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Spain and Diversity Education
SPAIN AND EALY CHILDHOOD INTEGATION
The world is coming to grips with the fact that in order for people to live together across an interconnected global community, they need to share some common educational foundations supported with common teaching approaches, tactics and technologies (Urban, 2009). This is why collaborative organizations like the European Union developed a set of common educational goals (in 2001) for 2010; goals that included advancing toward a life-long learning model and a desire to enable residents of member nations to thrive in neighboring nations (Wikipedia, 2010).
The reach of these goals has particular significance to countries with a Hispanic heritage. These nations have the potential to set guidelines for how other Hispanic nations and populations might better benefit from educational advancements (Columbia, 2004). Evidence of the importance of this can be seen in how two Hispanic countries have responded in recent years…… [Read More]
Spain's economic transition contributes to our understanding of Spain as a country and as an actor in the international system. Reformists in Spain have long worked towards bringing the country's economy in line with the rest of Europe, since the late 19th century (Royo, 2006). The Franco regime resulted in stunted economic growth. After decades under such rule, Spain was enthusiastic to modernize its economy. A former world power, Spain had fallen by the wayside economically and politically during the 20th century. The relationships that the nation had established with Latin America had become relatively meaningless, and Spain was considered a backwater within Europe. Even before the fall of Franco, steps were taken to open the economy. After the fall of Franco the pace of reforms accelerated further. But ascension into the EU provided Spain with the impetus to make bold reforms, and it was these that allowed for the…… [Read More]
France had shown its best hand to Franco by returning "Gold, weapons, vehicles, valuables, ships, art," and other valuables that had been shipped by the rebels across the Spanish border into France during the Civil ar (Bowen, p. 23).
A tense moment for Spain's so-called neutrality came on June 27, 1940, as German troops arrived at the border of Spain; a deal was struck that "small groups of Nazi soldiers" could travel (while in uniform) through northern Spain (Bowen, p. 29) but the Germans apparently never made a huge push into Spain.
The one force that Franco was definitely not neutral towards was the Soviet Union. In fact, when Germany sent massive troops into Russia in June1941, Franco quickly identified himself and his nation with the German cause, according to orld History at KMLA (HKMLA, 2007). A year previous to that, on June 14th, 1940 Spanish troops actually occupied the…… [Read More]
grants would also be offered under revitalization measures and for the support of local enterprises either small or medium, and improve the company's access to finances and to credit, giving direct aid to certain investments, etc. (Structural Funds) Cohesion Funds are those granted to those states that are lagging behind in terms of economic development concerning areas like transport and the environment so that their chances of integration into the Economic and Monetary Fund are not spoiled. The funds granted under this Cohesion fund are to be used for the development and implementation of projects in the field of the maintenance of the environment and the field of transportation. The beneficiaries, generally, are those authorities, public or private, who are responsible for carrying out and completing the project successfully. (Cohesion Funds)
What must be stated at this point is that Objective 1 and Objective 2 Interventions, Structural Funds, and Cohesion…… [Read More]
3. Spain through Anthropological Lenses
The anthropological studies of Spain are relatively numerous as the country's history is a long standing one. As part of the old continent (Europe), Spain has attracted the attention of numerous researchers throughout the past century, and even prior to this time. The information covered in the anthropological studies of the southwestern European country cover vast topics of interest and has a dual feature -- first of all, it helps the foreigner (and sometimes even the native born Spanish) to become better acquainted with the country itself; secondly, it helps the national and international reader to more accurately position Spain on the map of the international system.
Anthropology will explain how the today modern Kingdom of Spain was first inhabited 30,000 ago by Paleolithic hunters; how the first villages were formed around 4500 BC and how these were organized around a central tomb and the…… [Read More]
But the reason behind this is to centralize the power of Spain and to finance the defense of the Spain in impending wars.
Spain opted for a more centralized economy, with the motherland benefiting from its colonies. Among the changes that were implemented in the its colonies in the Latin America included reviving of the mining industry and establishment of Royal Mining Tribunal, tobacco monopoly and this also included monopoly of other industries such as sulphur, saltpeter, and playing cards and comercio libre or free trade within the Spanish empire, which is the most important among all the Bourbon reforms.
It was a long and steady upward development of Spain because the reforms failed to address the real problems Spain was facing politically and socially. Its colonies in the Americas were also struggling for independence, which would erupt in the years to come as inspired by the French revolution. The…… [Read More]
Spain Global Warming
Being on the forefront of global warming, Al Gore once said, "We are facing a global climate crisis. It is deepening. We are entering a period of consequences." Global warming is the increase in the temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and bodies of water. The consequences Al Gore had mentioned were the effects brought about by the rise in sea levels, changing behaviors of precipitation, and glaciers retreating. In addition, incidences of heat waves and droughts affect the yields in the agricultural industry, which then would influence the economics of food and the people. In particular, global warming in Spain has been affected environmentally, economically, agriculturally, and ecologically.
As stated previously, the environmental changes that global warming brings with it is a change in sea level, which is witnessed in Spain's disappearing beaches. In Spain, it's been predicted that over the next forty-years, such spaces of sand…… [Read More]
First of all, one needs to refer to Spain's geographical location as an important cause of its international presence. Historically, Spain has been located in a strategically important position in Europe, because of (1) its presence on the Atlantic and, thus, immediate access to maritime transportation and (2) its location at the entrance or exit into or from the Mediterranean, important commercial route. oth of these prerogatives are still held today, despite the fact that the 21st century has somewhat minimized its importance.
At the same time, its almost border with Africa means that Spain is the first country that can be affected by migrations and trafficking from Africa, which means that EU partners have a significant interest in helping Spain secure its borders. The existence of the Pyrenees at the border with France and the rest of Europe makes the country easier to defend and protect from terrestrial invasions.…… [Read More]
Spain and the Christianization of America
The term "Hispanic" was recently adopted by the U.S. government as a way to describe people of Spanish-speaking descent in general and people from Latin America in particular, but it is ironic that such a term is needed at all given the historic precedence of the Spanish language in America. Indeed, since Spanish was spoken first and was widespread, it would seem more appropriate for English-speakers today to be referred to in such a fashion to distinguish them as relative newcomers to North and Latin America. Moreover, Hispanics are not necessarily religiously homogeneous but rather subscribe to a wide range of faiths. In this regard, Gonzalez and Cardoza-rlandi emphasize that, "Today, in any major city in the United States one can find a variety of religious practices and traditions among the Hispanics" (p. 96). In fact, Catholic sovereigns, or Bembe, were Cuban, African and…… [Read More]
Galicia, according to Wikipedia, is "an autonomous community in northwest Spain." Sometimes called Galiza, Galicia is said to be among the first kingdoms of Europe. It includes the following provinces, Lugo, a Coruna, Ourense, and Pontevedra. To its south is Portugal. Castile and Leon and Asturias are to its east. To its north and west is the Atlantic Ocean. Among tourists, Galicia is famous for "the presence of many fjord-like indentions on the coast, estuaries that were drowned with rising sea levels after the ice age" (Wikipedia, 2009). Because of its nearness to the Atlantic, Galicia experiences mild temperatures all around the year.
Galicia is said to come from the Latin name, Gallaecia and it is "associated with the name of the ancient Celtic tribe that resided above the Douro river." (Wikipedia, 2009) According to the Galicia Guide (2005), although Galicia is part of mainland Spain, its culture…… [Read More]
3). Although the Socialist Party leader was not known as anti-American, he did advocate for a stronger and more independent role for Spain in terms of its foreign policy and the world economy.
Another voter was more optimistic "I think we'll see social policies such as aid for the poor, better working conditions, and better living conditions as there are not enough homes. I think there will be a general change in internal and external policies" now that the socialists were in power, she said (Bailey 2004). One young man who identified himself as 'unemployed' said: "I hope he [the socialist leader] does pull out of Iraq. Spain should not be involved in something that is nothing to do with us" (in pictures: Spain's shock result, 2004, March, BBC News, p.2004). In short, Spain's government was blamed for putting loyalty to America above Spanish national interests. Anger at America was…… [Read More]
AUTHO ACCOMPLISHES GOALS?
Kamen is able to accomplish his goal. He is able to show -- quite well, in fact -- how the Spanish Empire was a multinational venture for the country. He is able to illustrate how forces worked to effectively help Spain get to where it wanted to be as 'superpower.' For example, with the Muslim activity in the South, Granada would not have fallen; or, without certain bankers, expanding into the Canary Islands would not have been achieved. He effectively shows how Spain relied on its allies as well as other agencies in order to maintain its status of 'superpower.'
WHAT QUESTIONS AE ASKED?
Kamen seems curious about how Spanish patriotism played a part in all of its workings. He asks questions regarding the role of black people as well as the role of the indigenous people in the America and how they helped to create a…… [Read More]
Battle of Santiago took place on the 3rd of July, 1898, between Spain and the United States (Beede, 1994). It was fought in the waters near Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, and was part of the Spanish-American War (Beede, 1994). The result of the battle was a decisive victory for the U.S., and the destruction of the Caribbean Squadron of the Spanish Navy. The battle came about after a realization by Spain that the campaign in Cuba would be the deciding factor in the war, and that something had to be done quickly or the U.S. would have the advantage too strongly. The original plan was to go to Puerto ico, but that was quickly changed to Cuba (Symonds & Clipson, 2001). There was no clear strategy held by Spain at that time, but the overall plan was to end the war very quickly. Spain knew that the U.S. had a…… [Read More]
Women like me take tremendous pleasure in sharing our voices and the songs of our hearts. However, it is with great regret that I am forced to undertake this task of telling you my traumatic tale. All my freedom has been stripped from me I am alone, my husband is dead, and my children are being raised by his murderers -- who most likely will become mine, too. But it is my duty as a citizen of Spain, and of a humble worker dedicated to the values embedded in the only movement that has enabled the empowerment of the people: the Frente Popular.
I now seek to warn my children, or their children, or their children's children, of the dangers inherent in greed and corruption that underwrite too many political movements. I hope that when this letter is unearthed that our lives were not lost in vain. We…… [Read More]
Spain and Portugal were two nations that led the way in exploration and discovery, especially during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Each country had its successes and its failures, and each country had its famous explorers. The focus of this paper is on one particular Portuguese explorer, Prince Henry the Navigator, and the tools and techniques he introduced to his sailors, which revolutionized sailing and furthered exploration more so than anyone else had done up to that point. Although Henry himself never actually set sail on these adventures, "under his direction many important expeditions were undertaken along the west coast of Africa (Encarta)."
Henry was the son of Joao I, the king of Portugal at the time, and was driven to help his father find a faster way to the spice trade in the Far East. The Italians and the Arabs already had strong footholds there, and Henry wanted to…… [Read More]
New Spain, Mexico
The Culture of New Spain: the Rise and Fall of Mexico
The conquest of New Spain defined contemporary Mexican culture to a great degree. But that conquest has been ongoing and did not stop with the conquistadors and the implementation of Catholicism and Spanish customs in Mexico. From the time Columbus brought the Spanish flag to the est Indies (1492) to the 19th century, New Spain was informed by a Catholic culture and the Mexican Aztec culture was suppressed. In the 19th century onward, the Spanish Catholic culture began to be dominated by the American liberal culture of the United States. The glories of New Spain were lost in revolts and revolutions. The Cristero ar of the 20th century proved a major turning point in the battle between New Spain's ideals and 20th century liberalism. The conquest of New Spain by the conquistadors brought many new influences…… [Read More]
Nationalism of Spain and ussia -- Destabilization and Change
This paper discusses how nationalism has been able to handle destabilization and various changing process. The two major countries chosen for this paper include Spain and ussia and their overall growth of nationalist identity will be focused on in this paper to make a thorough and encompassing comparative analyses.
Destabilization and Change - Spain and ussia
According to various scholars, ussia was popularly known for its nationalism that incorporates its culture, fiction and cartoons. The identification or nationalism of ussia shows how western answers and ussian traditions have impacted each other. For the purpose of this comparative paper, the extent of cultural torn that have occurred since the Mongolian yoke will be discussed. The divorce was between the position of anti-westerniser and westernisers. Further illustration will be given that explained how ussia was portrayed by the westerns. Moreover, it also…… [Read More]
Given that Spain managed to reach a statute similar to that owned by the U.S. In a matter of decades, it appears that the media has a beneficial effect on the audiences. However, the media in the U.S. has lost interest in captivating the public and started to be more interested in exploiting it. The media devices in Spain experience a constant growth while those in the U.S. go through a period of regression.
All things considered, the Spanish youth is positively influenced by the media in most cases, and the general public in Spain has expressed its trust in this source of information. It is believed that the media brings a significant contribution to the education enjoyed by Spain's teenagers. Although the media is Spain could not stay indifferent to the chances it got at exploiting the audiences, it did so to a limited degree, concomitantly sending positive messages…… [Read More]
Also, he notes that the piety of Isabella and Ferdinand was not altogether negative. For example, when Columbus sent home "shiploads of Indians" from the New World, the court's theologians and Isabella in particular strongly protested such an action. (Elliot, p.70)
After the reign of Isabella, as he had no heir, Ferdinand was forced by the laws of succession to transfer the rule of Spain over to the Habsburg dynasty. This transfer of power lead to the control of Spain by an equally devout and expansionist leader, Charles V. Charles declared a global war against heresy, the Protestantism that was overtaking Europe. Charles failed in his quest, as was evident in the eventual domination of Calvinism and Lutheranism in Northern Europe. However, for some time Spain managed to continue its hold upon its far-reaching colonies in the Americas, despite the increasing opposition of the Protestant powers it had declared Spain's…… [Read More]
Unemployment in pain
Economic Blog: Unemployment in pain
Economic Blog: Unemployment in pain and its Causes
The continuous weakness of Euro-zone economies has resulted in the rising level of unemployment in European Union. pain was also hit by disease of unemployment around 15 years back in 1996 and since then it has suffered from highest persistent rate in the European Union for several years. This problem was worsened by the credit crunch and the real estate bubble in 2008, which has created a critical situation in pain due to continuous rise in the unemployment level.
The main problem behind the disturbed situation of pain is that the Government of pain has imposed tough measures in order to reduce its debts; therefore the economy has not been able to create jobs for unemployed till now. The economy of pain also failed in creating jobs due to the global financial…… [Read More]
As of late 2010, rumors in the financial community persist that Spain is going to be the next Eurozone nation to suffer an economic crisis. Spain's high unemployment rate, coupled with a lack of economic recovery and being unable to adjust interest rates due to its participation in the euro, has resulted in a rapid appreciation of interest rates in Spanish sovereign debt in recent weeks amid speculation in the bond markets that Spain will be unable to meet its obligations (Krugman, 2010; Krause, 2010). The Spanish economy, it would seem, has been suffering in recent years and that suffering is not expected to end any time soon.
For a company looking to do business in Spain, the current situation is certainly cause for alarm. The economic fundamentals of the country look troubling, and there are significant structural reasons why Spain will not be a good place in which…… [Read More]
Spain is rich in tradition and culture, but it is important to note that this diversity is the product of centuries of war and conflict. From her early beginnings, Spain has been a rift of conflicting religious and political ideas, and those characteristics are present in every aspect of Spanish life today. Historically, the path from religious persecution to independence has been a journal of religious and political differences. Those political differences have lead to a varied and unique political system, which combines monarchy with a democratic government. Finally, the culture of Spain is an obvious representation of the religious history and conflicting cultures, displayed by the Carnival festivals and the wide variety of cultural traditions, such as bullfighting and the Flamenco. These combinations of cultures combine to effectively form one of the most diverse cultures in the world today.
Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. (2005). Spain. etrieved…… [Read More]
People and services are not easily moved among the various countries. Although securing work and permits in the United States for Mexican and Canadian immigrants, NAFTA has also caused considerable concern in terms of legislation.
This is particularly the case in Canadian lawmaking. Several disputes resulted from NAFTA trading activities in the country. Such disputes for example include gasoline additives and possible related health concerns and nerve damage (Weintraub, 2004). Canada was also engaged in a long dispute regarding a 27% duty on softwood imports to Canada. This lasted for years before it was finally resolved in 2006. Significantly however, the decision was not ratified by either Canada or the United States (Weintraub, 2004). According to the U.S. Court of International Trade, imposing the duty was contrary to the United States law.
Other problems include the fact that Canada has lost more than 10,000 companies to foreign takeovers since NAFTA…… [Read More]
The beautiful coasts also reminded me of another aspect of Spanish history -- the great Armada. The Spanish were known for having one of the greatest and largest armadas in European history, besides the British. This illustrated itself to me as another way that the geography and the history of a country are closely connected.
I was not entirely surprised to learn of the cultural diversity within Spanish culture. I know of the Moors and of the subculture of Catalan, which also has its own language. It is important to learn of a country's mainstream culture and language, and it is also important to include, as opposed to disregard, the other subcultures within the main culture that influence the overall culture and history, too. These groups may have not been the dominant cultures in Spain, but they are vibrant and contribute the richness of the country's history and heritage.
As…… [Read More]
For one thing, while the deregulation of panish retail markets has driven interest among the nation's utilities to differentiate themselves and so win overall share, Iberdrola is already competing quite effectively on its renewable power proposition -- it is likely that most paniards who want to go green have already done so. hould Endesa require additional renewable capacity to meet demand, it also has the relatively captive resources of its recently announced corporate affiliate Enel Green Power to fall back on, allowing it to keep any value-added green power buying "in the family."
If cottish & outhern Energy finds it necessary to enter the fast-growing panish market, it may be easier to simply buy a small local utility and compete on the ground. This would give the company direct access to the wind-friendly panish subsidy regime; so far tightening budgets have not led Madrid to take a less active role…… [Read More]
This art reflects the conditions that prevailed in Spain after econquista, particularly its social, political, and cultural happenings. It is considered to be a World Heritage site (World Heritage Site, n.d.).
Jota, a quick Spanish dance in 3/8 time, is another cultural item which originated in Aragon. Considered as the national folk dance of Aragon, Jota corresponds with the ancient carols. Dance variations within Aragon's provinces are also noticeable. For example, Zaragoza Jota is the most exuberant variety while Huesca Jota has French influences and not as fast (Street Swing, n.d.). A historical edifice, on the other hand, can be found in the city of Huesca - i.e. The City Wall which was built by the Moors in the 9th century and still lives up to this date. A modernist-style monument can also be found in Huesca, i.e. Diputacion Provincial (Euroresidentes Website, n.d.). Food in Aragon is usually based on…… [Read More]
Diaz del Castillo has an undoubted ideological bias in stressing how that the small band of Spanish soldiers, barely numbering in the several hundreds, could never have defeated the mighty Mexican army, but his account gives the reader pause. Diaz del Castillo's account, even if one allows for a certain amount of exaggeration here and there, to have a ring of authenticity, as he portrays his own people as well as the Aztecs warts and all, including their squabbling about gold: "now all men covet gold, and the more we have the more we want, yet several recognizable pieces were missing from the heaps" (Del Castillo 274)
Morally speaking, can the Spanish conquest be 'wrong' and yet the way of life of the conquered morally abhorrent? The Conquest of New Spain raises many troubling ethical questions for a critical reader, reading with a post-colonial, post-modern mindset. Although it was not…… [Read More]
An interesting trend has been registered in the service industry, especially in the field of tourism. One of the main engines of Spanish economy in the past, now tourism in this country faces fierce competition from Eastern Europe countries. The beautiful resorts in Palma del Majorca and Costa rava must compete with low cost sea side resort, which offer similar services at incredibly low prices. Another field which needs reforms and reformulation policy is the agricultural and fishery one, which accounts only 4.1% out of GDP, although the important political forces attached to this sensible sector.
In order to be able to face the challenges and the opportunities on the regional and global market, Spain needs reforms in most fields of activity. Unemployment level is one of the highest in EU 9.2% at the end of 2005, while the rate of inflation was around 3.4 per cent in 2005, which…… [Read More]
Prophet Mohammad understood the importance of implementing sharia and therefore as soon as any conquest was made, he and his companions would first focus on enforcing shariah. Shariah law was a way of uniting Muslims so they would all stand united under one system of law. There wouldn't be any difference in laws that existed in Iraq or in Spain.
Between about 800 and 900 the main trends of thought on legal matters hardened into schools or rather rites -- the latter word is preferable when referring to in practice rather than in theory. Some of these rites, such as the Zahirite which had a notable exponent in Spain, died out after a time. Among the Sunnites, or main body of Muslims, four rites came to be recognized as permissible variants -- the Hanafite, the Malikite, the Shafite and the Hanbalite. So far as al-Andalus is concerned the only one…… [Read More]
Spanish and American Democracy
The United States of America and Spain are both now industrialized nations and modern democracies, but their paths to democracy and global influence were quite distinct. The United States of America was formally founded in 1776 by a group of early American politicians who envisioned the young nation as an alternative in democratic governance in contrast and opposition to the monarchies still in ruling power throughout Europe. Spain was one of these European countries under monarchial rule in the 18th century and remained a monarchy for 201 years after the official adoption of the democratic Constitution in the United States of America. Spain's transition to democratic rule is largely considered to have begun in 1975 when the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco passed away, although there are other dates in the 1970s that are also said to mark the transition as well.
The philosophical foundations of the…… [Read More]
This would be only natural for central bankers, as wealth effects may be a very relevant factor in determining fluctuations in aggregate demand. Studies on wealth effects have been conducted in recent years, also in the ank of Italy, making use of household surveys. For a given level of net worth, the wealth effect may be defined as the extent to which household consumption changes in response to a change in asset prices relative to the general consumer price level. Conceptually, this is no different from the old Pigou effect, but while that worked through changes in consumer prices that reduced the "value" of money balances in real terms, we now have asset prices rather than consumer prices as the main factor. While consumer prices may be relatively stable, asset prices could move substantially, and the wealth effect could actually be a destabilizing rather than, as was once thought, a…… [Read More]
Spain's culture will be different from the U.S. culture in almost every way, but particularly in three of these areas. First, Spain's culture is diffuse, as compared to the U.S. specific type of relationship between individuals. Spanish individuals tend to be more generous in blending their personal space with the working environment, while in the U.S. these are generally better separated.
Second, Spain's culture favors particularism to the U.S. universalism, by which we understand that, in Spain's case, relationships are more important than rules and regulations. In the case of the U.S., obviously, rules and regulations form the backbone of the system and are part of the success of the American society. Finally, according to figure 4-5, Spain is neutral, while the U.S. has a more emotional culture, which means that the Americans tend to display their emotions more often than Spanish people.
I believe that some of…… [Read More]
The Spanish Dialect: Spain Compared to Other Countries
Many people think of Spanish as being "uniform," but that is not the case. There are all types of different dialects, and what a person hears in Spain will not be the same thing heard in Mexico or in other countries where Spanish is spoken. Written Spanish uses the same standards, but spoken Spanish can be very different. There are local dialects, and then larger differences between Spain and Mexico. One of the biggest differences is in the phonemes, where there is maintenance of them in some dialects and loss of them in others. Some final syllables are weakened, as well, and central Mexico and the highlands of the Andes will show a loss of many of the unstressed vowel sounds - especially when these vowels come into contact with consonants that are also voiceless. It is not just the way…… [Read More]
Spain was, at one point, held up as a model of the benefits of regional integration. Its economy, and construction sector in particular, was booming, and the government was running a surplus. However, the underlying lack of balance in the Spanish economy was a problem that derived from regional integration and would soon leave Spain with a massive long-term economic problem, perhaps evidenced most dramatically by the 57.7% youth unemployment rate that threatens to wipe out the economic productivity of an entire generation of Spanish youth (Silvera, 2014).
The benefits of regional integration -- found in the form of the European Union and the Eurozone are that it is supposed to promote easier flow of capital and labor, so that the region's economy functions more efficiently. While this is true on paper, in the real world economic efficiency is not necessarily an optimal outcome. For example, there is no system…… [Read More]
Salud my family and fellow Spaniards! My fellow Andalucians! We are gathered here today to celebrate customs that are centuries old, customs that have survived the vicissitudes of Spanish social life and politics, customs that have transcended any economic, social, or political woes that might happen to occupy the consciousness of our citizenry. The great kingdoms of our past do mingle with the democratic ideals of our current nation. It is in the tradition of cultural continuity that I share this heavenly beverage with you. Salud!
Now some of you may know that my parents and I do not always see eye-to-eye. This is especially true when it comes to politics. Yet the reason why I am speaking now is because what we share in common, what all Spaniards share in common, is the connection with our past. Our connection to the past is felt deep within our soul…… [Read More]
GDP went down due to weak domestic demand, which went further down after a decline. Somehow, it again rose by 0.1% in the first quarter and appeared to have pulled the economy out of recession. ut Portugal retained big trouble. In the last quarter of 2002, its GDP plummeted.8% from the third quarter and in the last quarter, it contracted by 1.3% from the previous year until the.3% in the third quarter of 2002. The economy continued to sag until the ank of Portugal itself observed the fall of business confidence to its lowest recorded level since the 1993 recession. Official unemployment rate increased to a high 49.6%, rising by 26.3% from 2001 (O'Flynn).
Unemployment was 6.7% in 2003, compared with 4.3% in 2002 (O'Flynn 2003). Labor unions in Portugal claimed it was more than 7.6% as against the 5% ceiling set by the EU, despite the fact that the…… [Read More]
Navies in American Revolution
For hundreds of years, maritime expansion represented the only way to reach distant shores, to attack enemies across channels of water, to explore uncharted territories, to make trade with regional neighbors and to connect the comprised empires. Leading directly into the 20th century, this was the chief mode of making war, maintaining occupations, colonizing lands and conducting the transport of goods acquired by trade or force. Peter Padfield theorized that ultimately, ritish maritime power was decisive in creating breathing space for liberal democracy in the world, as opposed to the autocratic states of continental Europe like Spain, France, Prussia and Russia. The Hapsburgs, the ourbons, Hitler and Stalin all failed to find a strategy that would defeat the maritime empires, which controlled the world's trade routes and raw materials. Successful maritime powers like ritain and, in the 20th Century, the United States, required coastlines with deep…… [Read More]
Spanish Civil War
The famous Spanish Civil War fought from the year 1936 to 1939. This war was fought between two groups; the Republicans and the Nationalists. The Republicans were the supporters of the established Spanish republic; meanwhile the latter were a group of rebels who were led by General Francisco Franco. Franco emerged victorious in this war and ruled Spain for the next 36 years as a dictator.
After a group of generals (led by Jose Sanjurjo) of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces declared opposition against the government of the Second Spanish Republic, the war ensued. At that time the President of Spain was Manuel Azana. This group of rebels had gained support from a couple of conservative groups that included the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right, Fascist Falange and Carlists (Payne, 1973).
Military units formed in urgos, Pamplona, Corodova, Morocco, Cadiz and Seville supported this group of…… [Read More]
The value of the pound in relation to the euro could be an argument against doing business with Spain.
Concerns about the economic stability of Spain and the viability of doing business in Spain in the near future are even more pressing concerns: recently, the European Community has had to undertake extraordinary measures to save the troubled economy of Greece from defaulting on its debt obligations. Spain's economy is also fragile. Given the role of the Spanish government in the energy industry, and the long-standing partnership that would exist between SSE and any agreement resulting in an expansion effort into Spain, it is essential to have a clear-headed view of the nation's likely economic future and stability when negotiating an agreement (Sullivan 1999).
Said Nobel-Prize winner of economics Paul Krugman: "for a number of years Spain could pay its way within the eurozone by selling assets, mainly real estate, as…… [Read More]
unlike the way the 'race for the moon' became the driving force of American scientific exploration during the 1950's and 1960's, the race to control the trade routes to the far reaches of the globe and to expand its technological knowledge of navigation became the driving force of Spanish foreign and domestic policy during the period of world history from the 15th to the 17th centuries. This period is also commonly called "The Age of Discovery" by European historians. The economic impact of Spain's forays into the New orld or worlds ultimately changed the face of European knowledge of the world and the economic structure of Europe. Both the residents of Spain and Europe as a whole, however, experienced both positive and negative effects of this exploration. However, the effects upon Europe were on the whole largely beneficial, because of the increased exposure to new goods and the expansion of…… [Read More]
In his novels he focused on characters, motivations, and reactions to the forces around his characters. He realistically examined Spanish politics, economy, religion, and family through the eyes of the middle class, addressing the cruelty of human beings against each another in his novels Miau and Misericordia. Galdos was called the conscience of Spain for his realistic observations of society with all its ills. (Columbia 2005) His plays were less successful than his novels.
In 1907 he became deputy of the Republican Party in Madrid. He went blind in 1912, but overcoming this tragedy, he continued to dictate his books until his death. Other works translated into English are Tristana (tr. 1961) and Compassion (tr. 1962) Outside Spain his Novelas Espanolas Contemporaneas are the most popular. Perez Galdos was elected to the "Real Academia Espanola" Real Academia Espanola (Royal Spanish Academy) in 1897. A statue of him was raised in…… [Read More]
history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.
As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…… [Read More]
Bartoleme De Las Casas
An Analysis of the Activism of Bartoleme De Las Casas
Often characterized by modern historians as the "Defender and the apostle to the Indians," Bartolome de Las Casas is known for exposing and condemning as well as exaggerating and misrepresenting the violent practices of Spanish colonizers of the New orld against Native Americans. Marked by emotional polemic and often embellished statistics, Las Casas' voluminous works brought him both support and opposition in his own time. hile being harshly criticized as a threat to Spanish rule in America, De Las Casas was also continually financially supported by the Crown and offered high offices by the Church (Benzoni 48). Though more than four hundred years have passed since his death, the works of this controversial Dominican friar continue to elicit strong reactions from both detractors and defenders -- from both those who condemn him and those who praise…… [Read More]
change one's life. They happen and our lives take different turns and take different roads. We deal with these issues as they come and try our best to cope with them the way we know how. There were two instances in my life that I consider very significant. These events involve me leaving my country of birth and also when I moved to the United States.
The first event of my life that I consider significant was when I had to leave my native country of Cuba and move to the country of Spain. The reasoning behind this was based on my father's political problems and personal views that were not in line with the country of Cuba's ideals and political views. This happened on December in the year of 1991. I was 8 years old at the time. This move was particularly a hard time for me because I…… [Read More]
European Voyages of Exploration of the 15th and 16th Centuries
For several centuries following Columbus's historic discovery the North American Continent, pain enjoyed riches from overseas that allowed it to be the most influential country in Europe. Originally inspired by a combination of a quest to prove that he could reach the Far East by sailing west and the desire to reap the rewards of precious metals and spices, Columbus left Portugal for pain, after failing to achieve the support he needed from the king to finance his first voyage (Hayes & Clark, 1966). With the eventual support of Queen Isabella in pain, he managed to stumble onto North and outh America while looking for the Indies. Initially, the silver, gold, and spices imported from the first panish conquests in the Americas enabled pain to become the most powerful nation in Europe.
That happenstance was fortunate for pain, at least…… [Read More]
Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, March 15, 2007, Globalization
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization, last accessed on March 15, 2007
Official Website of the World ank, 2001, Globalization
http://www1.worldbank.org/economicpolicy/globalization/,last accessed on March 15, 2007
Website of Globalization KOF, 2004, KOF Index of Globalization
http://globalization.kof.ethz.ch/,last accessed on March 15, 2007
HM Treasury, May 2005, Globalization and the U.K.: strength and opportunity to meet the economic challenge http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/media/E7A/10/ent_globaluk021205.pdf, last accessed on March 15, 2007
Aninat, Eduardo, Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund, June 29, 2001, Reflections on Globalization, Spain and the IMF, General Meeting of ELKARGI, San Sebastian, Spain
http://www.imf.org/external/np/speeches/2001/062901.htm, last accessed on March 15, 2007
Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, March 15, 2007, Globalization
Official Website of the World ank, 2001, Globalization
Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, March 15, 2007, Globalization
Website of Globalization KOF, 2004, KOF Index of Globalization
HM Treasury, May 2005, Globalization and the U.K.: strength and opportunity to…… [Read More]
El Cid and Medieval History
Medieval Spain was a constant battlefield where Christians and Moors fought constantly. The Moors had invaded Spain in the early stages of the 7th century and remained in control of the area well into what are now known as the Middle Ages. The Moors had begun their campaign in Europe intent upon conquering the entire continent but had been stopped at the Pyrenees by Charles the Hammer. Nevertheless, the Moors remained in Spain for over 700 years and their influence on Spanish culture remains evident to this very day. These influences include the Spanish language and its architecture.
In the course of over 700 years many legends and tails arise both fictional and real. When these legends and tails begin, at least when they are based upon living characters, they tend to accurately reflect the conditions and events as they occurred. As time progresses, however,…… [Read More]
Speaking of the United States, for example, since 9/11, there has been an increased in intolerance regarding Muslims. This prejudice toward Muslims has also sparked increased intolerance for Christian people, as Christianity is the dominant religion in America and is the religion most often associated with American culture. 1492 is also the fabled year with the Spanish armada arrived on the shores of what we know now as the United States of America. Therefore this film is a strong choice as it is an intersection of the history of the country and the history of my family.
How we remember our world, national, and personal history is often closely related to the geography and nature of the spaces wherein we lived and migrated to. These are the connections that I see among the texts by Nabokov, Bishop, and "The Passion of Joshua the Jew." These issues from history continue to…… [Read More]
Spain chose, instead, to allocate its territorial expansion to the Americas. However, Spain was able to exploit its existing African holdings to supply Spanish colonies in the Americas with African slaves ("The Spanish Colonial System" par. 4).
Unlike its concerted efforts in the Americas, Spain's focus in Africa was not so pointed in its colonies there, namely Spanish Guinea, Spanish Sahara, and Morocco. The majority of Spain's African colonies were located along the northern coasts and served primarily as strongholds from which Spain could protect its shipping and commerce activities in the Mediterranean as well as between the Old orld and the New.
Campos, Alicia. "The Decolonization of Equatorial Guinea: The Relevance of the International Factor." The Journal of African History 44.1 (Jan. 2003): 95-114.
"Spanish Empire." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2008. 20 July 2008 .
"The Spanish Colonial System, 1550-1800: Population Development." The Encyclopedia of orld History.…… [Read More]
Professional Culture in Spain
The plan for the dinner event will include a number of different facets specifically designed to facilitate acculturation between all of the guests, which include seven (of the 11 total) attendees who are not native to Spain and its culture -- which is providing the backdrop for this event. Firstly, it is necessary to tell all of the participants of this dinner to bring gifts for one another. Specifically, each person in the party will bring a gift for either an employee or his or her spouse, so that no one is left out. Therefore, when the dinner commences and the guests are first situated at the table, they can exchange gifts with one another as a sort of ice-breaker which will allow them to initially get acclimated with one another. elationships are important in doing business in Spain (Expat, 2016).
Additionally, it is critical to…… [Read More]
While it was possible for Dolores to understand the plight of the asque people, to desire that they receive the freedom to speak their own language, maintain their own culture and be a self-determining nation of people, at the same time, for Dolores, the means simply did not justify the ends. History relates that even a twelve-year period of time was not enough time to dissipate the extremist type of revenge that the ETA is known for perpetrating upon those who oppose them and specifically those which this group views as traitorous to their cause. For a group that is so vehemently in support of their own right to be a group that is self-determined this group certainly did remove that choice when the life of Dolores Gonzalez was so heinously ended in front of her innocent child.
Mart'nez-Herrera, Enric (2002) Nationalist Extremism and Outcomes of State Policies in…… [Read More]
The country flourished under independence, but would later fall under Castillian influence in the 14th century. The local culture remained suppressed until the 19th century, during a period of widespread national awakening in Europe. Galicia voted for autonomy in 1936, but the nascent Franco dictatorship crushed those ambitions brutally. Galicia finally restored a degree of autonomy in 1980 following the downfall of the dictatorship, and at that point established its current political structure (Celtia.info, 2004).
During the periods of Galician nationalism, the connection to the Celtic world remained one of the hallmarks of Galician culture, as it was something that no other Spanish people could claim. In the Galician highlands, people still lived in Celtic-style thatched huts up until the 1970s. Recent years have brought about reconnection between Galicia and the other Celtic nations. Traditional Galician music has strong Celtic influences, and these influences are also found in jewelery, clothing,…… [Read More]
To wit, "half of Americans deem religion very important in their lives; fewer than a quarter in Spain (22%) feel this way, and in Germany (21%), Britain (17%) and France (13%), even fewer say religion is "very important" to their lives (PE).
Fifty-three percent of Americans are more apt to agree that it is vital to believe in God prior to having good morals and values while just 33% of Germans, 20% of the British, 19% of Spaniards and 15% of those in France agree with that statement. omen and the elderly are more apt to agree that God is indeed the "necessary foundation for morality and good values" (PE). Fifty-nine percent of American women say religion is "very important" to them but only 41% of American men agree with that statement (PE).
Meanwhile, in the Journal of Beliefs and Values (illiams, et al., 2009) the authors point out that…… [Read More]
After the statement of the Truman Doctrine in 1947, both Greece and Turkey were provided with aid to counter the Soviet threat.
When the war ended, circumstances in Greece were unfavorable to the maintenance of civil peace:
EAM was in control of nearly all Greece. Its leaders numbered many excellent liberals, the most eminent being Professor Svolos, a Socialist; but the Communists were clearly dominant. The returning Greek army was under the control of rabid, uncompromising monarchist officers... Had the issue of Greek sovereignty been left to these two Greek forces, there is no doubt of the outcome. The ineffectiveness of the returned Greek monarchist army was shown when, at the end of 1944, civil war broke out in Greece. ELAS surrounded the monarchist army and immobilized it from the outset.
However, they were not left to their own devices, and instead they were influenced by outside forces from ritain…… [Read More]
Traditional Spanish Culture
hile the cafe's of Paris may have captured the romantic imagination of estern visitors to the Old Continent, and London's blend of medieval and modern architecture attracts the historically minded, the ancient city of Madrid is home to countless cultural sites, museums, and monuments which are definitely worth exploring. The capital city of Spain and the historical seat of the Spanish monarchy, Madrid is a sprawling metropolitan center located on the banks of the Manzanares River that serves as the economic, political, and cultural heart of the country. Home to approximately 3.3 million residents in Madrid proper, and over 6.5 million within the greater metropolitan area including suburbs and surrounding communities, the city is considered to be the third-largest urban center in the European Union, behind London and Berlin (UN Data, 2013). From the 16th through 18th centuries, when the Spanish empire's naval dominance allowed the nation's…… [Read More]
60). Why did the Spaniards bring so many slaves into Mexico? Because many of the native Indians had suffered and died from many diseases brought over by the Spaniards (the Indians did not have resistance to those new diseases), there was a need for cheap labor, and the Black slaves served that purpose.
The slaves were sold in many areas of Mexico, but the author explains that the four main areas where slaves were shipped included: Mexico City (more than half of the slaves that arrived in Mexico were brought to Mexico City); Tlaxcala-Puebla; Michoacan; and Zacatecas (p. 60). The Spanish Crown realized that the Catholic Church's missionaries found slavery to be repugnant, and so the Crown seemed to go along with the Church. However, in what could only be termed deception and skullduggery, the Crown needed the money that slavery brought to the royal family, so the Crown subcontracted…… [Read More]
Pinochet's Case is Not Yet Satisfying to Chilean and Human Rights Activists
Although hampered by internal constraints and challenges, the nation of Chile stands poised to enter the 21st century as a major player in the world's international community. On the one hand, the sound economic policies that were first implemented by the Pinochet dictatorship resulted in unprecedented growth in 1991- 1997; these policies have also helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. On the other hand, General Augusto Pinochet has been found guilty of the torture, disappearance, and murder of thousands of Chileans, including international citizens, but he has not yet been brought to justice. After Patricio Aylwin inaugurated a democratic presidency in 1990, he continues to bring excuses for Pinochet's actions or exercises control to avoid facing justice. Pinochet declared himself as Commander of Chief of the Army and afterwards, Senator for life in Chile.…… [Read More]
Terrorism is a 21st century' problem to the entire world. It has led to many lives lost eventually. Global instability in of the world in terms of social, economic, and political spectra has also been witnessed because of terrorism. For this reason, the world's nations have come together to devise methods and means of countering the problem. However, on top of the global stand that courtiers adopt a similar and coordinated approach to fighting terrorism, there are still instances where specific countries adopt unique strategies to fight the menace (Sisk, 2011). Counterterrorism strategies among the most hit countries thus differ. In this paper, an analysis of the similarities and difference between the counterterrorism strategies among the three European nations is put forth. The countries under focus here are Spain, Sweden, and The Netherlands. Each of these countries has been facing similar terror threats and has devised ways to…… [Read More]
The 'justification' for such actions could be said that many converted Jews still secretly practiced aspects of their faith, given that they could not do so openly, for fear of being persecuted.
Technically, unconverted Jews were supposed to be beyond the reach of the Inquisition because they were not baptized as Christians. However, in the actual practices of the Inquisition, given that individuals were tortured to such an extreme level, people would say they were Christians who were 'guilty' of Jewish practices simply to relieve their suffering, or the suffering of their loved ones, as in the case of a man whose wife was tortured before him.
After the converted Jews of Spain attempted to strike back against the Inquisition by stabbing one of the primary inquisitors, persecution increased. This was an act of treason against a man of God and King Ferdinand's appointee. Yet given the horrific and unjust…… [Read More]
Cultues in Conflict & Change
William Faulkne leaves us in suspense at the end of a tubulent sequence of events titled "Ban Buning." Who killed whom? We could speculate fom othe books pehaps but those wods ae outside this stoy. Given that stict constaint, we don't eally know. Saty watches De Spain and his hose vanish in the distance and heas thee shots, which he assumes kill his fathe at least, and pehaps olde bothe. This is the widest possible assumption but a fulle analysis would have to exploe othe possibilities. The esult fo Saty is the same: He uns away fom fathe, bothe and the women's cultue egadless who pulled which tigge(s) at the De Spain ban. Abne Snopes will appea hee as 'AS,' De Spain as 'DS' and 'Saty' as 'CSS' fo bevity, but also abstaction, because Faulkne ('WF') sets up abstactions, though symbolic equations that pemeate the…… [Read More]