the years leading up to World War II. Approximately 900 German Jews fleeing persecution on 1939 the ship, St. Louis, were forced to return to Europe, where most of the passengers were later killed in Nazi concentration camps.
Rise of China
THE POWER OF NUMERS - AND OF ARMS
China, a Growing Threat in Southeast Asia?
The appearance or reality of peace, stability and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region in the 1990s may be drawn from the popular compliance of the countries to the provisions of an agreement (Shuja 1999). This was the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, signed in 1968 and becoming effective in 1970, by the countries or States. Their number increased to 176. They agreed to give up the use of nuclear power for military purposes. Africa, Argentina, razil, Romania and Algeria were examples of such countries. ut this image of peace and unity in the region was shattered and vanished when India and Pakistan conducted nuclear tests in May 1998. India and Pakistan had a long-time feud and the tests sent the message to the rest in the region that the protagonists could be preparing…
Bernier, J. And Gold, S (2003). China's Closing Window of Opportunity. 20 pages. Naval War College Review: U.S. Naval War College
Bremmer, I. (2005). The Dragon Awakens. 7 pages. The National Interest: The National Interest, Inc.
Gearan, A (2006). China Asks for Calm Amid Signs It Is Cracking Down on North Korea. 2 pages. Deseret News (Salt Lake City): Deseret News Publishing Company
Kyodo News. (2005). Taiwan's Chen Presses for arms Purchase in National Day Speech. 2 pages. Asian Political News: Kyodo News International, Inc.
Japan be seen as a Model for Understanding of 'Asian Modernities'
This is an essay which explores the reasons behind the perception of the west which regards Japan as a model of Asian Modernities'. It has 5 sources.
Gender studies have revealed that men and women think differently, and both are confused about each others thoughts. Perhaps such a dichotomy does exist between the western world and the Asian world. As the era of globalization marches forward it has become a necessity for the west to expand its knowledge and understanding of the east. Such an understanding is not only important for global trade but is also important for peace and stability between the nations of the world. Understanding and the search for common objectives would not have been possible if Japan had not surprised the world with its rapid development and prosperity during the years after World War II.…
Koizumi, Junichiro. Message of Prime Minister of Japan Junichiro Koizumi
Commemorating ASEAN-Japan Exchange Year 2003. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved at http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/asia-paci/asean/year2003/message-1.html .
Nakasone, Yasuhiro (1986). The New Asia Pacific Era. Britannica Book of the Year 1986. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. (1986).
wartime responses and subjective feelings of interned Japanese-Americans to demand that they prove their loyalty to the United States? n answering, this question relies primarily upon the novel, No-no Boy, the relevant class lectures, and the video "Conscience and the Constitution."
The novel No-No boy has a different approach on the suburbia issue one closer to the look of an outsider in contrast to internal entrapment feelings of Yates. The novel talks about chiro who comes out of jail feeling confused and insecure about his place in post war settings. He did not serve the war, and his survival serves as a commentary as a non-white American living around suburban America. He leaves in the city, and all he wants is to be part of the American Dream taking place around him. For some reason, he does not fit in and spends the rest of the time persecuting and blaming…
In many Asian and pacific parts, the Japanese personnel carried out acts of cannibalism against the allied war prisoners. Most of this case were as a result of increasing allied attacks on the supply lines of the Japanese and the death of the Japanese personnel due to hunger. However, according to Yuki Tanaka, cannibalism was a systematic activity that the whole squad carried out under the officer's command. This would frequently involve murder for securing bodies. For example, Chandi Ram an Indian POW testified on 12 November 1944 that the Kempeitai beheaded an allied pilot and some Japanese soldiers would carry flesh from his legs, arms, buttocks off to their quarters. The Japanese soldiers would select a prisoner every day, take him out then kill and eat him. The court convicted Lt Gen Yoshio Tachibana along with other 11 Japanese workforce on charges of executing U.S. navy airmen and cannibalism in August 1946 in the Island of Bonin.
The Japanese military had brothels where they would abduct women and put them there for sexual slavery. These brothels were not commercial as the soldiers used force, implicit and explicit to recruit women. What took place in these brothels was serial rape and not prostitution. Yasuji Keneko a veteran soldier admitted to the Washington post that women would cry, but it did not matter to the soldiers since they were the emperor's soldiers. They raped the women without reluctance whether in villages or military brothels. There were sources that reported that members of the Tokeitai would arrest women on the streets after forced medical examinations and put them in military brothels. A journalist Kaijimura Taichiro announced on 12 may 2007, the finding of Netherland government documents given to the Tokyo court as verification of incidences of forced massed prostitution in 1944, in Magelang.
Questions On World Regional Geography
Generally speaking, African colonies during the colonial period were seen as expensive liabilities by the great European powers, especially in relation to trading concessions. Toward the end of the 19th century, the attitudes of these powers altered as rival industrial nations like Great Britain, Germany, France and Belgium, attempted to locate and develop overseas markets for their goods. In 1885, the Berlin Conference was convened to resolve conflicts of interest in Africa by allotting areas of exploitation to these colonial powers. As a result, the so-called "scramble for Africa" began in which these powers sought to establish their "rightful" claims to vast expanses of land.
When this conference was convened, most of Africa was under colonial control and was subsequently broken up into numerous states, made up of some fifty separate countries with very irregular geographical boundaries. One major problem linked to this break-up…
The reason why, is because China is reliant on the economic relationship with countries such as the U.S. This is due to the fact that the U.S. has higher levels of personal income and household wealth. Evidence of this can be seen by comparing personal income statistics in the two countries (which is in the below table). (Allard, 2011)
Table 3: Personal Income in the U.S. versus China
("China," 2011) ("United States," 2011)
These figures are significant, because they are showing how the U.S. has higher levels of personal income. This means that China is dependent upon selling their products in the U.S. markets. If there was a rapid disruption in trade, this could have an adverse impact on China's personal income levels. As a result, these facts must be used to show to China how…
At the same time, it will help to identify what issues will shape the future of air passenger transportation in Asia.
he introduction of LCCs in the North American and European markets started a trend that is beginning to unfold in Asia (with the birth of Asian-based LCCs). Part of this is in response to the increases in passenger traffic and the effects of globalization. However, there have been similar airlines in the past, which have tried and failed using the same kinds of business models. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than, Oasis Hong Kong. his was a low cost carrier that attempted to enter the medium to long haul leisure / business travel market between Hong Kong and London Gatwick. he problem was that they were no match for the FSCs, which offered: more flights and greater flexibility. his is…
This information is useful, because it can highlight some of the different challenges facing the industry. Where, these different factors could affect the profitability of many carriers and the fares / services that they are providing to consumers. This can be used in conjunction with the results of the surveys; to see how the overall cost structure is having an impact upon both Thai Asia Air and Thai Airways. Once this takes place, it could provide a more complete picture, as to how these different challenges are affecting the industry and what could be the possible impact in the future.
Moreover, Gluckman (2007) discussed on the impact that Air Asia has had upon the industry. Where, their low costs and no frills have helped the company to be able to redefine the sector. The reason why is because Air Asia has a very low labor cost structure in comparison with the traditional airlines. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the fact that their labor costs typically account for 17% of the total operating expenses for the company. While the industry average is 30% to 40%, of the total operating expenses that normal airlines must pay. At the same time, the company will fly to airports that are less congested (which have lower landing fees) and they fly reconditioned aircraft. The results of these actions were that Air Asia would redefine the industry by showing how low cost structures, could allow an airline to be competitive. The problem is that the labor costs of Air Asia are some of the lowest in the world. When you compare this to other low costs carriers in markets such as North America or Europe, this is just of fraction of what the LCCs are paying. Over the course of time, as incomes continue to increase, the cost of labour will rise towards the industry average. This is significant, because it shows how Air Asia has identified ways that it can compete over the short to medium term. However, over the long-term is when the airline will face the possibility of having it business model go through severe challenges, as it will not be able to maintain these low costs indefinably.
This information is important, because it shows how Air Asia and many of the other LCCs are able to remain competitive. As their overall labour costs, are significantly lower than any
To avoid repeating negative historical experiences, regulatory regimes need to block the control and domination by networks/platforms. In the report, "Infrastructure and Development: A Critical Appraisal of the Macro Level Literature," Stephane Straub (2007) reported that at times, in some developing companies, "the hope of getting a fixed-line installed is a distant and costly dream" (p. 4). Meantime, the primary option for the individuals waiting for fixed-line telecommunications services would likely be having to us a much too expensive cell phone.
In 2010, much of the fixed-line telecom industry faces growing threats from cable and wireless service competitors.
As the writer of the quote introducing the study section pointed out, more firms are realizing "a cellular wireless solution" generally provides "more stability than the usual wired connections… [and serves as] a valuable asset built for the long haul" ("Lincolnshire Drainage Board…," 2010, ¶ 9). In the book, Integration in Asia…
Ahmadnezhad, E. (2009). Research Design Mixed Methods. PPt; Tehran University of Medical
Sciences. Retrieved February 22, 2010 from www.pitt.edu/~super4/36011
Campbell, D.J. & Craig, T. (2005). Organisations and the business environment. Oxford, UK:
There are four hypotheses about this:
Some industries are more productive and create more high-wage jobs.
Some industries are faster growing and contribute more to economic growth.
Some industries do more to improve productivity in other sectors. High investment in dynamic industries accelerates growth."
The following chart labeled Chart 1.0 shows the respective shares (%) of Exports in China compared to the U.S., China compared to Japan, the U.S. compared to China and the U.S. compared to Japan:
In the event that the growth rate of the economies of the East Asian countries slow what is unlikely to disappear is the increasing dependence on economics terms that exists between the U.S., Japan, and East Asia, inclusive of the country of China. This type of reliance or interdependence expresses a sense of vulnerability between the countries which should be taken as a caution in actions, regulations, or other interactions…
Ellington, Lucien (1995) "Japan's Economy: 21st Century Challenges" Japan Digest National Clearinghouse for United States-Japan Studies 1995 May Online available at: [ http://www.indiana.edu/~japan/digest8.pdf ]
Howe, Christopher (1996) Development and Technology in Asia from 1540 to the Pacific War Online available at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1038/is_n5_v39/ai_18736471 Business Horizons Sept.-Oct 1996.
Howe, Christopher (1996) Development and Technology in Asia From 1540 to the Pacific War. Business Horizons Sept.-Oct, 1996 Online available at: [http://www.findarticlescom/p/articles/mi_m1038/is_n5_v39/ai_18736471]
Japan (2005) ABC Asia Pacific Australian Broadcasting Network Online available at http://abcasiapacific.com/news/profiles/JAPAN_to.htm
In fact, local businesses closest to the protests sites were hit hardest, with very little occupancy rates during the period of tension. Even worse, the research reports that "more than 70 charter flights hauling tourists from China" were canceled (Horn 2010).
Yet, more recent political stability has once again begun to calm the nerves of potential visitors. Thus reports are claiming that "If Thailand can maintain political stability, the tourism industry will be one of the major sources of income for the country for the next three years," (Karnjanatawe 2011). The recent stability has corresponded with a continual growth in Thai tourism seen within the 2011-year. Despite even the setbacks of the SAS crisis and the Iraq war in 2003, visitor arrivals had rebounded by 2004 and have continued to remain strong (APEC, 2004). Additionally, global economic trends, mainly the recession much of the world has been experiencing, had kept…
Department of Tourism. (2011). Tourist arrivals in Thailand. Statistics. Web. http://tourism.go.th/2010/th/statistic/tourism.php?cid=30
ETN. (2011). Double-digit tourism growth for Asia and Pacific in 2010. Tourism Statistics. Global Travel Industry News. Web. http://www.eturbonews.com/21278/double-digit-tourism-growth-asia-and-pacific-2010
Horn, Robert. (2010). Thailand tourism devastated by political unrest. Time Magazine. Web. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1982555,00.html
Karnjanatawe, Karnjana. (2011). Record number of arrivals expected. Bangkok Post. Web. http://www.bangkokpost.com/travel/news/252872/record-number-of-arrivals-expected
The Senkaku Islands in the South China Sea have become a warm zone, with China and Japan in particular engaged in military exercises in the region. The United States is another major player, offering full support to Japan including sending military vessels to the disputed area and threatening response should China try to seize the islands from Japan (McCurry & Branigan, 2014). The Senkaku Islands are presently uninhabited, but have been under Japanese administration since the U.S. returned them to Japan in 1972. The history of the islands is basically a convoluted legal dispute. China has old maps with the islands on them and assumes that meant they were under legal Chinese control. The islands were ceded to Japan officially at the end of the Sino-Japanese War in 1895 as part of Taiwan. Taiwan was technically returned to China after WWII, but the islands remained under U.S. administration…
Beavis, Jerry. (2014). The IR theory knowledge base. IR Theory. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.irtheory.com/know.htm
Holmes, Jason. (2014). China might actually seize Japan's southern islands. Foreign Policy. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2014/04/08/china_might_actually_seize_japan_s_southern_islands
Kirshner, John. (2012). The tragedy of offensive realism: Classical realism and the rise of China. European Journal of International Relations. Vol. 18 (1) March 2012 53-75.
McCurry, Justin & Branigan, Tania. (2014). Obama says U.S. will defend Japan in island dispute with China. The Guardian. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/24/obama-in-japan-backs-status-quo-in-island-dispute-with-china
' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…
Berlin, D.L. 2006 "India in the Indian Ocean." Naval War College Review 59(2): 58-59.
Chollett, D. & Lindberg, T. 2007 "A Moral Core for U.S. Foreign Policy." Policy Review 146: 3-
Davis, C.B. & Rill, L.A. 2008 "Testing the Second Level of Agenda Setting: Effects of News
The sexually explicit imagery that they witnessed on TV led young Indians to express more need in sexuality. Eventually, whole regions in India had been reported of suffering as a result of young people watching TV and becoming sexually active at a much smaller age. The Kerala province in India is only one of the several areas that have had their people falling victims to the western culture depicted on satellite TV. (Lukose, Ritty 2005)
A characteristic that people fail from seeing when examining globalization is that it allows concepts to become known worldwide. Perhaps certain issues relating to globalization are actually good, and, perhaps people accept globalization because it presents new and helpful theories.
In spite of the fact that Indians generally communicate to the rest of the world through English, they communicate to their neighboring countries through Hindi. People in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal all need to know…
1. Fursich Elfriede, Shrikhande Seema. "Development Broadcasting in India and Beyond: Redefining an Old Mandate in an Age of Media Globalization." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 51, 2007.
2. Ganguly-Scrase, Ruchira. "Paradoxes of Globalization, Liberalization, and Gender Equality: The Worldviews of the Lower Middle Class in West Bengal, India." Gender and Society, Vol. 17, No. 4 (Aug., 2003).
3. Hopper, Paul. (2007). "Understanding cultural globalization." Polity.
4. Lukose, Ritty. "Consuming Globalization: Youth and Gender in Kerala, India." Journal of Social History, Vol. 38, 2005.
globalization increased and standards of living around the world went up and with the expansion of industrialization in many less developed countries around the world, the demands of the automotive industry around the world increased significantly. This resulted in a worldwide boom in the international automotive sector with many individual countries entering the global automotive market as potential producers. As a result, the international competition in the automotive sector grew more aggressive over a period of time.
The sharp increase in international competition in the automotive industry during the recent years and the fact that automotives are not a 'Fast Moving Consumer Good' made, the countries involve in automotive production realized the growing need to stay competitive. The need to maintain an absolute competitive advantage and constant innovation, research and development was inevitable. Moreover, the international automotive industry was dominated by a handful of big players of the likes of…
Abbott, J.P. (2003). Developmentalism and Dependency in Southeast Asia: The Case of the Automotive Industry. New York: Routledge. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108343360
Amrina, E., & Yusof, S.M. (2010). Manufacturing Performance Evaluation Tool for Malaysian Automotive Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. International Journal of Business and Management Science, 3(2), 195+. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5052752860
Hyun, J.H. (2008). A Comparative Analysis of Transplants and Industrial Location of Japanese and Korean Automotive Industries in Europe. International Journal of Business, 13(3), 215+. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045029782
Kohpaiboon, A., Kulthanavit, P., Vijitnopparat, P., & Soonthornchawakan, N. (2010). Global Recession, Labour Market Adjustment and International Production Networks: Evidence from the Thai Automotive Industry. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 27(1), 98+. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5044271159
The world is fast becoming a global village. Today, unlike was the case a few decades ago, regional boundaries that hindered mutually beneficial relations between countries no longer exist. It is with this in mind that I seek to further enhance my knowledge of contemporary international issues -- with my key interests being China and other Asian countries. I believe that the Master's degree in International Area Studies (Asia), for which I am seeking admission, will not only immerse, but also enrich me in both the language and culture of China and the entire region. It would be important to note, at this point, that given the considerable period I have spent away from my home country (as will be pointed out elsewhere in this text), I believe I already have a well developed and unique perspective of world culture which I will makes use of as a…
Repatriation of profits have proven to be a problem as well. Fourth, as stated by Staff (2004) is the challenge presented by poor training in the sector which is stated to be "...weak both at a practical level as well as at a higher strategic level" and the problem has only been exaggerated due to the government and other regulatory authorities in China to promote logistics programs." (Staff, 2004) the fifth challenge stated is in relation to "information and communications technology" in China characterized by a: "...lack of it standards and poor systems integration and equipment. At a very basic level, the consistent supply of energy is also problematic leading to interruptions to communications through power outage." (Staff, 2004) Sixth presenting in the way of a challenge is the "undeveloped domestic industry" due to fragmentation of the logistics sector in China that is: "...dominated by commoditized and low quality transport…
Brown, Lester R. And Halweil, Brian (1998) China's Water Shortage Could Shake World Grain Markets. Worldwatch Institute 22 April 1998. Online available at http://www.worldwatch.org/node/1621.
China Logistics (2006) the Meridian Group. Hong Kong. Online available at http://www.meridiangrouphk.com/en/china_logistics/
Colby, Hunger; Diao, Xinshen, and Somwaru, Agapi (1999) Cross-Comodity Analysis of China's Grain Sector: Sources of Growth and Supply Response. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Market and Trade Economics Division. Technical Bulletin No. 1884.
Country Profile: China (2006) Library of Congress - Federal Research Division. August 2006. Online available at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/China.pdf .
(owland, 1953, p. 204) (Hallisey, 2003, p. 696)
The Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] Chronicle (Mah-mvam-sa)) is primarily a history of Buddhism in Ceylon though it gives reliable information on political history. It is perhaps unjust to maintain that India had no sense of history whatever, but what interest she had in her own past was generally concentrated on the fabulous kings of a legendary golden age, rather than the great empires which had risen and fallen in historical times. (Basham, 1954, p. 44)
Literature and art reflected the lives of the ruling class along side those historical narratives of Buddha, as can be seen in the first example. Medieval revivals also attempted to rejoin these depictions through restorative works that demanded the attention of many to the idea of a foreign king effectively expressing the Sinhalese culture. (Holt, 1996, p. 41) the tradition is long standing in the region and…
Basham, a.L. (1954). III History: Ancient and MedievalEmpires. In the Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent before the Coming of the Muslims (pp. 44-78). New York: Grove Press. Retrieved May 13, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6357327
Basham, a.L. (1954). The Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent before the Coming of the Muslims. New York: Grove Press.
This work demonstrates the historical context of the region, in relation to faith and art as well as the political. It demonstrates the modern emphasis on rediscovering treasures of ancient and modern faiths.
The tale of Chibana Shoichi's, the Okinawan supermarket owner, demonstrates how there is still a major segment of society that believes in the "emperor system," even in Okinawa. However, Field exposes how these people have been forced to conform with this system, though social pressure, threats, and even violence. But despite these obstacles, there are still people like Shoichi who will speak out against this system and its historical amnesia. However, this fight has only just begun and not all those who stand up against the system are successful. Mrs. Nakaya was unsuccessful in her attempt to stop the government from using her husband to reinforce a system that she felt was unjust and restricted her religious beliefs. The response by the government signifies how deeply ingrained into Japanese society is the "emperor system," and how many Japanese, including the Japanese Supreme Court, see no differentiation between tradition Shinto-based emperor…
Field, Norma. In the Realm of a Dying Emperor. New York: Pantheon, 1991. Print.