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Budget and Resource Allocation Influence of Political Interest Groups on the Educational Policy Making Process
State support for public education has wavered over time as a consequence of other competing interests. This is more so the case given the competing demands of a wide range of other things including, but not limited to, healthcare (i.e. Medicaid). There are, however, variations from state to state. There is need for educational theorists, education policy practitioners and various other stakeholders in the education framework to better comprehend the various political forces having an impact on state fiscal policy. This text concerns itself with the influence of political interest groups on the educational policy-making process, with regard to budget and resource allocation. The context of this particular discussion will be Florida and Texas.
Interest groups do not have an assigned definition. This is to say that there is no single accepted definition…

Special Interests Washington Lobbyists Influence and Money
Words: 1415 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71948516
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Special Interests

Washington lobbyists, influence, and money are concatenate forces in the current political dynamic. The 2008 election cycle saw Barack Obama spend in excess of 730 million on his run for the Presidency. John McCain was seemingly dwarfed, spending only 333 million" ( N.D. 1). The spending however was only a portion of the 5.2 billion spent nationally in the 2008 election cycles ( N.D. 1). Further, the situation seems to be accelerating. In 2010, a midterm election year when political spending tends to wane, the election cycle proved "the most expensive in history, with a total cost that is now expected to equal roughly $4 billion" (Kurtzleben 2010, 1) This figure will be seemingly insignificant to the 2012 election spending, which according to Bill Holman, government affairs lobbyist with Public Citizen, could be as much as $8 billion" (Gorenstein, 2011, 1).

The growing ubiquity of money in the…


ABC News. January 21, 2009. President Obama Sets Rules on Ethics and Transparency.

ABC News. Retrieved May 6, 2011 from

Barnes, James. March 21, 2009. Insiders Say Special Interests Here to Stay. National Journal. Retrieved May 6, 2011 from 

Barnes, James. March 21, 2009. Who Will Win Who Will lose? National

Groups and Voting Blocs in
Words: 2312 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30437522
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Scholarship notes that these five groups are critical in managing the electoral politics of the U.N., and in the manner resolutions are adopted by group. Complications arise, for instance, because the Arab world is split between Africa and Asia, and the former Soviet Republics are split between Asia and Eastern Europe, which also includes Russia. [12: Ibid.]

The importance of understanding these groupings is that they play a strategic role in controlling issues surrounding leadership, membership, responsibilities, and structure. The success or failure of a number of campaigns and issues follows the ability to find consensus with the groups, and the individual group's ability to exercise negotiation techniques to sway other blocs. Ironically, analysis of voting records over the past few decades show that despite the importance of electoral groups, 10% of written commitments between groups and 20% of oral commitments are discounted based on misleading information or intention. [13:…

Special Education What Is Special
Words: 3509 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88017095
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These are the students who are suffering from sort of problem; it may be a cognitive disorder, a memory problem, a writing problem, or some sort of physical problem that does not allow him to cope with the burden of the educational system without special help and instruction, or anything else. The proponents of the exit exams also state that unless students are held to certain high standards, it would be impossible to identify or address the various inherent flaws and weaknesses in the entire system of examinations. Another advantage of the exit exam system, according to them, is that there will be an increase in the motivation levels for both students and teachers to do better and excel at the exam to the best of their abilities.

This, again, is valid only for those students who are in the normal stream of education, and not for those students who…


CA High School Exit Exam." Retrieved at Accessed on 11 January, 2005

Definition of Special Education" Retrieved at  on 11 January, 2005

Goodwin, Sherry Posnick. "Students with learning disabilities campaign against high school exit exams" Retrieved at . Accessed on 11 January, 2005

High school exit examination: District and School Information Packet." (April 2000)

Triumph of Hope Over Self-Interest
Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24493895
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Triumph of Hope over Self-Interest, by David rooks. Specifically, it will identify the central point of the article and respond to the idea in some way. Americans are eternally hopeful, and much of that hope is based on increasing their wealth and moving up the rungs of the income ladder. This is why so many Americans seem to vote according to their hopes, rather than their economic realities.


The central point of this article revolves around the belief that Americans will always hope to be better off than they are, and so, they tend to identify with those who have more money, rather than those who have less. As the author notes, "Many Americans admire the rich," and he continues, "Americans resent social inequity more than income inequality" (rooks). rooks goes on to say that Americans do not see each other as rich or poor, they…


Brooks, David. "The Triumph of Hope over Self-Interest."

Special Education and Ways to Improve Teaching Methods
Words: 2196 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74841504
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Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) Violations as they Pertain to the Case of Sonya

An educational institution's principal greatly influences the learning/teaching of every student within the school, for better or for worse. Studies have found that principals' approach to their post, and its eventual effect on enrolled pupils, is dependent upon their style of leadership. Some styles prove to have more benefits for pupils than others. An especially vulnerable student group is students with special education needs. They are, in fact, so susceptible that regulations are made for their protection, designed specially to look after their education. Such laws foster collaboration, inclusive planning, and shared leadership-- leadership traits that have been proven as having the most favorable impact on all students' outcomes (Schulze, 2014).

The school administrator's role as an educational leader has an extensive history. Currently, however, the significance of this particular role is greater than ever…


Boscardian, M. L. (2011). Exploring the Relationship Between Special Education Teachers and Professional Learning Communities. Journal of Special Education Leadership, 62.

Case Studies in Special Education Law: No Child Left Behind Act and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (Case 2.2 "Sonya" pages 30-32 only) (1st Edition)

Diliberto J. A., Brewer D. (2012). Six tips for successful IEP Meetings. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44,30-37

Harrison, D. (2010). Meeting the Needs of Special Needs Students Virtually. The Journal.

Group Designing for People Concerned About Bullying in a School
Words: 3650 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 79386353
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Designing a Group

A Group for Individuals Concerned about School ullying Incidents

What population is the group designed to serve?

The group is ultimately designed to serve students of a school where bullying has occurred, and the entire school students, staff, and administrators. Local community members, such as physicians and health professionals would also be welcome; individuals who are professional counselors may have useful contributions. As well, it will serve the students' families, friends, and the community. Each of these individuals has something to contribute in a group dialogue about bullying, from a different perspective. The largest issue to be faced at the onset is empowering individuals, such as students, to speak frankly in the presence of not only their peers, but also in the presence of perceived authority figures.

Parental involvement is important so that the parent can assist with issues that their child may have had concerning bullying;…


Anti-bullying procedures for primary and post-primary schools. (2013). Retrieved from: .

Berlin, R., & Ruscitti, D. (2011). Best Practices in Bullying Prevention and Intervention. Illinois: The County of Du Page.

Burns, J.H. (2015). Retrieved from Bully Proof Classroom: 

Developing an Evaluation Plan (n.d.): Retrieved from:

Special Education Goetze and Walker
Words: 4835 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11725792
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Then students use AlphaSmart software to paste the picture and explain in a paragraph why, how and where in the plot they feel that picture relates to the story. This tests three things: (a) student concentration; (b) student level of understanding of the general plot; and - student imagination. This is an important implementation because it opens the students' horizons and allows them to see the general links and relations that their own lives might have with the stories that they read. The implementation of taking the pictures is one way that this has been successfully achieved. This use of a camera is a very flexible application and is being used in different ways for different special-needs students.

May (2003) found that cameras are being used to also expand the span of words or vocabulary amongst the special-needs students. The teacher hands out a set of words to the students…


Beukelman, D.R., Beukleman, H.M., Ranklin, J.L., Wood, L.A. (2003). Early Computer Literacy: First Grades Use the "Talking" Computer. Reading Improvement. 40: 3. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from

Castek, J., Coiro, J., Henry, L.A., Leu, D.J., Mcmullan, M. (2004). The Lessons That Children Teach Us: Integrating Children's Literature and the New Literacies of the Internet. The Reading Teacher. 57: 5. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from

Doering, a., Hughes, J., & Huffman. D. (2003). Preservice teachers: Are we thinking with technology? Journal of Research on Technology in Education. 35(3), 342-362. In Speaker, K. (2004). Student Perspectives: Expectations of Multimedia Technology in a College Literature Class. Reading Improvement. 41: 4. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from

Dowrick, P.W. Kim-Rupnow, W.S, and Power, T.J. (2006). Video Feedforward for Reading. Journal of Special Education. 39: 4. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from

Special Education - Inclusion the
Words: 12387 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51490180
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In their study, "Thinking of Inclusion for All Special Needs Students: Better Think Again," asch and his colleagues (1994) report that, "The political argument in favor of inclusion is based on the assumption that the civil rights of students, as outlined in the 1954 decision handed down in Brown v. Board of Education, which struck down the concept of 'separate but equal,' can also be construed as applying to special education" (p. 36). According to Mcgregor and Salisbury (2002), since then, the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, P.L. 105-17, 1997), and the 1994 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (also known as the "Improving America's Schools Act"; ESEA, P.L. 103-382, 1994), mandate the inclusion of supplementary services and instructional supports in the general education classrooms to provide all students with access to challenging and stimulating learning environments (Mcgregor & Salibury, 2002). In addition,…


Allan, J. (1999). Actively seeking inclusion: Pupils with special needs in mainstream schools. London: Falmer Press.

Balfanz, R., Jordan, W., Legters, N., & McPartland, J. (1998). Improving climate and achievement in a troubled urban high school through the talent development model. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 3(4), 348.

Banks, J. (1994). All of us together: The story of inclusion at the Kinzie School. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Bullard, H.R. (2004). Ensure the successful inclusion of a child with Asperger syndrome in the general education classroom. Intervention in School & Clinic, 39(3), 176.

Group Leadership Skills
Words: 2827 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41628099
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GOUP LEADESHIP SKILLS refer to the ability of a leader to manage a group in a manner that ensures maximum cooperation between group members and helps each make significant contribution for the accomplishment of organizational goals and objectives. ecent studies in the field suggest that group leadership skills may differ from individual leadership but the essential core competencies probably remain the same. For this reason, let us first understand what leadership means and how crucial a role in plays in organizations today.

Fenton (1990) explains who a leader is: "Leaders stand out by being different. They question assumption and are suspicious of tradition. They seek out the truth and make decisions based on fact, not prejudice. They have a preference for innovation."

Leadership is therefore "an interactive process that influences, motivates, and elicits human potentialities in the pursuit of group goals or interests" (Sogunro, 1996, p. 31). The most damaging…


Adrianna Kezar, Reconstructing static images of leadership: an application of Positionality theory. Journal of Leadership Studies. Volume: 8. Issue: 3. 2002. 94+.

Bavelas, A. (1969). Leadership: Man and function. In C.A. Gibb (Ed.), Leadership. (Pp. 9-16). Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books.

Beal, G.M., Bohlen, J.M., & Raudabaugh, J.N. (1962). Leadership and dynamic group action. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.

Dimock, H.G. (1987). Factors in working with groups: Leadership and group development. (Rev. ed.). Puslinch, ON: Center for Human Resource Development.

Special Curriculum for Young Indigenous
Words: 1245 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 64189757
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esearch Questions

The proposed study will be guided by the following research questions:

1. Can a set of best practices be identified from the existing body of literature concerning implementing and administering a special curriculum for young indigenous non-native speakers of English? If so, how can these best practices best be applied to Malaysia's young indigenous non-native speakers of English?

2. What cross-cultural factors need to be taken into account in developing such a special curriculum?

3. What are some of the common obstacles, challenges and constraints that have been experienced in other countries in general and in Malaysia in particular in implementing English as a second language curricular offerings?

The Design -- Methods and Procedures


Data Collection. The proposed study will draw on both secondary and primary sources to achieve the above-stated purposes and answer the above-stated research questions, an approach that is highly congruent with the…


Charles, M. (2006, October). Language matters in global communication. The Journal of Business Communication, 44(3), 260-262.

Crismore, a. (2003). An American woman teaching in Malaysia: Remembering the obstacles and successes. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(5), 380-382.

Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.

Dovring, K. (1999). English as lingua franca: Double talk in global persuasion. Westport, CT:

Special Education Director Leadership Styles
Words: 11099 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 58281810
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More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way that is and feels qualitatively different from other research traditions we have used in the past, because it is built on valuing. Even though it is challenging at times (Ospina et al. 2002), our inquiry space is enhanced by our collaboration with the social change leaders. (Schall, Ospina, Godsoe and Dodge, nd)

Qualitative Research Methods

Qualitative research methods are those of:

(1) Phenomenology -- this is a form of qualitative research in which the researcher focuses on gaining understanding of how an individual or individuals experience a phenomenon.

(2) Ethnography -- qualitative research that focuses on the culture of a group and describing that culture.

(3) Case Study Research -- form of qualitative research that provides a detailed account of a case…


Betts, Dion E. (2008) Professional Learning Communities and Special education: We Are Gathering Student Performance Data, Now What? PA Administrator.

Blaydes, John (2004) Survival skills for the principalship: a treasure chest of time-savers, short-cuts, and strategies to help you keep a balance in your life. Corwin Press, 2004.

Condelli, Larry and Wrigley, Heide Spruck (2004) Real World Research: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research for Adult ESL paper was presented at the National Research and Development Centre (NRDC) Second International Conference for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Loughborough, England, March 25-27, 2004.

Cotton, K. (1996). School size, school climate, and student performance (School Improvement Research Series, Close-Up #20). Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved September 30, 2006, from

Special Needs Intervention
Words: 2579 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73391674
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Special Needs Intervention

Client Profile

Brenda is a seven-year-old second grader that has been identified as dyslexic. She has significant delays in pre-literacy and numeracy skills have been identified through both formal assessment and performance in classroom activities. Work samples demonstrate that Brenda has difficulty sequencing and recognizing word phenomes and putting them together for reading and writing activities. Brenda does not demonstrate the ability to recognize phenomes in words. Brenda frequently reverses letters and/or the whole words when performing literacy tasks.

An interview with Brenda's teacher reveals that other than her problems associated with dyslexia, Brenda's development and functioning is on target with a majority of her peers. She tends to display shyness and introversion when called upon in class to perform activities associated with literacy and numeracy. She is polite and participates actively in class activities. She is a pleasant child and normally social with her classmates. She…


Adams, M., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I. & Beeler, T. (2011). "Phonemic Awareness in Young

Children." Reading Rockets. Retrieved from (n.d.). Dyslexia Testing Services. Retrieved from (2011). Dyslexia Symptoms, Tests and Treatment. Retrieved from

Special Identifications in History Person Event Place
Words: 1476 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73617676
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Special Identifications in History; Person, Event and Place

Transition from New Amsterdam to New York (1664)

New York City is located right at the mouth of the Hudson iver. The first European power to visit New York was the Dutch in 1624. The land caught the attention of the administration in Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company hoped to explore the region's fur trade. Peter Minuit purchased a major real estate. Peter traded trinkets with natives for the island of Manhattan in 1626. A new town was set up there and was called New Amsterdam. The colony sought to enrich the stockholders from the Netherlands. The first governor of New Amsterdam (Peter Stuyvesant) ruled it with decree and dictatorship. The Dutch West India Company thrived in slave trade.

The English focused their eyes on the Dutch holding after Charles II assumed the throne. Charles gave the land to his brother…


Caswell, J. E. (2015, May 19). Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Henry Hudson: English Navigator and Explorer: 

Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2016). Hudson River school; American Art Movement. Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Encyclopaedia Britannica: 

Lankevich, G. (2016, August 12). New York City. Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Encyclopaedia Britannica: 

Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. (2016). George Washington (1732-1799). Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Miller Center of Public Affairs:

Special Education Team Collaboration Present
Words: 1833 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 6928231
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Instead of the special education teacher and the general education teacher duplicating efforts for many children it has been shown that their efforts are better put to use in collaborating in their teaching efforts. Individuals cannot be effective team members unless they see themselves as being an important part of the team. An effective team should be viewed by others as having all individual members be contributors to the work of the team.

esearch has shown that some children with disabilities learn best in inclusive classrooms. The process of getting children with diverse abilities and typically achieving students together often brings with it the need for general and special education teachers to collaborate. Collaboration between general and special education teachers has been shown to be an effective technique when carried out properly. It is thought that this approach to education can help improve instruction as educators pool their talents in…


Delvin, Patricia. (2007). Create Effective Teacher-Paraprofessional Teams. Intervention in School & Clinic. 44(1), p41-44.

Murawski, Wendy W. And Hughes, Claire E. (2009). Response to Intervention, Collaboration,

and Co-Teaching: A Logical Combination for Successful Systemic Change. Preventing School Failure. 53(4), p267-277.

Tannock, Michelle T. (2009). Tangible and Intangible Elements of Collaborative Teaching.

Compare and Contrast a Religious Group's Statement
Words: 2777 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15907760
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eligious Group's Statement

William James' passage at the top of Gordon D. Kaufman's essay, "eligious Diversity and eligious Truth"

is both profound and poignant (187). Kaufman quotes James as saying "... The whole notion of the truth is an abstraction from the fact of truths in the plural ... " James also writes that "Truth grafts itself on previous truth, modifying it in the process

In the case of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS), also known as the Mormon Church, their "truth" has most certainly been "grafted" on previous truth, and the various "truths" that they build their religion upon -- plus, the "new truths" they seek to promote all over the globe -- make an interesting study for purposes of this paper.

The thesis of the paper is as follows: the doctrines, beliefs, basis of origin / foundation -- and the social strategies of…


Kaufman, Gordon D. Religious Diversity and Religious Truth. In God-Mystery-

Diversity, 172-206. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Schleiermacher, Friedrich. 1969. Romanticism. In Attitudes Toward Other Religions:

Some Christian Interpretations, ed. Owen C. Thomas, 49-69. Notre Dame:

Roles That a Group Member
Words: 581 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96636497
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29). The procedural technician, recorder, evaluator-critic, orienter, coordinator, and elaborator roles all help identify different components for the solution (Text, p.83). The evaluator-critic plays an important role in evaluating the submitted solutions (Text, p.83).

Discussion-management competencies concern group communication dynamics and include: maintaining the task focus and managing interactions between group members (Text, p.29). The group-building and maintenance roles are important to the discussion-management competencies. The group building and maintenance roles include: encourager, harmonizer, compromiser, gatekeeper and expediter, standard setter, group observer, and follower (Text, p.83-84). The encourager offers praise, understanding, and acceptance of other group members (Text, p.83). The harmonizer manages interactions between group members by mediating disagreements among group members, while the compromiser plays a similar role by seeking to find compromises between seemingly opposing positions (Text, p.83). Finally, the gatekeeper tries to ensure that all group members have an opportunity to participate in the group (Text, p.84).…


Last Name, First Initial. (Year of Publication). Textbook title. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Group and the Nature of the Study
Words: 1368 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17567264
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group and the nature of the study population. Both may present limitations to the researcher that will be reflective in the study design. In a quasi-experimental study, for instance, the study design lacks a fundamental component of a customary experimental design, namely randomization of the participants into study groups. Geographic limitations or the specificity of the participation qualifications may hinder the researcher from randomizing the subjects. An ex post facto study investigates possible cause-and-effect relationships by observing an existing condition and looking back into the past for valid causal factors. A certain study bias, however, is inherent in this type of study design because the variables are separated by time. Meanwhile, a correlational study compares two or more variables concurrently in detailed bivariate regression analyses. A common objective of this type of study is to determine the correlation between certain defining characteristics of the subjects and the effectiveness of some…


Coughlan, M., Cronin, P., Ryan, F. (2007). Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1: quantitative research. British Journal of Nursing, 16, 11, 658-663.

Hielkema, M., Winter de, A.F., Meer de, G., Reijneveld, S.A. (2011). Effectiveness of a family-centered method for the early identification of social-emotional and behavioral problems in children: a quasi-experimental study. BioMed Central Public Health, 11, 636, 1-9.

Huang, C.Y., Perng, S.J., Chen, H.F., Lai, C.Y. (2008). The Impact of Learned Resourcefulness on Quality of Life in Type II Diabetic Patients: A Cross-Sectional Correlational Study. Journal of Nursing Research, 16, 4, 264-273.

Watson, D., Clark, L.A., Stasik, S.M. (2011). Emotions and emotional disorders: A quantitative hierarchical perspective. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 11, 3, 429-442.

Group Case Study-Group in What Way Do
Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 41993429
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Case Study-Group

In what way do you consider that cultural differences between the Japanese and Australians have impacted on how this trading relationship was developed?

History teaches the people on how Australia was a country made up of immigrants who were mostly from Britain. The unwanted moved to Australia and tried developing it. The low class Asians also flooded Australia and it became more of a cosmopolitan country due to the mixed race. The Australians are known for not holding on to their past (Les 2012). With the population of Japan being over three times that of Australia, more food stuff is required in Japan. Japan is known for its advanced technology which has raised the lifestyles of its people. This means they demand for better food and not genetically modified foods. Having received a consignment from America which contained genetically modified soya meant for the animals, the Japanese…


Brewer P, Sherriff G. (2007). Is There a Cultural Divide in Australian International Trade? Australian Journal of Management. (University Of New South Wales).

Freeman S. And Weinman, D. (2012). Benefits Of 'Clustering' and Niche Strategies:How Smes In The Australian Wine Industrycan Develop A Competitive Advantage Forinternational Expansion.. Case Study 12.1

Les Brown. (2012). Getting Market Entry for Australian Gm-Free Soy Into The Japanese Food Manufacturing Supply Chain. Case Study. 10

Special Education Experiences More Inclusive
Words: 2087 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 87003286
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" And following that experience the class can discuss what acid rain does to the ecosystem and the teacher can show a video of a forest devastated by acid rain, or just photos of depleted forests and dead fish floating on a stream or lake (waters that have been polluted by acid rain).

About this time, students are asked: "here does the acid rain come from?" Let them guess, and talk about it. Then the teacher shows photos of smokestacks belching out clouds of brown sooty looking pollution and explain that once in the atmosphere, the pollutants (they don't need to know the science of precisely what chemicals bond with condensation but they could certainly relate to dirty polluted particles joining with raindrops) return to earth as acid rain. And as an additional part of this curriculum, students should be shown the various products that are produced in the factories…

Works Cited

Chappell, Tracey. (2008). Getting serious about inclusive curriculum for special education.

Primary & Middle Years Educator, 6(2), five pages.

EdChange. (2008). Curriculum Reform: Steps Toward Multicultural Curriculum

Transformation. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from .

Group on Self Different Cultural
Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42700666
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The family clearly regarded it as important and meaningful, as reflected in the careful attention to detail expressed in the layout of the table, but not as an extraordinary, anticipated event like Passover or Christmas for Christians. The family's good dishes and napkins were used, and everyone was dressed to denote the fact that this was a formal occasion. However, the very 'best' china was not used, as it would be for a High Holy Day in Judaism. On one hand, this sense of formality combined with informality made me feel more at ease. On the other hand, I was aware that I was intruding into a private family ritual, albeit one connected to a larger cultural tradition.

My preconceived notions about the observation of the Jewish Shabbos were that it was or should be a profoundly religious experience, and one that was very different from my own observance of…

Special Education Has Changed Dramatically Gone Are
Words: 5921 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2070613
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special education has changed dramatically. Gone are the days of the special classroom down the hall where special education students were hidden away and kept from the general student population. Gone are the days when special education students were given comic books to read and passed because they were there. Civil rights mandates of the 1960's turned the world of special education inside out and today, four decades later, special education students are fully protected by federal law. Special education students are now educated in the least restrictive environment which many times means they are mainstreamed into regular education classrooms, with a variety of peer abilities. This blending of abilities is commonly referred to as inclusion, and it is so named because of the idea that it includes students of different abilities in one educational setting. Inclusion is practiced throughout the nation, and in all grade levels at this point…


Teaching Techniques

Preparing Teachers for the Inclusion Classroom:

understanding assistive technology and its role in education

Special Case That Focuses on the Poverty-Stricken
Words: 1937 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28836167
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special case that focuses on the poverty-stricken neighborhood of Allerton Avenue. The paper highlights the issue of drug-trafficking and shows how some citizen-driven programs helped in decreasing this problem.

Curfew at nine: Case analysis

Drug trafficking is a very common issue in most poverty-ridden neighborhoods in the United States. The reason why youth in these areas seek refuge in delusional world of drugs is because they lack proper education and there is indeed no incentive for them to get respectable grades or degrees. For years they have seen their parents working hard to make both ends meet and despite repeated government promises, these people failed to get even the very basic amenities such as clean water and spacious apartments. In these conditions, it is only natural that youth tries to escape the reality and seeks refuge in drugs. ut drug-use has never been an isolated issue; it gives rise to…


Curfew at Nine: A Bronx Neighborhood Looks for Solutions.

Special Education Teachers Analysis Scope
Words: 14451 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74299083
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This qualitative research uses a Delphi study to explore the perceptions of special education teachers regarding retention. This Delphi study includes twenty-five to thirty special education teachers of K-12 in two California districts of less than 40,000 students. The information gathered provides leaders in the field with successful practices in retaining special education teachers.

Purpose of the study

The primary purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of special education teachers regarding the factors that influence their decisions to stay with a specific job placement or school community and develop recommendations for increasing teacher retention by developing more supportive school policies and practices. The study will employ the Delphi method to systematically survey special education teachers and develop an informed opinion about teacher retention by reviewing and distilling teacher input through several rounds of review. This survey of special education professionals can provide policymakers at all levels with…


Allard, J., Chubbuck, S.M., Clift, R.T., & Quinlan, J. (2001). Playing it safe as a novice teacher: Implications for programs for new teachers. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(5), 365.

Arnold, M. & Mitchell, a. (2004). Behavior management skills as predictors of retention among South Texas special educators. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 31(3), 214.

Colucci, K. & Epanchin, B.C. (2002). The professional development school without walls: A partnership between a university and two school districts. Remedial and Special Education, 23(6), 349.

Cooper-Duffy, K., Herzog, M.J., Prohn, K., Ray, M., & Westling, D.L. (2006). The teacher support program: A proposed resource for the special education profession and an initial validation. Remedial and Special Education, 27(3), 136.

Special Education Inclusion
Words: 8710 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43314572
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country's public schools are experiencing dwindling state education budgets and increased unfunded mandates from the federal government, the search for optimal approaches to providing high quality educational services for students with learning disabilities has assumed new importance and relevance. In an attempt to satisfy the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, a growing number of special educators agree that full inclusion is the optimal approach for providing the individualized services needed by young learners with special needs. Known as "mainstreaming" in the past, full inclusion means integrating students with special physical, cognitive or emotional needs into traditional classroom setting. Practices that promote full inclusion for students with special needs assist educators in focusing instruction in innovative ways to help meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse student population with a wide array of specialized needs. Critics of full inclusion argue that in many if not…


Allen, M., Burrell, N., Eayle, B.M., & Preiss, R.W. (2002). Interpersonal communication research: Advances through meta-analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum


Anzul, M., Evans, J.F., King, R., & Tellier-Robinson, D. (2001). Moving beyond a deficit perspective with qualitative research methods. Exceptional Children, 67(2), 235.

Baskin, T.W., & Enright, R.D. (2004). Intervention studies on forgiveness: A meta-analysis.

Special Education Instruction Options
Words: 8307 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74835600
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Technology & Education

There has been a fundamental change in almost all aspects of our life brought about by computer technology and the spread of digital media. Educationalists also agree that this development in technology has left an undeniable mark on the process of education reforms (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, 2010). esearchers also agree that technology has the ability to help students improve and enhance knowledge and skill acquisition. This, they say, can be achieved through learning with and about technology, which has become essential for students in the 21st-century society and workforce to gain competencies to perform well (Chen & Hwang, 2014). Additionally, student-centered learning can be well supported by technology since it is intrinsically motivating for many students and can be easily customized.

Academicians and researchers have defined technology as an articulation of a craft and deals with that branch of knowledge which can…


Boonmoh, A. (2012). E-dictionary Use under the Spotlight: Students' Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries for Writing. Lexikos, 22 (1). 

Chen, N. & Hwang, G. (2014). Transforming the classrooms: innovative digital game-based learning designs and applications. Education Tech Research Dev, 62 (2), 125-128. 

Davis, H. (2012). Technology in the Classroom: A Deweyan Perspective. Kentucky Journal Of Higher Education Policy And Practice, Vol. 1(2), 10-12.

Floyd, K. (2011). Book and Software Review: Assistive Technology: Access for All Students. Journal Of Special Education Technology, 26 (4), 64-65.

NRA Prying the Government Out
Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1847958
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This has been cited as a primary cause for the readily available guns in nearby New York City, and despite the fact that most Virginians are in favor of closing this loophole and enforcing stricter gun control, the National Rifle Association has been instrumental, through lobbying efforts and campaign contributions, to have officials elected that agree with their constituents in most instances but side with the NRA in keeping the sale of guns through gun shows legal (NY Times 2009). This instance also helps to illustrate the mechanisms at work in the government that allow the NRA's continued benefit at public expense.

The National Rifle Association is not some all=powerful organization that is able to install leaders into office simply based on its own preferences and purse strings. Research has shown that the National Rifle Association can be extremely effective in hotly contested races for congressional and state-level seats, however,…

Works Cited

Kennedy, E. "Should Congress Enact Administration Proposals For Increased Federal Controls Over Firearms? PRO." Congressional digest 46(8/9) (1967), pp. 218.

Kenny, C.; McBurnett, M. & Bordua, D. "The Impact of Political Interests in the 1994 and 1996 Congressional Elections: The Role of the National Rifle Association." British Journal of Political Science 34(2) (2004), pp. 331.

Medlock, S. "NRA = NO RATIONAL ARGUMENT? HOW THE NATIONAL RIFLE ASSOCIATION EXPLOITS PUBLIC IRRATIONALITY. Texas forum on civil liberties & civil rights 11(1), 2005-6, pp. 39.

NY Times. "Editorial: Virginia and Gun Control." 22 October 2009, pp. A34.

Clarence Thomas
Words: 2407 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39280907
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Clarence Thomas and Special Interest Groups

The nomination of Clarence Thomas launched a great deal of concern among liberal interest groups.

Like Robert Bork, Clarence Thomas was an unashamed conservative. During the Thomas confirmation hearings, the traditional liberal African-American special interest groups, such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), moved away from other liberal groups to support the nomination of only the second African-American to the Court (Herrnson, Shaiko & ilcox 1998).

omen's rights groups turned out against the Thomas nomination, especially after Anita Hill's sexual harassment charges were made public. Their efforts, along with those of other traditionally liberal groups, were not enough to stop the Thomas nomination.

Over the years, many groups, both liberal and conservative, as well as the American Bar Association, various law professors, and attorneys from prestigious law firms, have testified on behalf of or against Supreme Court nominees.


Works Cited

African-American Women in Defense of Ourselves. Advertisement, New York Times, 17 Nov. 1991: A19.

Boot, William. "The Clarence Thomas Hearings; Why Everyone - Left, Right and Center - Found the Press Guilty as Charged." Columbia Journalism Review. 30(5): 1992.

Caldeira, Gregory A., Hojnacki, Marie and Wright, John R. The Informational Roles of Organized Interests in the Politics of Federal Judicial Nominations. Paper prepared for delivery at the 1996 annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, 1996.

Carter, Stephen L. The Confirmation Mess: Cleaning Up the Federal Appointments Process. New York: Basic Books, 1994.

Do We Have a Democracy
Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81608729
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21st Century American 'Democracy': The Best Government that Money Can Buy

ithin polarized, interest group-dominated 21st century United States life, most Americans still cling to the idea, despite abundant evidence to the contrary, that we live in a democracy. In today's America, however, that idea is more quaint than accurate. Instead, as the article suggests, America is more a pseudo-democracy than a real one, in which special interest groups (and, as their representatives, high-priced lobbyists they can afford to hire) shape national political, social, economic, health, environmental, and most, if not all, other national agendas for us (although definitely not on our behalf). Meanwhile, a destructive combination of voter apathy (especially among, but not limited to, working-class individuals and minority group members, who feel especially detached) gives us, instead of democracy, the best government money can buy.

ebster's New American Dictionary defines "democracy" as: "1: government by the people; esp:…

Works Cited

"Democracy." Webster's New American Dictionary. New York: Merriam-

Webster, 1995, p. 138.

Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. New York: Signet, September

2001. 42-43.

2008 Campaign or Lection
Words: 719 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74837854
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Tea Party: Social Movement, Special Interest Group, or Real Political Party

On February 19, 2009 CNBC's Rick Santelli stood on the floor of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange and ranted against a proposal by the Obama Administration to subsidize the mortgages of homeowners facing foreclosure. ( During this monologue, Santelli suggested that he wanted to organize a "tea party" which would dump derivative securities into Lake Michigan. After the video went viral on the internet, Tea Party protests began to emerge all across the nation. The following April 15th, Tax Day, hundreds of individual protests sprang up generating attendances in the thousands. In the following months individual Tea Parties organized across the United States culminating in a Tea Party Convention in February 2010. The Tea Party is a diverse group with many diverse organizations without any recognized authority. hile the Tea Party is not a political party in the legal sense,…

Works Cited

"History of the Tea Party" Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free Online Reference, Research & Homework Web. 12 Apr. 2011. 

Kuhnhenn, Jim. "Shutdown avoided, White House, Congress cheer deal" Bloomberg Businessweek. Apr 9, 2011. Web 12 Apr. 2011. 

"Protests over state budget cuts, anti-union bills, spread throughout U.S. Washington Post March 11,2011. Web. 12 April 2011. recall-efforts-high-court-election/

Sociology the Branch Davidians a
Words: 572 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80075926
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Despite its being Christian in nature, the clandestine and sometimes considered deviant practices of the group made it assume a negative image, at least as projected to the public by the mass media and groups with vested interests. The label "cult" was given a negative connotation because of the prejudice that the mass media, special interest groups, and former Branch Davidians has provided the public. There was unequal dissemination of information from the part of the Davidians, having observed the image of exclusivity and non-interaction with non-members of the group. Thus, the negative image of it being an 'evil cult' prevailed, leading to the uncalled-for raid by the AFT that led to the group's abolishment and deaths of its members.

The propaganda model of the mass media offers an alternative explanation to the uncalled-for raid and image attack against the Branch Davidians. It may be the popular notion that the…

However, changes in the religious group emerged after Houteff died in 1955. Under the leadership of David Koresh, the religious group became synonymous with the prejudiced, negative view of cults, stemming from the fact that Koresh's practices as the Branch Davidian leader deviated from the religious, or even at least, normative life of a Christian. He began practicing polygamy, and commanded his members to stock on food, weapons and fuel. The seemingly exclusive and autonomous nature of the Branch Davidians furthered the negative image it eventually became known for, heightened by the fact that the media projected the group as a "cult" with non-Christian, even immoral practices. Thus, towards the end of the religious group's existence, the Branch Davidians were considered as a cult with 'cultish' or deviant practices and beliefs. This transition from religious group to a cult led to the strong belief that groups who deviate from their original organizations lead to practices that are abnormal or deviant in nature.

Looking into the case of Branch Davidians, it can be said that due to the increased relevance of the mass media to the lives of the public, the group, despite its religious background, became a cult in the view of Americans. Despite its being Christian in nature, the clandestine and sometimes considered deviant practices of the group made it assume a negative image, at least as projected to the public by the mass media and groups with vested interests. The label "cult" was given a negative connotation because of the prejudice that the mass media, special interest groups, and former Branch Davidians has provided the public. There was unequal dissemination of information from the part of the Davidians, having observed the image of exclusivity and non-interaction with non-members of the group. Thus, the negative image of it being an 'evil cult' prevailed, leading to the uncalled-for raid by the AFT that led to the group's abolishment and deaths of its members.

The propaganda model of the mass media offers an alternative explanation to the uncalled-for raid and image attack against the Branch Davidians. It may be the popular notion that the Branch Davidians were to blame for the attack, harboring actions and behavior that are considered deviant and evil to the public, particularly to Christian groups and Christians. However, looking at the reaction of the mass media, the public and the government regarding the Branch Davidian group and the raid by the AFT, it can be said that the group was just a victim of media sensationalism, wherein the unequal dissemination of information regarding them as a group led to the public's conception that the group is indeed an evil cult. Thus, the "official view" is considered a prejudiced view of the group, and that the AFT should have investigated further on the allegations regarding their stockpiling activities before raiding the group's center at Waco.

Grassroots Advocacy
Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 39107701
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Commuity Advocacy Project: The Impact of Others

It is important in the position of advocacy to give consideration to the community impact and to the impact as an individual and this requires that ethical and legal issues be addressed relating to the advocacy plan. Specifically, the participation on some advocacy campaigns may be in appropriate depending upon the individual's position of employment. The focus of this study is to reflect on the legalities of advocacy work and consider any legal and ethical barriers that the employment setting will have on the ability to implement the advocacy plan and reflect on how one might use special interest groups in the community in the efforts to create public health policy change. As well, this study will consider the potential social change implications of the advocacy efforts.

Non-profits and Lobbying

When employed for non-profit organization considerations of advocacy must include the fact that…


Albarouki, L. (nd) Preventing Tuberculosis Worldwide. Literature Review.

ACT UP. (n.d.). AIDS coalition to unleash power. Retrieved April 27, 2012 from 

American Cancer Society. (2012). Retrieved from 

Blacksher, E. (2008). Carrots and sticks to promote healthy behaviors: A policy update. Hastings Center Report, 38(3), 13 -- 16. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Requiring Air Bags in Cars
Words: 2889 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6056535
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Air Bags in Cars

The Politics of Air Bags

Air bags weren't always in cars. They have come about as a fairly recent development, and the rise of the air bag was due to politics. hile this may sound strange, many things that individuals take for granted today have come about because special interest groups were concerned about a specific aspect of public policy or public safety. These individuals or groups then worked to change laws or to have laws enacted that made the world, in their opinion, a better place.

The purpose of this paper is to examine air bags from a political standpoint. In other words, the goal of this paper is not to make a judgment as to whether air bags in cars are good or bad, but rather to look at the political changes that caused them to come about in the first place.

In order…

Works Cited

Carter, Craig C. "Politics & Policy: Air Bags Puff On. Carmakers are installing them as federal rules requiring passive restraints look certain." Fortune 9 December 1985: 135.

Healey, James R & Jayne O'Donnell. "Air bag fatalities shock backers into soul-searching." USA Today 8 July 1996: 02B.

Lambrecht, Bill. "Who is He? Ashcroft gets hard questions, some jokes about obscurity on New Hampshire swing." St. Louis Post-Dispatch 12 August 1997: 01A.

Leavitt, Paul. "Air bags save lives." USA Today 5 November 1996: 14A.

U S Military Assistance Funding to
Words: 6309 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43316197
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On November 8, 2001, the U.S. Senate passed several new conditions before direct 'military-to-military relations can be restored with Indonesia including the punishment of the individuals who murdered three humanitarian aid workers in West Timor, establishing a civilian audit of armed forces expenditures, and granting humanitarian workers access to Aceh, West Timor, West Papua, and the Moluccas."

Following are two very recent bills and rulings by the U.S. Congress concerning the Indonesian presence, changes, and sanctions.

In the House resolution, number 666, urton (R-IN), Wexler (D-FL), and lumenauer (D-OR) congratulate the Indonesian people and government for a successful election process, supported Indonesia in political and economic transformations, expresses gratitude to Indonesian leadership for arresting 109 terrorists, supports the emerging legal framework, commends Indonesia for "discovering new ways of working with regional law enforcement and intelligence communities in a sincere effort to root out domestic radicalism, and urged Indonesia to conduct…


(2001). U.S. And Indonesia Pledge Cooperation, Joint Statement Between the United States of America and the Republic of Indonesia.

(2001, October 1). U.S. To Send Team to Indonesia To Discuss Combating Terrorism. Xinhua News Agency.

(2001, November 27). U.S. Admiral Urges Indonesian Military To Account for East Timor Mayhem. Agence France-Presse.

Baker, P. (1997, April 22). U.S. To Impose Sanctions on Burma for Repression. Washington Post.

Texas Election System as Each
Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31592851
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Pluralist theorists often dispute that political power in Texas is dispersed among an extensive range of rival groups and interests, and that this rivalry serves to limit the power of any single group on the institutions of government. Even though there are noticeable dissimilarities in the resources of groups, there is adequate opposition and dealings among the groups to attain the objectives of a democratic society. Public policy, in this outlook, reveals the cooperation of rival interests (the Power of Interest Groups, 2010).

Supporters of elitist theory contend that political power in Texas is concerted in the hands of a comparatively small amount of people who obtain their funds from influential institutional bases. These institutions are joined collectively with multifaceted interconnected associations, and access to their leadership places is limited. Known as the Texas Establishment, those who dominated authority in the past were mostly white males from the higher socioeconomic…

Works Cited

"Lone Star Election Laws: A Comparative Study of Texas's Campaign Finance System." 2000,

viewed 29 March 2011, from

"Texas Politics - Voting, Campaigns and Elections." 2011, viewed 29 March 2011, from

"The Power of Interest Groups." 2010, viewed 29 March 2011, from

Letter Advising President on Public
Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67358600
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As President, one of your chief responsibilities for the next four years is to effectively communicate America's ideals to an increasingly skeptical audience, both at home and abroad, and unless you are prepared for the fluid nature of modern media dissemination, these efforts will be stunted from the onset.

Another aspect of governing effectively in ashington concerns the role of special-interest groups, and their armies of paid lobbyists, which have effectively consolidated much of the power existing within the Congressional chamber. Rather than openly distance your Administration from these potentially valuable resources, as President Obama did repeatedly during his idealistic campaigns, and risk the appearance of impropriety when you inevitably deal with lobbyists and special interests, it is advisable to be transparent with the voting public. hen one objectively considers the overlap between elected public officials and paid lobbyists, "the reality is that many former officials of both parties have…

Works Cited

Jacobs, Lawrence R. "The presidency and the press: The paradox of the white house communications war." The Presidency and the Political System. Michael Nelson, Ed. 9th. Washington, DC: CQ Press/Sage, 2010. Print.

Tichenor, Daniel J. "The presidency and interest groups: allies, adversaries and policy leadership." The Presidency and the Political System. Michael Nelson, Ed. 9th. Washington, DC: CQ Press/Sage, 2010. Print.

Difficulty of Starting a Gun
Words: 2928 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95175268
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However, this is a common, recurrent theme that has been injected into the public sphere by private interests. As a result, it dominates a substantial amount of discourse in the public sphere, and even people like Griffin and ostron, who believe that it is demoralizing and misleading and state those beliefs publicly, have had little success in challenging this misconception. Therefore, to have a real gun control debate in the public sphere, it is necessary to investigate whether proposed gun control laws would have had an impact on some of these crimes. In the instances of these massacre-shootings, over and over again it appears that the gunmen purchased their weapons and ammunition legally, rather than going to illegal sources for their weapons. They were not prevented from doing so by current gun-laws, but many of them had behavioral flags that may have led to gun-restrictions under more exacting laws. For…


Blendon, R., Young, J.T., & Hemenway, D. (1996). The American public and the gun control debate. JAMA, 275(22), 1719-1722.

Castells, M. (2008). The new public sphere: Global civil society, communication networks, and global governance. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616(1), 78-93.

Goss, K.A. (2006). Disarmed: The missing movement for gun control in America. Princeton,

NJ: Princeton University Press.

Political Influence Over Stem Cell
Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 14376102
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Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).

Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…


Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little

Brown & Co.

Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"

The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004:

Public Policy
Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66651661
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Iron Triangle

Public policy in America can be neatly visualized with the Iron Triangle, in which government, special interest groups, and the bureaucratic systems interact. Congressional committees, special interest groups, and bureaucracies are the three points on the triangle, and the designator "iron" signifies the strength and immutability of the institutions and relationships between them. Iron also symbolizes the rigidity of policy making, which does not allow stakeholders or parties outside of the triangle to have a meaningful influence on decisions.

Special interest groups, as monolithic as they seem, are really composed of constituents that ultimately cast votes for politicians and who promote and shape party lines. For this reason, the needs of special interest groups are of major concern to the government -- mainly members of the legislative bodies. The bureaucrats refer to the members of government agencies, groups that are comprised of non-elected officials who nevertheless act as…

Trends in Campaign Finance and Its Effect on Outcomes of Elections
Words: 3540 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55151844
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Campaign Finance and its effect on Outcomes of Elections

In this paper, we are examining the underlying trends in campaign finance. To do this we will look at four different gubernatorial campaigns. Once this takes place, is when we will be able to see what patterns are developing in how campaigns are financed.

Over the last several decades, the issue of campaign finance and its outcome on elections has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because the relationship between politics and special interests will come together during an election. As political candidates, are forced to run for office through spending massive amounts of money. While having to accept funds; from a number of special interest groups that have active memberships throughout the country. This has led to a host of scandals with names such as Watergate, illustrating how this relationship between political and…


2002 General Election. (2002), Election Returns. Retrieved from: 

Contributor Results. (2011). Follow the Money. Retrieved from: 

Candidate Election Results. (2011). Vote. Retrieved from:

Contributor Results. (2011). Follow the Money. Retrieved from:

Hall 2003 Scott 2003 Offers
Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 91762777
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In this scenario, organizations are not viewed as isolated entities, but instead are a part of the entire system of information and action in the world. This definition makes the most sense because most real-life examples of organizations fit this model. For instance, political organizations from the United States major political parties, like the Republicans and Democrats, special interest groups, like Green Peace, and terrorist organizations are often concerned with their own interests, but are still a part of the swirl of information that ripples around them. Political organizations make appeals to individuals and other organizations; special interest groups rely on the tests of universities and independent researchers, along with other special interest groups; and terrorist organizations are often involved with religious organizations. It is only a conglomeration of organizations that allows any one organization to achieve any accomplishment.

Furthermore, both the rational system definition and the natural system definition…

East Meets West Oriental Influence
Words: 5765 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 74478731
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Of course, the much shorter pleated skirt we now associate with modern Japanese school girls is also a chic look, and the carrying over of this simple design into a popular and often fetish-linked fashion for Western girls of modern times is an important note of timelessness.

Court" Fashion for Japanese Males, Asuka Period (593-710):

Eastern influence is not reserved for Westerners alone, as one can see in Asuka and Nara period clothing designs from Japan. Chinese influence was strong during this time period for clothing styles in Japan between 593 to 794 AD. uddhism and Chinese culture design was popularized by the imperial court members that wore clothing of this kind. The hakama trousers remained intact, but without the binding ties below the knee that earlier periods had emphasized. The upper garment of this period, the "ho" ("Japanese Dress in Former Times...") was less form fitting than previous designs,…


Asian Art Museum of San Francisco. "Orientalism - East Meets West." Galley of Fashion. January 2005.

At-Home Dress." Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

Banyan." Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

Bhatia, Nandi & Puwar, Nirmal. "Fashion and Orientalism." Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body and Culture. October 2003. v7 n3-4.

Criminal Justice Lobbyists and White
Words: 2184 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89867024
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But there more to the personal side for Duke Cunningham, for doling out contracts was more than a matter of choosing the most qualified and lowest priced as mandated by federal rules. It was also a matter of choosing the contractor that could provide the most for him. The white collar criminal always looks to personal advantage. Lobbyists, like the now-convicted Mitchell Wade, helped steer paying clients to Cunningham. In exchange for a $21 million dollar contract from the Department of Homeland Security, a limousine company also furnished personal services to the Congressman, including the transport of "escorts" for Cunningham's personal pleasure. (ozen, 2006)

Cunningham also pleaded guilty to accepting $2.4 million dollars in bribes from actual defense contractors. The congressman actively sought out contacts in the defense world, boasting that, "I feel fortunate to represent the nation's top technological talent in the 'black' world.... [and] appreciated the opportunity to…


Grigg, W.N. (2006, February 6). Power Brokers: Jack Abramoff Brought Together Corrupt Politicians, the Criminal Underworld, and the Global Power Elite. The New American, 22, 21+.


Lanier, M.M., & Henry, S. (1998). Essential Criminology. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Bruce W Tuckman
Words: 1394 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73143975
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Organizational Theory of Bruce W. Tuckman

One of the more influential organizational theorists of the 20th century to remain active today is Dr. Bruce W. Tuckman. Although Dr. Tuckman's primary focus has been concerned with educational research and psychology, he is also well-known for his seminal work during the mid-1960s concerning organizational behavior. Tuckman's research built on the work of others to develop new ways of understanding how and why people behave the way they do in the workplace, and researchers continue to refer to his earlier work as a benchmark for their own studies. To determine what Dr. Tuckman developed and how it can be used by organizations today to inform group leader roles and responsibilities, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

Born in 1938 (Smith, 2005), Bruce W. Tuckman…


Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Smith, M.K. (2005). Forming, storming, norming and performing in groups. Infed. Retrieved from .

Capitol Crimes in the United States the
Words: 1396 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18414501
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Capitol Crimes

In the United States, the government has had to deal with accusations of corruption and duplicity from the beginning of the nation's creation. Unfortunately, many of these accusations have been found to be true and those in positions of political power have been guilty of abusing their roles and of committing illegal acts while purportedly representing the people. In recent years, the corruption has become even more blatant and obvious. Instead of properly representing their constituents, elected officials are becoming more concerned with their political careers and with increasing their power and expanding their bank accounts. This is completely antithetical to the original purpose of the representational government system that the Founding Fathers instituted (Barbour 20). In Bill Moyer's documentary Capitol Crimes, the filmmakers explore just how bad the issue of political corruption has become and how it affects everyone who is led by that corrupt government. Examining…

Works Cited:

Barbour, Christine, Gerald C. Wright, Matthew J. Streb, and Michael R. Wolf. Keeping the Republic: Power and Citizenship in American Politics. Washington, DC: CQ, 2006. Print.

Bill Moyers: Capitol Crimes. Acorn Media, 2012. DVD.

Grimaldi, James and Schmidt, Susan. "Report Says Nonprofit Sold Influence to Abramoff."

Washington Post. Oct. 13, 2006. Print.

Public Policy
Words: 3594 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2907493
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British policy style?

As one begins to consider British policy, both foreign and domestic, one conjures pictures of the Queen-mother and her regal adherence to British tradition. In this way the Queen-mother stands as an icon of everything that is British. One pictures solicitors, in their powdered wigs and smart suits engaging in scholarly argument that will shape British policy in the future. These icons are the epitome of British policy, they are steadfast, solid and true. Their foundation is rock-solid as it has its basis in the argument of many others before them.

Government policy is the result of conflict. The people of a particular country develop policies as a result of the needs of the individual country. These needs may vary due to many factors, including the availability of natural resources in the region. Traditions arise from necessity. As time passes, many times the people tend to forget…


Benz, A. And Ebelein, B., (1999) ' The Europeanisation of regional policies: patterns of multi-level governance' Journal of European Public Policy, 6.2 pgs 329-48

Baumgartner, F.R. And Jones, B.D. (1993) Agendas and Instability in American Politics. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, Illinois, USA. 298 pages

Dudley, G. And Richardson J. (1999) 'Competing advocacy coalitions and the process of "frame reflection": a longitudinal analysis of EU steel policy', Journal of Public Policy 6.2 pg. 226-247

Jordan G. And Richardson J. (1982) ' The British policy style or the logic of negotiation', in J. Richardson (ed.) Policy Styles in Western Europe (London: Allen & Unwin) pp 80-110.

Social Clevages & Political Quarrels
Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58244760
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My views tend to classify modern societies first by their political system: socialist, democratic, representative, totalitarian, and then move more into demographics and psychographics.

1.2 Political Quarrels -Describe, in a 250-300-word post, one of the quarrels faced by the Britons or the French. Analyze the role of that country's history, geography, political institutions, and its culture in relation to the quarrel.

For centuries, Britain and France have been at odds with one another. This likely goes back to Medieval times, then progressed through the Age of Discovery, claims to colonies -- especially in the new world, and the age old rights to economic development of Europe and the oceans. Historically, in 1066 the Duke of Normandy led and invasion of England, defeating the English at the battle of Hastings. William, the Duke, had himself crowned King of England, but remained a vassal of the French King, which became humiliating to…


Roskin, M. (2008). Countries and Concepts: Politics, Geography, Culture. New York:


Erin Brocovich Movie Review Erin
Words: 352 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2388453
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Even when citizens ban together to form a lobbying group and the group's influence should theoretically not exceed the numbers of the group's membership, quite often the faction's ability to have influence depends upon the financial and social status of its membership.

However, it is not enough to merely blame interest groups. The fact that Erin Brockovich was able to succeed demonstrates that the American political process can work. The fact that the problems of environmental pollution are often invisible, and difficult for the lay person to understand is an explanation, but not an excuse for why so few people take positive and proactive action. This is why people must not be paralyzed by fear like the California community before Erin begins to investigate -- instead, they must speak up for their own welfare and the welfare of their children.

orks Cited

Erin Brockovich." (2000). Starring Julia Roberts.

Dye, T.R.…

Works Cited

Erin Brockovich." (2000). Starring Julia Roberts.

Dye, T.R. (2002). Who's running America? The Bush restoration. (7th Ed.).

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Lowery, D. & Brasher, H. (2004). Organized interests and American government.

Is Obesity a Disease
Words: 2251 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32358508
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Obesity a Disease?

Introduction, Background, and Definition

Persuade the scientists

Persuade the advocacy groups

Persuade the federal agencies

Persuade the insurance companies

Persuade the drug makers

Visual: Charts

Recommendations & Conclusions

Is Obesity a Disease?

hat is a disease? According to the Merriam-ebster Online Dictionary, the second two definitions of "disease" are "2: a condition of the living animal or plant body or of one of its parts that impairs normal functioning: SICKNESS, MALADY; 3: a harmful development (as in a social institution)" (Merriam-ebster OnLine, 2003). Definition number two describes how the being is personally affected by a disease, and definition number three describes how society as a whole is affected by a disease. It is recommended that the epidemic of obesity in America be given a disease status to confront this "harmful development" that "impairs normal functioning" in society.

By declaring obesity a disease, American society can face up…

Works Cited

Body Mass Index Charts. Partnership for Healthy Weight Management. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at .

Brownell, Kelly; Liebman, Bonnie. "The pressure to eat: why we're getting fatter." Nutrition Action Health Newsletter. July-August 1998. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at .

Critser, Greg. "Let them eat fat." Harper's Magazine. March 2000. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at .

Knoll Pharmaceutical Company begins nationwide distribution of new anti-obesity agent, MERIDIA." Business Wire. February 12, 1998. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at

Gun Control Has Become a
Words: 1349 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99512529
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rime rates do not drop with restrictions on gun control because crimes have been shown to be intent driven rather than means driven. Which simply means that those who are interested in committing crimes will usually do so given any access or restrictions standards? It is evident from this analysis that guns have little impact upon crime rates. However, gun control advocacies use misinformation to present a dangerous position to the public.

Another important factor in media manipulation is the use of specific misinformation to influence public opinion to support severity within gun legislation. Popular gun control advocacies use strong statistics to influence the public into perceiving that gun control is not only needed, but that gun violence is an escalating crime that needs to provide greater security mandates. Oftentimes they use deceiving statistics as a means to manipulate public opinion on the prevalence of firearms. For instance, the Brady…

Counting Guns, Randolph Roth. Social Science History 26:4 winter 2002

Would Banning Firearms reduce Murder and Suicide? A Review of international evidence, Gary a. Mauser & Don B. Kates. Bepress Legal Series 2006 paper 1564

Shooting down the more guns, less crime hypothesis, John J. Donohue & Ian Ayres. Center for the study of law and society Jurisprudence and social policy program. 2003 paper 5

ACM org Is a Massive Website That Claims
Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53363998
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ACM.ORG is a massive website that claims to be the biggest and most comprehensive source of information on computer science. A large percentage of people visiting this site are professions looking for current information on computing world, mostly related to postgraduate level of studies. Professionals who are already in the field also frequent the site.

Since ACM is an old website which has been online for nearly two decades, there is a plethora of information and resources available for the computing world. Though it ranks between 5,000 and 6,000 on visitor frequency level according to Alexa ranking, I personally found the site very useful primarily because of its digital library that contained publication with latest information, news and reviews.

The main problem I witnessed with ACM is that of membership. It is a member-restricted site, which means there is no way a guest, can first assess the merits of this…

America Wealth and Power Are
Words: 1537 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79992429
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Unfortunately many aspects of modern American society threaten individual liberties. For example, the disparity between the rich and the poor in American society impacts the level of freedom enjoyed by certain segments of the population. The "freedom" to pay workers a pittance in order to increase profits in a large corporation is therefore not really a "freedom" at all. Therefore, it is up to the government and to the people who support it to ensure that the rights and freedoms of all persons are preserved. Similarly, when religious institutions hope to influence public policy, they inadvertently infringe on the rights and freedoms of the American people. Even if well-meaning, religious institutions cannot bind people in a free society to do what they do or believe what they believe. Morals are a reflection of common sense and education, not of specific religious values. Therefore, the government cannot bend its legislation to…

Words: 1366 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92542727
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The Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) and the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) share a common goal in that both organizations are dedicated to the improvement of learning and providing professional leadership in education - yet there are some significant differences that set them apart.

Core Membership

What differentiates the two organizations is their core membership. The AECT has a broad-based membership profile that comprises members from industry, government, education and the military, while the ISTE - whose efforts are mainly aimed at pre-college education and teacher preparation - has an extensive membership that is made up of teachers of all grades, administrators, computer coordinators, curriculum coordinators, teacher educators, and educational technology specialists;

y comparison, the AECT - through its application in training and educational environments - provides professional leadership in educational communications and technology; while the ISTE draws from a large member…


Education Technology News. ISTE ORG.ISTE teams with PBS to Develop Teacher Technology Certification. 2001. 

NECC 2004. Neca societies. 2002. 

University of Kentucky Website. Newsletter AECT. 1988. 

AECT Project. The Purpose of the AECT Project.

Criminal Justice Leadership in Criminal Justice or
Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34443678
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Criminal Justice

Leadership in criminal justice or private security organizations requires special skills, and presents unique challenges. The most important attributes for leaders in any criminal justice or security organization include integrity, trustworthiness, competence, swiftness in decision making, ability to be humble, and also the ability to be courageous (McCallum, n.d.). In addition to these traits, leaders in criminal justice are ideally visionary, with strong communications skills and loads of self-confidence to face the specific challenges the field entails. Criminal justice presents special legal and political challenges that are distinct to the profession, and this is also true for private security work. Likewise, the hierarchical nature of many criminal justice organizations makes it so that conflict and power may constrain a leader's ability to act justly. Therefore, criminal justice leaders can learn from observing what successful leaders have done in the past and apply that to their current careers.



Batts, A.W., Smoot, S.M. & Scrivner, E. (2012). Police leadership in a changing world. New Perspectives in Policing. Retrieved online: 

McCallum, D.W. (n.d.). Leadership within the Florida Department of Corrections. Retrieved online:

Wickman, A., Mahoney, B. & Borakove, M.E. (n.d.). Improving criminal justice system planning and operations.

Chicano Community Housing Crisis Chicano
Words: 2117 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23847331
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This committee works in conjunction with Land Use and Control Committees that oversee the best us of the land within the community. These two committees work together with local special interest groups to help assure that community resources are utilized for the greatest benefit of the people. Different communities call these committees by different names, but the purpose of the committees is always the same.

Anti-discrimination laws make it a crime to discriminate against a person for reasons of their race or religion. However, just because the laws exist does not mean that the problem is nonexistent. Race can be a defining characteristic of a community. Race can be the basis for community culture and community pride. People are often proud of their race and the cultural heritage that it embodies. However, stereotypes often stand in the way of getting fair treatment as far as housing is concerned.

Many see…

Works Cited

Eisenberg, P. Time to Remove the Rose-Colored Glasses. March/April 2000. ShelterForce Issue

110. . Accessed March 23, 2007.

Hon. Senator Murray. Supporting the Latino Community. 2006.  Accessed March 23, 2007.

Lockyer, B. SHA Battles to Save County Affordable Housing Program. April/May 2005. SAC

Integrated Corporate Communication and Corporate
Words: 16981 Length: 52 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 1510916
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Corporate communications involves not just the message, but the idea that communications are managed, and are connected to corporate objectives (Cornelissen, 2004). Therefore, when communication possibilities were limited, corporate options were limited, and one did not see communications management perspectives that advocated the type of intimate connection between communications and corporate strategy that one sees in a modern context (Cornelissen, 2004). What this makes clear is that CC is not simply, or even primarily, about communications; it is an overall corporate strategy that helps define how a corporation interacts with the world.

The emphasis on communication is very different from how corporations were traditionally, historically structured. Traditionally, strategic planning occurred at the top of the corporate structure, management was considered a mid-level activity, and operational control was the function of first-level management, and this corporate strategy was used in most workplaces (Oliver, 1997). However, as institutional hierarchies were challenged and…


Argenti, P 2007, The power of corporate communication. Available from:

. [17 July 2011].

Argenti, P 2006, The power of integration: building a corporate communication function that is greater than the sum of its parts. Available from: . [13 July 2011].

Argenti, P & Forman, J 2002, The power of corporate communication: crafting the voice and image of your business. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Film History
Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98109770
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exception, most of Director Frank Capra's greatest movies take place during the depression, 1929-1941, or shortly after. His films are unique in that they are some of the first to display a faith in American opportunity and values in the context of institutional reform. Author Annalle ewitz aptly articulates Capra's contribution to films with the following quote:

The kind of 'socially conscious' movie we associate with Frank Capra's name does not tend to get made in or outside Hollywood at this point in history. Movies that critics and audiences of the 1990s dub 'socially conscious' do not offer portraits of American communities in the process of coming together; more often than not, American communities in contemporary popular movies are falling apart or are bound together by morally repugnant ideals and practices."

This discussion explores five Capra files in chronological order, IT HAPPEED OE IGHT (1934), MR. DEEDS GOES TO TOW…

Newitz, Annalee, "It's Fun...But It Takes Courage: Remembering Frank Capra's America," Bad Subjects, Issue #11, January/February 1994, p. 13.

Ray Carney, American Vision: The Films of Frank Capra (Hanover, N.H. University Press of New England, 1996), 88 pp. 12-500.

Frank Capra, accessed at . On November 23, 2002.

Death Penalty and the Bible
Words: 2781 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90172774
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Death Penalty II

The Death Penalty and the Bible

The Bible is an important and valuable book providing a wealth of information, and it should be used as a determination as to whether the death penalty should be chosen for certain, specific crimes, despite the often-cited issue of separation between church and state.

Biblical Crimes






f. Other Crimes

The Death Penalty

Biblical Times

ansom From the Death Penalty

The Separation of Church and State

The death penalty has been around since biblical times, during which it was commonly used for a number of offenses. It is important to point out, however, that these offenses were punishable by death, meaning that the death penalty could be used. That does not mean that it had to be used, and there was discretion available. Here, several common crimes will be looked at in the context of biblical death…


Anderson, B.W., Bishop, S., & Newman, J. (2006). Understanding the Old Testament. NY: Pearson.

Anderson, E. (2007). If God is dead, is everything permitted? In Hitchens, Christopher. The portable Atheist: Essential readings for the nonbeliever. Philadelphia: Da Capo Press.

Dershowitz. (2000). The Genesis of Justice. NY: Grand Central Publishing.

Freedman, D.N., Myers, A.C., & Beck, A.B. (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. NY: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

Advocate Outline Recruit Corporate Partners to Donate
Words: 755 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97834674
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Advocate Outline

Recruit corporate partners to donate for every member who "like" the website or facebook site.

Identify potential businesses for solicitation.

Search for gay and lesbian friendly businesses who advertise online.

Develop a prospect list

Develop an oral spiel for presentation

Include mission statement

Include benefits to the prospect's business

Include specific request

Contact all prospects via telephone

Present oral spiel

Ask for commitment

Keep a log of all prospects that were not available via telephone

Keep a log of all contributors

Develop a written spiel for presentation

Send a mailout to all prospects that were not available via telephone.

Maintain a log of those businesses targeted by mailout

Follow up on all attempted and completed contacts

Send thank you letters with confirmation of the business' commitment

Make additional phone calls to all businesses whom have yet to respond to either written or oral attempts to contact.

Begin to…