437+ documents containing “special education and inclusion”.
This creates a problem in education, as there is already a disproportionate demand for pecial Education teachers, while there are not enough to meet the demand of the increasing numbers of students needing their services.
pecifically, Whitaker also mentions the following factors in contributing to the isolation problem and the lack of teacher retention: 1) a lack of preparation for the realities of the profession; 2) a reluctance in teachers to look for help when they need it; 3) Unrealistic expectations from peers, superiors, students and parents. Whitaker suggests that all these difficulties can be addressed by the appropriate support. There is a wide network of potential support available to the pecial Education teacher.
One of these is colleagues and friends. At the graduate level, lecturers and other professionals can provide support by preparing students for the realities of teaching. Teaching students should however also be encouraged to maintain their ideals,….
Cruzeiro, Patricia a & Morgan, Robert L. (2006, Spring). The Rural Principal's role with consideration for special education. Education. Database: FindArticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3673/is_200604/ai_n17182811
Whitaker, Susan D (2001, Dec). Supporting beginning special education teachers. Focus on Exceptional Children. Database: FindArticles.com http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3813/is_200112/ai_n9016218
(Fondacaro, 2001) Reported is a convenience sample of 12 students, 10 boys and 2 girls in the age range from 8-13 which was taken from nine public school and three private elementary schools in south New Jersey. The twelve students in this study were diagnosed as having Asperger's syndrome. Data was collected through semi-structured field interviews with special education and regular education teachers. Data was coded by the researcher according to the following categories and subcategories: (1) Characteristics of Asperger's syndrome - academic, social and behavioral (2) Educational Interventions - academic, behavior modification, social skills, placement and special services (3) ackground of the Child (4) Teacher Attitudes (5) Teacher Training. (Fondacaro, 2001)
II. FINDINGS of the STUDIES REVIEWED
Wynbranski (1996) reports that results indicated."..that the early intervention programming had altered the school placements of children with Down Syndrome." Stated as a significant finding in this study was "the movement from the….
Fondacaro, Donna M. (2001) Asperger Syndrome and Educational Interventions: A Series of Case Studies. The Center for Education, Widener University.
Pirie, Barbara Springman (1996) Inclusion, Its Feasibility: A Case Study at an Elementary School. The Center for Education. Widener University.
Wybranski, Nancy a.M (1996) an Efficacy Study: The Influence of Early Interventions on the Subsequent School Placements of Children with Down Syndrome. The Center for Education, Widener University
Each of these are defined by these authors as follows:
General curriculum alignment: "A team might decide that the student can benefit from placement in general education and participate in some or all of the curriculum. Although the child may receive extra help and remediation, he or she would essentially be evaluated with the same instruments and processes as other children in the class." (Price, Mayfield, McFadden and Marsh, 2001)
Adapted curriculum alignment: "At this level, the child's abilities and capabilities may be so discrepant from the peer group in the classroom that substantial alterations are required, such as adapting the curriculum and modifying requirements, expectations, and aspects of the environment. The child may work in the same curriculum strands as other students in the general education classroom, but at much lower levels in accordance with developmental ability." (Price, Mayfield, McFadden and Marsh, 2001)
Functional curriculum alignment: "It may be recognized that….
Hayes, Nakonia (nd) to Accommodate, to Modify, and to Know the Difference: Determining Placement of a Child in Special Education or '504'. New Horizons for Learning. Online available at http://www.newhorizons.org/spneeds/inclusion/law/hayes.htm .
Price, Mayfield, McFadden, and March (2001) Collaborative Teaching: Special Education for Inclusive Classrooms. 2000-2001 Parrott Publishing L.L.C.
Guidelines for Staff Regarding in-Class Delivery of Special Education Support in the Novi Community Schools (2004) Online available at http://www.novi.k12.mi.us/teachlearn/student/WebPages/Guidelines%20In%20Class%20rev%201204.pdf.
Council for Exceptional Children. (1997) Effective accommodations for students with exceptionalities. September, 1997. CEC Today, 1, 9, 15
special education has changed dramatically. Gone are the days of the special classroom down the hall where special education students were hidden away and kept from the general student population. Gone are the days when special education students were given comic books to read and passed because they were there. Civil rights mandates of the 1960's turned the world of special education inside out and today, four decades later, special education students are fully protected by federal law. Special education students are now educated in the least restrictive environment which many times means they are mainstreamed into regular education classrooms, with a variety of peer abilities. This blending of abilities is commonly referred to as inclusion, and it is so named because of the idea that it includes students of different abilities in one educational setting. Inclusion is practiced throughout the nation, and in all grade levels at this….
Special education as a concept is historically shrouded in controversy. (Seligmann, 2001, p. 1) Additionally the demand for special education funding and implementation has only increased as the number of students recognized as needing special services has continued to grow exponentially within the past forty years. (Macht, 1998, p. 1) The cultural awareness of the challenges and concerns of developmentally delayed students has also increased exponentially since the time when such people were secluded from society at home or institutionalized in inappropriately severe and clinical settings. Questions wavering between the mainstreaming of special needs students and insolating them in systems designed specifically to meet their needs seem to be eternal. The fundamental answers to these quests, as with most things must lie in the middle ground, where partial inclusion offers both challenged and less challenged learners the opportunities of social and educational interaction in a balanced and positive formulation.
Crockett, J.B., & Kauffman, J.M. (1999). The Least Restrictive Environment Its Origins and Interpretations in Special Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Crockett, J.B. (2002). Special education's role in preparing responsive leaders for inclusive schools. Remedial and Special Education, 23(3), 157+..
Hines, Rebecca A. "Inclusion in Middle Schools: ERIC Digest." 2003 http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=ED459000&db=eric&tg=AN .
Jenkins, A.A., Pateman, B., & Black, R.S. (2002). Partnerships for dual preparation in elementary, secondary and special education programs. Remedial and Special Education, 23(6), 359+.
(4) Have participating teachers develop and lead online collaborative projects for students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
(5) Develop and maintain an online community for teachers in self-contained units where ideas, lessons, and strategies can be shared.
(6) Train staff on the concepts surrounding Positive ehavioral Intervention Support (PIS) and support teachers as they develop preventative behavioral intervention plans that utilize PIS strategies and concepts. (Rush, 2010, p.1)
Rush (2010) states that the key elements of the model were online, collaborative learning and accessible computer-based educational resources. The results are stated to have exceeded initial expectations for "changing the focus in self-contained classrooms from behavior control to academic achievement." (Rush, 2010, p.1) Not only is academic achievement up but as well it is reported that "behavior referrals are down, and teachers report improved student outcomes in all areas." (Rush, 2010, p.1)
The work of Pierangelo and Guiliani (2008) states the effective classroom interventions with….
Pierangelo, R. And Guiliani, G.A. (2008) Classroom Management for Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Step-by-Step Guide for Educators. Corwin Press, 2008.
Jolivette, Kristine, et al. (2000) Improving Post-School Outcomes for Students with Emotional and Behavioral disorders. ERIC Clearinghouse. ERIC/OSEP Digest #E597. Online available at: http://eric.hoagiesgifted.org/e597.html
Salmon, Hallie (2006) Educating Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. Law & Disorder. Online available at: https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/201/salmon%20educating%20students%20with.pdf?sequence=1
Rush, Sharron (2010) Improving Education for Students with Emotional Disturbances. Knowbility. Online available at: http://www.knowbility.org/research/?content=improve
Meanwhile, paraprofessionals and special education facilitators are available in greater supply and provide considerable relief to the burdens placed upon dedicated fulltime special education professionals (Suter & Giangreco, 2009).
Whereas the traditional model of separate education for special-needs students requires that school systems rely on fulltime special educators and depends, necessarily, on their availability, that is not the case with inclusion programs. The inclusion of special-needs students within the regular curriculum allows special-needs services to be delivered by paraprofessionals instead of relying exclusively on dedicated special needs educators. Typically, special needs education paraprofessionals can deliver services to several special-needs students simultaneously instead of limiting the number of special-needs students to the same number of special needs educators available on a one-on-one basis (Suter & Giangreco, 2009)
It does not appear that any of the objections to the inclusion of special-needs students in the regular educational environment and curriculum stand up to….
Dupuis, B., Barclay, J.W., Holmes, S.D., Platt, M., Shaha, S.H., and Lewis, V.K.
(2007). "Does Inclusion Help Students: Perspectives from Regular Education and Students with Disabilities." National Association of Special Education Teachers.
Accessed online: http://www.naset.org/782.0.html
Edwards, G., Wattenberg, M., and Lineberry, R. (2009). Government in America: People,
In their study, "Thinking of Inclusion for All Special Needs Students: Better Think Again," asch and his colleagues (1994) report that, "The political argument in favor of inclusion is based on the assumption that the civil rights of students, as outlined in the 1954 decision handed down in Brown v. Board of Education, which struck down the concept of 'separate but equal,' can also be construed as applying to special education" (p. 36). According to Mcgregor and Salisbury (2002), since then, the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, P.L. 105-17, 1997), and the 1994 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (also known as the "Improving America's Schools Act"; ESEA, P.L. 103-382, 1994), mandate the inclusion of supplementary services and instructional supports in the general education classrooms to provide all students with access to challenging and stimulating learning environments (Mcgregor & Salibury, 2002). In addition,….
Allan, J. (1999). Actively seeking inclusion: Pupils with special needs in mainstream schools. London: Falmer Press.
Balfanz, R., Jordan, W., Legters, N., & McPartland, J. (1998). Improving climate and achievement in a troubled urban high school through the talent development model. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 3(4), 348.
Banks, J. (1994). All of us together: The story of inclusion at the Kinzie School. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
Bullard, H.R. (2004). Ensure the successful inclusion of a child with Asperger syndrome in the general education classroom. Intervention in School & Clinic, 39(3), 176.
Additionally, other students must be educated about disabilities and how to include others that are different. (Dybvik 2004)
Purpose and esearch Questions
The purpose of the proposed research study is to determine the effectiveness of the inclusive classroom and the best methods for increasing the positive outcome of inclusive classrooms. The questions to be answered include:
1. How do educators, parents, and others involved in the education currently view inclusion?
2. How do the views of educators affect the implementation of programs such as inclusion?
3. Are disabled students benefiting from inclusive classrooms compared to non-inclusive classes?
4. Are normal students benefiting from inclusive classrooms?
5. What educational models will be most beneficial to students in an inclusive classroom?
The most destructive expectation of teachers that is harming the inclusion movement is that "Classroom teachers are expected to continue to use the existing curriculum." (King 2003) It is the hypothesis of this researcher that while traditional educational….
Dybvik, C. (2004) Autism and the inclusion mandate: what happens when children with severe disabilities like autism are taught in regular classrooms. Education Next, Winter.
Hehir, T. (2003, March) Beyond inclusion: educators' 'ableist' assumptions about students with disabilities compromise the quality of instruction. School Administrator.
King, I.C. (2003) Examining middle school inclusion classrooms through the lens of Learner-Centered Principles. Theory Into Practice.
Murphy, T.J. (1994, September 12) Handicapping education - full inclusion of disabled children in classrooms. National Review.
These are the students who are suffering from sort of problem; it may be a cognitive disorder, a memory problem, a writing problem, or some sort of physical problem that does not allow him to cope with the burden of the educational system without special help and instruction, or anything else. The proponents of the exit exams also state that unless students are held to certain high standards, it would be impossible to identify or address the various inherent flaws and weaknesses in the entire system of examinations. Another advantage of the exit exam system, according to them, is that there will be an increase in the motivation levels for both students and teachers to do better and excel at the exam to the best of their abilities.
This, again, is valid only for those students who are in the normal stream of education, and not for those students who….
CA High School Exit Exam." Retrieved at http://www.suhsd.net/html/cahsee1.htm. Accessed on 11 January, 2005
Definition of Special Education" Retrieved at http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&lr=&oi=defmore&q=define:Special+EducationAccessed on 11 January, 2005
Goodwin, Sherry Posnick. "Students with learning disabilities campaign against high school exit exams" Retrieved at http://www.cta.org/CaliforniaEducator/v7i8/MTC_1.htm . Accessed on 11 January, 2005
High school exit examination: District and School Information Packet." (April 2000)
S. Office of Education (Osgood 1999).
Each federal act preceding the Education for All Handicapped Children Act freed up funds for special education training programs and for special education programs themselves. Moreover, the legislation raised awareness about the breadth and diversity of the disabled community and helped to reduce stigma. President Johnson followed well in the footsteps of his predecessor by establishing the Committee on Mental etardation and helping to pass Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA, PL 89-10). The Act opened up funds to be used at the state level for special education and lead to the creation of the Bureau of Education of the Handicapped. Although focused on the needs of the mentally disabled community, the Johnson era legislation was integral in providing precedent for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act.
Osgood (1999) also suggests that impetus for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act came from public awareness….
Ford, Gerald. (1975). Statement on Signing the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://www.ford.utexas.edu/LIBRARY/speeches/750707.htm
Osgood, R.L. (nd). The History of Inclusion in the United States. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://gupress.gallaudet.edu/bookpage/HIUSbookpage.html
Raschke, D. & Bronson, J. (1999). "Inclusion." Excerpt from "Creative Educators at Work: All Children Including Those with Disabilities Can Play Traditional Classroom Games." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://www.uni.edu/coe/inclusion/philosophy/benefits.html
Special Education Laws and Legislation." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://atto.buffalo.edu/registered/ATBasics/Foundation/Laws/specialed.php
Inclusion is thought to be a best practice. Under this philosophy most students with mild disabilities spend the greater part of their day in the general education setting with their peers. Students may be allocated an instructional assistant to help them with their work. Some students with learning disabilities often spend time in a resource room in order to receive direct instruction. The special education team may decide that this is not the right path for a student and try a more restrictive setting known as partial inclusion. Partial inclusion refers to when a student partakes in the general education setting for part of the day but receives the bulk of their academic instruction in a resource room. Due to the severity of some student's disabilities, they may be assigned to a self-contained classroom in where they will spend at least 60% of their school day working directly with the….
Cortiella, C. (2009). The State of Learning Disabilities. Retrieved June 24, 2010, from New
York, NY: National Center for Learning Disabilities Web site:
Godovnikova, L.V. (2009). The Conditions for the Integrated Education of Children with Impaired Development. Russian Education & Society. 51(10), p.26-39.
More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way that is and feels qualitatively different from other research traditions we have used in the past, because it is built on valuing. Even though it is challenging at times (Ospina et al. 2002), our inquiry space is enhanced by our collaboration with the social change leaders. (Schall, Ospina, Godsoe and Dodge, nd)
Qualitative Research Methods
Qualitative research methods are those of:
(1) Phenomenology -- this is a form of qualitative research in which the researcher focuses on gaining understanding of how an individual or individuals experience a phenomenon.
(2) Ethnography -- qualitative research that focuses on the culture of a group and describing that culture.
(3) Case Study Research -- form of qualitative research that provides a detailed account of a case or cases.
(4) Grounded theory….
Betts, Dion E. (2008) Professional Learning Communities and Special education: We Are Gathering Student Performance Data, Now What? PA Administrator.
Blaydes, John (2004) Survival skills for the principalship: a treasure chest of time-savers, short-cuts, and strategies to help you keep a balance in your life. Corwin Press, 2004.
Condelli, Larry and Wrigley, Heide Spruck (2004) Real World Research: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research for Adult ESL paper was presented at the National Research and Development Centre (NRDC) Second International Conference for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Loughborough, England, March 25-27, 2004.
Cotton, K. (1996). School size, school climate, and student performance (School Improvement Research Series, Close-Up #20). Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved September 30, 2006, from http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/10/c020.html
Categorizations included 'steamer children', 'backward', 'defective', 'truant', and 'incorrigible'. At least two of these terms have persisted still today. In 1904, special procedures for identifying 'defectives' were presented at the World's Fair.
In 1951, the categorization changed again, with a major section of special education called the 'slow learner' what today we refer to as 'learning disability'. Even here, this term has split into countless subcategories such as 'ADD', 'ADHD', 'Asperger's', 'learning deficiency', 'special needs', 'borderline line special needs', and so forth.
The 'take home' points for inclusion in the classroom would be primarily the endeavor to respect each and every student as an individual and to look past the labels. I believe that the use of diagnostic labels are potentially stigmatizing to students locking student in an, oftentimes, undeserved categorization that impedes the teacher from seeing him as a complex, remarkably rounded individual who has tremendous potential. The label has….
Bateman, Barbara D. (1994). Who, How, and Where: Special Education's Issues in Perpetuity. The Journal of Special Education 27, 509-520.
Dorn, S., Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L.S. (1996). A Historical Perspective on Special Education Reform. Theory into Practice 35, 12-19.
Kauffman, J.M. (1981). Historical Trends and Contemporary Issues in Special Education in the United States. In Handbook of Special Education, ed. James M. Kauffman and Daniel P. Hallahan. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Winzer, Margaret a. (1993). History of Special Education from Isolation to Integration. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
" And following that experience the class can discuss what acid rain does to the ecosystem and the teacher can show a video of a forest devastated by acid rain, or just photos of depleted forests and dead fish floating on a stream or lake (waters that have been polluted by acid rain).
About this time, students are asked: "here does the acid rain come from?" Let them guess, and talk about it. Then the teacher shows photos of smokestacks belching out clouds of brown sooty looking pollution and explain that once in the atmosphere, the pollutants (they don't need to know the science of precisely what chemicals bond with condensation but they could certainly relate to dirty polluted particles joining with raindrops) return to earth as acid rain. And as an additional part of this curriculum, students should be shown the various products that are produced in the factories that….
Chappell, Tracey. (2008). Getting serious about inclusive curriculum for special education.
Primary & Middle Years Educator, 6(2), five pages.
EdChange. (2008). Curriculum Reform: Steps Toward Multicultural Curriculum
Transformation. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/curriculum/steps.html .
This creates a problem in education, as there is already a disproportionate demand for pecial Education teachers, while there are not enough to meet the demand of the…Read Full Paper ❯
(Fondacaro, 2001) Reported is a convenience sample of 12 students, 10 boys and 2 girls in the age range from 8-13 which was taken from nine public school…Read Full Paper ❯
Each of these are defined by these authors as follows: General curriculum alignment: "A team might decide that the student can benefit from placement in general education and participate…Read Full Paper ❯
special education has changed dramatically. Gone are the days of the special classroom down the hall where special education students were hidden away and kept from the general…Read Full Paper ❯
Inclusion Special education as a concept is historically shrouded in controversy. (Seligmann, 2001, p. 1) Additionally the demand for special education funding and implementation has only increased as the number…Read Full Paper ❯
(4) Have participating teachers develop and lead online collaborative projects for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. (5) Develop and maintain an online community for teachers in self-contained units where…Read Full Paper ❯
Meanwhile, paraprofessionals and special education facilitators are available in greater supply and provide considerable relief to the burdens placed upon dedicated fulltime special education professionals (Suter & Giangreco,…Read Full Paper ❯
In their study, "Thinking of Inclusion for All Special Needs Students: Better Think Again," asch and his colleagues (1994) report that, "The political argument in favor of inclusion is…Read Full Paper ❯
Additionally, other students must be educated about disabilities and how to include others that are different. (Dybvik 2004) Purpose and esearch Questions The purpose of the proposed research study is…Read Full Paper ❯
These are the students who are suffering from sort of problem; it may be a cognitive disorder, a memory problem, a writing problem, or some sort of physical…Read Full Paper ❯
S. Office of Education (Osgood 1999). Each federal act preceding the Education for All Handicapped Children Act freed up funds for special education training programs and for special education programs…Read Full Paper ❯
Inclusion is thought to be a best practice. Under this philosophy most students with mild disabilities spend the greater part of their day in the general education setting with…Read Full Paper ❯
More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way…Read Full Paper ❯
Categorizations included 'steamer children', 'backward', 'defective', 'truant', and 'incorrigible'. At least two of these terms have persisted still today. In 1904, special procedures for identifying 'defectives' were presented…Read Full Paper ❯
" And following that experience the class can discuss what acid rain does to the ecosystem and the teacher can show a video of a forest devastated by acid…Read Full Paper ❯