Space Race Essays (Examples)

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History of US Space Program

Words: 2217 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86230318

Space Program

hen the Soviets successfully launched Sputnik I, the first ever artificial satellite, in orbit on October 4, 1957, the event took the Americans and the entire western world by surprise. Sputnik I was just a 2-foot sphere with nothing more than two tiny radio transmitters on it, but the symbolic significance of the event -- the implication that Communist Russia had taken a significant technological lead over the United States was a massive blow to the American nation's pride. It signaled the start of the Cold ar space-race between the two major super powers of the time and developed into a race for putting the first man on the moon that culminated in the historic "giant leap for mankind" on July 20, 1969 when Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. This paper focuses on the history of the U.S. Space Program, the role…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chaikan, Andrew. "Space Exploration." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003

Ezell, Clinton E. And Linda Neuman Ezell. "The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project." NASA Special Publication-4209,1978 Chapter 1: The Space Race Competition vs. Cooperation: 1959-1962. April 21, 2004  http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4209/ch1-4.htm 

History of the Space Programme." Scenta Website. March 16, 2004. April 21, 2004. http://www.scenta.co.uk/news/viewFeature.cfm?ciid=207&iCurrSubSection=2

Koman, Rita G. "Man on the Moon: The U.S. Space Program as a Cold War Maneuver." Organization of American Historians. Reprinted from the OAH Magazine of History
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Race and U S Imperialism

Words: 2072 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34720254

Race and U.S. Imperialism

When analyzing European imperialism (particularly that which occurred within the United States) it is crucial to note the role that race played in it. There is evidence that indicates that at one point, race itself became more of a factor in the justification of imperialism and the institutions which facilitated it and engendered its success than even religion did. Race was principally used to account for a difference in the peoples that Europeans encountered during their imperialist forays into the so-called 'New World'. The crucial aspect about race, as was the case with religion, is that it was used to place a value judgment on those that Europeans encountered. Not only were the Africans (used as slaves) and the indigenous Native Americans encountered throughout North and South America lacking in technologically savvy, socially distinct in dress and tradition, and decidedly pagan when compared to the virtuous…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adas, Michael. 1998. "Imperialism and Colonialism in Comparative Perspective." The International History Review, Vol. 20, No. 2 (Jun., 1998), pp. 371-388.

Blackhawk, Ned. 2006. Violence over the land: Indians and empires in the early American West. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Rifkin, Mark. 2009. Manifesting America: the imperial construction of U.S. national space. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Silver, Peter Rhoads. 2008. Our savage neighbors: how Indian war transformed early America. New York: W.W. Norton.
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Race in My Community of

Words: 1631 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60141517

But the limited growth policies that have remained popular with the Council (and a majority of the citizens, it would seem) have also kept the price of real estate high. Davis maintains the necessary amount of low-income housing, but many of the occupants are entry level workers at the town's biggest employer -- the University. These people tend to have college degrees and are -- you guessed it -- predominantly white with a large proportion of Asians as well. There simply is not enough space to fill the demand in Davis, and this has caused quite a premium in the cost of owning or even renting real estate in the city.

There is another gesture of economic favoritism that speaks even more tellingly about the unconscious racialization of Davis. The housing development that has occurred in the past twenty years saw the creation of two enormous semi-gated communities with generally…… [Read More]

References

City of Davis. "Who's who on the City Council." Accessed 13 April 2009. http://cityofdavis.org/cmo/whoswho.cfm

FactFinder. "U.S. Census Bureau Statistics." Accessed 13 April 2009. http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en

U.S. Census Data. "City of Davis, California, 2000." Accessed 13 April 2009.  http://davis.areaconnect.com/statistics.htm
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Race Critical Theories Text and

Words: 1044 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19941767

Essed notes the profound perceived threat to power experienced by those in the majority feel when even small encroachments are made by other groups into the dominant fabric of society, and how tacit racism against minorities is often allowed even by those who might not consider themselves prejudiced on an interactional and personal level (184). In short, the institutional racism of society inevitably affects interpersonal relations, even amongst people who do not harbor what we might think of as hatred in their hearts. Racism for Essed is an ideological social construct, a powerful social and philosophical method of enforcement that affects how 'people' see the world, and also the mechanisms of the justice system (185). Racist images and practices become an invisible and accepted part of daily life, and are unquestioned, thus it is not enough to simply change one's individual mind (190). Her essay, though it seems overly focused…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Philomena Essed & David Theo Goldberg, Ed.

Blackwell, 2002.
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Race Critical Theory Race Critical

Words: 1035 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38389166

hile that line of thinking is seductive, because it suggests an easy solution for complex problems, like racism; est believes that the real solutions will require people to question their own fundamental assumptions about power and its relationship to racism. Specifically, est talks about how racism is inherently linked to classification, and, in fact, that "the genealogy of racism in the modern est is inseparable from the appearance of the classificatory category of race in natural history," and then traces the history of race as a classification.

hile est cautions others against oversimplification, he appears to engage in oversimplification himself. He discusses race from a purely estern perspective, as if racial distinction was merely the result of estern race classification. However, by the time that Francois Bernier first formally used race as a classification in 1684, there was already a thriving and well-established slave-trade practice, which was at least partially…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barker, Martin. "The Problems with Racism." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds.

Philomena Essed and David Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2001. 80-89.

Bhabha, Homi. "Of Mimicry and Man: The Ambivalence of Colonial Discourse." Race Critical

Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2001. 113-122.
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Race and Ethnic Relations History

Words: 2599 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28621843

Sooner than expected, the place became populated with variation of races - natives and whites.

The place, now called as the New Brooklyn has the following characteristics (Hampson, 2003 pp 14):

Big area which can accommodate more or less 100,000 residents

The population is fast growing, with a 110% growth rate

The populace are racially and ethnically diverse

These characteristics of the area provided positive and negative impact to the people living in it. First, the hugeness of the face offers more housing and business spaces for the people. This would of course ensure that every family will have a place to own. In the same manner, this will also ensure that a number of employment opportunities will be opened to the public. However the hugeness of the place could also mean that there are more issues that people could fight about. The populace can fight about land ownership. Unhealthy…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dakst, D. "New Americans Fresh off the Presses," the NY Times Washington Street Journal, Pp 3-11, Spring 2003.

Gonzales, D. "At 40-year Bronx Beach Party, Who Needs Sand?" NY Times, pp 17-19

Hampson, R. "New Brooklyn's Replace White Suburbs," USA Today, pp 14-16, 19 May 2003.

Kinzie S. "Conflicting Images of Amish Life," the Washington Post, pp 9-10, 28 July 2004.
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Race Relations Colonial Race Relations in the

Words: 853 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84820442

ace elations

Colonial ace elations

In the American colonial period, people believed that it was wrong for any racial mixing to take place, and there were also taboos associated with some ethnic mixes. The first case, racial mixing is termed "miscegenation," and the second is called "creolization." Miscegenation was a special problem as it concerned the mixing of whites and blacks, but there was some concern when those of Asian ancestry and Native Americans mixed with whites also (Gudmundson). White males coupling with Native American females was actually somewhat common among trappers and others who traveled to remote areas in the vast American forests, but among the more civilized people along the eastern seaboard, it was anathema. Creolization, in the other hand, was common among the many ethnicities that peopled Europe, but it was still considered a weakening from the purity which was the English stock (Brown). This essay discusses…… [Read More]

References

Besson, Jean. "Euro-Creole, Afro-Creole, Meso-Creole: Creolization and Ethnic Identity in West Central Jamaica." In A Pepper Pot of Cultures: Aspects of Creolization in the Caribbean, Gordon Collier & Ulrich Fleischmann, Eds. New York: Editions Rodopi, 2003. Web.

Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race and Power in Colonial Virginia. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina University Press, 1996. Print.

Gudmundson, Lowell. "Slavery and Abolition." A Journal of Comparative Studies 5.1 (1984). Print.
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Race and Reunion

Words: 1833 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73001280

ace and eunion

Briefly describe each of the three visions

Vision one: The reconciliationist vision -- this vision had its roots in the "process of dealing with the dead from so many battlefields, prisons, and hospitals," the author writes on page 2; and it also developed in ways prior to the process of econstruction; people were weary of war, and many Americans longed for a time of forgiving, in the Christian sense; vision two: The white supremacist vision -- this vision was manifest through terror, violence, and its legacy promotes a memory of the Civil War aftermath as one of segregation on southern terms; those of white supremacist / racist leanings would never consider giving in to a Constitutional mandate to allow all blacks freedom, the vote, and other equal rights; vision three: The emancipationist vision -- this includes much of what African-Americans remember about gaining their freedom, it also…… [Read More]

References

Blight, David W. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. Cambridge,

Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2001.

Wilson, Clyde. "War, reconstruction, and the end of the old republic." Society 33.6

(1996): 68-75.
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Race Relations and Racism Is

Words: 1907 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8730280



Improving Race Relations Through Education: Teaching Children Diversity

An article in the journal Childhood Today (Swiniarski, 2006) offers numerous helpful and resourceful ideas for teaching children about how to become "citizens of the world." This is not a strategy that specifically teaches about "racism" or "racial prejudice"; but according to the author, teaching children about the responsibilities of being "a world citizen" in fact embraces (in a hands-on environment) the issues of multiculturalism.

Swiniarski asserts that her program ("Global Education") - if implemented properly - affords children (and their families) an opportunity to "learn about their planet, its people, and habitats." Moreover, Global Education (GE) teaches children to "respect the beliefs of others," to "contribute ideas," and to "share a sense of belonging in a climate that is safe, accepting of one another, and inclusive of diverse cultures." The GE classroom respects all cultures and avoids stereotypes ("...not all children…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bernasconi, Robert. Race and Racism in Continental Philosophy. Bloomington, Indiana:

Indiana University Press, 2003.

Feagin, Joe R., & Feagin, Clairece Booher. Racial and Ethnic Relations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:

Prentice Hall, 1993.
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Race Personal Educational Experiences and Reflection Race

Words: 1770 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22986816

ace: Personal Educational Experiences and eflection

ace was seldom discussed explicitly during my early, grammar school education. When the topic of race was broached, it was usually in the context of a lesson on the Civil War or Civil ights movement. Although such discussions were valuable, they gave the impression that race was something located in America's past, rather than worthy of discussion in the present. However, this did not mean that I was not cognizant of race as a child. I was, but the topic was often unspoken of in school, except on the rare occasions when teachers brought it to the forefront of the attention of the class -- usually in a manner that suggested that the struggle for freedom had been won.

I was fortunate to have parents who always stressed that all people were equal, regardless of how they looked. While they did not give me…… [Read More]

References

Kozol, Jonathan. (2005). The shame of the nation: the restoration of apartheid schooling in America. New York: Crown.

Tatum, Beverly Daniel. (2003). Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?

New York: Basic Books.

Lewis, Amanda E. (2003). Race in the schoolyard: Negotiating the color line in classrooms and communities. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
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Race the Problems of Race & the

Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67570269

ace

The Problems of ace & the Myths of Urban Poverty

ace is a social construct. There is exists very little genetic difference among the various "races" of humans on Earth. This construct is central to many, and perhaps even most people on our planet. ace is a physical difference that draws clearly defined boundaries between people. ace can be the inspiration for war. ace is hardly an inspiration for peace, unfortunately. This paper will briefly examine situations when race has been used to hurt and subordinate others. This paper will reference examples of groups of people that are systematically via the social realms and institutions who suffer due to their race, an aspect over which they had no choice or say. Drawing from the series, The Wire, and a few readings, the paper will propose what the myths of urban poverty are, who are the authors of such myths,…… [Read More]

References:

Dreier, P. And J. Atlas. 2009. The Wire - Bush-Era Fable About America's Urban Poor. City & Community, 8: 329-340.

Edin, K. And K. Harris. 1998. Getting Off and Staying Off: Racial Differences in the Work Route off Welfare. Pages 270-301: Latinas and African-American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality, New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Newman, K. 2001. Hard Times on 125th Street: Harlem's Poor Confront Welfare Reform. American Anthropologist, 103(3): 762-778.
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Race and Class as the

Words: 598 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60479406

Although there are potential social costs associated with linking race or ethnic background with genetics, we believe that these potential costs are outweighed by the benefits in terms of diagnosis and research. Ignoring racial and ethnic differences in medicine and biomedical research will not make them disappear. ather than ignoring these differences, scientists should continue to use them as starting points for further research. Only by focusing attention on these issues can we hope to understand better the variations among racial and ethnic groups in the prevalence and severity of diseases and in responses to treatment (1174)

The second is that race is often used as a proxy for class.

And, the third category is what Kawachi, Daniels and obinson argue is the most defensible, that race and class are two separate issues, and should be treated as such.

However, as Daniels and Schulz bring to light, research documentation examining…… [Read More]

References

Cooper, R., Kauffman, J., & Ward, R. "Race and Genomics" New England Journal of Medicine vol (issue) 30 Mar 2003: 1166-1175.

Daniels, J. & Shulz, a. "Constructing Whiteness in Health Disparities Research." In Title of Book. Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.

Kawachi, I. & Daniels, N., Robinson, D. "Race Disparities by Race and Class: Why Both Matter." Health Affairs vol (issue) Mar/Apr 2003: 342-351.
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Race Gender and Class the

Words: 2170 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15664707

Specifically reported by Coy is that the "recent launch of a black Disney princess may be an indicator of greater cultural diversity, but in terms of the 'girl power' values it carries the view that it is 'a great step . . . [and] could help black children see themselves more positively' (Adesioye, 2009) fails to address how it will reinforce messages of sexualization for black girls." (2009) to excel in the music industry, it is expected and even required that women become sexualized because this is a primary point of the success realized in the music industry as the music industry is highly sexualized overall. A study reported in the work of Stankiewitz and osselli (2008) states that the study examined the way that women were depicted in 1,988 advertisements "from popular U.S. magazines." The advertisements were coded in relation to whether women were presented as sex objects of…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2010). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from:  http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/girls/report-full.pdf 

Coy, M. (2009) Milkshakes, Lady Lumps, and Growing Up to Want Boobies: How the Finlay, a. (2013) Hyper-sexualizing Women Leads to Self-Objectification -- More Destructive and Prevalent than Society Admits

Liang, E. (2011) the Media's Sexualization of Female Athletes: A Bad Call for the modern Game. Vol. 3 No. 10. Retrieved from:  http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/587/the-medias-sexualization-of-female-athletes-a-bad-call-for-the-modern-game 

Naubert, R. (2011) Media's Growing Sexualization of Women. Psych Central. Retrieved from:  http://psychcentral.com/news/2011/08/11/medias-growing-sexualization-of-women/28539.html
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Race Ethnic Relations Book Comparison

Words: 1759 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38850394

In Kingston's more feminine rendering of identity, although she resists the ideals of silence and sexual repression, she accepts the idea that women have more permeable boundaries of selfhood and stronger ties to their family in the telling of her text.

Both works point to the inexorability of the past, especially for individuals of ethnic or racial minorities who consider themselves 'other.' Obama is 'other' because of his multiethnic heritage that alienates him from parents as well as friends, and because of the Americanness that separates him from his father. Kingston sees herself as Chinese, but female in a culture as well as a nation that mistrusts this aspect of a woman's self. Both make claims to how their lives speak for other lives -- Obama explicitly with his overly political narration, and his determination to use his struggle as fuel for success as an advocate of community enfranchisement, Kingston…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kingston, Hong Maxine. The Woman Warrior. Vintage, 1989

Obama, Barak. Dreams from my Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance.

Three Rivers Press, 2004.
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Race and Class in U S

Words: 1572 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56422366

In other case the motive was rooted first in ideological assumption -- and that assumption was that ASP superiority was a given.

The issue of race and class finally came to a head as America continued its expansion westward. But the issue was political as well: hat right did the Federal Government have over State Government to say whether slavery should be abolished? ho was really in power in America -- the States and local government -- or federal national government? The Civil ar, of course, answered the question brutally and bloodily in 1865. But racism and classism did not end. In fact, the problems of race and class would continue even after the war for as long as American policy was determined by ASP elitism. That policy has not changed to this day.

In conclusion, issues of race and class were ingrained into the American fabric from the very…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Horsman, Reginald. Race and Manifest Destiny: the Origins of American Racial Anglo-

Saxonism. Harvard University Press, 1981. Print.
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Race Genetics

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58844915

ace and Genetics

On the surface, race seems like a legitimate way of categorizing human beings. Physical characteristics are passed down from parent to child, thereby recreating racial markers. However, the concept of race is generally rooted in ignorance. ace is an ephemeral construction, and genetic science is proving this to be so. If race were real, then there would be ways of tracing different races back to a few ancestors: such as an ancestral Polynesian, ancestral African, and ancestral Jew. As it stands, though, all human beings trace ancestry to the same basic gene pool from humanoid ancestors in Africa. This one fact alone is sufficient to debunk the concept that race "exists," or is a form of biological determinism. There are other reasons to believe that race is not as real as was once thought. ace is not real, and the reasons are rooted in genetic science, anthropology,…… [Read More]

References

Adelman, L. (2003). Race and gene studies: what differences make a difference? Retrieved online:  http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-01-02.htm 

Entine, J. (2012). Jews Are a 'Race,' Genes Reveal. The Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved online: http://forward.com/articles/155742/jews-are-a-race-genes-reveal/?p=all
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Race to the Top Is

Words: 1384 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27110459

Standardized tests are only able to measure correct multiple choice answers. They cannot measure a child's creativity, their ability to problem solve, or their ability to critically evaluate information.

The culture of achievement that has accompanied the push for higher test scores has had severe physical and psychological effects on students. Taylor (2010) claims that academic stress is the greatest source of stress faced by school-aged children. He notes that many high school and college students have turned to performance-enhancing drugs such as Adderall and italin to help them concentrate. Finally, he claims that teen suicide rates have risen drastically in recent years, particularly among girls. In summary, the ever-increasing push for higher test scores has created an academic culture where stressed out students and frustrated teachers are the norm, and where very little authentic learning actually takes place. ace to the Top's push for even higher test scores may…… [Read More]

References

Barkley, K. (2010, February 18). Officials wary of possible strings attached to race to the top initiative. Cumberland Times News. Retrieved February 19, 2010 from http://www.times-news.com/local/local_story_049230436.html

Dillon, Sam. (2009, April 14). Education Standards Likely to See Toughening. New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/15/education/15educ.html?_r=1

Fact Sheet: The Race to the Top. (2009, November 4). The White House: Office of the Press Secretary. Retrieved February 19, 2010 from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/fact-sheet-race-top

Hamilton, J. (2009, November 12). U.S. Department of Education Opens Race to the Top Competition. Press Release. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from http://www2.ed.gov/news/pressreleases/2009/11/11122009.html
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Race IQ and Intelligence in

Words: 2609 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83843279

2001 1. Then, they could sort taxonomically. In other words, one man's 'smart' is another man's 'dopey', concepts that have little to do with the "intelligence" IQ tests are designed to measure. This is certainly, as well, a clear indication of how completely IQ tests are based in a narrow range of cultural norms. Indeed, they could be viewed as impoverished measures for failing to account for the values, intellectual and otherwise, of any society except the well-defined, homogenized and 'unjuicy' western society that invented the tests. Sternberg et al. concluded that, regarding IQ tests, "scores from tests used in cultures or subcultures other than those for which the tests were specifically created are suspect, and probably of doubtful validity in many if not most cases (2001 1).

What about race?

The myths about race and IQ go back a long way, to a time before IQ tests. Philosophers Hume,…… [Read More]

References

Keita, L. (1999). Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 23(1), 65. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Reeve, C.L. (2002). Race and Intelligence: Separating Science from Myth. Personnel Psychology, 55(3), 778+. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Schlinger, H.D. (2003). The Myth of Intelligence. The Psychological Record, 53(1), 15+. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Sternberg, R.J., Grigorenko, E.L., & Bundy, D.A. (2001). The Predictive Value of IQ. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 47(1), 1. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
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Race and Gender

Words: 1208 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12965633

ace and Gender

Sociological Principles/Perspectives of ace

ace is the physical difference that various cultures and groups think are socially different. Principles of sociology seek to establish how ethnicity and race are constructed socially; including how each individual identifies with them. Sociology principles explain that interaction at the social level forms the cornerstone for societal interaction. The way of interaction with others demonstrates people's beliefs and what they hold as valuable as members of a group. Behavior patterns show social relationships that are unequal. These are the elements that trigger ethnicity and racial issues. The issues overlap with elements of yet another principle. For instance, social relationships that are unequal are connected to what people see as true about each other as both individuals and as members of social groups. People frequently generate beliefs about others around them; which often comprise of discrimination and prejudice.

USA constitutes people from various…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Brague, J. A. (2011, October 21). Elderly stereotypes. Retrieved September 26, 2016, from Applied Social Psychology:  http://www.personal.psu.edu/bfr3/blogs/applied_social_psychology/2011/10/elderly-stereotypes.html 

Hegewisch, A., & Dumonthier, A. (2016). Pay Equity & Discrimination. Retrieved September 26, 2016, from Institute for Women's Policy Research: http://www.iwpr.org/initiatives/pay-equity-and-discrimination/#about

Randall, V. R. (2010, October 3). Why Race Matters? Retrieved October 3, 2016, from University of Dayton:  https://academic.udayton.edu/health/03access/data.htm 

Perez, A. D., & Hirschmann, C. (2009). The Changing Racial and Ethnic Composition of the U.S. Population: Emerging American Identities: Vol 35, Issue 1, 1-51. Retrieved from  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2882688/
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Race Class & Gender Color-Blind

Words: 1805 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32893564

For example, one of the interesting points that grabbed my attention was Dill's discussion of gender relations among African slaves. Slave men and women had a more egalitarian relationship than free white men and women. That is because slave men did not possess the power and authority of free men. So, power is inherently corrupting? At least, this is what Dill's description of gender relations in antebellum America suggest.

I wish, as a professor of sociology, Dill could have made more direct relations with the present (describing history just for the sake of history is the job of historians). I also wish, she could have allotted as much space to the story of Chinese-Americans that she does to White, African-American, and Chicano families. But I still admired this essay because it powerfully tells how society often subjects women to double or triple burdens. In colonial and antebellum America, the society…… [Read More]

References

Andersen, M.L, & Collins, P.H. (2010) Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology, 7th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
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Race and Southern Identities of

Words: 836 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66457504

In this sense, Jansson makes clear reference when defining the term "internal orientalism." Despite the fact that such terms have been further discussed in previous studies, the author brings a different stand on the term and offers it a new dimension when combined with the term "the other" and psychogeography. Therefore, his aim is to further discuss not necessarily the role and meaning of internal orientalism but also to undergo an analysis of the factors that may influence them and may determine different outcomes of the debate.

Aside from the academic background and the information received from previous studies, Jansson also makes use of the interview technique in order to have a better sense of the realities on the ground for the areas under analysis. More precisely, the interviews undertaken for the study include members of the "Southern" nationalist organization League of the South, and with African-Americans in the Lynchburg,…… [Read More]

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Race and Poverty Journal Introduction

Words: 6115 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15335842



Reactions

The apparent point here is that land traditionally belonging to native tribes will be used to mine in the interest of the developed world. It makes me feel both sad and powerless. I do not have all the information, but stories like this always make me feel that those with the greatest physical, technological, or financial power, or all three, tend to have more power than even those with the right to a certain piece of land or way of living.

The second point confirms the previous observation, that the consistent support of those in power has resulted in the approval of the project without any regard for the rights of those who have possessed the land for far longer. Again, this gives me a sense of powerlessness when faced with decisions by politicians who have only their own interest at heart.

This is far longer than the mere…… [Read More]

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Race Schools Queens New York Is

Words: 2539 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68375028

If students are misbehaving, they are not engaged in their lessons. Behavior management is, unfortunately, a priority focus at Springfield Gardens, to the detriment of instruction. This is the point that the three interviewees continued to stress. None of them blamed the teachers for failing to engage students; the fault, as they see it, lies squarely with the students whose families apparently do not place a high value on education. The students, as Gordon, Benton and Johnson see it, are products of the culture in which their parents live.

The three frequently compared and contrasted the students of today with students of generations past. Students in "the good old days" did not misbehave the way students do "these days." That point was made clear, particularly in interviews with Benton and Gordon. Benton recalled a childhood outside the United States where school, he implied, was much more rigorous. It would appear…… [Read More]

References

Bali, V.A., & Alvarez, R.M. (2003). Schools and educational outcomes: What causes the "race gap" in student test scores? Social Science Quarterly 84 (3)

Biddle, R. (March 7, 2011). The condemnation of black children to dropout factories must end. Dropout Nation. Retrieved from http://dropoutnation.net/2011/03/07/condemnation-black-children/

Lewis, a.E. (2001). There is no race in the schoolyard: Color-blind ideology in an (almost)

all-white school. American Educational Research Journal 38 (4), 781-811.
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Air Space and Cyberspace Power Studies

Words: 1863 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35094856

Air, Space, And Cyber Space Security

Air, Space, and Cyberspace Power Studies

"Since the birth of military aviation, airmen have claimed that airpower offered a new approach to warfare. Even in the earliest days of aviation, airpower's range of action, its ability to react and refocus quick across a wide area without having to consider the terrain or access, and its inherent above -- the surface perspective all pointed to a new era in warfare" ("AFDD 1, Air Force asic Doctrine"). Within the military, the United States air force has a great strength and makes a considerable contribution to the well-being and safety of citizens of the United States. As society progresses into a new technology age, where computers no longer take up entire rooms but can fit in the palm of our hands, the USAF must also change with the times. How is the air force going to keep…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"AFDD 1, Air Force Basic Doctrine." 2003.www.dtic.mil/doctrine_jel/service_pubs_afdd1.pdf (accessed August 22, 2011).

Boyne, Walter J. Air Warfare: An International Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2002.

Daniel, Lisa. "New Strategy Shows Importance of Space Domain, Lynn Says." February 16, 2011.http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=62844 (accessed August 22, 2011).

Hess, Bill. "Senior officer stresses growing importance of cyber ecurity." June 12, 2011.http://www.svherald.com/content/news/2011/06/12/senior-officer-stresses-growing-importance-cyber-security (accessed August 22, 2011).
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Race and Revolution by Gary

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44168933

He adds a complete set of notes and references used at the end of each chapter in addition to the nineteen complete documents he includes at the end of the book. He completed exhaustive research, so his ideas are not simply based on speculation; they are well thought out and thoroughly investigated. He uses a combination of books, articles, letters, memoirs, and other written documents to ensure he has a broad cross section of historical documents as evidence for his conclusions, as well.

This is an interesting look at a part of history that many other historians do not discuss. He offers valid arguments for his position, backed up with much research and historical evaluation. The fact that the founding fathers called all men equal, but failed to abolish slavery has always been a perplexing question in my own mind. This book helps answer that question once and for all.…… [Read More]

References

Nash, Gary B. (1990). Race and revolution. Madison, WI: Madison House Publishers.
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Developing Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism

Words: 3364 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90105340

Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism

Developing Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism

Today, certain individuals in the developing countries could be viewing "space tourism" as vocabulary. Nonetheless, in the developed countries, this term is turning to be more familiar and gradually becoming a holiday experience for world Forbes. This is an expensive venture that is exciting, stunning, adventurous, and relatively remains the least exploited phenomena in the world history. Since the first "space tour" in 2001, the rich stamps their foot on a fact that wherever they can go, the poor cannot manage to go, and what the poor can do, they can do best. Over the past few decades, the general perception about space tourism has been changing yearly. History reveals that this perception considered space tourism as a "science fiction." However, this term currently gains recognition and is becoming the most important grand target for the growing…… [Read More]

References

Ashford, D.M. (1984). Space tourism: Key to the universe? Journal of Spaceflight, 26(4), 123-

Bono, P. (1973). The reusable booster paradox: Aircraft technology or operations? Journal of Space Flight, 9(3), 379-387.

Broz, T.A. (1985). NASA administrator rules out shuttle for space tourism. Commerce on Space Tourism, 9(8), 68-77.

Gerard, M. & Jefferson, P. (1998). International cooperation in space: New government and industry relationships. Journal of Space Exploration, 9(5), 27-39.
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Racism Race Ethnicity in the 18th

Words: 2842 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92022289

Black people have to work as hired household help or as farm labor while white people own the economic resources of production. Gordimer's mother had a black maid and it is likely that this made her sensitive to the inequality between the two communities (Gordimer et al. 1990).

On the other hand, What it's Like to be a Black Girl explores the psychological pressure and turmoil that a young black girl living in an urban society has to go through. Her identity is shaped by her consciousness of her physical appearance and how different it is from the white-skinned acceptable norm of society. She also has to deal with her developing sexuality and the responses that elicits from people in her community. The poem shows how the young black girl has to accept her fate as a passive sexual being to satisfy the needs of the male.

Compared with Thebedi,…… [Read More]

References in Black Women's Narratives of Apartheid Racism. South African Journal of Psychology, Vol. 40 (4), pp. 414-431. Accessed on 10 May 2012 from EBSCOhost database
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Chicago Race Riot 1919 Racial

Words: 2376 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31719455



Unemployment was still very high given the return of so many from the war and the immigration levels of all races. The need for gainful employment and equitable housing was contentious among all the races, but was of coarse most heated amongst the newcomers, who had relatively little social and political connections to ensure their employment or housing opportunity.

Within the events of the riot there are several important moments, the beginning of the riot being the foremost. The event was a reflection of the overall feelings of the time and in many ways can be seen as the pinnacle of a tense and diseases social state.

On unday July 27, riot came to Chicago. All morning, groups of whites and blacks had been vying for territory between the 26th and 29th treet beaches. Unofficially segregated, the turf broke along racial lines. A group of black teenagers, who had transgresses…… [Read More]

Stephen W. Grable "Racial Violence within the Context of Community History." Pg. 276.

C.K. Doreski, "Chicago, Race, and the Rhetoric of the 1919 Riot." Pg. 298.

C.K. Doreski, "Chicago, Race, and the Rhetoric of the 1919 Riot." Pg. 300.
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Gordimer's Country Lovers Issues of Race and

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94441737

Gordimer's Country Lovers

Issues of race and gender have been considered to be popular subjects in literature and allow individuals to express how these issues have affected them and how they have affected society. "Country Lovers" (1975), by Nadine Gordimer, allows the reader to understand how issues of race and gender are universal. Gordimer also uses "Country Lovers" as a platform to show how these issues impacted her personally and the lasting effect that they have on people living in South Africa, where she was born and raised. "Country Lovers" (1975) analyzes how racial discrimination and gender influence how the story's female protagonist, Thebedi, is treated.

Despite the fact that Gordimer herself is not involved in politics, "her writings document, decade by decade, the impact of politics on personal lives and what an increasingly radical white South African woman felt, thought, and imaged during the rise and fall of apartheid"…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bazin, N.T. And Gordimer, N. (1995). An interview with Nadine Gordimer. Contemporary Literature. 36.1 (Winter), pp. 571-587. JSTOR. Accessed 30 October 2012.

The History of Apartheid in South Africa. (n.d.) Stanford University. Accessed 30 October 2012,

from  http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/apartheid.hist.html 

Gordimer, N. (1975). Country Lovers.
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Controversy of Race in Criminology

Words: 2005 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47370848

There is a great level of disparity and disproportionality in today's criminal justice system and as noted in this work in writing, this is likely the greatest challenge facing professionals in the contemporary criminal justice system and in the criminal justice system in the near future. It is critically important that this disparity and disproportionality be addressed due to the negative and adverse impacts that result from an overzealous imprisonment of individuals from minority racial and ethnic groups in the United States.

ibliography

Harrison, Paige M. And eck, Allen J. (2006). Prisoners in 2005. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice in: Garland, rett E., Spohn, Cassia, and Wodahl, Eric J. (2008). Racial Disproportionality in the American Prison Population: Using the lumstein Method to address the Critical Race and Justice Issue of the 21st Century. Justice Policy Journal. Vol.5, No.2, Fall 2008. Online available at: http://www.cjcj.org/files/racial_disproportionality.pdf

Spohn, Cassia C. (2000). Thirty…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Harrison, Paige M. And Beck, Allen J. (2006). Prisoners in 2005. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice in: Garland, Brett E., Spohn, Cassia, and Wodahl, Eric J. (2008). Racial Disproportionality in the American Prison Population: Using the Blumstein Method to address the Critical Race and Justice Issue of the 21st Century. Justice Policy Journal. Vol.5, No.2, Fall 2008. Online available at: http://www.cjcj.org/files/racial_disproportionality.pdf

Spohn, Cassia C. (2000). Thirty Years of Sentencing Reform: The Quest for a Racially Neutral Sentencing Process. In Garland, Brett E., Spohn, Cassia, and Wodahl, Eric J. (2008). Racial Disproportionality in the American Prison Population: Using the Blumstein Method to address the Critical Race and Justice Issue of the 21st Century. Justice Policy Journal. Vol.5, No.2, Fall 2008. Online available at: http://www.cjcj.org/files/racial_disproportionality.pdf

Mauer, Marc (2002). Mass Imprisonment and the Disappearing Voters. in. Garland, Brett E., Spohn, Cassia, and Wodahl, Eric J. (2008). Racial Disproportionality in the American Prison Population: Using the Blumstein Method to address the Critical Race and Justice Issue of the 21st Century. Justice Policy Journal. Vol.5, No.2, Fall 2008. Online available at: http://www.cjcj.org/files/racial_disproportionality.pdf

Blumstein, Alfred (1982). On the Racial Disproportionality of the United States' Prison Populations. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 73, pp. 1259-1281 in: Garland, Brett E., Spohn, Cassia, and Wodahl, Eric J. (2008). Racial Disproportionality in the American Prison Population: Using the Blumstein Method to address the Critical Race and Justice Issue of the 21st Century. Justice Policy Journal. Vol.5, No.2, Fall 2008. Online available at: http://www.cjcj.org/files/racial_disproportionality.pdf
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Gender and Race in Gordimer and Smith

Words: 1473 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51201453

Gender and Race in Gordimer and Smith

In "Country Lovers" and "What It's Like to be a Black Girl (For Those of You Who Aren't)," Nadine Gordimer and Patricia Smith, respectively, demonstrate that issues of race and ethnicity are issues that are devoid of space and time. Gordimer focuses on the impact that apartheid has on Thebedi, a young, black girl, in South Africa, whereas Smith focuses on how American society has shaped her perception of herself due to a long history of racial discrimination. Both Gordimer's story and Smith's poem allow the reader to see how society shapes perceptions of others and perceptions of oneself based on race and ethnicity.

Gordimer has first-hand experience on the effects of apartheid as she grew up in South Africa and witnessed how people were discriminated against based upon the color of their skin. In South Africa, apartheid governed how society was structured…… [Read More]

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Looking at the Great Brain Race

Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7836030

Brain Race: An Examination

Globalization, evolution and technology. It's notable that when many professionals discuss these elements, they talk about them with fear and apprehension. On the other hand Ben Wildavsky presents the rapid evolution of mankind across the globe and the manner in which higher education is being transformed with celebration and open arms. Wildavsky looks particularly at the phenomenon of international students studying outside their homes, increasing each year. The elite universities that exist around the world aren't just those that exist in the western hemisphere, but in places like Saudi Arabia and Russia. With the rapid development of the internet, satellite campuses have become an even more growing trend, and that more and more opportunities are expanding to more people. Wildavsky demonstrates that the fervor created in the international arena characterized by the desire to get ahead and become more and more elite, creates a global marketplace…… [Read More]

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Social Marginalization by Race Economic Deprivation and

Words: 1262 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26965752

Social Marginalization by Race: Economic Deprivation and White American Resistance in the allot or the ullet by Malcolm X

The rigorous history of African-Americanism and their emancipation within the American society reflects the struggles and perpetuation of discrimination among black Americans even during the 20th century. Malcolm X, considered one of the most radical and influential leader of the black American civil rights movement, centers on the issues of discrimination and white American resistance among the blacks in his famous discourse, The allot or the ullet, delivered in April 3, 1964.

The relevance and significance of Malcolm X's discourse must be put into context in the events happening during his time. Historically, the socio-political landscape of the United States during the 1960s is characterized by the emergence and development of the civil rights movement for the marginalized sectors of the society, such as the youth, women, poor, and particularly, African-Americans.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Malcolm X (1964). The Ballot or the Bullet. Available at: http://www.indiana.edu/~rterrill/Text-BorB.html.
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Illusion of Race Race Power

Words: 1022 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56022458

Nowhere on earth is a thirteen-pound, six-foot long unit of 'scandal' or 'integrity' to be found, for example. Nor apparently can someone find a benchmark unit of 'race'.

The second thread runs through the slides 1887, 1934 and 1997. Jim Crow led to better homes for whites than Blacks even after they fought WWII side by side. What this demonstrates is one clear way we very literally live within the tangible outcome of discrimination today, and the Web site goes on to expand on this in "Where Race Lives" and "To See or Not To See" very convincingly. What interests me here is specifically the assertion that "Jim Crow unites poor and wealthy whites, while denying African-Americans equality." I do not contest that the U.S. legal, i.e. white, institution actively and deliberately removed non-whites' means to confront and dismantle discrimination at law. Nor do I contest that the intent of…… [Read More]

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Cyberfeminism Digitizing Race and Internet Media

Words: 5587 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5990833

Cyber Feminism, Gender and Technology

Cyberfeminism, Gender and Technology

Feminist movement found on the internet is known as Cyberfeminism. In recent times, the term has gained controversial status. Cyberfeminism, a fundamental issue from the feminist perspective, is mostly ignored by researchers and academics. It concentrates on empowerment of women through the cyberspace. Furthermore, it deals with female enlightenment and concentrates on creating awareness on how the digital technologies can influence the rights and social status of women. The digital technologies act as a medium of re-embodying the issue of racism and gender. Internet is the new medium used to erase the identity of women; that is; women are the erased race. However, the internet has played a significant role in promoting Cyberfeminism by pointing out that several feminist studies and internet activities are done by the online media. It cannot be denied that technology plays an important role in promoting…… [Read More]

Work Cited:

1. Chon, Margaret. Erasing Race? A Critical Race Feminist View of Internet Identity Shifting, 1999.

2. Nakamura, Lisa. Digitizing Race: Visual Cultures of the Internet. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.

3. Nakamura, Lisa. Cybertypes: Race, Ethnicity, and Identity on the Internet. London: Routledge, 2002.

4. Wilding, Faith. Where is Feminism in Cyberfeminism?. 28 March 2006. Cyberfeminist International. 4 June 2011.
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Ellison Race in Ellison's Invisible

Words: 1718 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45004178



So by embracing the underground, as the narrator eventually does, he is attempting to regain a sense of his own identity by remaining separate from the falseness of that which occurs above him. Clearly, it is significant that he spends his time stealing electricity, writing his story, and listening to Louis Armstrong's "hat Did I Do to Be So Black and Blue" on a phonograph. The first, obviously, is his attempt to subvert the works of mainstream society; but the second two stand as the symbol for what jazz represents in the American experience. Jazz is this sense of individuality; so much so, that the narrator is able to create his own identity through words as he listens to music. Today, the invisibility of jazz has been lifted, but its importance to the meaning of the words "America" and "democracy" remains the same as Ellison understood it to be.

orks…… [Read More]

Works Cited

De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975.

Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. New York: Random House, 1980.

Ostendorf, Berndt. "Ralph Waldo Ellison." New Essays on Invisible Man. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Peretti, Burton. "Speaking in the Groove: Oral History and Jazz." The Journal of American History, vol. 88, no. 2, September, 2001.
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Empire and Race

Words: 2101 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68167284

narrative analysis of historical content, themes, patterns, and events related to "race and empire in U.S. History. For this reason, six books have been considered. The paper will cover the narrative analysis of historical content related to race and empire in U.S. History, summary of the chronological themes, and the strengths and weaknesses for each book.

Manifest destinies: the making of the Mexican-American race

Narrative Analysis

The key to the approach of Gomez is the thought that Mexican-Americans do not from ethnicity, in fact a race. The difference lies in societal construction. Rather than having inborn worth, race is history reliant and given meaning by social processes, institutions, and persons. In the view of Gomez, the identity of Mexican-American is a result of social attitudes and legal definitions during the era, after the war between U.S. And Mexico. In fact, for Mexicans, there was no proper racial model[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Gomez,…… [Read More]

8. Hardy, T.J.. Race as an Aspect of the U.S.-Australian Alliance in World War II. (Diplomatic History, 2013)

9. Mora, A.P.. Jose Angel Hernandez. Mexican-American Colonization during the Nineteenth Century: A History of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands. (The American Historical Review, 118(3), 818-819., 2013)

10. Guyotte, R.L., & Posadas, B.M.. Filipinos and Filipino Americans, 1870 -- 1940. Immigrants in American History: Arrival, Adaptation, and Integration, 347, 2013
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Self Using Race as a

Words: 2730 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91777207

Smith may dislike the stereotype, but she cannot help internalizing it. She feels unfinished because she is regarded as unfinished, and even members of her community urge her to straighten her hair. This is completely different from the joyous, affirmative sigh "I am complete" at the end of Morales' poem. Just as Morales admits that all experiences with racism and discrimination are different, Smith's poem demonstrates how African-American women frequently lack assurance of their sense of self and that their physical qualities are regarded as alien to what is considered 'good' and 'American.' (The young Smith's wearing white to cover up one's tallness seems an attempt to mask blackness and presumed 'badness' with clothing). Morales' instability of identity lies in multiplicity of national cultures, but Smith, even as a young, black girl, but carefully balance her sense as an American and African-American with even greater care and psychological discomfort that…… [Read More]

References

Bolano, Roberto. (2000). Literature and Exile. The Nation. Retrieved August 9, 2011 at http://www.thenation.com/article/157695/literature-and-exile

Daniels, Lenore Jean. (2009). What is the image of black women today? Philly IMC.

Retrieved August 9, 2011 at http://www.phillyimc.org/en/what-image-black-women-today

Doughty, Julia. (1995). Testimonies of survival: Notes from an interview with Aurora Levins
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Honky by Dalton Conley Race

Words: 1126 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66705587

The disjoint between the white and black American realities was already evident at the start of the chapter, wherein he demonstrated the "flower box movement" as a reflection of the white American society's lack of understanding of poverty and inequality, wherein flower boxes were promoted in houses in the Projects to 'beautify' the social environment, subsisting to the belief that "poverty was primarily an aesthetic problem. If we could just spruce things up a bit, we'd all have more hope; we might even become middle class" (19). In fact, the Projects became a venue where marginalized groups converge and create their own worlds, mainly to be apart from the affluent white Americans.

Conley's neighborhood symbolized poverty and downward mobility that his family went through, although the author contended, as claimed by his parents, that it was the family's deliberate choice to live in the Projects rather than in a middle…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conley, D. 2000. Honky. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Renzetti, C. And D. Curran. 2000. Living Sociology. 2nd ed. MA: Allyn & Bacon.
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18th Century a Number of Races and

Words: 1347 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48441734

18th century a number of races and nationalities were in the process of settling North America. The variety of ethnicities and cultures included, but were not limited to: Native Americans, Spanish, English, French, Germans and Jews, yet eventually the dominant races in North America were the English, Anglo-Saxons and Spanish. Interestingly enough, both groups featured a historical background that was likely much more religious than the other groups that faded into historical oblivion.

During the time when all the groups were attempting to establish footholds in the Americas a bible was in use by both the English and the Spanish that stated "and God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth" (Genesis 1,…… [Read More]

References

Guttman, J.; (2010) Manchuatl, Military History, Vol. 27, Issue 1

Medievel Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from journal, accessed at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/Columbus1.html., October 2, 2010

Potter, M. (2010) The necessity of hand printing, Afterimage, Vol. 27, Issue 5, pp. 31 -- 32

Raybouldt, M.F.; Jones, T.E.; Gerhardt, L.N.; (1986) The Medieval Knight (Book Review), School Library Journal, Vol. 32, Issue 7
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Washington D C Race in Community

Words: 2035 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83468879



There are countless civic organizations and community services throughout the city, including Agency for International Development, American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association, American Muslim Council,

American Running Association, D.C. Travel & Social Club, Friends of Sri Lanka in the U.S., National Conference of State Societies, Human Rights Campaign,

National Genealogical Society, The National Genealogical Society, National Rifle Association, People For the American ay, St. John's Community Service's ArtView, and The Childrens Foundation (D.C.)

Despite the racial diversity and richness of culture, the ashington, D.C. area seems to be plagued with racial problems. The media are filled with news reports and editorials concerning the discrimination against African-Americans. In particular at issue are numerous accounts of racial profiling by law enforcement. Moreover, in recent years there has been much media discussion concerning discrimination against minorities among home-finance companies.

And even Mayor illiams's office has been forced to deal with racial slurs from his…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anthony A. Williams: Mayor of the District of Columbia. Retrieved November 02, 2005 at http://dc.gov/mayor/bios/williams.shtm

Barnes, D.R. (2001 June 06). D.C. Grandmother Accuses Prince George's Police of Racial Profiling. Washington Informer. Retrieved November 02, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

City Council. Retrieved November 02, 2005 at http://www.dccouncil.washington.dc.us/

Clemetson, Lynette. (1999 February 08). The Slur That Wasn't.(Washington D.C.
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Human Race Is Highly Social in Nature

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25267183

human race is highly social in nature. This fact is evident in the way people seek to build relationships that result in a sense of belonging, companionship and connection. Unfortunately, this perfectly natural human desire is often thwarted when people from different cultures intermingle. In such situations, the dominant culture tends to stereotype ethnic and minority groups leading to the latter experiencing a feeling of isolation and alienation. Besides the feeling of not belonging, stereotyping, as Judith Ortiz Cofer and Brent Staples point out, can also result in the worst sort of social injustice, and that is, the failure to recognize people as individuals in their own right.

Judith Ortiz Cofer, a poet, novelist and short story writer, grew up in New Jersey. A Puerto Rican by birth and upbringing, Cofer repeatedly experienced the indignity of being stereotyped. Not surprisingly, therefore, Cofer's writings reflect her Puerto Rican experience. For instance,…… [Read More]

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Constraints of Blacks Discussion the Geographic Spaces

Words: 1167 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86897351

Constraints of Blacks

Discussion the geographic spaces and constraints of Blacks in the United States between 1865 and 2010.

Reconstruction Period

Throughout the reconstruction period several acts were passed that were intended to integrate African-Americans or freedmen as they were referred to in the period in society. Despite the initial goals of the legislative acts, African-Americans faced a significant antagonism from many whites in the south who did not agree to the new freedoms for the former slaves. The first and arguably most significant step move towards a more equal and free society was the 13th amendment to the Constitution.

This amendment was passed in 1865 and was shortly after was followed by the passage of the civil rights act in 1866 and the 14th amendment. The underlying purpose of 13th and 14th amendments as well as the civil rights act of 1866 was to officially designate African-Americans citizens by…… [Read More]

Late Twentieth Century through the Present

Martin Luther King was a Baptist minister who became an icon for civil rights across America. He raised public awareness of the civil rights cause but this had a negative effect on his personal life as during the boycott King's house was bombed and during the campaign he was arrested. The importance of Martin Luther King's role in achieving civil rights could not be understated. However, it is less well-known that E.D Nixon, a African-American civil rights leader and union organizer who played a crucial role in organizing the famous Montgomery Bus Boycott and furthering the movement. However, it is MLK's eloquence and conviction of speech that served as a rallying point for millions of sympathetic individuals to protest racial injustices.

While the present circumstances for an African-American in the United States is still fraught with hardships, there is still much progress that is continually being made. In 2008 the United States elected their first African-American president; a feat that many predicted would not be possible until well into the future. However, at the same time there are a plethora of challenges that still face the African-American communities. In many of the urban centers, such as Chicago for example, there is still a significant amount of segregation. Furthermore, African-Americans generally have less employment opportunities, lower pay rates, higher incarnation rates, and fewer opportunities for education than their racial counterparts. Therefore, even though an enormous amount of progress has been made, there is still much more work to be done.
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Cold War and the Conquest

Words: 3290 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42083680

They could do it time and time again with success. The first electric car was used on the moon during the Apollo 14 (Endeavor and Falcon) mission (Kennedy Space Center).

Meanwhile in Russia

hile the space program in the United States was busy becoming a popular culture icon, the Russian space program took on a different personality. They still launched missions for "national prestige" (ade). However, the majority of Soviet missions were for military purposes. The Soviet economy played a major role in space efforts. The soviet economy was planned in five-year increments, with long-range military plans being made for the next ten years (ade). This significantly affected the pace of space program development. The Russian space plan was slow to react to American successes.

First generation Soviet launchers had poor reliability. The ten-year plan for the second generation was not approved until 1976 (ade). Third generation plans were approved…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aerospace. A Brief History: Space Exploration. Last Modified: January 21, 2005. http://www.aero.org/education/primers/space/history.html. (Accessed October 30, 2008).

Angleo, J. Space Technology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2003.

CNN.com. India launches first moon mission. October 22, 2008. CNN.com/Technology.  http://www.cnn.com /2008/TECH/space/10/22/india.space/index.html (Accessed October 29, 2008).

Grayzeck, E. Apollo 13 Command and Service Module (CSM). NSSDC ID: 1970-029A. National Space center Data Center.  http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/masterCatalog.do?sc=1970-029A  (Accessed October 29, 2008).
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History Cold War

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54425379

causes that led to and accentuated the Cold ar, and look at its affect on modern scientific developments in arms and the space race. The Cold ar led to developments in rocketry and science that have given rise to new technologies that the world uses every day.

The Cold ar really began during the Second orld ar, when talk of post-war treaties between the United States, Great Britain, and Russia were put on hold until the war ended. "From early in 1942 the American Government had repeatedly proclaimed the principle that no final decisions on matters of postwar frontiers or systems of government should be made until the end of the war" (Graebner 5). "The growth of distrust and opposition between the United States (U.S.) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) begins with Joseph Stalin's pre-orld ar II behavior. The U.S. And Great Britain provided war tactics and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Authors. "40th Anniversary of the Mercury 7." NASA. 18 April 2002.  http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/40thmerc7/intro.htm 

Editors. "Space Channel." FutureFantastic.net. 2002. http://www.futurefantastic.net/exhibits/space/introduction.htm

Graebner, Norman A. "How the Cold War Began." The Cold War: Ideological Conflict Or Power Struggle? Boston: Heath, 1963. 1-10.

Haggerty, James J. "Spinoff 1996." NASA. 1996.
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Nation-Altering Event of the 1960S Specifically it

Words: 1708 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82109357

nation-altering event of the 1960s. Specifically it will discuss man's first walk on the moon by astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldren, and how it stimulated the nation's growth, made an indelibly positive impression upon America's institutions, and if it/they provide sufficient substance to be incorporated into the future study of America during the 1960s.

MAN ON THE MOON

One of the most important and nation altering events to occur in the 1960s was the Apollo astronaut program, specifically, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldren's successful walk on the moon on July 20, 1969.

On July 20, 1969, people around the world watched in awe as Neil Armstrong became the first human to walk on the moon. The event symbolized, as Armstrong laconically radioed to earth, a "giant leap for mankind." In fact, the achievement was so overwhelming that a few people refused to believe it actually occurred, claiming that it…… [Read More]

References

Byrnes, Mark E. Politics and Space: Image Making by NASA. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.

Flatow, Ira, "Analysis: Anniversary of First Plans for Going to the Moon." Talk of the Nation Science Friday (NPR). 25 May 2001.

Levins, Harry. "In 1969, the U.S. Won the Cold War Race to the Moon." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 18 July 1999, pp A4.

Public Affairs. "V-2 Rocket." White Sands Missile Range. 2002. 22 March 2003. http://www.wsmr.army.mil/paopage/Pages/V-2.htm
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Internet in Response to the

Words: 3019 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61803821

This lead was accomplished through a partnership nearly a half-century old among government, industry and academia. I member of that partnership was the National Science Foundation (NSF). As Strawn noted, early on, scientists and engineers at American universities began to join the young APANet, as they worked on basic research funded primarily by the NSF. Acknowledging this, the NSF began supporting national supercomputing centers, in the mid-1980s, as a means of giving American scientists, engineers, and students greater access to high-performance computing that was state of the art, and developed Computer Science Network (CSNET).

Creation of these national supercomputer centers by NSF was critical to the development of the Internet. To further enhance U.S. scientists' access to these centers, NSF established the NSFNET national backbone network that connected the NSF supercomputing centers to U.S. universities. NSF also promoted the creation of regional networks to connect colleges and universities to the…… [Read More]

References

Bellis, M. Inventors of the Modern Computer. 2007. About.com. November 7, 2007  http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa091598.htm .

Brief History of the Internet. 10 Dec 2003. Internet Society. November 7, 2007 http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.shtml.

Cold War. 2003. National Park Service. November 7, 2007 http://www.nps.gov/archive/elro/glossary/cold-war.htm.

DARPA Over the Years. 27 Oct 2003. DARPA. November 7, 2007  http://www.darpa.mil/body/overtheyears.html .
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Narrative Description -- Tangible Object

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87756271

The reason that the watch reminds me of my father's humility is the way he avoids wearing it in any company who might perceive it as a purposeful display of wealth or status.

My father has never worn it where the circumstances would amount to rubbing his (apparent) wealth in the face of others. In my family it has always been a good-natured joke that my father's watch is worth more than everything else he owns combined, except for his car. In fact, if my father keeps both his car and his watch for much longer, it may be worth more than everything else he owns including his car. He has always bought his clothes at places like Target and he said many times that if he ever lost his watch he might have a hard time justifying paying for a new one and that he might not be able…… [Read More]

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Economic and Political Factors That

Words: 828 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94052622

With Eastern European nations enticed by the financial aid and political support that the U.S. And Britain provided, it became easier for them to weaken the hold of Communism. Furthermore, because Communism and a socialist economy were still in its infancy, the effects of a proletarian-led society did not bring out the expected results among these Communist nations. In effect, primarily due to the strong political influence and economic power of the U.S. And Britain, they were able to push through their anti-Communist program, providing military support through the provision of soldiers and weaponry for nations divided between Communism and capitalism.

A deeper analysis of the economic state of the Soviet Union during the rise of Communism also helps to further understand how it eventually failed to create a new social order in the modern period. Post-war Eastern Europe was driven with poverty and scarcity of its basic resources; thus,…… [Read More]

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Good or Bad Aviation Project Management

Words: 1108 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36922120

Aviation Project - SpaceX

The current aerospace technologies being built and flown by the private commercial company known as SpaceX (from California) have a remarkable record of success thus far. The "Dragon," which is the cargo capsule built by SpaceX, put into orbit by the Falcon 9 launch rocket, delivered its second load of supplies to the International Space Station (ISS) on Sunday, March 3 (Segal, 2013). The SpaceX contract with NASA is for a total of twelve cargo missions to the ISS over the coming years; the first Dragon cargo ship was launched and delivered supplies to the International Space Station in October, 2012. The un-manned Dragon is designed to carry supplies to and from the ISS, and it is the first privately built commercial spacecraft to handle those chores -- or conduct any space-related activities per se. NASA contracted with SpaceX in 2008 after NASA had retired its…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Black, Charles. (2013). SpaceX tests its vertical takeoff and vertical landing rocket. SEN.

Retrieved March 18, 2013, from  http://www.sen.com .

Money, Stewart. (2012). Why SpaceX is setting the pace in the commercial space race. NBC

News. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from  http://www.nbcnews.com .
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History of Illustration and the

Words: 2908 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9409647

They went into a spending frenzy that would carry them though the next decade. They bought houses, started families and settled down to a life of normalcy after a decade of chaos. Illustrations began to return to resemble that of fine are of earlier times.

The Invitation. Ben Stahl. Date unknown magazine photo. Al Parker. Date unknown

ise of the Atomic Age (1950-1960)

The prosperity that came with the end of the war continued into the new decade. Americans attempted to settle into a life or normalcy. There was a significant return to traditional gender roles, as many women were forced back into the household and the men went off to work as usual. Women, now used to providing for themselves represented a new target market. To fill their days they read the "seven sisters" (McCall's, Ladies Home Journal, Cosmopolitan, edbook, Good Housekeeping, Seventeen, and Women's Day). These magazines began…… [Read More]

References

Crow, T. 2006. The Practice of Art History in America. Daedalus. 135, no. 2. Questia Database.

"Jesse Wilcox Smith" 2000.  http://www.bpib.com/illustrat/jwsmith.htm 

Reed, Walter and Reed, Roger. 2008. The History of Illustration. Society of Illustrators. Online. http://societyillustrators.org/about/history/283.cms

Murphy, J. 2007. Making Virtual Art Present. Afterimage. 35, no. 2. Questia Database.
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Burns and Stalker Tom Burns

Words: 1868 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33732596

In this way, the organization is able to develop as needed or warranted by the plethora of external and internal circumstances that affect it daily.

There is often a negative connotation associated with Burns and Stalker's assessment of mechanistic organizations, and there is some truth in this qualitative perspective. This does not mean that all aspects of mechanistic organizations are too be seen as primarily detrimental or less-than-satisfactory, however; stability is a good thing, and in certain times and situations a very necessary thing. Stability and innovation, however, are not often mutual partners in an organization's growth and progression, and it was this issue that Burns and Stalker tackled. Their theory is improved upon only by a better understanding, provided by a longer view from the end (rather than the middle) of a century of great innovation and change, of the larger organizational influences and cycles that form the pattern…… [Read More]

References

Bechhofer, F. & McCrone, D. (2001). "Obituary: Tom Burns." The Guardian. Accessed 28 January 2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2001/jun/28/guardianobituaries.socialsciences

Burns, T. & tsalker, G. (1961). The Management of Innovation. New York: Oxford university press.

Eldridge, J. (2001). "Obituary: Tom Burns." The Independent. Accessed 28 January 2010. http://www.tomburns.org.uk/independent.html

Sine, W.; Mitsuhashi, H. & Kirsch, D. 92006). "Revisiting Burns and Stalker." Academy of management journal 49(10), pp. 121-32.
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Eisenhower Dwight D Eisenhower Transformed

Words: 2098 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71836125

The Soviet threat continued to loom, propelling Eisenhower squarely into a second term. He had endeared himself to the American public as a strong anti-communist president, a decorated war hero who would keep America strong, prosperous, and triumphant.

Eisenhower's fiscal and domestic policies reflected his rather un-epublican belief in social services. Eisenhower expanded the Social Security program, raised the minimum wage, supported low-income housing projects, and created the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Among his most significant domestic legacies was his commissioning of the nationwide highway system. Eisenhower was truly a Car Culture president who helped make American culture into what it is today.

In spite of his support for social programs, Eisenhower failed to become a civil rights leader. He was "at best a tepid supporter of civil rights" who actually opposed school integration (Miller Center of Public Affairs). Eisenhower's stagnation and lack of leadership in this primary…… [Read More]

References

Miller Center of Public Affairs. University of Virginia. Retrieved June 30, 2007 at http://www.millercenter.virginia.edu/index.php/academic/americanpresident/eisenhower

Simkin, J. "Dwight D. Eisenhower." Spartacus Educational. Retrieved June 30, 2007 at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAeisenhower.htm#cooliris

Vuono, C.E. & Stone, M.P.W. (1990). Dwight David Eisenhower: The Centennial. Retrieved June 30, 2007 at http://www.army.mil/cmh/brochures/Ike/ike.htm

The White House. "Dwight D. Eisenhower." Retrieved June 30, 2007 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/de34.html
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Super Toys Last Summer Long Is a

Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99841541

Super Toys Last Summer Long is a short story that is intriguing in the way they end, and they always have an interesting story. In film work, they serve the purpose of literature preservation and preservation of the content and meaning. There is differentiation in the film when David talks about running away, and in the novel is about getting abandoned. This shows that the film translation will take a different direction. There is an adoption of character of Dr. Hobby who is not present in the short story, and this also adds to the story. There is a change in concepts hence differentiates the film from the novel making one look at them differently.

The sentinel

The sentinel novel provides an alternative reading because of its adoption, which has variation from the film. It is also an adoption from the odyssey Greek play because it reproduces few elements from…… [Read More]

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Military Imparts in an Individual Many Important

Words: 4677 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82966905

military imparts in an individual many important qualities that they carry out into the real world. These qualities are leadership, versatility, character, among others. The military is an excellent place to learn, to grow, and to better one's self. Many people have had long and successful careers that they earned only through being in the military. It teaches a person the importance of hard work, communication, and bravery.

The military allows for transition into a multitude of careers, especially career in the government. And in sectors where leadership skills are rare and sought after, the military prepares one to establish a secure foothold in these areas. Non-for-profits, volunteer organizations, and businesses all require strong and fearless leaders with clear direction and focus. The military offers exactly what a person needs early on to achieve anything they set out for. Six sections will be examined to show just how military lessons…… [Read More]

References

Ambrose, S.E. (1983). Eisenhower. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Burns, J.M., & Dunn, S. (2004). George Washington. New York: Times Books.

Cunningham, J.B., & Lischeron, J. (1991). Defining Entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Management, 29(1), 45. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8691.1993.tb00073.x

Gowel, D. (2012, March 1). 5 reasons the military is the best training for entrepreneurs | SmartBlogs [Web blog post]. Retrieved from https://smartblogs.com/leadership/2012/03/01/5-reasons-the-military-is-the-best-training-for-entrepreneurs/
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Sputnik & Cold War the

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59900155

It is in this context that the U.S. felt Soviet Union as a threat, since improved and increased production of space technology meant that there is also a corresponding increase in the capacity of the country to defend itself militarily. This threat was verbalized by the U.S., wherein containment of Communist nations such as Soviet Union was necessary because "...the Soviet Union has acquired awesome military capabilities" (Mueller, 2004:621).

The unprecedented and initial launching of Sputnik I, which served as the catalyst for the space race between Soviet Union and the U.S., compelled the latter to create alliances to support its military activities in Eastern Europe and Asia. In light of the expanding scope of the Communist ideology in both regions, U.S. deemed it wise to create a strong alliance with another Western country, Great ritain. Prior to the threat of communism, Soviet Union, U.S., and Great ritain were considered…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Martel, W. And T. Yoshihara. (2003). "Averting a Sino-U.S. Space Race." The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 4.

Mueller, J. (2004). "What was the Cold War about? Evidence from its ending." Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 119, No. 4.

Ronis, S. (2004). "Transformational recapitalization: rethinking USAF aircraft procurement philosophies." Defense at&L.
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Sputnik The Shock of the

Words: 3596 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12425570

If the satellite had successfully entered orbit, this would have put the United States more than a year ahead of the Soviets in the endeavor, which added

In fact, this was not the only rocket and satellite project that many United States scientists and government officials felt had been failures, or at least under-utilized successes. The Soviets increased the pressure on the American rocket program with their launch of Sputnik II on November 3, less than a month after the launch of their first satellite, and political urging from Eisenhower and others forced the early launch of an American Vanguard satellite.

The Vanguard project had actually anticipated a launch date ahead of the Soviets, which may in part have spurred on the Soviet team and helped them to set their deadline, but a series of setbacks delayed the various test launches of the vehicles meant to deliver the Vanguard into…… [Read More]

References

Borz, Fred. "Review of Sputnik: The Shock of the Century,  http://www.fredbortz.com/review/Sputnik.htm 

Caviness, Rochelle. "Review: Sputnik: The Shock of the Century, Large Print Reviews,  http://www.largeprintreviews.com/sputnik.html 

Curtis, Nancy R. "Review: Sputnik: The Shock of the Century," Library Journal, http://wbrl-lssvr.dnsalias.org:8000/decatur/kcContent?isbn=9780802713650&type=review&controlnumber=dec00086898&referedby=titlelist

Dickinson, Paul. Sputnik: The Shock of the Century (New York: Walker & Co, 2001)
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Singular Events Can Have Profound

Words: 2179 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 961984

Because of the widespread stigma against homosexuality in the United States and worldwide, medical research was thwarted and the disease became virtually synonymous with homosexuality.

It would take the death of one of America's most beloved, and seemingly straight, movie stars to prove that AIDS could affect anyone (Hiller 1985). When ock Hudson died of the disease in 1985, Americans could see not only that homosexuality was normal and pervasive in society but also that AIDS was spreading more rapidly than was previously thought. The subsequent spread of the disease to straight communities also showed that AIDS was a disease transmitted primarily through sexual contact and blood transfusions; homosexuality had nothing to do with the illness whatsoever. Final hypothesis: The death of ock Hudson forced Americans to rethink homosexuality and to face the AIDS epidemic squarely.

The 1990s: The First Gulf War

The decade opened with a literal bang when…… [Read More]

References

1950s

About the Case." Brown v. Board of Education. Brown Foundation for Educational Equity, Excellence and Research. Retrieved Jun 14, 2008 at http://brownvboard.org/summary/

Cozzens, L. (1995). Brown v. Board of Education. Early Civil Rights Struggles. Retrieved online Jun 14, 2008 at  http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html 

1960s