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Three test launches in September failed miserably, but by October, the crew believed they were ready to test (Green and Lomask, 41).
However, on October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union shocked the United States and the world by successfully launching Sputnik 1, into orbit around the Earth, becoming the first nation to launch an artificial satellite into orbit, and pushing them to the front of the now active Space Race (Green and Lomask, 22). Sputnik I circled the Earth once every 96 minutes, was 22 inches in diameter, and was made of aluminum alloys.
The reaction in the United States was tumultuous, at best.
Citizens of the United States, once certain American's were superior in all things technological and scientific, now began to doubt the superiority of their educational system, as the Russian technologies advanced beyond American capability (Hayes, 13F). The night of the launch, however, only amateur astronomers seemed…
Through the Year 1960, ACR-64 (USNSAM Monograph 5), Dept. Of the Navy, p. 53.
Bulkeley, Rip. The Sputniks Crisis and Early United States Space Policy: A Critique of the Historiography of Space. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1991.
Cotright, Edgar M. Apollo Expeditions to the Moon. Washington, D.C.: NASA, 1975.
Department of Defense. National Defense Education Act. 2006. Department of Defense. 14 March 2007. http://www.dod.mil/ddre/ndea.htm .
American history that have changed the arc and path of society and culture forever. A few recent examples would include the emergence of the World Wide Web in the 1990's, social media more recently as well as the general progress made with the automobile and other modes of transportation. However, the one technological arc in the last century that has perhaps changed things more than anything else has been the so-called Space Race. Indeed, with the launching of the Russian Sputnik, President Eisenhower enacted the Space Race and this would forever change the landscapes of education, politics and economics for the United States for many decades.
When Russia rendered its major accomplishment that was Sputnik, they certainly reveled and celebrated the fact that they had beat Western countries like the United States and ritain to space. One account of the aftermath of Sputnik's success came from a ritish perspective. It…
Barnett, Nicholas. 2013. "RUSSIA WINS SPACE RACE'." Media History 19, no. 2: 182-
195. Communication & Mass Media Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed July 3,
Bhasin, Kul, and Jeffrey L. Hayden. 2005. "Creating Communications, Computing, and Networking Technology Development Road Maps for Future NASA Human and Robotic
Baby Boom, Soviet launch of Sputnik into space and Assassination of JFK
The Baby Boom played into the Consumer Culture of the 1950s because there was literally a population explosion in post-War America. People wanted to settle down, have families, and buy the things advertised on TVs. The middle class emerged as comfortable, successful and somewhat more materialistic than generations of the past. They had disposable income and keeping up with the Joneses became a reality for many, which fueled the Consumer Culture even more.
Sputnik was the Soviets’ first satellite into space—launched into orbit in 1957. Sputnik II followed one month later, and the Space Race began. Americans feared the Soviets would control space and be able to fire missiles at the U.S. from space. Thus, it became imperative that the U.S. be able to counter the Soviet space initiative. That is what Eisenhower authorized the National Defense Education…
hen the Soviets successfully launched Sputnik I, the first ever artificial satellite, in orbit on October 4, 1957, the event took the Americans and the entire western world by surprise. Sputnik I was just a 2-foot sphere with nothing more than two tiny radio transmitters on it, but the symbolic significance of the event -- the implication that Communist Russia had taken a significant technological lead over the United States was a massive blow to the American nation's pride. It signaled the start of the Cold ar space-race between the two major super powers of the time and developed into a race for putting the first man on the moon that culminated in the historic "giant leap for mankind" on July 20, 1969 when Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. This paper focuses on the history of the U.S. Space Program, the role…
Chaikan, Andrew. "Space Exploration." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
Ezell, Clinton E. And Linda Neuman Ezell. "The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project." NASA Special Publication-4209,1978 Chapter 1: The Space Race Competition vs. Cooperation: 1959-1962. April 21, 2004 http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4209/ch1-4.htm
History of the Space Programme." Scenta Website. March 16, 2004. April 21, 2004. http://www.scenta.co.uk/news/viewFeature.cfm?ciid=207&iCurrSubSection=2
Koman, Rita G. "Man on the Moon: The U.S. Space Program as a Cold War Maneuver." Organization of American Historians. Reprinted from the OAH Magazine of History
But the limited growth policies that have remained popular with the Council (and a majority of the citizens, it would seem) have also kept the price of real estate high. Davis maintains the necessary amount of low-income housing, but many of the occupants are entry level workers at the town's biggest employer -- the University. These people tend to have college degrees and are -- you guessed it -- predominantly white with a large proportion of Asians as well. There simply is not enough space to fill the demand in Davis, and this has caused quite a premium in the cost of owning or even renting real estate in the city.
There is another gesture of economic favoritism that speaks even more tellingly about the unconscious racialization of Davis. The housing development that has occurred in the past twenty years saw the creation of two enormous semi-gated communities with generally…
City of Davis. "Who's who on the City Council." Accessed 13 April 2009. http://cityofdavis.org/cmo/whoswho.cfm
FactFinder. "U.S. Census Bureau Statistics." Accessed 13 April 2009. http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en
U.S. Census Data. "City of Davis, California, 2000." Accessed 13 April 2009. http://davis.areaconnect.com/statistics.htm
Essed notes the profound perceived threat to power experienced by those in the majority feel when even small encroachments are made by other groups into the dominant fabric of society, and how tacit racism against minorities is often allowed even by those who might not consider themselves prejudiced on an interactional and personal level (184). In short, the institutional racism of society inevitably affects interpersonal relations, even amongst people who do not harbor what we might think of as hatred in their hearts. Racism for Essed is an ideological social construct, a powerful social and philosophical method of enforcement that affects how 'people' see the world, and also the mechanisms of the justice system (185). Racist images and practices become an invisible and accepted part of daily life, and are unquestioned, thus it is not enough to simply change one's individual mind (190). Her essay, though it seems overly focused…
Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Philomena Essed & David Theo Goldberg, Ed.
Sooner than expected, the place became populated with variation of races - natives and whites.
The place, now called as the New Brooklyn has the following characteristics (Hampson, 2003 pp 14):
Big area which can accommodate more or less 100,000 residents
The population is fast growing, with a 110% growth rate
The populace are racially and ethnically diverse
These characteristics of the area provided positive and negative impact to the people living in it. First, the hugeness of the face offers more housing and business spaces for the people. This would of course ensure that every family will have a place to own. In the same manner, this will also ensure that a number of employment opportunities will be opened to the public. However the hugeness of the place could also mean that there are more issues that people could fight about. The populace can fight about land ownership. Unhealthy…
Dakst, D. "New Americans Fresh off the Presses," the NY Times Washington Street Journal, Pp 3-11, Spring 2003.
Gonzales, D. "At 40-year Bronx Beach Party, Who Needs Sand?" NY Times, pp 17-19
Hampson, R. "New Brooklyn's Replace White Suburbs," USA Today, pp 14-16, 19 May 2003.
Kinzie S. "Conflicting Images of Amish Life," the Washington Post, pp 9-10, 28 July 2004.
ace and eunion
Briefly describe each of the three visions
Vision one: The reconciliationist vision -- this vision had its roots in the "process of dealing with the dead from so many battlefields, prisons, and hospitals," the author writes on page 2; and it also developed in ways prior to the process of econstruction; people were weary of war, and many Americans longed for a time of forgiving, in the Christian sense; vision two: The white supremacist vision -- this vision was manifest through terror, violence, and its legacy promotes a memory of the Civil War aftermath as one of segregation on southern terms; those of white supremacist / racist leanings would never consider giving in to a Constitutional mandate to allow all blacks freedom, the vote, and other equal rights; vision three: The emancipationist vision -- this includes much of what African-Americans remember about gaining their freedom, it also…
Blight, David W. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2001.
Wilson, Clyde. "War, reconstruction, and the end of the old republic." Society 33.6
ace: Personal Educational Experiences and eflection
ace was seldom discussed explicitly during my early, grammar school education. When the topic of race was broached, it was usually in the context of a lesson on the Civil War or Civil ights movement. Although such discussions were valuable, they gave the impression that race was something located in America's past, rather than worthy of discussion in the present. However, this did not mean that I was not cognizant of race as a child. I was, but the topic was often unspoken of in school, except on the rare occasions when teachers brought it to the forefront of the attention of the class -- usually in a manner that suggested that the struggle for freedom had been won.
I was fortunate to have parents who always stressed that all people were equal, regardless of how they looked. While they did not give me…
Kozol, Jonathan. (2005). The shame of the nation: the restoration of apartheid schooling in America. New York: Crown.
Tatum, Beverly Daniel. (2003). Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?
New York: Basic Books.
Lewis, Amanda E. (2003). Race in the schoolyard: Negotiating the color line in classrooms and communities. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
The Problems of ace & the Myths of Urban Poverty
ace is a social construct. There is exists very little genetic difference among the various "races" of humans on Earth. This construct is central to many, and perhaps even most people on our planet. ace is a physical difference that draws clearly defined boundaries between people. ace can be the inspiration for war. ace is hardly an inspiration for peace, unfortunately. This paper will briefly examine situations when race has been used to hurt and subordinate others. This paper will reference examples of groups of people that are systematically via the social realms and institutions who suffer due to their race, an aspect over which they had no choice or say. Drawing from the series, The Wire, and a few readings, the paper will propose what the myths of urban poverty are, who are the authors of such myths,…
Dreier, P. And J. Atlas. 2009. The Wire - Bush-Era Fable About America's Urban Poor. City & Community, 8: 329-340.
Edin, K. And K. Harris. 1998. Getting Off and Staying Off: Racial Differences in the Work Route off Welfare. Pages 270-301: Latinas and African-American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality, New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Newman, K. 2001. Hard Times on 125th Street: Harlem's Poor Confront Welfare Reform. American Anthropologist, 103(3): 762-778.
Although there are potential social costs associated with linking race or ethnic background with genetics, we believe that these potential costs are outweighed by the benefits in terms of diagnosis and research. Ignoring racial and ethnic differences in medicine and biomedical research will not make them disappear. ather than ignoring these differences, scientists should continue to use them as starting points for further research. Only by focusing attention on these issues can we hope to understand better the variations among racial and ethnic groups in the prevalence and severity of diseases and in responses to treatment (1174)
The second is that race is often used as a proxy for class.
And, the third category is what Kawachi, Daniels and obinson argue is the most defensible, that race and class are two separate issues, and should be treated as such.
However, as Daniels and Schulz bring to light, research documentation examining…
Cooper, R., Kauffman, J., & Ward, R. "Race and Genomics" New England Journal of Medicine vol (issue) 30 Mar 2003: 1166-1175.
Daniels, J. & Shulz, a. "Constructing Whiteness in Health Disparities Research." In Title of Book. Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.
Kawachi, I. & Daniels, N., Robinson, D. "Race Disparities by Race and Class: Why Both Matter." Health Affairs vol (issue) Mar/Apr 2003: 342-351.
Specifically reported by Coy is that the "recent launch of a black Disney princess may be an indicator of greater cultural diversity, but in terms of the 'girl power' values it carries the view that it is 'a great step . . . [and] could help black children see themselves more positively' (Adesioye, 2009) fails to address how it will reinforce messages of sexualization for black girls." (2009) to excel in the music industry, it is expected and even required that women become sexualized because this is a primary point of the success realized in the music industry as the music industry is highly sexualized overall. A study reported in the work of Stankiewitz and osselli (2008) states that the study examined the way that women were depicted in 1,988 advertisements "from popular U.S. magazines." The advertisements were coded in relation to whether women were presented as sex objects of…
American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2010). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/girls/report-full.pdf
Coy, M. (2009) Milkshakes, Lady Lumps, and Growing Up to Want Boobies: How the Finlay, a. (2013) Hyper-sexualizing Women Leads to Self-Objectification -- More Destructive and Prevalent than Society Admits
Liang, E. (2011) the Media's Sexualization of Female Athletes: A Bad Call for the modern Game. Vol. 3 No. 10. Retrieved from: http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/587/the-medias-sexualization-of-female-athletes-a-bad-call-for-the-modern-game
Naubert, R. (2011) Media's Growing Sexualization of Women. Psych Central. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/news/2011/08/11/medias-growing-sexualization-of-women/28539.html
In Kingston's more feminine rendering of identity, although she resists the ideals of silence and sexual repression, she accepts the idea that women have more permeable boundaries of selfhood and stronger ties to their family in the telling of her text.
Both works point to the inexorability of the past, especially for individuals of ethnic or racial minorities who consider themselves 'other.' Obama is 'other' because of his multiethnic heritage that alienates him from parents as well as friends, and because of the Americanness that separates him from his father. Kingston sees herself as Chinese, but female in a culture as well as a nation that mistrusts this aspect of a woman's self. Both make claims to how their lives speak for other lives -- Obama explicitly with his overly political narration, and his determination to use his struggle as fuel for success as an advocate of community enfranchisement, Kingston…
Kingston, Hong Maxine. The Woman Warrior. Vintage, 1989
Obama, Barak. Dreams from my Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance.
Three Rivers Press, 2004.
In other case the motive was rooted first in ideological assumption -- and that assumption was that ASP superiority was a given.
The issue of race and class finally came to a head as America continued its expansion westward. But the issue was political as well: hat right did the Federal Government have over State Government to say whether slavery should be abolished? ho was really in power in America -- the States and local government -- or federal national government? The Civil ar, of course, answered the question brutally and bloodily in 1865. But racism and classism did not end. In fact, the problems of race and class would continue even after the war for as long as American policy was determined by ASP elitism. That policy has not changed to this day.
In conclusion, issues of race and class were ingrained into the American fabric from the very…
Horsman, Reginald. Race and Manifest Destiny: the Origins of American Racial Anglo-
Saxonism. Harvard University Press, 1981. Print.
ace and Genetics
On the surface, race seems like a legitimate way of categorizing human beings. Physical characteristics are passed down from parent to child, thereby recreating racial markers. However, the concept of race is generally rooted in ignorance. ace is an ephemeral construction, and genetic science is proving this to be so. If race were real, then there would be ways of tracing different races back to a few ancestors: such as an ancestral Polynesian, ancestral African, and ancestral Jew. As it stands, though, all human beings trace ancestry to the same basic gene pool from humanoid ancestors in Africa. This one fact alone is sufficient to debunk the concept that race "exists," or is a form of biological determinism. There are other reasons to believe that race is not as real as was once thought. ace is not real, and the reasons are rooted in genetic science, anthropology,…
Adelman, L. (2003). Race and gene studies: what differences make a difference? Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-01-02.htm
Entine, J. (2012). Jews Are a 'Race,' Genes Reveal. The Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved online: http://forward.com/articles/155742/jews-are-a-race-genes-reveal/?p=all
Standardized tests are only able to measure correct multiple choice answers. They cannot measure a child's creativity, their ability to problem solve, or their ability to critically evaluate information.
The culture of achievement that has accompanied the push for higher test scores has had severe physical and psychological effects on students. Taylor (2010) claims that academic stress is the greatest source of stress faced by school-aged children. He notes that many high school and college students have turned to performance-enhancing drugs such as Adderall and italin to help them concentrate. Finally, he claims that teen suicide rates have risen drastically in recent years, particularly among girls. In summary, the ever-increasing push for higher test scores has created an academic culture where stressed out students and frustrated teachers are the norm, and where very little authentic learning actually takes place. ace to the Top's push for even higher test scores may…
Barkley, K. (2010, February 18). Officials wary of possible strings attached to race to the top initiative. Cumberland Times News. Retrieved February 19, 2010 from http://www.times-news.com/local/local_story_049230436.html
Dillon, Sam. (2009, April 14). Education Standards Likely to See Toughening. New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/15/education/15educ.html?_r=1
Fact Sheet: The Race to the Top. (2009, November 4). The White House: Office of the Press Secretary. Retrieved February 19, 2010 from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/fact-sheet-race-top
Hamilton, J. (2009, November 12). U.S. Department of Education Opens Race to the Top Competition. Press Release. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from http://www2.ed.gov/news/pressreleases/2009/11/11122009.html
2001 1. Then, they could sort taxonomically. In other words, one man's 'smart' is another man's 'dopey', concepts that have little to do with the "intelligence" IQ tests are designed to measure. This is certainly, as well, a clear indication of how completely IQ tests are based in a narrow range of cultural norms. Indeed, they could be viewed as impoverished measures for failing to account for the values, intellectual and otherwise, of any society except the well-defined, homogenized and 'unjuicy' western society that invented the tests. Sternberg et al. concluded that, regarding IQ tests, "scores from tests used in cultures or subcultures other than those for which the tests were specifically created are suspect, and probably of doubtful validity in many if not most cases (2001 1).
What about race?
The myths about race and IQ go back a long way, to a time before IQ tests. Philosophers Hume,…
Keita, L. (1999). Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 23(1), 65. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Reeve, C.L. (2002). Race and Intelligence: Separating Science from Myth. Personnel Psychology, 55(3), 778+. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database,
ace and Gender
Sociological Principles/Perspectives of ace
ace is the physical difference that various cultures and groups think are socially different. Principles of sociology seek to establish how ethnicity and race are constructed socially; including how each individual identifies with them. Sociology principles explain that interaction at the social level forms the cornerstone for societal interaction. The way of interaction with others demonstrates people's beliefs and what they hold as valuable as members of a group. Behavior patterns show social relationships that are unequal. These are the elements that trigger ethnicity and racial issues. The issues overlap with elements of yet another principle. For instance, social relationships that are unequal are connected to what people see as true about each other as both individuals and as members of social groups. People frequently generate beliefs about others around them; which often comprise of discrimination and prejudice.
USA constitutes people from various…
Brague, J. A. (2011, October 21). Elderly stereotypes. Retrieved September 26, 2016, from Applied Social Psychology: http://www.personal.psu.edu/bfr3/blogs/applied_social_psychology/2011/10/elderly-stereotypes.html
Hegewisch, A., & Dumonthier, A. (2016). Pay Equity & Discrimination. Retrieved September 26, 2016, from Institute for Women's Policy Research: http://www.iwpr.org/initiatives/pay-equity-and-discrimination/#about
Randall, V. R. (2010, October 3). Why Race Matters? Retrieved October 3, 2016, from University of Dayton: https://academic.udayton.edu/health/03access/data.htm
Perez, A. D., & Hirschmann, C. (2009). The Changing Racial and Ethnic Composition of the U.S. Population: Emerging American Identities: Vol 35, Issue 1, 1-51. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2882688/
For example, one of the interesting points that grabbed my attention was Dill's discussion of gender relations among African slaves. Slave men and women had a more egalitarian relationship than free white men and women. That is because slave men did not possess the power and authority of free men. So, power is inherently corrupting? At least, this is what Dill's description of gender relations in antebellum America suggest.
I wish, as a professor of sociology, Dill could have made more direct relations with the present (describing history just for the sake of history is the job of historians). I also wish, she could have allotted as much space to the story of Chinese-Americans that she does to White, African-American, and Chicano families. But I still admired this essay because it powerfully tells how society often subjects women to double or triple burdens. In colonial and antebellum America, the society…
Andersen, M.L, & Collins, P.H. (2010) Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology, 7th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
In this sense, Jansson makes clear reference when defining the term "internal orientalism." Despite the fact that such terms have been further discussed in previous studies, the author brings a different stand on the term and offers it a new dimension when combined with the term "the other" and psychogeography. Therefore, his aim is to further discuss not necessarily the role and meaning of internal orientalism but also to undergo an analysis of the factors that may influence them and may determine different outcomes of the debate.
Aside from the academic background and the information received from previous studies, Jansson also makes use of the interview technique in order to have a better sense of the realities on the ground for the areas under analysis. More precisely, the interviews undertaken for the study include members of the "Southern" nationalist organization League of the South, and with African-Americans in the Lynchburg,…
The apparent point here is that land traditionally belonging to native tribes will be used to mine in the interest of the developed world. It makes me feel both sad and powerless. I do not have all the information, but stories like this always make me feel that those with the greatest physical, technological, or financial power, or all three, tend to have more power than even those with the right to a certain piece of land or way of living.
The second point confirms the previous observation, that the consistent support of those in power has resulted in the approval of the project without any regard for the rights of those who have possessed the land for far longer. Again, this gives me a sense of powerlessness when faced with decisions by politicians who have only their own interest at heart.
This is far longer than the mere…
If students are misbehaving, they are not engaged in their lessons. Behavior management is, unfortunately, a priority focus at Springfield Gardens, to the detriment of instruction. This is the point that the three interviewees continued to stress. None of them blamed the teachers for failing to engage students; the fault, as they see it, lies squarely with the students whose families apparently do not place a high value on education. The students, as Gordon, Benton and Johnson see it, are products of the culture in which their parents live.
The three frequently compared and contrasted the students of today with students of generations past. Students in "the good old days" did not misbehave the way students do "these days." That point was made clear, particularly in interviews with Benton and Gordon. Benton recalled a childhood outside the United States where school, he implied, was much more rigorous. It would appear…
Bali, V.A., & Alvarez, R.M. (2003). Schools and educational outcomes: What causes the "race gap" in student test scores? Social Science Quarterly 84 (3)
Biddle, R. (March 7, 2011). The condemnation of black children to dropout factories must end. Dropout Nation. Retrieved from http://dropoutnation.net/2011/03/07/condemnation-black-children/
Lewis, a.E. (2001). There is no race in the schoolyard: Color-blind ideology in an (almost)
all-white school. American Educational Research Journal 38 (4), 781-811.
Air, Space, And Cyber Space Security
Air, Space, and Cyberspace Power Studies
"Since the birth of military aviation, airmen have claimed that airpower offered a new approach to warfare. Even in the earliest days of aviation, airpower's range of action, its ability to react and refocus quick across a wide area without having to consider the terrain or access, and its inherent above -- the surface perspective all pointed to a new era in warfare" ("AFDD 1, Air Force asic Doctrine"). Within the military, the United States air force has a great strength and makes a considerable contribution to the well-being and safety of citizens of the United States. As society progresses into a new technology age, where computers no longer take up entire rooms but can fit in the palm of our hands, the USAF must also change with the times. How is the air force going to keep…
"AFDD 1, Air Force Basic Doctrine." 2003.www.dtic.mil/doctrine_jel/service_pubs_afdd1.pdf (accessed August 22, 2011).
Boyne, Walter J. Air Warfare: An International Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2002.
Daniel, Lisa. "New Strategy Shows Importance of Space Domain, Lynn Says." February 16, 2011. http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=62844 (accessed August 22, 2011).
Hess, Bill. "Senior officer stresses growing importance of cyber ecurity." June 12, 2011.http://www.svherald.com/content/news/2011/06/12/senior-officer-stresses-growing-importance-cyber-security (accessed August 22, 2011).
He adds a complete set of notes and references used at the end of each chapter in addition to the nineteen complete documents he includes at the end of the book. He completed exhaustive research, so his ideas are not simply based on speculation; they are well thought out and thoroughly investigated. He uses a combination of books, articles, letters, memoirs, and other written documents to ensure he has a broad cross section of historical documents as evidence for his conclusions, as well.
This is an interesting look at a part of history that many other historians do not discuss. He offers valid arguments for his position, backed up with much research and historical evaluation. The fact that the founding fathers called all men equal, but failed to abolish slavery has always been a perplexing question in my own mind. This book helps answer that question once and for all.…
Nash, Gary B. (1990). Race and revolution. Madison, WI: Madison House Publishers.
Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism
Developing Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism
Today, certain individuals in the developing countries could be viewing "space tourism" as vocabulary. Nonetheless, in the developed countries, this term is turning to be more familiar and gradually becoming a holiday experience for world Forbes. This is an expensive venture that is exciting, stunning, adventurous, and relatively remains the least exploited phenomena in the world history. Since the first "space tour" in 2001, the rich stamps their foot on a fact that wherever they can go, the poor cannot manage to go, and what the poor can do, they can do best. Over the past few decades, the general perception about space tourism has been changing yearly. History reveals that this perception considered space tourism as a "science fiction." However, this term currently gains recognition and is becoming the most important grand target for the growing…
Ashford, D.M. (1984). Space tourism: Key to the universe? Journal of Spaceflight, 26(4), 123-
Bono, P. (1973). The reusable booster paradox: Aircraft technology or operations? Journal of Space Flight, 9(3), 379-387.
Broz, T.A. (1985). NASA administrator rules out shuttle for space tourism. Commerce on Space Tourism, 9(8), 68-77.
Gerard, M. & Jefferson, P. (1998). International cooperation in space: New government and industry relationships. Journal of Space Exploration, 9(5), 27-39.
Black people have to work as hired household help or as farm labor while white people own the economic resources of production. Gordimer's mother had a black maid and it is likely that this made her sensitive to the inequality between the two communities (Gordimer et al. 1990).
On the other hand, What it's Like to be a Black Girl explores the psychological pressure and turmoil that a young black girl living in an urban society has to go through. Her identity is shaped by her consciousness of her physical appearance and how different it is from the white-skinned acceptable norm of society. She also has to deal with her developing sexuality and the responses that elicits from people in her community. The poem shows how the young black girl has to accept her fate as a passive sexual being to satisfy the needs of the male.
Compared with Thebedi,…
References in Black Women's Narratives of Apartheid Racism. South African Journal of Psychology, Vol. 40 (4), pp. 414-431. Accessed on 10 May 2012 from EBSCOhost database
Gordimer's Country Lovers
Issues of race and gender have been considered to be popular subjects in literature and allow individuals to express how these issues have affected them and how they have affected society. "Country Lovers" (1975), by Nadine Gordimer, allows the reader to understand how issues of race and gender are universal. Gordimer also uses "Country Lovers" as a platform to show how these issues impacted her personally and the lasting effect that they have on people living in South Africa, where she was born and raised. "Country Lovers" (1975) analyzes how racial discrimination and gender influence how the story's female protagonist, Thebedi, is treated.
Despite the fact that Gordimer herself is not involved in politics, "her writings document, decade by decade, the impact of politics on personal lives and what an increasingly radical white South African woman felt, thought, and imaged during the rise and fall of apartheid"…
Bazin, N.T. And Gordimer, N. (1995). An interview with Nadine Gordimer. Contemporary Literature. 36.1 (Winter), pp. 571-587. JSTOR. Accessed 30 October 2012.
The History of Apartheid in South Africa. (n.d.) Stanford University. Accessed 30 October 2012,
Gordimer, N. (1975). Country Lovers.
Miranda Fricker's 'Central Case' of Testimonial Injustice
Considering a case in which Tom, a black man is alleged to have raped a white woman; Miranda explores how injustice happens within the confines of offering testimony. Tom is a black man living in Alabama accused of raping a white woman. Every detail and evidence that tries to bring out Tom as not the possible suspect are disapproved because of Tom's blackness. Tom has no power to harm anyone using some part of his body, a solid and physical prove that he is not the one who might have raped the white woman. The jury is credibly informed that the man in suspect is Tom since they cannot buy into his testimonies because he is considered "black." The testimony is, in some way, affected by the characteristic features of the person giving the testimony. The testimony does not stand on its own…
There is a great level of disparity and disproportionality in today's criminal justice system and as noted in this work in writing, this is likely the greatest challenge facing professionals in the contemporary criminal justice system and in the criminal justice system in the near future. It is critically important that this disparity and disproportionality be addressed due to the negative and adverse impacts that result from an overzealous imprisonment of individuals from minority racial and ethnic groups in the United States.
Harrison, Paige M. And eck, Allen J. (2006). Prisoners in 2005. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice in: Garland, rett E., Spohn, Cassia, and Wodahl, Eric J. (2008). Racial Disproportionality in the American Prison Population: Using the lumstein Method to address the Critical Race and Justice Issue of the 21st Century. Justice Policy Journal. Vol.5, No.2, Fall 2008. Online available at: http://www.cjcj.org/files/racial_disproportionality.pdf
Spohn, Cassia C. (2000). Thirty…
Harrison, Paige M. And Beck, Allen J. (2006). Prisoners in 2005. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice in: Garland, Brett E., Spohn, Cassia, and Wodahl, Eric J. (2008). Racial Disproportionality in the American Prison Population: Using the Blumstein Method to address the Critical Race and Justice Issue of the 21st Century. Justice Policy Journal. Vol.5, No.2, Fall 2008. Online available at: http://www.cjcj.org/files/racial_disproportionality.pdf
Spohn, Cassia C. (2000). Thirty Years of Sentencing Reform: The Quest for a Racially Neutral Sentencing Process. In Garland, Brett E., Spohn, Cassia, and Wodahl, Eric J. (2008). Racial Disproportionality in the American Prison Population: Using the Blumstein Method to address the Critical Race and Justice Issue of the 21st Century. Justice Policy Journal. Vol.5, No.2, Fall 2008. Online available at:
Gender and Race in Gordimer and Smith
In "Country Lovers" and "What It's Like to be a Black Girl (For Those of You Who Aren't)," Nadine Gordimer and Patricia Smith, respectively, demonstrate that issues of race and ethnicity are issues that are devoid of space and time. Gordimer focuses on the impact that apartheid has on Thebedi, a young, black girl, in South Africa, whereas Smith focuses on how American society has shaped her perception of herself due to a long history of racial discrimination. Both Gordimer's story and Smith's poem allow the reader to see how society shapes perceptions of others and perceptions of oneself based on race and ethnicity.
Gordimer has first-hand experience on the effects of apartheid as she grew up in South Africa and witnessed how people were discriminated against based upon the color of their skin. In South Africa, apartheid governed how society was structured…
Brain Race: An Examination
Globalization, evolution and technology. It's notable that when many professionals discuss these elements, they talk about them with fear and apprehension. On the other hand Ben Wildavsky presents the rapid evolution of mankind across the globe and the manner in which higher education is being transformed with celebration and open arms. Wildavsky looks particularly at the phenomenon of international students studying outside their homes, increasing each year. The elite universities that exist around the world aren't just those that exist in the western hemisphere, but in places like Saudi Arabia and Russia. With the rapid development of the internet, satellite campuses have become an even more growing trend, and that more and more opportunities are expanding to more people. Wildavsky demonstrates that the fervor created in the international arena characterized by the desire to get ahead and become more and more elite, creates a global marketplace…
Social Marginalization by Race: Economic Deprivation and White American Resistance in the allot or the ullet by Malcolm X
The rigorous history of African-Americanism and their emancipation within the American society reflects the struggles and perpetuation of discrimination among black Americans even during the 20th century. Malcolm X, considered one of the most radical and influential leader of the black American civil rights movement, centers on the issues of discrimination and white American resistance among the blacks in his famous discourse, The allot or the ullet, delivered in April 3, 1964.
The relevance and significance of Malcolm X's discourse must be put into context in the events happening during his time. Historically, the socio-political landscape of the United States during the 1960s is characterized by the emergence and development of the civil rights movement for the marginalized sectors of the society, such as the youth, women, poor, and particularly, African-Americans.…
Malcolm X (1964). The Ballot or the Bullet. Available at: http://www.indiana.edu/~rterrill/Text-BorB.html .
Nowhere on earth is a thirteen-pound, six-foot long unit of 'scandal' or 'integrity' to be found, for example. Nor apparently can someone find a benchmark unit of 'race'.
The second thread runs through the slides 1887, 1934 and 1997. Jim Crow led to better homes for whites than Blacks even after they fought WWII side by side. What this demonstrates is one clear way we very literally live within the tangible outcome of discrimination today, and the Web site goes on to expand on this in "Where Race Lives" and "To See or Not To See" very convincingly. What interests me here is specifically the assertion that "Jim Crow unites poor and wealthy whites, while denying African-Americans equality." I do not contest that the U.S. legal, i.e. white, institution actively and deliberately removed non-whites' means to confront and dismantle discrimination at law. Nor do I contest that the intent of…
In “Crimes Which Startle and Horrify: Gender, Age, and the Racialization of Sexual Violence in White American Newspapers, 1870-1900,” Estelle Fredman situates rape as a series of interconnected power relations, focusing on the intersection between race and gender in particular. Fredman analyzes the historical context of rape, showing how rape is socially constructed in ways that reinforce patriarchal and racist norms. Besides the cogent thesis driving Fredman’s work, the author also relies on a tight methodology, focusing on media accounts in nineteenth century American newspapers geared to primarily white male readers. Fredman claims that the media proliferated the two central archetypes that defined American social and political hierarchies for the coming generations: the black male sexual predator and the innocent, vulnerable child victim.
Fredman begins the article with a brief introduction to the historiography of rape. The rise of the popular media during the late nineteenth century was especially critical…
Cyber Feminism, Gender and Technology
Cyberfeminism, Gender and Technology
Feminist movement found on the internet is known as Cyberfeminism. In recent times, the term has gained controversial status. Cyberfeminism, a fundamental issue from the feminist perspective, is mostly ignored by researchers and academics. It concentrates on empowerment of women through the cyberspace. Furthermore, it deals with female enlightenment and concentrates on creating awareness on how the digital technologies can influence the rights and social status of women. The digital technologies act as a medium of re-embodying the issue of racism and gender. Internet is the new medium used to erase the identity of women; that is; women are the erased race. However, the internet has played a significant role in promoting Cyberfeminism by pointing out that several feminist studies and internet activities are done by the online media. It cannot be denied that technology plays an important role in promoting…
1. Chon, Margaret. Erasing Race? A Critical Race Feminist View of Internet Identity Shifting, 1999.
2. Nakamura, Lisa. Digitizing Race: Visual Cultures of the Internet. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.
3. Nakamura, Lisa. Cybertypes: Race, Ethnicity, and Identity on the Internet. London: Routledge, 2002.
4. Wilding, Faith. Where is Feminism in Cyberfeminism?. 28 March 2006. Cyberfeminist International. 4 June 2011.
So by embracing the underground, as the narrator eventually does, he is attempting to regain a sense of his own identity by remaining separate from the falseness of that which occurs above him. Clearly, it is significant that he spends his time stealing electricity, writing his story, and listening to Louis Armstrong's "hat Did I Do to Be So Black and Blue" on a phonograph. The first, obviously, is his attempt to subvert the works of mainstream society; but the second two stand as the symbol for what jazz represents in the American experience. Jazz is this sense of individuality; so much so, that the narrator is able to create his own identity through words as he listens to music. Today, the invisibility of jazz has been lifted, but its importance to the meaning of the words "America" and "democracy" remains the same as Ellison understood it to be.
De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975.
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. New York: Random House, 1980.
Ostendorf, Berndt. "Ralph Waldo Ellison." New Essays on Invisible Man. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Peretti, Burton. "Speaking in the Groove: Oral History and Jazz." The Journal of American History, vol. 88, no. 2, September, 2001.
narrative analysis of historical content, themes, patterns, and events related to "race and empire in U.S. History. For this reason, six books have been considered. The paper will cover the narrative analysis of historical content related to race and empire in U.S. History, summary of the chronological themes, and the strengths and weaknesses for each book.
Manifest destinies: the making of the Mexican-American race
The key to the approach of Gomez is the thought that Mexican-Americans do not from ethnicity, in fact a race. The difference lies in societal construction. Rather than having inborn worth, race is history reliant and given meaning by social processes, institutions, and persons. In the view of Gomez, the identity of Mexican-American is a result of social attitudes and legal definitions during the era, after the war between U.S. And Mexico. In fact, for Mexicans, there was no proper racial model[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Gomez,…
8. Hardy, T.J.. Race as an Aspect of the U.S.-Australian Alliance in World War II. (Diplomatic History, 2013)
9. Mora, A.P.. Jose Angel Hernandez. Mexican-American Colonization during the Nineteenth Century: A History of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands. (The American Historical Review, 118(3), 818-819., 2013)
10. Guyotte, R.L., & Posadas, B.M.. Filipinos and Filipino Americans, 1870 -- 1940. Immigrants in American History: Arrival, Adaptation, and Integration, 347, 2013
Smith may dislike the stereotype, but she cannot help internalizing it. She feels unfinished because she is regarded as unfinished, and even members of her community urge her to straighten her hair. This is completely different from the joyous, affirmative sigh "I am complete" at the end of Morales' poem. Just as Morales admits that all experiences with racism and discrimination are different, Smith's poem demonstrates how African-American women frequently lack assurance of their sense of self and that their physical qualities are regarded as alien to what is considered 'good' and 'American.' (The young Smith's wearing white to cover up one's tallness seems an attempt to mask blackness and presumed 'badness' with clothing). Morales' instability of identity lies in multiplicity of national cultures, but Smith, even as a young, black girl, but carefully balance her sense as an American and African-American with even greater care and psychological discomfort that…
Bolano, Roberto. (2000). Literature and Exile. The Nation. Retrieved August 9, 2011 at http://www.thenation.com/article/157695/literature-and-exile
Daniels, Lenore Jean. (2009). What is the image of black women today? Philly IMC.
Retrieved August 9, 2011 at http://www.phillyimc.org/en/what-image-black-women-today
Doughty, Julia. (1995). Testimonies of survival: Notes from an interview with Aurora Levins
The disjoint between the white and black American realities was already evident at the start of the chapter, wherein he demonstrated the "flower box movement" as a reflection of the white American society's lack of understanding of poverty and inequality, wherein flower boxes were promoted in houses in the Projects to 'beautify' the social environment, subsisting to the belief that "poverty was primarily an aesthetic problem. If we could just spruce things up a bit, we'd all have more hope; we might even become middle class" (19). In fact, the Projects became a venue where marginalized groups converge and create their own worlds, mainly to be apart from the affluent white Americans.
Conley's neighborhood symbolized poverty and downward mobility that his family went through, although the author contended, as claimed by his parents, that it was the family's deliberate choice to live in the Projects rather than in a middle…
Conley, D. 2000. Honky. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Renzetti, C. And D. Curran. 2000. Living Sociology. 2nd ed. MA: Allyn & Bacon.
There are countless civic organizations and community services throughout the city, including Agency for International Development, American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association, American Muslim Council,
American Running Association, D.C. Travel & Social Club, Friends of Sri Lanka in the U.S., National Conference of State Societies, Human Rights Campaign,
National Genealogical Society, The National Genealogical Society, National Rifle Association, People For the American ay, St. John's Community Service's ArtView, and The Childrens Foundation (D.C.)
Despite the racial diversity and richness of culture, the ashington, D.C. area seems to be plagued with racial problems. The media are filled with news reports and editorials concerning the discrimination against African-Americans. In particular at issue are numerous accounts of racial profiling by law enforcement. Moreover, in recent years there has been much media discussion concerning discrimination against minorities among home-finance companies.
And even Mayor illiams's office has been forced to deal with racial slurs from his…
Anthony A. Williams: Mayor of the District of Columbia. Retrieved November 02, 2005 at http://dc.gov/mayor/bios/williams.shtm
Barnes, D.R. (2001 June 06). D.C. Grandmother Accuses Prince George's Police of Racial Profiling. Washington Informer. Retrieved November 02, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
City Council. Retrieved November 02, 2005 at http://www.dccouncil.washington.dc.us/
Clemetson, Lynette. (1999 February 08). The Slur That Wasn't.(Washington D.C.
human race is highly social in nature. This fact is evident in the way people seek to build relationships that result in a sense of belonging, companionship and connection. Unfortunately, this perfectly natural human desire is often thwarted when people from different cultures intermingle. In such situations, the dominant culture tends to stereotype ethnic and minority groups leading to the latter experiencing a feeling of isolation and alienation. Besides the feeling of not belonging, stereotyping, as Judith Ortiz Cofer and Brent Staples point out, can also result in the worst sort of social injustice, and that is, the failure to recognize people as individuals in their own right.
Judith Ortiz Cofer, a poet, novelist and short story writer, grew up in New Jersey. A Puerto Rican by birth and upbringing, Cofer repeatedly experienced the indignity of being stereotyped. Not surprisingly, therefore, Cofer's writings reflect her Puerto Rican experience. For instance,…
Constraints of Blacks
Discussion the geographic spaces and constraints of Blacks in the United States between 1865 and 2010.
Throughout the reconstruction period several acts were passed that were intended to integrate African-Americans or freedmen as they were referred to in the period in society. Despite the initial goals of the legislative acts, African-Americans faced a significant antagonism from many whites in the south who did not agree to the new freedoms for the former slaves. The first and arguably most significant step move towards a more equal and free society was the 13th amendment to the Constitution.
This amendment was passed in 1865 and was shortly after was followed by the passage of the civil rights act in 1866 and the 14th amendment. The underlying purpose of 13th and 14th amendments as well as the civil rights act of 1866 was to officially designate African-Americans citizens by…
Late Twentieth Century through the Present
Martin Luther King was a Baptist minister who became an icon for civil rights across America. He raised public awareness of the civil rights cause but this had a negative effect on his personal life as during the boycott King's house was bombed and during the campaign he was arrested. The importance of Martin Luther King's role in achieving civil rights could not be understated. However, it is less well-known that E.D Nixon, a African-American civil rights leader and union organizer who played a crucial role in organizing the famous Montgomery Bus Boycott and furthering the movement. However, it is MLK's eloquence and conviction of speech that served as a rallying point for millions of sympathetic individuals to protest racial injustices.
While the present circumstances for an African-American in the United States is still fraught with hardships, there is still much progress that is continually being made. In 2008 the United States elected their first African-American president; a feat that many predicted would not be possible until well into the future. However, at the same time there are a plethora of challenges that still face the African-American communities. In many of the urban centers, such as Chicago for example, there is still a significant amount of segregation. Furthermore, African-Americans generally have less employment opportunities, lower pay rates, higher incarnation rates, and fewer opportunities for education than their racial counterparts. Therefore, even though an enormous amount of progress has been made, there is still much more work to be done.
They could do it time and time again with success. The first electric car was used on the moon during the Apollo 14 (Endeavor and Falcon) mission (Kennedy Space Center).
Meanwhile in Russia
hile the space program in the United States was busy becoming a popular culture icon, the Russian space program took on a different personality. They still launched missions for "national prestige" (ade). However, the majority of Soviet missions were for military purposes. The Soviet economy played a major role in space efforts. The soviet economy was planned in five-year increments, with long-range military plans being made for the next ten years (ade). This significantly affected the pace of space program development. The Russian space plan was slow to react to American successes.
First generation Soviet launchers had poor reliability. The ten-year plan for the second generation was not approved until 1976 (ade). Third generation plans were approved…
Aerospace. A Brief History: Space Exploration. Last Modified: January 21, 2005. http://www.aero.org/education/primers/space/history.html . (Accessed October 30, 2008).
Angleo, J. Space Technology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2003.
CNN.com. India launches first moon mission. October 22, 2008. CNN.com/Technology. http://www.cnn.com /2008/TECH/space/10/22/india.space/index.html (Accessed October 29, 2008).
Grayzeck, E. Apollo 13 Command and Service Module (CSM). NSSDC ID: 1970-029A. National Space center Data Center. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/masterCatalog.do?sc=1970-029A (Accessed October 29, 2008).
causes that led to and accentuated the Cold ar, and look at its affect on modern scientific developments in arms and the space race. The Cold ar led to developments in rocketry and science that have given rise to new technologies that the world uses every day.
The Cold ar really began during the Second orld ar, when talk of post-war treaties between the United States, Great Britain, and Russia were put on hold until the war ended. "From early in 1942 the American Government had repeatedly proclaimed the principle that no final decisions on matters of postwar frontiers or systems of government should be made until the end of the war" (Graebner 5). "The growth of distrust and opposition between the United States (U.S.) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) begins with Joseph Stalin's pre-orld ar II behavior. The U.S. And Great Britain provided war tactics and…
Authors. "40th Anniversary of the Mercury 7." NASA. 18 April 2002. http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/40thmerc7/intro.htm
Editors. "Space Channel." FutureFantastic.net. 2002. http://www.futurefantastic.net/exhibits/space/introduction.htm
Graebner, Norman A. "How the Cold War Began." The Cold War: Ideological Conflict Or Power Struggle? Boston: Heath, 1963. 1-10.
Haggerty, James J. "Spinoff 1996." NASA. 1996.
nation-altering event of the 1960s. Specifically it will discuss man's first walk on the moon by astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldren, and how it stimulated the nation's growth, made an indelibly positive impression upon America's institutions, and if it/they provide sufficient substance to be incorporated into the future study of America during the 1960s.
MAN ON THE MOON
One of the most important and nation altering events to occur in the 1960s was the Apollo astronaut program, specifically, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldren's successful walk on the moon on July 20, 1969.
On July 20, 1969, people around the world watched in awe as Neil Armstrong became the first human to walk on the moon. The event symbolized, as Armstrong laconically radioed to earth, a "giant leap for mankind." In fact, the achievement was so overwhelming that a few people refused to believe it actually occurred, claiming that it…
Byrnes, Mark E. Politics and Space: Image Making by NASA. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.
Flatow, Ira, "Analysis: Anniversary of First Plans for Going to the Moon." Talk of the Nation Science Friday (NPR). 25 May 2001.
Levins, Harry. "In 1969, the U.S. Won the Cold War Race to the Moon." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 18 July 1999, pp A4.
Public Affairs. "V-2 Rocket." White Sands Missile Range. 2002. 22 March 2003. http://www.wsmr.army.mil/paopage/Pages/V-2.htm
This lead was accomplished through a partnership nearly a half-century old among government, industry and academia. I member of that partnership was the National Science Foundation (NSF). As Strawn noted, early on, scientists and engineers at American universities began to join the young APANet, as they worked on basic research funded primarily by the NSF. Acknowledging this, the NSF began supporting national supercomputing centers, in the mid-1980s, as a means of giving American scientists, engineers, and students greater access to high-performance computing that was state of the art, and developed Computer Science Network (CSNET).
Creation of these national supercomputer centers by NSF was critical to the development of the Internet. To further enhance U.S. scientists' access to these centers, NSF established the NSFNET national backbone network that connected the NSF supercomputing centers to U.S. universities. NSF also promoted the creation of regional networks to connect colleges and universities to the…
Bellis, M. Inventors of the Modern Computer. 2007. About.com. November 7, 2007 http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa091598.htm .
Brief History of the Internet. 10 Dec 2003. Internet Society. November 7, 2007 http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.shtml .
Cold War. 2003. National Park Service. November 7, 2007 http://www.nps.gov/archive/elro/glossary/cold-war.htm .
DARPA Over the Years. 27 Oct 2003. DARPA. November 7, 2007 http://www.darpa.mil/body/overtheyears.html .
The reason that the watch reminds me of my father's humility is the way he avoids wearing it in any company who might perceive it as a purposeful display of wealth or status.
My father has never worn it where the circumstances would amount to rubbing his (apparent) wealth in the face of others. In my family it has always been a good-natured joke that my father's watch is worth more than everything else he owns combined, except for his car. In fact, if my father keeps both his car and his watch for much longer, it may be worth more than everything else he owns including his car. He has always bought his clothes at places like Target and he said many times that if he ever lost his watch he might have a hard time justifying paying for a new one and that he might not be able…
With Eastern European nations enticed by the financial aid and political support that the U.S. And Britain provided, it became easier for them to weaken the hold of Communism. Furthermore, because Communism and a socialist economy were still in its infancy, the effects of a proletarian-led society did not bring out the expected results among these Communist nations. In effect, primarily due to the strong political influence and economic power of the U.S. And Britain, they were able to push through their anti-Communist program, providing military support through the provision of soldiers and weaponry for nations divided between Communism and capitalism.
A deeper analysis of the economic state of the Soviet Union during the rise of Communism also helps to further understand how it eventually failed to create a new social order in the modern period. Post-war Eastern Europe was driven with poverty and scarcity of its basic resources; thus,…
Aviation Project - SpaceX
The current aerospace technologies being built and flown by the private commercial company known as SpaceX (from California) have a remarkable record of success thus far. The "Dragon," which is the cargo capsule built by SpaceX, put into orbit by the Falcon 9 launch rocket, delivered its second load of supplies to the International Space Station (ISS) on Sunday, March 3 (Segal, 2013). The SpaceX contract with NASA is for a total of twelve cargo missions to the ISS over the coming years; the first Dragon cargo ship was launched and delivered supplies to the International Space Station in October, 2012. The un-manned Dragon is designed to carry supplies to and from the ISS, and it is the first privately built commercial spacecraft to handle those chores -- or conduct any space-related activities per se. NASA contracted with SpaceX in 2008 after NASA had retired its…
Black, Charles. (2013). SpaceX tests its vertical takeoff and vertical landing rocket. SEN.
Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.sen.com .
Money, Stewart. (2012). Why SpaceX is setting the pace in the commercial space race. NBC
News. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.nbcnews.com .
They went into a spending frenzy that would carry them though the next decade. They bought houses, started families and settled down to a life of normalcy after a decade of chaos. Illustrations began to return to resemble that of fine are of earlier times.
The Invitation. Ben Stahl. Date unknown magazine photo. Al Parker. Date unknown
ise of the Atomic Age (1950-1960)
The prosperity that came with the end of the war continued into the new decade. Americans attempted to settle into a life or normalcy. There was a significant return to traditional gender roles, as many women were forced back into the household and the men went off to work as usual. Women, now used to providing for themselves represented a new target market. To fill their days they read the "seven sisters" (McCall's, Ladies Home Journal, Cosmopolitan, edbook, Good Housekeeping, Seventeen, and Women's Day). These magazines began…
Crow, T. 2006. The Practice of Art History in America. Daedalus. 135, no. 2. Questia Database.
"Jesse Wilcox Smith" 2000. http://www.bpib.com/illustrat/jwsmith.htm
Reed, Walter and Reed, Roger. 2008. The History of Illustration. Society of Illustrators. Online. http://societyillustrators.org/about/history/283.cms
Murphy, J. 2007. Making Virtual Art Present. Afterimage. 35, no. 2. Questia Database.
In this way, the organization is able to develop as needed or warranted by the plethora of external and internal circumstances that affect it daily.
There is often a negative connotation associated with Burns and Stalker's assessment of mechanistic organizations, and there is some truth in this qualitative perspective. This does not mean that all aspects of mechanistic organizations are too be seen as primarily detrimental or less-than-satisfactory, however; stability is a good thing, and in certain times and situations a very necessary thing. Stability and innovation, however, are not often mutual partners in an organization's growth and progression, and it was this issue that Burns and Stalker tackled. Their theory is improved upon only by a better understanding, provided by a longer view from the end (rather than the middle) of a century of great innovation and change, of the larger organizational influences and cycles that form the pattern…
Bechhofer, F. & McCrone, D. (2001). "Obituary: Tom Burns." The Guardian. Accessed 28 January 2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2001/jun/28/guardianobituaries.socialsciences
Burns, T. & tsalker, G. (1961). The Management of Innovation. New York: Oxford university press.
Eldridge, J. (2001). "Obituary: Tom Burns." The Independent. Accessed 28 January 2010. http://www.tomburns.org.uk/independent.html
Sine, W.; Mitsuhashi, H. & Kirsch, D. 92006). "Revisiting Burns and Stalker." Academy of management journal 49(10), pp. 121-32.
military imparts in an individual many important qualities that they carry out into the real world. These qualities are leadership, versatility, character, among others. The military is an excellent place to learn, to grow, and to better one's self. Many people have had long and successful careers that they earned only through being in the military. It teaches a person the importance of hard work, communication, and bravery.
The military allows for transition into a multitude of careers, especially career in the government. And in sectors where leadership skills are rare and sought after, the military prepares one to establish a secure foothold in these areas. Non-for-profits, volunteer organizations, and businesses all require strong and fearless leaders with clear direction and focus. The military offers exactly what a person needs early on to achieve anything they set out for. Six sections will be examined to show just how military lessons…
Ambrose, S.E. (1983). Eisenhower. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Burns, J.M., & Dunn, S. (2004). George Washington. New York: Times Books.
Cunningham, J.B., & Lischeron, J. (1991). Defining Entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Management, 29(1), 45. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8691.1993.tb00073.x
Gowel, D. (2012, March 1). 5 reasons the military is the best training for entrepreneurs | SmartBlogs [Web blog post]. Retrieved from https://smartblogs.com/leadership/2012/03/01/5-reasons-the-military-is-the-best-training-for-entrepreneurs/
It is in this context that the U.S. felt Soviet Union as a threat, since improved and increased production of space technology meant that there is also a corresponding increase in the capacity of the country to defend itself militarily. This threat was verbalized by the U.S., wherein containment of Communist nations such as Soviet Union was necessary because "...the Soviet Union has acquired awesome military capabilities" (Mueller, 2004:621).
The unprecedented and initial launching of Sputnik I, which served as the catalyst for the space race between Soviet Union and the U.S., compelled the latter to create alliances to support its military activities in Eastern Europe and Asia. In light of the expanding scope of the Communist ideology in both regions, U.S. deemed it wise to create a strong alliance with another Western country, Great ritain. Prior to the threat of communism, Soviet Union, U.S., and Great ritain were considered…
Martel, W. And T. Yoshihara. (2003). "Averting a Sino-U.S. Space Race." The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 4.
Mueller, J. (2004). "What was the Cold War about? Evidence from its ending." Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 119, No. 4.
Ronis, S. (2004). "Transformational recapitalization: rethinking USAF aircraft procurement philosophies." Defense at&L.
If the satellite had successfully entered orbit, this would have put the United States more than a year ahead of the Soviets in the endeavor, which added
In fact, this was not the only rocket and satellite project that many United States scientists and government officials felt had been failures, or at least under-utilized successes. The Soviets increased the pressure on the American rocket program with their launch of Sputnik II on November 3, less than a month after the launch of their first satellite, and political urging from Eisenhower and others forced the early launch of an American Vanguard satellite.
The Vanguard project had actually anticipated a launch date ahead of the Soviets, which may in part have spurred on the Soviet team and helped them to set their deadline, but a series of setbacks delayed the various test launches of the vehicles meant to deliver the Vanguard into…
Borz, Fred. "Review of Sputnik: The Shock of the Century, http://www.fredbortz.com/review/Sputnik.htm
Caviness, Rochelle. "Review: Sputnik: The Shock of the Century, Large Print Reviews, http://www.largeprintreviews.com/sputnik.html
Curtis, Nancy R. "Review: Sputnik: The Shock of the Century," Library Journal, http://wbrl-lssvr.dnsalias.org:8000/decatur/kcContent?isbn=9780802713650&type=review&controlnumber=dec00086898&referedby=titlelist
Dickinson, Paul. Sputnik: The Shock of the Century (New York: Walker & Co, 2001)
Because of the widespread stigma against homosexuality in the United States and worldwide, medical research was thwarted and the disease became virtually synonymous with homosexuality.
It would take the death of one of America's most beloved, and seemingly straight, movie stars to prove that AIDS could affect anyone (Hiller 1985). When ock Hudson died of the disease in 1985, Americans could see not only that homosexuality was normal and pervasive in society but also that AIDS was spreading more rapidly than was previously thought. The subsequent spread of the disease to straight communities also showed that AIDS was a disease transmitted primarily through sexual contact and blood transfusions; homosexuality had nothing to do with the illness whatsoever. Final hypothesis: The death of ock Hudson forced Americans to rethink homosexuality and to face the AIDS epidemic squarely.
The 1990s: The First Gulf War
The decade opened with a literal bang when…
About the Case." Brown v. Board of Education. Brown Foundation for Educational Equity, Excellence and Research. Retrieved Jun 14, 2008 at http://brownvboard.org/summary/
Cozzens, L. (1995). Brown v. Board of Education. Early Civil Rights Struggles. Retrieved online Jun 14, 2008 at http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html
" he spectacular effect achieved by the Russians therefore had a significant effect upon the minds of citizens around the globe (Dick, March 24).
he financial and political implications of the Apollo program became significant once the president made the decision to commit the United States to a Lunar landing. It was important to the president to set a goal that his country had a good chance of achieving before the Soviet Union. After a definite decision for the launch of the project was made, further important issues of politics and financing became deciding factors in the growth and development of the program.
he decision proved to be sound if the reaction of the nation could be used as a measure of effectiveness. he American imagination was captured, and they lent overwhelming support for Kennedy's decision to sponsor the moon landing. In the eyes of the nation, difficulty, expense and…
Transcript of Presidential Meeting in the Cabinet Room of the White House. Topic: Supplemental appropriations for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 21 November 1962.
Webb, James E. Letter to President Kennedy. October 29, 1962. NASA History
By the late 1970s, the Cold War had wound down, and the Soviets posed less of a threat than they had over the past three decades. Many civil rights for blacks, women, and minorities in America had been won during the Cold War. Many other hard fights were still to come, but ultimately, the Cold War marked the height of American fear of aggression, and American gains in civil rights.
In conclusion, the Cold War was a major contributor to civil rights for a number of reasons. Civil rights were hard won, and many people gave their lives in the ultimate sacrifice to obtain freedom and equality. Civil rights came about for a number of reasons, but pressure from world forces on American democracy was one reason that civil rights became so important to many political leaders. Without pressure from much of the world, civil rights may have been even…
Dudziak, Mary L. Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Fairclough, Adam. "The Cold War and the Color Line: American Race Relations in the Global Arena." History Today Nov. 2002: 84+.
Graham, Hugh Davis. "The Civil Rights Commission: The First 40 Years." Civil Rights Journal 2.1 (1997): 6.
McAuliffe, Mary Sperling. Crisis on the Left: Cold War Politics and American Liberals, 1947-1954. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1978.
Satellite Communications and Situational Awareness
As with so much else in today's world, the military and military operations have been transformed by technology. The situation of the armed forces, and of combat itself, in the time of the Second World War, Korea, and even Vietnam, seem like the dim memories of bygone age. Yet, these conflicts were within the experience of many persons now living. Once upon a time, commanders in the field depended either on their own eyes and ears for information in regard to the enemy, or else they relied on information that was hours, days, or even possibly weeks old. Napoleon and Wellington would have been stunned by the technologies available to Eisenhower and ommel -- the ability to reconnoiter by flying over enemy positions, instant communication by radio between troops in the field and base camp, not to mention "precision" weapons, big guns whose firing mechanisms…
Cloud, J. (2002). American Cartographic Transformations during the Cold War. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 29(3), 261+.
Harris, J. (2003). Dreams of Global Hegemony and the Technology of War. Race and Class, 45(2), 54+.
Harrison, S.S. (2002). Korean Endgame: A Strategy for Reunification and U.S. Disengagement. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kagan, F.W. (2003). War and Aftermath. Policy Review, (120), 3+.
President Johnson became even more fearful of a communist take-over.
In 1964, when two American ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin "the American Senate gave Johnson the power to give armed support to assist any country requesting help in defense of its freedom," effectively beginning the Vietnam War without a formal declaration of war (BBC 2009). The wide-scale bombing of the North in 'Operation olling Thunder' began in February 1965. By March 1965, the first American ground troops had landed in South Vietnam and by December 1965, there were 150,000 servicemen stationed in the country (BBC 2009).
ichard Nixon was elected to the presidency in 1968, promising a policy of Vietnamization or the taking-over of the war against the North by native Vietnamese troops. However, it would be four more years before substantial withdrawals of American servicemen occurred. Nixon also supported dictators in Laos…
An overview of the crisis. (1997). The Cuban Missile Crisis. Crisis Center. Thinkquest.
Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html
The Berlin Airlift. (2010). Cold War Museum. Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://www.coldwar.org/articles/40s/berlin_airlift.asp
Chang, Laurence & Peter Kornbluh. (1998). A national security archive documents reader.
Death penalty is generally conceived of as the supreme legal sanction, inflicted only against perpetrators of the most serious crimes. The human rights community has traditionally held a stance against the death penalty for a wide variety of reasons: critics argue that the death penalty is inhuman and degrading; that it is inappropriately applied and often politically motivated; and that rather than reducing crime, the viciousness of the punishment only serves as an inspiration to further violence.
Historically the death penalty has existed all around the world. Only since the beginning of the twentieth century has the death penalty been rejected by a growing number of people and states. International law discourages but does not prohibit it. Article 6 (paragraphs 2 and 5) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political ights states that "sentence of death may be imposed only for the most serious crimes in accordance with the…
Bernard, T. (1992). The cycle of juvenile justice. New York: Oxford.
Bohm, R.M. (2010). Death penalty opinions: Effects of a classroom experience and public commitment. Sociological Inquiry, 60, 285-297.
Bohm, R.M. (2003). American death penalty opinion: Past, present, and future. In J. Acker, R.M. Bohm, & C.S. Lanier (Eds.), America's experiment with capital punishment: Reflections on the past, present, and future of the ultimate penal sanction (pp. 27-54). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.
Bradizza, C.M., Collins, R.L., Vincent, P.C., & Falco, D.L. (2006). It does the job: Young adults discuss their malt liquor consumption. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1559-1577. doi: 10.1016jaddbeh.2005.12.001