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Spanish-American War. Specifically, it will discuss was the Spanish-American War really necessary? It will list alternatives to war available to McKinley in 1898 and explain why he rejected them in favor of a war policy.
The Spanish-American War was unnecessary for a number of reasons. In 1898, President William McKinley had a number of alternatives to war, which he ultimately failed to utilize. After the U.S.S. Maine blew up, tensions between Spain (who controlled Cuba) and the United States were high. In April 1898, McKinley issued an "ultimatum" to Spain to get out of Cuba. First, the United States interest in Cuba was almost all economic, as there were sugar plantations there that formed a large part of the country's sugar imports. Second, the U.S. was not interested in Spain's holdings or Cuba, they simply wanted access to sugar, so they could have negotiated with Spain, rather than simply issuing…… [Read More]
Spanish American ar, why does the United States move from relative isolation into an international role and what are the consequences for U.S. society of that change?
involvement in the Spanish-American ar
The Spanish American ar enabled the international community to observe the emergence of the U.S. As a notable player. hile the U.S. had already established its financial and diplomatic power as a result of the series of achievements it saw during the previous two centuries, this particular conflict was essential in securing the country's position on an international level.
promoted the idea that it was essential for it to reinforce its position near its coasts in order for U.S. commerce to occur with lesser problems. "U.S. foreign policy is influenced by Alfred T. Mahan who wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon history, 1600-1783, which advocated the taking of the Caribbean Islands, Hawaii, and the Philippine Islands for…… [Read More]
Spanish American War, until the current conflict in the Middle East, why does the United States move from relative isolation into an international role
At the time of the Spanish American War the United States went from relative isolation to increased global involvement because of the need to develop new markets for its products (and, at the end of the Second World War, to protect its largest foreign consumer market, the European market), because of the need to protect U.S. interests in the international arena, and to protect U.S. values, such as free market and fundamental human rights, in a global context.
The consequences of this increased global involvement on American society were greater exposure to international things and, as a consequence, greater interest in what went on in the world. A second consequence of greater involvement was that the American society was forced to change or to adapt because…… [Read More]
Mexican-American War was fought between 1846 and 1848 and marked the first war for the United States that was primary fought on foreign soil. The war was initiated by the United States, with President Polk seeking to expand American territory under the doctrine of manifest destiny. This doctrine argued that the United States should spread across all of North America, and was used as justification military action such as this one. The major outcome of the war was a massive expansion of the United States across much of what is now the American Southwest. The U.S. absorbed New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah and California as the result of this conflict, something that shapes America in many ways today (History.com, 2016).
At the outbreak of the war, Mexico held much of the territory that now comprises the U.S. southwest. Mexico was, however, a weak country. Its government was headquartered in…… [Read More]
The reason for such volunteer support for a war against fascism was born from the economic calamity and the political turmoil of the 1930's (Sills pp). Thus, like many during the Great Depression, the young volunteers had experienced with deprivation and injustice, leading them to join the "burgeoning student, unemployed, union, and cultural movements that were influenced by the Communist Party and other Left organizations" (Sills pp). These groups had exposed the volunteers to a Marxist and internationalist perspective, and with their successes in bringing people to conscious, political action led to a revolutionary spirit (Sills pp).
American radicalism was spurred by the appearance of pro-fascist groups like the Liberty League, and the expansion of fascism abroad (Sills pp). ith Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931, Hitler's rise to power in 1933, and Italy's assault on Ethiopia in 1934, (all accomplished without hindrance from estern governments), the Communist Party responded…… [Read More]
Ford (Evans, 2004).
By the 1920s, the affordability of Ford's products and the increasing availability of modernized paved roads and highways combined to make taking a "country drive" one of the fastest and most fashionable national pastimes in the U.S. (Nevins & Commager, 1992). The trendy new fad of driving to the still-undeveloped suburbs and many other recreational areas on weekends was fueled by the relative exclusivity of automobile transportation to the middle (and upper) class, which allowed them to escape the masses of poor at the most popular local recreation spots such as the most popular beaches and state parks (Nevins & Commager, 1992). Ironically, Ford's success in making the automobile more accessible to the middle class also resulted in the beginning of a national obsession with the automobile as much for its social connotations as for the transportation convenience it offered.
Evans H. (2004). They Made America:…… [Read More]
Spanish Civil War
The famous Spanish Civil War fought from the year 1936 to 1939. This war was fought between two groups; the Republicans and the Nationalists. The Republicans were the supporters of the established Spanish republic; meanwhile the latter were a group of rebels who were led by General Francisco Franco. Franco emerged victorious in this war and ruled Spain for the next 36 years as a dictator.
After a group of generals (led by Jose Sanjurjo) of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces declared opposition against the government of the Second Spanish Republic, the war ensued. At that time the President of Spain was Manuel Azana. This group of rebels had gained support from a couple of conservative groups that included the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right, Fascist Falange and Carlists (Payne, 1973).
Military units formed in urgos, Pamplona, Corodova, Morocco, Cadiz and Seville supported this group of…… [Read More]
War for uban onquest
In 1883, Frederick Jackson Turner gave a speech to the World's olumbian Exposition, introducing what is now known as the "Turner thesis" of American history. This thesis says "continental expansion...was the driving, dynamic factor of American progress. Without [it] America's political and social institutions would stagnate. If one adhered to this way of thinking, America must expand or die." (Musicant) It was an odd moment to being saying such things, and a prophetic one, for America has, perhaps unbeknownst to him, just run out of frontier to conquer. Further expansion had to be overseas. Of course, "overseas" was already conquered, had its own government, and its own citizens. Thus a war of conquest rose on the horizon for America. The perfect opportunity to conquer arose during what was politely called the Spanish-American war, in which America stepped in to help out a struggling band of revolutionaries…… [Read More]
United States Presidents in the 1890s [...] which president conducted American Foreign policy more skillfully in the 1890's, McKinley or Cleveland? Why?
William McKinley favored an imperialistic worldview, and brought the United States into the Spanish-American War, which ultimately added the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto ico to the United States. He favored American intervention into foreign politics, especially when this intervention would benefit the U.S. In fact, McKinley's dominant imperialistic foreign policies dominated his presidency, and he is most remembered for the war and its' ultimate gain of territories for the United States. McKinley's foreign policy was anything but skillful. He listened to the American people, whose opinion was dominated by the "yellow press," rather than world sentiment. McKinley's foreign policy was domineering and imperialistic, and left America looking like a bully.
President Grover Cleveland, on the other hand, handled foreign policy with a "big stick," but a lack of…… [Read More]
U.S. FOEIGN POLICY
American Foreign Policy from 1890 to 1930
From neutrality to intervention
Early on in American history, President George Washington advised Americans not be become embroiled in foreign conflicts. However, at the end of the 19th century, it became increasingly difficult for America to remain isolated from the issues affecting its neighbors abroad. The period from 1890-1930 was characterized by a far more expansionist American foreign policy than had been the case before. Although this policy was often defended by the notion that the U.S. was making the world safe for democracy, self-interest rather than idealism was usually the real motivating force.
A good, early example of this in Latin America can be found in the form of the Spanish-American War (1898) which eventually resulted in the U.S. acquiring territories in the western Pacific and Latin America. Spain's repression of the Cuban pro-independence movement combined with the sinking…… [Read More]
American Way of War
The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…… [Read More]
Artistic Analysis of "The Weeping Woman": A Plan to Develop a New Work
The meaning of artistic work continues to evolve to mold into new forms and shapes. The current sociological and economic developments are significantly influencing the artistic creations. Women have the power in the society, and, therefore, they have the freedom to do jobs, own businesses, and at a personal level, they now possess the option of sexual orientation. The modern era remained quite merciful towards women who had a role of sexual slaves in the past. The omans along with the Greeks considered the females as toys that had a function of providing comfort to warriors. Females were responsible for taking care of domestic chores, and they had no right of receiving payments against their services. However, males identified and treated them as trophies, and they collected them according to their level of bravery in the battlefield.…… [Read More]
American Popular Music (Lady Gaga)
The question of originality in popular music is a vexed one. To choose a convenient and current example, when Justin Bieber sings about his "baby," listeners are not meant to hear any kind of deliberate allusion to the Supremes' "Baby Love" or any other previous songs which include "Baby" as part of their lyrical hook: Bieber's charming faux-naivete cannot be mistaken for anything other than a rhetorical willingness to utilize the regular tropes and language of a standard love song. But with some performers, the matter of originality -- together with the question of influence -- is one that must be addressed. I would like to look, in this context, at the work of Stefani Germanotta, the twenty-four-year-old singer and composer better known by her stage name "Lady Gaga." I would like to examine Lady Gaga's oeuvre with three separate areas of inquiry kept in…… [Read More]
He is more interested in "things," than what those things will bring. "Nick went over to the pack and found, with his fingers, a long nail in a paper sack of nails, in the bottom of the pack. He drove it into the pine tree, holding it close and hitting it gently with the flat of the axe. He hung the pack up on the nail. All his supplies were in the pack. They were off the ground and sheltered now" (as quoted in Vernon)
However, with time Nick is able to find some semblance of his early self. He overcomes challenges and moves forward the best he can. Despite the fact that he is walking uphill through burned land with a backpack that is too heavy, he is now in a familiar place and happy to be here:
Nick slipped off his pack and lay down in the shade.…… [Read More]
This strategy also permitted the more speedy management of local dealings. Basically the purpose of this strategy was to centralize of colonial affairs; however, it simply solidified the idea that the colonies needed a system of self-governance that was not inclusive of the British government. Because of the behavior of the British government, the English colonies that revolted in 1776 had in common: "representative assemblies and this institutional affinity laid the foundations for the concerted resistance without which the American evolution would have been impossible."
It was under the auspices of the English government's attempt to control the colonists that the idea of American independence began to be viewed as necessary. The colonist felt that they had the right and the wisdom to rule and to develop a governmental structure that would be conducive with meeting the needs and the goals of those living within the colonies. The structure of…… [Read More]
Turning Points in American History
Two Turning Points and Current Impact on Cultural, Social, Economic and Political Life
Two historical turning points are the Social Security Act and the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The Social Security Act, passed in 1935, was intended to provide a "safety net" for people who could not support themselves (Schultz, 2010, p. 399). This "social welfare" was a significant departure from the federal government's prior tendency to let citizens fend for themselves financially. The strength of the Social Security Act's impact on our history is at least partially proven by the fact that it expanded significantly and endures to this day. The Social Security Act currently influences several facets of American life: society and culture, in that the responsibility of the federal government for the welfare of its citizens is now a commonly accepted idea; economy, in that Social Security is now a…… [Read More]
Splendid Little War
John Hay -- "A Splendid War"
Secretary of State John Hay once wrote to Theodore oosevelt that the Spanish-American War had been "a splendid little war" (Fried, 1998). It was an opinion shared by many Americans at the time. The three-month war -- declared in April 1898 and over by August -- had few American casualties and helped open up many foreign territories for the United States.
The war began with the Cuban evolution. Spanish rule in Cuba was fiercely opposed by Cuban rebels who were routinely dehumanized, degraded and mistreated in the country throughout the late 19th Century (Lovett, 1997). Spanish general Valeriano Weyler instituted many concentration camps to contain insurgents and suppress the threat of rebel uprisings. The camps were scenes of indecency and deplorable living conditions where death, starvation and malaria and typhoid epidemics were rampant. The suffering of Cubans was deemed a social…… [Read More]
... They were accustomed to living in the open, to enduring great fatigue and hardship, and to encountering all kinds of danger."
The war against Spain and for the liberation of Cuba was one that would prove the superiority of America and its ideals. The United States, too, could join the nations of Europe as a major world power, with interests in every corner of the globe. Roosevelt became a hero as a result of his exploits in the Spanish-American War - a modern day crusader. He used his standing to vault to the governorship of the State of New York. As Governor he now headed the wealthiest most populous state in the nation, enjoying a position of influence and power unparalleled in his career. New York was the great melting pot, the entry point for the vast waves of immigrants that were arriving from Europe. Immigration in this era…… [Read More]
history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.
As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…… [Read More]
The ough iders were trained to fight Spanish troops in Cuba. Because of Cuba's hot climate, the United States government made an effort initially to recruit volunteers from hotter regions of the United States such as the American southwest (Library of Congress). The ough iders ended up being the only volunteer cavalry that was sent to Cuba during the Spanish-American War (Library of Congress). Another thing I learned from reading about the ough iders was that the Spanish-American War was fought on many fronts, including Cuba. The ough iders were an important part of Cuba's history as well as American history. After reading about the ough iders, I have a greater appreciation for how ordinary Americans have fought for their country. Finally, I learned that the history of the ough iders proves that United States is truly governed by the people and for the people.
Library of Congress. "ough…… [Read More]
Critical Analysis: War is a Racket
Butler is correct: war is racket. He describes a racket as an operation that costs many but benefits a few—and that describes war well enough. Hundreds of thousands of lives are put on the line while a handful profit—investors, bankers, speculators and industrialists, for example, all of whom stood to make out like bandits from the Spanish-American war. Wars are invariably fought over some pretense: the Spanish-American War was launched because of an explosion on The Maine, which our yellow journalists quickly blamed on Spain, which allowed our leaders (who always have a cozy relationship with our bankers, speculators and industrialists) to go take the Philippines. In WWI, it was the Lusitania. In Vietnam, it was Gulf of Tonkin. In WWII, it was Pearl Harbor. For the current ME disaster, it was 9/11 and then the mobile weapons labs and phony evidence regarding yellow…… [Read More]
WWI: The Forces of Nationalism, Imperialism and Militarism
The forces of nationalism, imperialism and militarism irrevocably led to World War I in several ways. Germany had become an industrialized nation, vying for economic power and rivaling the power of Britain (Gilbert, 1994). Germany had also defeated France in the prior century in the Franco-Prussian War and taken the territories of Alsace and Lorraine. France wanted them back (Bradberry, 2012). ussia also had a grievance with Germany: it wanted the Bosporous Straights that were "controlled by Germany through her alliance with the Ottoman Empire" (Bradberry, 2012, p. 42). The only way for each of these countries to get what they wanted from Germany was to go to war: their alliance gave them the opportunity to attack Germany on all fronts, and Germany's support for the Austria-Hungary attack on Serbia (in retaliation for the Serbian assassination of Archduke Ferdinand) gave the Triple…… [Read More]
America at War 1865-Present
A Survey of America at War from 1865 to Present
Since the Civil War, America has seldom seen a generation of peace. In fact, a nonstop succession of wars has kept what Eisenhower termed "the military industrial complex" in lucrative business. From the Indian Wars to the World Wars to the Cold War to the war on Terror, Americana has expanded its foothold as an imperial power every step of the way -- even when isolationism appeared to be momentarily in vogue following World War I. This paper will look at the history of the progression of war in America from 1865 to present, showing how that history -- through social, economic, literary, political, and religious changes -- has both shaped and been shaped by American foreign and domestic policy.
Unit Once: 1865-1876
The Civil War had just ended on the home front, but that did…… [Read More]
In the Philippine War, Linn argues for a middle ground perspective on the American involvement that many readers will find refreshing. Although Linn does admit that the United States Army was guilty of torture and brutality, the author pushes those realities inside to focus instead on the broader strategies used. Success in the Philippines depended on the complex interplay of realities, argues Linn. On the one hand, Emilio Aguinaldo's tactics failed miserably because there was no indigenous nationalistic movement. Without a unified front, Aguinaldo failed whereas the Americans seized the opportunity to rescue a fractured archipelago and somehow emerge as heroes rather than Imperialist invaders. Even when America did play the role of the Imperialist invader, the nation did so with aplomb that would establish the United States as a dominant world power. Linn does not linger too long on the implications of the Philippine War but does suggest that…… [Read More]
United States entry into world war.
Taking nations from more than half the globe as partakers and victims, the first war broke out, 1914-1918, and that is known as World War 1 or the First World War. Until the World War II broke out, it was widely known as the war which had broken out which had the capacity to put an end to all wars, and commonly it was known as The Great War. In fact multiple factors produced the First World War. An International anarchy was seen all over Europe. On the eve of the World War I there were 25 sovereign states in Europe, each desiring to act on its own individual conscience. None of them was ready to submit to the interference or will of the other, as each of them held its pride high, thinking if they accepted the advice of any other state, their…… [Read More]
92). Pope Innocent X lamented the procedure, of course -- for it served to subvert the truths which the oman Church strove to propagate.
Thus, the modern world was built not upon the majesty of kings and religion, but upon treaties and revolutionary ideals. The philosophical fruit of Protestantism would spring up in the age of omantic/Enlightenment doctrine, which would produce the American and French evolutions. "Liberty, equality, fraternity" would be the modern world's ethos -- in theory. However, capitalist ethics would undermine the romantic ideology. Imperialism -- for gold, God, and glory at the end of the medieval world -- would be based, in the modern world, upon sheer greed (as a principle). America defined this principle well with the notion of "manifest destiny," which by the end of the 19th century was expanded beyond the American frontier to encompass the whole globe.
The new Imperialism of America (and…… [Read More]
Lear and Comodore Barron, the commander of the American fleet in the Mediterranean agreed in 1805 that Ahmad was no longer useful to the American cause. As a result, Lear met with Muhammad D'Ghies, Tripoli's Minister for foreign affairs, and eventually reached an agreement. War prisoners would be mutually exchanged, and America had to pay a sum of $60, 000 to Tripoli. However, this sum was considerably smaller than what the Pasha had asked for in 1804. Legendary Commodore Charles Morris wrote, "On the 3rd of June, a peace was concluded with Tripoli by Colonel Lear, who had been authorized by the President to negotiate."
One of the most important consequences of the war was its power to produce some of the earliest American war heroes. In the absence of news correspondents, and the far-reaching means the press has today, the accounts of the war were given by the people…… [Read More]
The concept of war encompasses various different types of conflict. Wars between sovereign nations involve nation states. Regional and world wars involve multiple sovereign nations. Revolutionary wars of independence involve the populations of nations rebelling against or rejecting the continued control national authorities. ivil wars occur when rival regions or political factions within one nation seek formal separation or complete control. Proxy wars are a means by which nations prosecute their competing interests against one another through smaller conflicts involving other nations as a means of avoiding direct military conflict.
Wars between Nation States
Wars between sovereign nations have occurred throughout recorded history, dating back to Biblical times. Generally, sovereign nations go to war when they each have claims to the same land, or natural resources, or rights of passage that each seeks to own or control exclusively. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern age, the…… [Read More]
American Territorial Expansion: The Louisiana Purchase
American territorial expansion was the top priority of ashington DC for every decade of the 19th century, including the Civil ar years. The new territory all came to Americans through treaties or conquest, and thus promoted the isolationist "Manifest Destiny" prerogative of strengthening the American continent. The earliest and largest territorial expansion of the 19th century was the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the size of the American states. The Louisiana Purchase was made with the short-term bolstering of Thomas Jefferson's government in the near-term, yet with deep concerns for the security of the new land and how and who should settle the land in the long-term.
The Louisiana Purchase was not a decision taken lightly by then President Thomas Jefferson, who felt that it would be difficult for the young America to take full possession of the territory, and thus sign the country…… [Read More]
Wars of Principle in the Falklands and Malvinas
Although the age of imperialism has slowly, but inexorably, been consigned to history books, with the great ritish, Spanish and Portuguese empires that once dominated the globe now largely defunct after the revolutionary spirit swept through colonies from America to Argentina, vestiges of this age-old system still remain to this day. Despite withdrawing from the vast majority of its former colonies after successful campaigns for independence were waged, the United Kingdom has strived to maintain a semblance of its former power by maintaining control over small areas of land within the nations it previously ruled over. Hong Kong in China, Gibraltar in the Iberian Peninsula, and a half dozen Caribbean islands from ermuda to Turks and Caicos, the custom of leaving behind ritish territories in the wake of widespread independence movements was instituted to ensure that the United Kingdom's dogged pursuit of…… [Read More]
American Ethnic Literature
There are so many different voices within the context of the United States. This country is one which is built on cultural differences. Yet, for generations the only voices expressed in literature or from the white majority. Contemporary American ethnic literature is important in that it reflects the multifaceted nature of life in the United States. It is not pressured by the white majority anymore, but is rather influenced by the extremely varying experiences of vastly different individuals, as seen in the works of alph Ellison's Invisible Man, Gloria Anzaldua's "How to Tame a Wild Tongue," and Cathy Song's poem "Lost Sister." American ethnic literature speaks for minority voices, which have long been excluded in earlier generations of American society.
American ethnic literature has developed enormously over the last few centuries, and especially within the context of just the last few decades. In today's literary world, it…… [Read More]
American Experience With War
Which historian - David M. Kennedy, or John Shy - best represents the American experience with war?
While reading Kennedy's - and Shy's - essay discussions, it's necessary to put their writings in the context of time. Kennedy penned his essay in 1975, and Shy wrote his in 1971. In terms of world events subsequent to both essays - in particular the advent of terrorism on a colossal and destructive scale, (9/11/01) - veritable light years of military and political change has emerged.
But notwithstanding the tumultuous global changes since the 1970s, the assigned essays are timeless in their intelligent analysis, very important in terms of their forthright accuracy of U.S. history and war, and hence, provide valuable reading for any and all students of the times. However, the essay by Kennedy, in this writer's opinion, best reflects the big picture view of America, its peoples,…… [Read More]
The traditional view of these 15th century explorers is that they were brave sailors who braved the risks and difficulties of oceanic travel and who "discovered" new lands in distant places. In truth, they were horribly brutal, homicidal tyrants who actually were responsible for more atrocities than the worst modern-day examples of dictators and perpetrators of crimes against humanity.
The human carnage committed by Columbus and his armies and by those of Cortes in the century following their arrival in the Americas dwarfs even those committed by the Nazis during World War Two. The sheer numbers of people they enslaved, brutalized, and murdered amounts to many times the six million Jews killed by the Nazis. In fact, if one combines the number of native people murdered (and very cruelly, senselessly, and unnecessarily brutally) by Columbus and Cortes and their contemporaries. Columbus accounted for the deaths of at least 8 million…… [Read More]
American politics took another turn with problems that would lead to
the Civil War, as the North and the South each had their own interests.
Tariffs to protect some Northern manufacturing interests greatly angered
the South leading to attempts to nullify acts of the federal government,
ultimately resulting in conflict between the powers of the states and the
federal Union. The result of this conflict led to the Civil War and
American political development became one in which decisions over slave and
free-states were the most prominent. America became increasingly partisan
and the Republican party emerged to compete along with Know Nothings and
Democratic Party. Ultimately the South seceded resulting in a Confederacy
that split from the Union as the debates over slavery reached an all-time
involving all aspects of political life.
The Civil War split America in two and then brought it back together
again. But the new America…… [Read More]
Navies in American Revolution
For hundreds of years, maritime expansion represented the only way to reach distant shores, to attack enemies across channels of water, to explore uncharted territories, to make trade with regional neighbors and to connect the comprised empires. Leading directly into the 20th century, this was the chief mode of making war, maintaining occupations, colonizing lands and conducting the transport of goods acquired by trade or force. Peter Padfield theorized that ultimately, ritish maritime power was decisive in creating breathing space for liberal democracy in the world, as opposed to the autocratic states of continental Europe like Spain, France, Prussia and Russia. The Hapsburgs, the ourbons, Hitler and Stalin all failed to find a strategy that would defeat the maritime empires, which controlled the world's trade routes and raw materials. Successful maritime powers like ritain and, in the 20th Century, the United States, required coastlines with deep…… [Read More]
As a reader, the setting descriptions that the author used created an atmosphere of being "present" during the war. he maps used have helped the reader follow the warriors and deal with the facts surrounding the U.S. war with Mexico. he book really represents its era, as it is today, when it comes to the political and military problems and the relationship of the two countries.
he denouement of the plot happened, when at last, the reaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas rist. he United States was given undisputed control of exas and established the U.S.-Mexican border of the Rio Grande River. he present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming were ceded to the United States. Mexico received $15,000,000 which is less than half the amount the United States had attempted to offer Mexico…… [Read More]
After the statement of the Truman Doctrine in 1947, both Greece and Turkey were provided with aid to counter the Soviet threat.
When the war ended, circumstances in Greece were unfavorable to the maintenance of civil peace:
EAM was in control of nearly all Greece. Its leaders numbered many excellent liberals, the most eminent being Professor Svolos, a Socialist; but the Communists were clearly dominant. The returning Greek army was under the control of rabid, uncompromising monarchist officers... Had the issue of Greek sovereignty been left to these two Greek forces, there is no doubt of the outcome. The ineffectiveness of the returned Greek monarchist army was shown when, at the end of 1944, civil war broke out in Greece. ELAS surrounded the monarchist army and immobilized it from the outset.
However, they were not left to their own devices, and instead they were influenced by outside forces from ritain…… [Read More]
It is estimated that between 1900 and 1967, there were 526 civil wars called throughout the world (Civil pp). Today, there are literally dozens of wars going on around the globe, and dozens more that have ended during recent years, such as the civil wars in Guatemala and Tajikistan.
According to Christopher Cramer, most literature concerning civil wars has highlighted the role of political instability in the relationship between growth and inequality (Cramer pp). Although there are interlinkages between distribution, conflict and growth, these interlinkages are complex and cannot be read off or predicted from any convincing repeated empirical relationship between variables that are often loaded with too much and unclear meaning (Cramer pp). Cramer takes the title to his article, "Civil ar is Not a Stupid Thing: Exploring Growth, Distribution and Conflict Linkages" from a short story by Sicilian writer, Leonardo Sciascia, about a Sicilian dragooned into…… [Read More]
Spanish and American Democracy
The United States of America and Spain are both now industrialized nations and modern democracies, but their paths to democracy and global influence were quite distinct. The United States of America was formally founded in 1776 by a group of early American politicians who envisioned the young nation as an alternative in democratic governance in contrast and opposition to the monarchies still in ruling power throughout Europe. Spain was one of these European countries under monarchial rule in the 18th century and remained a monarchy for 201 years after the official adoption of the democratic Constitution in the United States of America. Spain's transition to democratic rule is largely considered to have begun in 1975 when the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco passed away, although there are other dates in the 1970s that are also said to mark the transition as well.
The philosophical foundations of the…… [Read More]
In his novels he focused on characters, motivations, and reactions to the forces around his characters. He realistically examined Spanish politics, economy, religion, and family through the eyes of the middle class, addressing the cruelty of human beings against each another in his novels Miau and Misericordia. Galdos was called the conscience of Spain for his realistic observations of society with all its ills. (Columbia 2005) His plays were less successful than his novels.
In 1907 he became deputy of the Republican Party in Madrid. He went blind in 1912, but overcoming this tragedy, he continued to dictate his books until his death. Other works translated into English are Tristana (tr. 1961) and Compassion (tr. 1962) Outside Spain his Novelas Espanolas Contemporaneas are the most popular. Perez Galdos was elected to the "Real Academia Espanola" Real Academia Espanola (Royal Spanish Academy) in 1897. A statue of him was raised in…… [Read More]
Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1
The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…… [Read More]
The Rooseveltian Nation was initially envisioned by Theodore Roosevelt during the epoch in which the U.S. triumphed in the Spanish American war and heralded its largely Anglo-Saxon nation of limited diversity as the most dominant race of a particular nation on the face of the earth. This concept was further solidified by the efforts of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who strove to reinforce the notion of such a national consciousness, character, and racial makeup with his New Deal efforts. However, the Rooseveltian Nation ultimately crumbled due to a plethora of developments near the midway point of the 20th century. A close examination of those factors reveals that they were ultimately linked to the Cold War and to what many Americans believed was an inherent hypocrisy evinced by their country -- which left a number of new ideologies among them in their wake.
The Rooseveltian Nation was able to withstand…… [Read More]
In the letter, those were rooms 112 and 113 (in the play, 108-109); "It seemed eminently more sensible to live in a part of a hotel which you knew would not be struck by shell fire" the author wrote in the letter (ashington, 2009, p. 1). The point ashington makes vis-a-vis Column is that room 109 wasn't just a "safe" place, it was a place with "good things" like sex, perfume, alcohol, hot water, and yes, food.
The brilliance of Hemingway's narrative -- not just in war themes but also throughout his work -- cannot be over-emphasized. In A Farewell to Arms Hemingway uses the character Frederic as narrator, and Frederic's narration is mainly descriptive, but in its simplicity, it packs a punch. Critic Katie Owens-Murphy explains that when Frederick -- an ambulance driver, not a soldier -- is asked about the war by a bartender, he first replies, "Don't…… [Read More]
European Federalism: Historical Analysis
Fascism is considered to be a political belief and concept, which is based on the principle that social, economic and cultural and traditional beliefs of a country must be used in order to increase nationalism. In Europe, fascist movements had emerged in twentieth century. The goal of these fascist movements was to promote fundamentalist and fanatic beliefs in order to deal with the social and political turmoil that occurred in the European region after the end of World War I. Federalism is considered to be the theory, which is based on the principles of federation, which seeks to create a balance of power by dividing it among the member of the same institution. The aim of this paper is to historically analyze the rise of European Union from 1918 to the end of World War II in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. Furthermore,…… [Read More]
She was endorsed by President Teddy Roosevelt. Many women also worked for the U.S. Navy as clerical workers. The Army hired women to work as phone operators and nurses in the European theater, but playing the role as civilians.
But women also worked on a no-pay basis; more than 25,000 U.S. woman served the war cause by helping nurse some of the wounded as volunteers, helped provide food and other things the military needed. The "Hello Girls" were female volunteer phone operators, and helped entertain the troops. The "doughboys" (soldiers) treated American women entertainers with respect, but the doughboys didn't treat French women with the same respect.
Things during the fighting changed for young men of course, as a draft went into effect in 1917, which called for all men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register for military service; later those ages were change to 18 and…… [Read More]
Whether it was the Spanish that fought to conquer lands in the south, or the Dutch that engaged in stiff competition with the British, or the French that were ultimately defeated in 1763, the American soil was one clearly marked by violent clashes between foreign powers. This is why it was considered that the cry for independence from the British was also a cry for a peaceful and secure future for the next generations. Thomas Paine argued that the time had indeed come for the colonies to be excluded from the continuous clashes that had defined their past. Thus, because of the British's traditional inclination towards war, such an objective was hard to reach under the Empire's constant control. Consequently, the time had come for the colonies to break apart and search their peace as an independent state.
Looking at the historical development of the events, it is easy to…… [Read More]
Imagine living in 18th Century America. What would a person encounter during that time period? Would the diverse social and political backgrounds impact a person positively or negatively during this era? Can a person prepare for what may occur with the upcoming Seven Years War? How would the outcomes of this war affect America in general? One will study these issues in depth from the perspective of an individual existing in the past.
During the 18th Century, I experienced a number of things that are worth mentioning. I went to the south at one time and noticed that slavery is an issue. Many of these individuals are poor, and a select few became land owners despite becoming exposed to various diseases. When I saw this I was devastated and wanted to help each person but I could not. However, these people after fifty years of service were promised their…… [Read More]
The Seven Years War saw Britain established as the greatest colonial power, with control over India and North America seemingly secured, while Prussia emerged as the greatest power on the Continent, and the dominant force inside Germany, reducing still further the power of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Austria. Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) emerges as the most remarkable leader of the war. Prussia was the smallest of the main combatants, and yet Frederick survived year after year of campaigning, and despite coming near to defeat he emerged triumphant (Richard).
Histories of the American Revolution tend to start in 1763, the end of the Seven-Year's War, a worldwide struggle for empire that pitted France against England in North America, Europe, and Asia. Fred Anderson, who teaches history at the University of Colorado, takes the story back a decade and explains the significance of the conflict in American history.…… [Read More]
Treatment of omen in Mexican Culture
The choices for women have, across both time and space, almost always been far more constrained than the choices of men. They have in fact all too often been reduced to a single pair of opposing choices: The pure or the corrupt, the white or the black, the chaste or the sexual - the virgin or the whore.
Mexican culture is certainly not exempt from this tendency to place women on one side of this dichotomy or the other, but in the case of Mexican images of women this division of the female half of the population into the chaste, good woman and the terrible promiscuous one becomes complicated by issues of race (and racial purity), by the historical condition of colonization and post-colonization, by the partial displacement, partial incorporation of native belief systems by Catholicism.
These many complications and elaborations of this essential…… [Read More]
The cultural practices are evolved and based on the financial, social and moral understanding and capabilities of the local population, and it has been observed that Americans, Asians and Africans share extremely different perspectives and understanding on these issues, therefore the cultural adoption has been intense in countries where the technological revolution has been of the same intensity as in North America (Zelli, 1993). In some of the cases, the Americans companies has attempted to nullify the concerns and shortcomings of the American culture, by incorporating the cultural values of the local region, and has therefore evolve a different taste for the customers to avail, this has further delighted and fascinated the local population of different regions towards the American culture, for example the American culture has major differences with the Islamic culture adopted in Arab countries, therefore to compensate for such difference the American companies introduced the concept of…… [Read More]
Brownlee, C. "The Bad Fight: Immune Systems Harmed 1918 Flu Patients." Science News, 30 September 2006, 211+.
Grist, N.. Pandemic Influenza 1918. 2009. Cape Town, South Africa: University of Cape Town. Online. Available from the Internet: http://web.uct.ac.za/depts/mmi/jmoodie/influen2.html, accessed 17 April 2009.
Imperato, Pascal James. "America's Forgotten Pandemic. The Influenza of 1918." Journal of Community Health 29, no. 1 (2004): 100+.
Irwin, Julia F. "An Epidemic without Enmity: Explaining the Missing Ethnic Tensions in New Haven's 1918 Influenza Epidemic." Urban History eview 36, no. 2 (2008): 5+.
Phillips, Howard and David Killingray, eds. The Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19: New Perspectives. New York: outledge, 2003.
1. Howard Phillips and David Killingray, eds., The Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19: New Perspectives. New York: outledge, 2003, 2.
C. Brownlee, "The Bad Fight: Immune Systems Harmed 1918 Flu Patients," Science News, 30 September 2006.
N..…… [Read More]
era through the great depression_
The economy of the United States was faced with fair share of challenges towards the close of the 19th century that had to be mitigated lets they got out of control. Other than the economic woes, there were also widespread social injustices. There was eminent war between capital and labor. Progressive era was realized in the very last years of the 19th century up to 1917 (Sage, 2010). The progressive era was a dawn of new ideas and progressive reforms. Some of its advantages are enjoyed to date. Some of the major events that characterized the progressive era were the birth of the American oil industry in 1901 and the initiation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909.
The first American oil was prospected in Texas' Spindletop and this set precedent for evolution of the nation's oil sector. The Texan…… [Read More]
Thoughts on Book eadings
All of the readings included in Beyond Borders: Thinking Critically about Global Issues help us appreciate American culture and U.S. history from several diverse perspectives. The book urges us all to reach beyond comfortable representations of the United States -- who we are, what our role has been in shaping the world, and how we have exercised power through our actions and interactions with others across the globe -- and embrace more complex truths. In short, we should challenge traditional interpretations.
History Lessons: How Textbooks from Around the World Portray U.S. History by Dana Lindaman and Kyle Ward helps expose how many American texts are biased in portrayals of the United States' role in world history. By examining the historical record of American history in English translated foreign texts, it is clear that other countries challenge the American depiction of itself in major events…… [Read More]
A very large number of Mexicans and Puerto icans came into the country in order to get away from poverty and to find a way to make a living. The 20th-century Cuban migration, which started in 1959 when Fidel Castro took over the government of Cuba, was mostly for political motivations (The Story of Hispanics in the Americas, n.d.).
According to data collected by the United States Department of Commerce, Hispanics are a younger, less well off, and less educated group than the rest of the population. Their median age is about 23. Sixty-three percent were under age 30 in 1992, and 40% were 18 or younger. The median family income was $23,400. This was higher than the median for blacks but lower than the rest of the non-Hispanic median of $35,200. Of the three groups, Mexican-Americans, Puerto icans, and Cubans, the Puerto icans had the lowest incomes and the…… [Read More]
U.S. History 1877-Present
America has changed so vastly since the U.S. Civil War that it is hard to single out three events that have had the most beneficial impact from the later nineteenth century to the present day. However, in terms of selecting events that have had the greatest impact on the daily lives of Americans in this time period even to the present day it is possible to nominate some specific events. he ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920, the introduction of the New Deal under President Franklin Roosevelt, the passage of the Civil Rights Act during the Presidency of Lyndon Johnson are all events which continue to have a positive impact felt by all Americans.
he Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is what permits women to vote. he fact that it was only passed in 1920 is something of a scandal --…… [Read More]
A long passage is quoted here by way of showing what all these various writers are concerned about: (Kane, 2003)May 2002 brought the odd spectacle of ex-President Jimmy Carter standing shoulder to shoulder in Havana with one of the U.S. government's oldest enemies, Cuban president Fidel Castro. Carter, on a mission to convey a message of friendship to the Cuban people and to seek some common ground between Cuba and the United States, made a point of meeting and encouraging local democratic, religious, and human rights activists. In a televised address, he endorsed the rights of dissidents and urged democracy on the island nation (Sullivan 2002). He also advocated an end to the U.S. embargo on Cuba (a call immediately echoed at home by 20 Democratic and 20 epublican representatives in Congress).
President George W. Bush's administration responded angrily to Carter's latest adventure as international arbiter. A senior state department…… [Read More]
S. led colonial expansion in the area. One impact of the treaty was that it gave the United States the rights to Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. Both Guam and the Philippines were critical additions because they signaled the beginning of U.S. involvement in the Pacific. It also marked a significant change in how America was viewed in the global arena, because almost all of Europe was sympathetic to Spain, and did not wish to see the decline of a fellow colonial power. However, with the treaty, the U.S. entered into the global arena and poised itself to emerge as a superpower. This status also brought about an atmosphere of economic, population, and technological growth that lasted for more than a century. Furthermore, the Spanish-American War helped repair the rift between the North and the South, and helped establish better relations between blacks and whites during that time…… [Read More]
Unsuccessful Presidents Identified- 1865-1940
Johnson's Problems with Congress
Cleveland's Problems with Congress
McKinley's Problems with Congress
Hoover's Problems with Congress
Using it to achieve goals
Americans unconcerned with problems outside of borders.
ural country first
Disdain for strong leaders
Concern for the economy
Failing to change
What political characteristics, personal patterns do unsuccessful presidents share in common between 1865 and 1940?
From the period 1865 to 1940, a total of fifteen men served as President of the United States. These fifteen - Johnson, Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison, McKinley, oosevelt, Taft, Wilson, Harding, Coolidge, Hoover, and oosevelt - served during what should have been mostly prosperous times. Yet several of these men and their presidencies must be labeled as failures.
Of these men, four have…… [Read More]
Writing Guidelines for History Identifications and Essays
Your essay should have an introductory paragraph that in some way summarizes, encapsulates, suggests, shapes, and/or sets up the ideas, themes, facts, or whatever you are going to discuss in the main body of your essay. In other words, you should set forth your thesis.
Here, in the main body of your essay, you should develop the principal ideas and themes, and support them with the appropriate facts. The main body will inevitably be several paragraphs long, perhaps a page or two or more, depending on what you want to say and the amount of material you include. Basically, the main body consists of as many paragraphs as you need to discuss the question at hand.
Also let me note that individual paragraphs generally begin with a topic sentence for that paragraph, follow that by a couple of sentences of development,…… [Read More]
Theodore Roosevelt, elected as President of the United States in 1901 and 1904, was one of the most ambiguous characters in American history. His political beliefs and attitudes, both progressive and conservative, influenced and shaped many domestic and international events which took place in the early 1890's and into the opening years of the twentieth century.
In the years prior to Roosevelt's presidency, two of the greatest social/political problems facing America were based on the continuing warfare between the poor and wealthy classes and the expansion of "Manifest Destiny" in foreign lands. Domestically, the country was burdened by a financial panic in the 1890's which complicated the lives of the urban poor and made the wealthy even more prosperous. In the cities, people demanded democratic change in many areas, such as the twelve hour work day, the dangerous conditions in American factories, the exploitation of immigrant laborers, corporate resistance…… [Read More]