Special Education And Inclusion Essays (Examples)

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This creates a problem in education, as there is already a disproportionate demand for pecial Education teachers, while there are not enough to meet the demand of the increasing numbers of students needing their services.
pecifically, Whitaker also mentions the following factors in contributing to the isolation problem and the lack of teacher retention: 1) a lack of preparation for the realities of the profession; 2) a reluctance in teachers to look for help when they need it; 3) Unrealistic expectations from peers, superiors, students and parents. Whitaker suggests that all these difficulties can be addressed by the appropriate support. There is a wide network of potential support available to the pecial Education teacher.

One of these is colleagues and friends. At the graduate level, lecturers and other professionals can provide support by preparing students for the realities of teaching. Teaching students should however also be encouraged to maintain their ideals,….

(Fondacaro, 2001) Reported is a convenience sample of 12 students, 10 boys and 2 girls in the age range from 8-13 which was taken from nine public school and three private elementary schools in south New Jersey. The twelve students in this study were diagnosed as having Asperger's syndrome. Data was collected through semi-structured field interviews with special education and regular education teachers. Data was coded by the researcher according to the following categories and subcategories: (1) Characteristics of Asperger's syndrome - academic, social and behavioral (2) Educational Interventions - academic, behavior modification, social skills, placement and special services (3) ackground of the Child (4) Teacher Attitudes (5) Teacher Training. (Fondacaro, 2001)
II. FINDINGS of the STUDIES REVIEWED

Wynbranski (1996) reports that results indicated."..that the early intervention programming had altered the school placements of children with Down Syndrome." Stated as a significant finding in this study was "the movement from the….

Each of these are defined by these authors as follows:
General curriculum alignment: "A team might decide that the student can benefit from placement in general education and participate in some or all of the curriculum. Although the child may receive extra help and remediation, he or she would essentially be evaluated with the same instruments and processes as other children in the class." (Price, Mayfield, McFadden and Marsh, 2001)

Adapted curriculum alignment: "At this level, the child's abilities and capabilities may be so discrepant from the peer group in the classroom that substantial alterations are required, such as adapting the curriculum and modifying requirements, expectations, and aspects of the environment. The child may work in the same curriculum strands as other students in the general education classroom, but at much lower levels in accordance with developmental ability." (Price, Mayfield, McFadden and Marsh, 2001)

Functional curriculum alignment: "It may be recognized that….

special education has changed dramatically. Gone are the days of the special classroom down the hall where special education students were hidden away and kept from the general student population. Gone are the days when special education students were given comic books to read and passed because they were there. Civil rights mandates of the 1960's turned the world of special education inside out and today, four decades later, special education students are fully protected by federal law. Special education students are now educated in the least restrictive environment which many times means they are mainstreamed into regular education classrooms, with a variety of peer abilities. This blending of abilities is commonly referred to as inclusion, and it is so named because of the idea that it includes students of different abilities in one educational setting. Inclusion is practiced throughout the nation, and in all grade levels at this….

Inclusion
Special education as a concept is historically shrouded in controversy. (Seligmann, 2001, p. 1) Additionally the demand for special education funding and implementation has only increased as the number of students recognized as needing special services has continued to grow exponentially within the past forty years. (Macht, 1998, p. 1) The cultural awareness of the challenges and concerns of developmentally delayed students has also increased exponentially since the time when such people were secluded from society at home or institutionalized in inappropriately severe and clinical settings. Questions wavering between the mainstreaming of special needs students and insolating them in systems designed specifically to meet their needs seem to be eternal. The fundamental answers to these quests, as with most things must lie in the middle ground, where partial inclusion offers both challenged and less challenged learners the opportunities of social and educational interaction in a balanced and positive formulation.

The right….


(4) Have participating teachers develop and lead online collaborative projects for students with emotional and behavioral disorders.

(5) Develop and maintain an online community for teachers in self-contained units where ideas, lessons, and strategies can be shared.

(6) Train staff on the concepts surrounding Positive ehavioral Intervention Support (PIS) and support teachers as they develop preventative behavioral intervention plans that utilize PIS strategies and concepts. (Rush, 2010, p.1)

Rush (2010) states that the key elements of the model were online, collaborative learning and accessible computer-based educational resources. The results are stated to have exceeded initial expectations for "changing the focus in self-contained classrooms from behavior control to academic achievement." (Rush, 2010, p.1) Not only is academic achievement up but as well it is reported that "behavior referrals are down, and teachers report improved student outcomes in all areas." (Rush, 2010, p.1)

The work of Pierangelo and Guiliani (2008) states the effective classroom interventions with….

Meanwhile, paraprofessionals and special education facilitators are available in greater supply and provide considerable relief to the burdens placed upon dedicated fulltime special education professionals (Suter & Giangreco, 2009).
Whereas the traditional model of separate education for special-needs students requires that school systems rely on fulltime special educators and depends, necessarily, on their availability, that is not the case with inclusion programs. The inclusion of special-needs students within the regular curriculum allows special-needs services to be delivered by paraprofessionals instead of relying exclusively on dedicated special needs educators. Typically, special needs education paraprofessionals can deliver services to several special-needs students simultaneously instead of limiting the number of special-needs students to the same number of special needs educators available on a one-on-one basis (Suter & Giangreco, 2009)

Conclusion

It does not appear that any of the objections to the inclusion of special-needs students in the regular educational environment and curriculum stand up to….


In their study, "Thinking of Inclusion for All Special Needs Students: Better Think Again," asch and his colleagues (1994) report that, "The political argument in favor of inclusion is based on the assumption that the civil rights of students, as outlined in the 1954 decision handed down in Brown v. Board of Education, which struck down the concept of 'separate but equal,' can also be construed as applying to special education" (p. 36). According to Mcgregor and Salisbury (2002), since then, the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, P.L. 105-17, 1997), and the 1994 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (also known as the "Improving America's Schools Act"; ESEA, P.L. 103-382, 1994), mandate the inclusion of supplementary services and instructional supports in the general education classrooms to provide all students with access to challenging and stimulating learning environments (Mcgregor & Salibury, 2002). In addition,….

Additionally, other students must be educated about disabilities and how to include others that are different. (Dybvik 2004)
Purpose and esearch Questions

The purpose of the proposed research study is to determine the effectiveness of the inclusive classroom and the best methods for increasing the positive outcome of inclusive classrooms. The questions to be answered include:

1. How do educators, parents, and others involved in the education currently view inclusion?

2. How do the views of educators affect the implementation of programs such as inclusion?

3. Are disabled students benefiting from inclusive classrooms compared to non-inclusive classes?

4. Are normal students benefiting from inclusive classrooms?

5. What educational models will be most beneficial to students in an inclusive classroom?

Hypothesis

The most destructive expectation of teachers that is harming the inclusion movement is that "Classroom teachers are expected to continue to use the existing curriculum." (King 2003) It is the hypothesis of this researcher that while traditional educational….

These are the students who are suffering from sort of problem; it may be a cognitive disorder, a memory problem, a writing problem, or some sort of physical problem that does not allow him to cope with the burden of the educational system without special help and instruction, or anything else. The proponents of the exit exams also state that unless students are held to certain high standards, it would be impossible to identify or address the various inherent flaws and weaknesses in the entire system of examinations. Another advantage of the exit exam system, according to them, is that there will be an increase in the motivation levels for both students and teachers to do better and excel at the exam to the best of their abilities.
This, again, is valid only for those students who are in the normal stream of education, and not for those students who….

S. Office of Education (Osgood 1999).
Each federal act preceding the Education for All Handicapped Children Act freed up funds for special education training programs and for special education programs themselves. Moreover, the legislation raised awareness about the breadth and diversity of the disabled community and helped to reduce stigma. President Johnson followed well in the footsteps of his predecessor by establishing the Committee on Mental etardation and helping to pass Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA, PL 89-10). The Act opened up funds to be used at the state level for special education and lead to the creation of the Bureau of Education of the Handicapped. Although focused on the needs of the mentally disabled community, the Johnson era legislation was integral in providing precedent for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act.

Osgood (1999) also suggests that impetus for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act came from public awareness….


Inclusion is thought to be a best practice. Under this philosophy most students with mild disabilities spend the greater part of their day in the general education setting with their peers. Students may be allocated an instructional assistant to help them with their work. Some students with learning disabilities often spend time in a resource room in order to receive direct instruction. The special education team may decide that this is not the right path for a student and try a more restrictive setting known as partial inclusion. Partial inclusion refers to when a student partakes in the general education setting for part of the day but receives the bulk of their academic instruction in a resource room. Due to the severity of some student's disabilities, they may be assigned to a self-contained classroom in where they will spend at least 60% of their school day working directly with the….

More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way that is and feels qualitatively different from other research traditions we have used in the past, because it is built on valuing. Even though it is challenging at times (Ospina et al. 2002), our inquiry space is enhanced by our collaboration with the social change leaders. (Schall, Ospina, Godsoe and Dodge, nd)
Qualitative Research Methods

Qualitative research methods are those of:

(1) Phenomenology -- this is a form of qualitative research in which the researcher focuses on gaining understanding of how an individual or individuals experience a phenomenon.

(2) Ethnography -- qualitative research that focuses on the culture of a group and describing that culture.

(3) Case Study Research -- form of qualitative research that provides a detailed account of a case or cases.

(4) Grounded theory….

Categorizations included 'steamer children', 'backward', 'defective', 'truant', and 'incorrigible'. At least two of these terms have persisted still today. In 1904, special procedures for identifying 'defectives' were presented at the World's Fair.
In 1951, the categorization changed again, with a major section of special education called the 'slow learner' what today we refer to as 'learning disability'. Even here, this term has split into countless subcategories such as 'ADD', 'ADHD', 'Asperger's', 'learning deficiency', 'special needs', 'borderline line special needs', and so forth.

The 'take home' points for inclusion in the classroom would be primarily the endeavor to respect each and every student as an individual and to look past the labels. I believe that the use of diagnostic labels are potentially stigmatizing to students locking student in an, oftentimes, undeserved categorization that impedes the teacher from seeing him as a complex, remarkably rounded individual who has tremendous potential. The label has….

" And following that experience the class can discuss what acid rain does to the ecosystem and the teacher can show a video of a forest devastated by acid rain, or just photos of depleted forests and dead fish floating on a stream or lake (waters that have been polluted by acid rain).
About this time, students are asked: "here does the acid rain come from?" Let them guess, and talk about it. Then the teacher shows photos of smokestacks belching out clouds of brown sooty looking pollution and explain that once in the atmosphere, the pollutants (they don't need to know the science of precisely what chemicals bond with condensation but they could certainly relate to dirty polluted particles joining with raindrops) return to earth as acid rain. And as an additional part of this curriculum, students should be shown the various products that are produced in the factories that….

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2 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Special Education and Inclusion Even

Words: 697
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

This creates a problem in education, as there is already a disproportionate demand for pecial Education teachers, while there are not enough to meet the demand of the…

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3 Pages
Research Proposal

Teaching

Special Education and Inclusion Physically

Words: 787
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Research Proposal

(Fondacaro, 2001) Reported is a convenience sample of 12 students, 10 boys and 2 girls in the age range from 8-13 which was taken from nine public school…

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4 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Special Education and Inclusion Accommodations

Words: 1175
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Each of these are defined by these authors as follows: General curriculum alignment: "A team might decide that the student can benefit from placement in general education and participate…

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22 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Special Education Has Changed Dramatically Gone Are

Words: 5921
Length: 22 Pages
Type: Term Paper

special education has changed dramatically. Gone are the days of the special classroom down the hall where special education students were hidden away and kept from the general…

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10 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Inclusion Special Education as a Concept Is

Words: 2695
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Inclusion Special education as a concept is historically shrouded in controversy. (Seligmann, 2001, p. 1) Additionally the demand for special education funding and implementation has only increased as the number…

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5 Pages
Research Proposal

Teaching

Special Education and Students With

Words: 1459
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Research Proposal

(4) Have participating teachers develop and lead online collaborative projects for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. (5) Develop and maintain an online community for teachers in self-contained units where…

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6 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Special Education Inclusion -- Pros

Words: 1663
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Meanwhile, paraprofessionals and special education facilitators are available in greater supply and provide considerable relief to the burdens placed upon dedicated fulltime special education professionals (Suter & Giangreco,…

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45 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Special Education - Inclusion the

Words: 12387
Length: 45 Pages
Type: Term Paper

In their study, "Thinking of Inclusion for All Special Needs Students: Better Think Again," asch and his colleagues (1994) report that, "The political argument in favor of inclusion is…

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6 Pages
Research Proposal

Teaching

Special Education Has Been a

Words: 1912
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Research Proposal

Additionally, other students must be educated about disabilities and how to include others that are different. (Dybvik 2004) Purpose and esearch Questions The purpose of the proposed research study is…

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8 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Special Education What Is Special

Words: 3509
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Term Paper

These are the students who are suffering from sort of problem; it may be a cognitive disorder, a memory problem, a writing problem, or some sort of physical…

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7 Pages
Thesis

Teaching

Special Education Until 1975 Disabled

Words: 2069
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Thesis

S. Office of Education (Osgood 1999). Each federal act preceding the Education for All Handicapped Children Act freed up funds for special education training programs and for special education programs…

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2 Pages
Literature Review

Teaching

Special Education History and Efficacy

Words: 729
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Literature Review

Inclusion is thought to be a best practice. Under this philosophy most students with mild disabilities spend the greater part of their day in the general education setting with…

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40 Pages
Thesis

Leadership

Special Education Director Leadership Styles

Words: 11099
Length: 40 Pages
Type: Thesis

More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way…

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2 Pages
Journal

Teaching

Special Education the Key Points

Words: 682
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Journal

Categorizations included 'steamer children', 'backward', 'defective', 'truant', and 'incorrigible'. At least two of these terms have persisted still today. In 1904, special procedures for identifying 'defectives' were presented…

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7 Pages
Thesis

Teaching

Special Education Experiences More Inclusive

Words: 2087
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Thesis

" And following that experience the class can discuss what acid rain does to the ecosystem and the teacher can show a video of a forest devastated by acid…

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