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Special Needs Parental Stress on

Words: 2291 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 16794468

Likewise, the study would not include unmarried couples, single-parent homes, or couples without children. With 50 to 60 participants couples gathered and fulfilling the necessary qualifications for division into the two categories, those with a Special Needs child will be identified as the SN group whereas those with a non-Special Needs child will be identified as the SNS group.

Statistical analysis will rely on the use of a t-test, an appropriate mode of assessing comparative inventory scores and their meaning in the case of this particular study design. According to Trochim (2006), "the t-test assesses whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each other. This analysis is appropriate whenever you want to compare the means of two groups, and especially appropriate as the analysis for the posttest-only two-group randomized experimental design." (Trochim, p. 1)

Findings:

Ultimately, the inventory responses and the statistical analysis conducted through the aforementioned…… [Read More]

References

Baskin, T.W., Rhody, M., Schoolmeesters, S., & Ellingson, C. (2011). Supporting special needs adoptive couples: assessing an interventio to enhance forgiveness, increase marital satisfaction, and prevent depression. The Counseling Psychologist, 39, 933-955.

Belsky, J., & Rovine, M. (1990). Patterns of marital change across the transition to parenthood: pregnancy to three years postpartum. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 5-19.

Corman, H., & Kaestner, R. (1992). The effects of child health on marital status and family structure. Demography, 29, 389-408.

Daire, a.P.; Munyon, M.D.; Carlson, R.G.; Kimemia, M. & Mitcham, M. (2011). Examining Distress of Parents of Children With and Without Special Needs. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 33(2), 177-188.
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Special Needs Paraprofessional Supervisor Inclusion

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 31874455



Suter, J., & M. Giangreco. 2009). Numbers that count: Exploring special education and paraprofessional service delivery in inclusion-oriented schools. The Journal of Special

Education, 432), 81-93. Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Research Library.

Document ID: 1785064241).

This study of paraprofessionals in special education programs notes how paraprofessionals often provide the bulk of student services, given the overburdened nature of the special education system. The authors raise their concerns that paraprofessionals are not fully qualified to give a comprehensive education to students with disabilities. There is a lack of certified teachers in the discipline of special education. This remains problematic, even though paraprofessionals often do interact with their students on a one-to-one basis.

Inclusion:

Koralek, D. 2009). Supporting all kinds of learners. YC Young Children, 642), 10-11.

Retrieved September 3, 2009, from ProQuest Education Journals. Document ID: 1673585101).

The author suggests that before a student with special needs joins a mainstream…… [Read More]

(Document ID: 939465421).

This article advocates the mainstreaming of special needs students. It stresses how children without disabilities in an elementary school setting can act as peer counselors and support special need students in a way that facilitates the education of both types of pupils.

Rix, J., K. Hall, M. Nind, K. Sheehy & J. Wearmouth. (2009). What pedagogical approaches can
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Special Needs Education Briefly Discuss Trend Education

Words: 835 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6954509

Special Needs Education

Briefly discuss trend education special children (learning disabled.) French evolution. What philosophic principles period education reflects?

Briefly discuss the trend in the education of special needs children (learning disabled etc.) after the French evolution. What philosophic principles of the period did this education reflect?

The first intelligence tests were developed in France as a way of screening students' ability to function within its confines, and even today the French educational system is notable for its high degree of centralized control. Still, based upon its democratic principles, which began with the French evolution and were formally enshrined into law during the Napoleonic period, France strove to educate all of its citizens in an equal fashion, and to make them all feel like true citizens of France. Today, in France, around 100,000 students identified as suffering from various disabilities go to special schools run by the Ministry of Health.…… [Read More]

References

IDEA. (2004). Retrieved March 18, 2011 at  http://idea.ed.gov/ 

Markham, David. (2010). The revolution, Napoleon, and education. International Napoleon

Society. Retrieved March 18, 2011 at  http://www.napoleon-series.org/ins/markham/c_education_m.html 

Mills, Ian. (2010). Education in France: Part 1. Discover France. Wharton Group.
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Child Development and Children With Special Needs

Words: 1183 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65310305

Lesson objectives enhance teacher-student and teacher-teacher communications. Pupils must understand exactly what they're supposed to do, which will lead them to commit time to the activities that facilitate attainment of objectives. Their ability to differentiate and prioritize important course-based learning tasks will increase, and thus, they will not waste precious time over irrelevant details. Also, students need to make guesses with regards to what the teacher deems important, as well as what is expected in the form of evaluation matter (UNESCO, n.d.).

Journal

Evaluating the developmental progress of children is a never-ending process; it offers an understanding of children's fortes, inclinations, interests, and requirements, which can be utilized for planning suitable, meaningful activities for promoting learning and development of children, individually (CCHP, 2006).

Inclusion denotes growth and learning of all children together irrespective of individual abilities. Inclusion in practice resembles inclusion in standard early childhood courses, since, in case of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

(2010, September). Retrieved from www.theinclusiveclass.com:  http://www.theinclusiveclass.com/2011/07/supports-modifications-and.html 

CCHP. (2006). Children with Disabilities and other Special Needs. San Francisco: California Child Healthcare Program.

Dowell, H. H. (2008). The Ausbelian Preschool Program: Balancing Child-Directed and Teacher-Directed Approaches. Retrieved from www.earlychildhoodnews.com:  http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=114 

EdTech. (n.d.). ESL Students with Assistive Technology. Retrieved from  http://www.edtechpolicy.org/CourseInfo/educ477/Fall2005/yan_finalpaper.pdf
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Special Needs Transition Intervening to Place Children

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98323143

Special Needs Transition

Intervening to place children towards their appropriate levels of schooling is very important and requires certain and descriptive analysis. As a result of these changes, coping mechanisms are developed for the children that present new and different challenges for the both the educators and the parents and family of the child in question. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the factors involved that would promote or hamper a successful transition dealing with a child who has been learning in a center-based program to a more advanced program within an inclusion kindergarten program. I will additionally explore what factors are necessary for the likelihood of successful adjustment within the changing scenario.

Dunlap (2009) highlighted the legal necessities of a such a transition. He noted " transitions often involve major changes in routines. Federal laws ( in particular, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [ IDEA]) mandate…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cook, R.E., Klein, M.D. & Chen, D. (2012) Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs. 8th Ed. Boston, Mass: Pearson

p. 124 -125

Dunlap, L.L. (2009). An introduction to Early Childhood Special Education.

NJ: Pearson. (ISBN: 978-0-205-48872-8) .
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Special Needs Intervention

Words: 2579 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73391674

Special Needs Intervention

Client Profile

Brenda is a seven-year-old second grader that has been identified as dyslexic. She has significant delays in pre-literacy and numeracy skills have been identified through both formal assessment and performance in classroom activities. Work samples demonstrate that Brenda has difficulty sequencing and recognizing word phenomes and putting them together for reading and writing activities. Brenda does not demonstrate the ability to recognize phenomes in words. Brenda frequently reverses letters and/or the whole words when performing literacy tasks.

An interview with Brenda's teacher reveals that other than her problems associated with dyslexia, Brenda's development and functioning is on target with a majority of her peers. She tends to display shyness and introversion when called upon in class to perform activities associated with literacy and numeracy. She is polite and participates actively in class activities. She is a pleasant child and normally social with her classmates. She…… [Read More]

References

Adams, M., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I. & Beeler, T. (2011). "Phonemic Awareness in Young

Children." Reading Rockets. Retrieved from  http://www.readingrockets.org/article/408/ 

Dyslexiaaustralia.com (n.d.). Dyslexia Testing Services. Retrieved from  http://www.dyslexiaaustralia.com.au/information-mainmenu-90/38-disability-discrimination 

Dyslexiasymptoms.net. (2011). Dyslexia Symptoms, Tests and Treatment. Retrieved from http://www.dyslexiasymptoms.net/page/2
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Special Needs Helping Students With

Words: 3014 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40044216



Best practices that help students with learning disabilities consistently focus on early intervention not only for educational benefit, but also because early intervention promotes greater social skills ability and development among children (Wong & Donahue, 2002). The sooner a child is integrated into the mainstream system and learns to "cope" with any perceived "deficits" the more likely they are to build healthy and long-lasting friendships that will help them as they age to become contributing members of society (Wong & Donahue, p. 93).

Personnel Implementing Plan

The key school personnel to implement this plan include the parents of the student, who must reinforce the actions taken by educational authorities to enhance student learning; the teacher of the student, who must be aware of what a student's needs are, and of special educational resources, so he or she may integrate the two curriculum's without disturbing any student's learning; and administrators, who…… [Read More]

References

Bradley, R., Danielson, L., & Hallahan, Daniel P. (2002) Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Brooten, K. (2007) "Writing about the holocaust, writing research report, poetry,"

HotChalk Inc., Retrieved December 13, 2007: http://www.lessonplanspage.com/

Jaffe-Gilla, E., & Benedictis, Tina, Ph.D., (2007) Learning Disabilities: Understanding the types, causes, symptoms, and diagnosis. HelpGuide.org, Retrieved December 13, 2007:
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Special Needs Students High Stakes

Words: 1060 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 19935449



hile some suggest that high-stakes testing is an inadequate way of measuring the academic achievement and learning of most students, many also agree that high-stakes testing has severe disadvantages for special education students. Kymes points out that high-stakes testing may be a discriminatory assessment method for special needs students, placing an "unfair burden" on these students. The scholar argues that testing plans cannot be created for each and every student, and even when they can, these testing plans are not always put into practice (Kymes). In addition, Ralabate notes the importance of finding alternate testing methods that allow students with disabilities to perform to their highest ability.

Determining that high-stakes testing is not a correct method of assessment for special needs students, however, is just half of the task at hand. In fact, significant information exists to argue that students with disabilities, in addition to schools, can be seriously harmed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fact Sheet: No Child Left Behind. 8 January 2002. The White House. 19 November 2008.  http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020108.html 

Kymes, Nancy. "The No Child Left Behind Act: A Look at Provisions, Philosophies, and Compromises." Journal of Industrial Teacher Education. 41.2 (2004) 19 November 2008.  http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JITE/v41n2/kymes.html 

Marlow, Ediger. Assessment and High Stakes Testing. Speech, 2001. Educational

Resource Information Center. ED449234.
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Special Needs Offenders However When Discussing Prisoners

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 17201364

Special Needs Offenders

However, when discussing prisoners with mental health needs, it is important to point out that this population is so significant it is virtually synonymous with the larger population. "In the United States, 56 per cent of state prisoners, 64 per cent of jail inmates and 45 per cent of federal prisoners reported treatment for or symptoms of major depression, mania or psychotic disorders in 2006" (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2009, Handbook on Prisoners with Special Needs:10). Even when a prisoner is not legally classified as 'insane' he or she can still have severe mental disabilities which stretch the limits of his or her limited coping mechanisms. Prisoners often have poor access to mental health care to manage their conditions, given that the types of therapies and psychotropic medications that are effective for treating mental illnesses can be extremely difficult to balance without constant oversight.…… [Read More]

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Birth to Three Special Needs Brochure Early

Words: 835 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89406617

Birth to Three Special Needs Brochure

Early Intervention and Early Detection

Georgia's Babies Can't Wait Program

The Babies Can't Wait (BCW) program in the State of Georgia is the service delivery system for children between birth and three years of age who have developmental delays or a disability (GDPH, 2012). Once a child has been referred to the BCW program, either by a family member or physician, the parents are contacted within a few days to schedule an initial interview (GDH, 2005). During the interview parents are given information about BCW services, are asked to sign consent forms, and if the child is determined to be eligible an evaluation is scheduled. The evaluation is conducted by a team of at least two multidisciplinary professionals with training and experience in early childhood education, early childhood special education, occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech-language pathology, nursing, and/or nutrition (GDH, 2005).

The Value of…… [Read More]

References

GDHR (Georgia Department of Human Resources). (2005). Frequently asked questions for physicians: Getting started with Babies Can't Wait. Health.State.GA.U.S.. Retrieved 23 Aug. 2013 from  http://www.health.state.ga.us/pdfs/familyhealth/FAQ%20for%20Physicians%20-%20Getting%20Started%20for%20web.pdf .

GDPH (Georgia Department of Public Health). (n.d.). Babies Can't Wait: Frequently asked questions. Health.State.GA.U.S.. Retrieved 23 Aug. 2013 from  http://www.health.state.ga.us/programs/bcw/ faq.asp#3" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Educational Challenges for Special Needs

Words: 1771 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 48078087

Included in life skills are such as the ability to manage personal finances, the ability to manage a household, the ability to care for personal needs, and awareness of safety as well as many other life skills including citizenship and leisure activities.

Findings & Conclusion

In the United States and the United Kingdom, governmental assistance to special needs students in education is seen as the answer to making appropriate educational provisions for these students with disabilities. The view of the World Health Organization to developing countries is quite different however; this may be based on the cultural barriers to education for special needs students in the developing countries.

Recommendations

Recommendations arising from this brief study and proposal for research include a recommendation that research be conducted for the purpose of determining what governmental aids and supports can be made for special needs students in education to provide them with the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brolin, D.E. (1989). Life Centered Career Education: A Competency Based Approach (3rd ed.). Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children.

Edgar. G. (1988). Employment as an outcome for mildly handicapped students: Current status and future direction. Focus on Exceptional Children 21(1), 1-8 (EJ380199).

Goodship, Joan M. (1990) Life Skills Mastery for Students with Special Needs. ERIC Digest #E469.

Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education (2002) National Research Council U.S. Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education. National Academies Press 2002.
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Students With Special Needs and Technology Assistance

Words: 1535 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85026633

Technology on 4th and 5th Grade Student's Academic Achievement

Students today learn differently as a result of technology (Presnky, 2008). Schools differ in technology uptake and execution. Davis (2012), states that schools had to take this up because their students lagged behind and were not able to compete at the same level as those who had access to technology. In fact, education today requires the use of technology as information and research is easily accessed digitally.

Justification for the Research Problem:

There are some students who are particularly required to use technology to aid their learning. These are the millions of students, who due to physical impairment may not be able to participate and get full benefit from the old classroom set up. Hasselbring and Glaser (2000) state that there are several advantages that technology affords all students. It actually equalizes all students as it can be adapted for those…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Agnello, M. F., White, D., & Fryer, W. (2006). Toward twenty-first century global citizenship: A teacher education curriculum. Social Studies Research and Practice, 1(3).Retrieved from www.socstrp.org.

Bartsch, R., & Cobern, K. (2003).Effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations in lectures.

Computers & Education, 41, 77-87. Doi: 10.1016/S0360-1315(03)00027-7

Behrmann, M. (1998, May 01). Assistive Technology for Young Children in Special Education: It Makes a Difference. Retrieved from Edutopia:  http://www.edutopia.org/assistive-technology-young-children-special-education
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Child Adoption Is a Process

Words: 4497 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58904188

Gradually, there are lesser desired adoptive kids as society have come to accept single mother who parent their children compared to earlier. The disgrace of giving birth to a child outside marriage has lowered and hence, the bulk of single moms prefer to have their kids with them in place of "relinquishing them" for being adopted. Besides, thanks to advanced technology, "birth control" pills are instantly accessible to the fertile populace, and, as abortion has been legalized, a pregnancy which is unplanned could be stopped. A new dimension to the problem has emerged because of the decrease in the supply of desirable adoptable infants and the rising infertility among Americans. (Infant Adoption is Big Business in America)

It is anticipated that out of every six couples, one couple has problems in conceiving and total infertile couples may number 5.3 million. A lot of adopters who are presently desirous of adoption…… [Read More]

References

Adoption is big business: Rationalizations for Adoption. http://www.adoption-articles.com/adoption_business.htm

Adoption: The Child Commodities Market is Big Business.  http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/224728/adoption_the_child_commodities_market.html?page=2 

Avery, Rosemary. J. Adoption Policy and Special Needs Children. Auburn. Westport: CT.

Cahn, Naomi R; Hollinger, Joan Heifetz. Families by Law: An Adoption Reader. New York
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Special Education Concepts the Concept

Words: 545 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6625695

As the civil rights victories of the Civil Rights era develop in ways that help shape the long-term social culture of the nation, cultural diversity considerations are becoming the standard rather than the exemplary exception to the routine as may have been true throughout much of the last decades of the 20th century. Naturally, as cultural diversity becomes a dominant social theme, it has also impacted all aspects of American education, including special education (Burton, Moore, & Magliaro, 2004; Lascarides & Hinitz, 2000). Naturally, the important need of accommodating cultural diversity within special education programs is at least as important as achieving that objective in traditional education programs. That is because the detrimental effect of every additional barrier to learning and social development is magnified in special education.

Likewise, cultural diversity also entails corresponding lingual diversity. In that regard, the importance of mitigating the potential barriers represented by language issues…… [Read More]

Sources Consulted

Brehony, K. "Montessori, individual work and individuality in the elementary school classroom" History of Education; Vol. 29, No. 2; (2000): 115-128.

Burton, J., Moore, D., and Magliaro, S. (2004). Behaviorism and Instructional

Technology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Lascarides, V. And Hinitz, B. (2000). History of Early Childhood Education. New York:
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Special Education Curriculum Improvement Ideas

Words: 737 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44475705

55). Hence, good ideas need to be brought to the fore so special education teachers can help students progress in a society that is too often indifferent to their needs. King-Sears presents and then rebuts two fallacies vis-a-vis that students with disabilities cannot master content that "…at times seems to be swiftly passing them by" (56).

The first fallacy -- students with disabilities can't learn general education curriculum -- can be dismissed because it has been shown through "…group work, monitoring and facilitating group thinking, and recursive opportunities for students" that children with learning disabilities can indeed learn (King-Sears, 56). This is true particularly if those disabled students have access to their peers, access to specially designed instructional content, and access to "assessment" strategies showing them what they have learned (which gives them direct feedback). The second fallacy is that teachers are legally required to cover the curriculum as quickly…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ingersoll, Brooke, and Dvortcsak, Anna. (2006). Including Parent Training in the Early

Childhood Special Education Curriculum for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2), 79-87.

King-Sears, Margaret E. (2008). Facts and fallacies: differentiation and the general education curriculum for students with special educational needs. Support for Learning, 23(2), 55-62.
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Special Education Has Been a

Words: 1912 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 85494956

Additionally, other students must be educated about disabilities and how to include others that are different. (Dybvik 2004)

Purpose and esearch Questions

The purpose of the proposed research study is to determine the effectiveness of the inclusive classroom and the best methods for increasing the positive outcome of inclusive classrooms. The questions to be answered include:

1. How do educators, parents, and others involved in the education currently view inclusion?

2. How do the views of educators affect the implementation of programs such as inclusion?

3. Are disabled students benefiting from inclusive classrooms compared to non-inclusive classes?

4. Are normal students benefiting from inclusive classrooms?

5. What educational models will be most beneficial to students in an inclusive classroom?

Hypothesis

The most destructive expectation of teachers that is harming the inclusion movement is that "Classroom teachers are expected to continue to use the existing curriculum." (King 2003) It is the…… [Read More]

References

Dybvik, C. (2004) Autism and the inclusion mandate: what happens when children with severe disabilities like autism are taught in regular classrooms. Education Next, Winter.

Hehir, T. (2003, March) Beyond inclusion: educators' 'ableist' assumptions about students with disabilities compromise the quality of instruction. School Administrator.

King, I.C. (2003) Examining middle school inclusion classrooms through the lens of Learner-Centered Principles. Theory Into Practice.

Murphy, T.J. (1994, September 12) Handicapping education - full inclusion of disabled children in classrooms. National Review.
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Special Education History and Efficacy

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 776039



Inclusion is thought to be a best practice. Under this philosophy most students with mild disabilities spend the greater part of their day in the general education setting with their peers. Students may be allocated an instructional assistant to help them with their work. Some students with learning disabilities often spend time in a resource room in order to receive direct instruction. The special education team may decide that this is not the right path for a student and try a more restrictive setting known as partial inclusion. Partial inclusion refers to when a student partakes in the general education setting for part of the day but receives the bulk of their academic instruction in a resource room. Due to the severity of some student's disabilities, they may be assigned to a self-contained classroom in where they will spend at least 60% of their school day working directly with the…… [Read More]

References

Cortiella, C. (2009). The State of Learning Disabilities. Retrieved June 24, 2010, from New

York, NY: National Center for Learning Disabilities Web site:

 http://www.ncld.org/stateofld 

Godovnikova, L.V. (2009). The Conditions for the Integrated Education of Children with Impaired Development. Russian Education & Society. 51(10), p.26-39.
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Special Education Team Collaboration Present

Words: 1833 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 6928231

Instead of the special education teacher and the general education teacher duplicating efforts for many children it has been shown that their efforts are better put to use in collaborating in their teaching efforts. Individuals cannot be effective team members unless they see themselves as being an important part of the team. An effective team should be viewed by others as having all individual members be contributors to the work of the team.

esearch has shown that some children with disabilities learn best in inclusive classrooms. The process of getting children with diverse abilities and typically achieving students together often brings with it the need for general and special education teachers to collaborate. Collaboration between general and special education teachers has been shown to be an effective technique when carried out properly. It is thought that this approach to education can help improve instruction as educators pool their talents in…… [Read More]

References

Delvin, Patricia. (2007). Create Effective Teacher-Paraprofessional Teams. Intervention in School & Clinic. 44(1), p41-44.

Murawski, Wendy W. And Hughes, Claire E. (2009). Response to Intervention, Collaboration,

and Co-Teaching: A Logical Combination for Successful Systemic Change. Preventing School Failure. 53(4), p267-277.

Tannock, Michelle T. (2009). Tangible and Intangible Elements of Collaborative Teaching.
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Child With Disability

Words: 2379 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41179199

fifth of all Americans have some type of disability (United States Census Bureau, 2000).

Alarming? Yes, however, disabilities do not discriminate and people of all ages, race, and socioeconomic backgrounds can be affected or have a family member who has a disability. Disabilities in children may include, but are not limited to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Autism, Central Auditory Processing Disorder, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dysprazia, Learning Disabilities, and Nonverbal Learning Disability. While these are only a few of the ever-growing list of disabilities discovered in children, the list continues to grow as additional research is conducted to identify more disabilities in children. This paper will discuss the issues, concepts, and findings of recent literature on the important issue of children with disabilities. It will also include information on how a disabled child and the parents search for help and resources with an emphasis being on treatment and educational…… [Read More]

References

Administration for Children and Families. (2004). Head Start Bureau.

Accessed March 30, 2004, from, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/hsb/index.htm

American Dietetic Association. (2004). Position of the American Dietetic Association: providing nutrition services for infants, children, and adults with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (1) 97-108.

Bayerl, C., Ries J., Bettencourt M., & Fisher P. (1993). Nutrition issues of children in early intervention programs: primary care team approach. Semin Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition 4:11-15.
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Special Education Inclusion

Words: 8710 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43314572

country's public schools are experiencing dwindling state education budgets and increased unfunded mandates from the federal government, the search for optimal approaches to providing high quality educational services for students with learning disabilities has assumed new importance and relevance. In an attempt to satisfy the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, a growing number of special educators agree that full inclusion is the optimal approach for providing the individualized services needed by young learners with special needs. Known as "mainstreaming" in the past, full inclusion means integrating students with special physical, cognitive or emotional needs into traditional classroom setting. Practices that promote full inclusion for students with special needs assist educators in focusing instruction in innovative ways to help meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse student population with a wide array of specialized needs. Critics of full inclusion argue that in many if not…… [Read More]

References

Allen, M., Burrell, N., Eayle, B.M., & Preiss, R.W. (2002). Interpersonal communication research: Advances through meta-analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum

Associates.

Anzul, M., Evans, J.F., King, R., & Tellier-Robinson, D. (2001). Moving beyond a deficit perspective with qualitative research methods. Exceptional Children, 67(2), 235.

Baskin, T.W., & Enright, R.D. (2004). Intervention studies on forgiveness: A meta-analysis.
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Special Education the Key Points

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 90383883

Categorizations included 'steamer children', 'backward', 'defective', 'truant', and 'incorrigible'. At least two of these terms have persisted still today. In 1904, special procedures for identifying 'defectives' were presented at the World's Fair.

In 1951, the categorization changed again, with a major section of special education called the 'slow learner' what today we refer to as 'learning disability'. Even here, this term has split into countless subcategories such as 'ADD', 'ADHD', 'Asperger's', 'learning deficiency', 'special needs', 'borderline line special needs', and so forth.

The 'take home' points for inclusion in the classroom would be primarily the endeavor to respect each and every student as an individual and to look past the labels. I believe that the use of diagnostic labels are potentially stigmatizing to students locking student in an, oftentimes, undeserved categorization that impedes the teacher from seeing him as a complex, remarkably rounded individual who has tremendous potential. The label…… [Read More]

Sources

Bateman, Barbara D. (1994). Who, How, and Where: Special Education's Issues in Perpetuity. The Journal of Special Education 27, 509-520.

Dorn, S., Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L.S. (1996). A Historical Perspective on Special Education Reform. Theory into Practice 35, 12-19.

Kauffman, J.M. (1981). Historical Trends and Contemporary Issues in Special Education in the United States. In Handbook of Special Education, ed. James M. Kauffman and Daniel P. Hallahan. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Winzer, Margaret a. (1993). History of Special Education from Isolation to Integration. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
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Special Education and Ways to Improve Teaching Methods

Words: 2196 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74841504

Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) Violations as they Pertain to the Case of Sonya

An educational institution's principal greatly influences the learning/teaching of every student within the school, for better or for worse. Studies have found that principals' approach to their post, and its eventual effect on enrolled pupils, is dependent upon their style of leadership. Some styles prove to have more benefits for pupils than others. An especially vulnerable student group is students with special education needs. They are, in fact, so susceptible that regulations are made for their protection, designed specially to look after their education. Such laws foster collaboration, inclusive planning, and shared leadership-- leadership traits that have been proven as having the most favorable impact on all students' outcomes (Schulze, 2014).

The school administrator's role as an educational leader has an extensive history. Currently, however, the significance of this particular role is greater than ever…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Boscardian, M. L. (2011). Exploring the Relationship Between Special Education Teachers and Professional Learning Communities. Journal of Special Education Leadership, 62.

Case Studies in Special Education Law: No Child Left Behind Act and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (Case 2.2 "Sonya" pages 30-32 only) (1st Edition)

Diliberto J. A., Brewer D. (2012). Six tips for successful IEP Meetings. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44,30-37

Harrison, D. (2010). Meeting the Needs of Special Needs Students Virtually. The Journal.
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Special Education Instruction Options

Words: 8307 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74835600

Technology & Education

There has been a fundamental change in almost all aspects of our life brought about by computer technology and the spread of digital media. Educationalists also agree that this development in technology has left an undeniable mark on the process of education reforms (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, 2010). esearchers also agree that technology has the ability to help students improve and enhance knowledge and skill acquisition. This, they say, can be achieved through learning with and about technology, which has become essential for students in the 21st-century society and workforce to gain competencies to perform well (Chen & Hwang, 2014). Additionally, student-centered learning can be well supported by technology since it is intrinsically motivating for many students and can be easily customized.

Academicians and researchers have defined technology as an articulation of a craft and deals with that branch of knowledge which can…… [Read More]

References

Boonmoh, A. (2012). E-dictionary Use under the Spotlight: Students' Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries for Writing. Lexikos, 22 (1).  http://dx.doi.org/10.5788/22-1-997 

Chen, N. & Hwang, G. (2014). Transforming the classrooms: innovative digital game-based learning designs and applications. Education Tech Research Dev, 62 (2), 125-128.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11423-014-9332-y 

Davis, H. (2012). Technology in the Classroom: A Deweyan Perspective. Kentucky Journal Of Higher Education Policy And Practice, Vol. 1(2), 10-12.

Floyd, K. (2011). Book and Software Review: Assistive Technology: Access for All Students. Journal Of Special Education Technology, 26 (4), 64-65.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016264341102600406
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Improving Lower-Level and Special Needs

Words: 6371 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86289288

" May (2003) emphasizes the need exists for greater technological sense and knowledge for all current and future students. Consequently, this need has led to incorporation of technology in classrooms settings, as technologies aim to increase students' intensity of wisdom, cooperation and text assessment. Today, literacy reading skills prove to be vital for both normal and special-needs students, as exposure to literacy encompasses more than books. In fact, the range of information is more fast and varied in accordance with contemporary technical improvements. A book review, using software programs such as Kidspiration and Timeliner, provides one pertinent illustration of incorporating technology in a classroom setting to better comprehend. Using software programs such as these could help students, in individual tasks or as they work in a group exercise, visualize their thoughts and opinions, as well as communicate them more effectively. (May, 2003)

To improve their reading skills of special-needs students,…… [Read More]

References

Anonymous. (2004). Teacher demographics (2004). Reading Today 21(5). Retrieved January 22, 2005, from eLibrary database.  http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5020677369" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Raising Public Awareness of Special Needs the

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77053922

aising Public Awareness of Special Needs

The sudden calamitous event that results to destructions or loss and devastation to the life and property is defined as disaster. In most cases, the damage caused by disasters tends to be immeasurable as it varies within the geographical location and climatic conditions causing a great influence on socio-economic, political as well as, cultural state of the affected areas. The various examples of disasters includes; the floods, earthquakes, droughts and many others which are caused as a result of manmade. All these affect each and every individual in the societies. However, when such disasters arise, there are special needs that are supposed to be given to special group of people within the society to ensure that their lives are not at risk.

The groups that should be given the first priority when these occur are the aged group, the pregnant women, the disabled people,…… [Read More]

References

Gupta, H.K. (2002). Disaster Management. Retrieved September 11, 2012 from  http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=m7UD_y4vP-0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=disaster+management 

Rao, K., & Rao, P.S. (2008). Disaster management. New York: Serials Publications.
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An art centre for'special needs toddlers

Words: 1163 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59528636

Age/Grade Level of Children
Creative art forms like drawing, coloring, painting, and sculpting form a key constituent of toddler/ preschooler with special needs curriculum. Engaging in creating artworks supports child development over multiple domains besides facilitating development of small muscle control and coordination. This paper will deal with the planning of an art center for older toddlers with special needs (aged 2-3 years).
Number in Group
The class will comprise of 20 children with special needs aged 2-3 years, an easily manageable number. A maximum of 4 to 6 toddlers will be allowed into the center at a time to ensure smooth supervision. The toddlers with special needs may practice their cognitive skills through experimentation with color, band and texture, which offer self-discipline limits. Furthermore, art helps toddlers develop creativity (Aslin et al., 2014).
Goals of the Center
An art center for toddlers with special needs may aim at achieving…… [Read More]

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The Importance of Special Education

Words: 2377 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82220908

Special education allows children with special needs to gain knowledge and develop skills that can help them lead normal lives and gain independence. Although some consider special education as separate from the total educational enterprise, it is not. It is an integral part of it and serves the community in more ways than one. The specific function of special education in schools is to recognize the needs of children that suffer from mental and learning disabilities and help them get the services they need to thrive in an academic setting. Early childhood special education services provide parents and children with the tools to promote success in education early on, giving these students early access to support and services that will help them throughout their childhood and into adulthood.

Because every child has needs, the special education aspect of schools provides extra assistance so every child can be aided versus only…… [Read More]

References

Hedeen, T., Peter, M., Moses, P., & Engiles, A. (2013). Individualized Education Program (IEP)/Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) Facilitation: Practical Insights and Programmatic Considerations. Center For Appropriate Dispute Resolution In Special Education (CADRE). Retrieved from  http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED558077 

Hong, S. & Shaffer, L. (2015). Inter-Professional Collaboration: Early Childhood Educators and Medical Therapist Working within a Collaboration. Journal Of Education And Training Studies,3(1), 135-145. Retrieved from  http://eric.ed.gov/?q=early+childhood+special+education&pr=on&ft=on&pg=2&id=EJ1054910 

Hooper, S. & Umansky, W. (2009). Young children with special needs. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

Khan, A., Ahmad, R., Hamdan, A., & Mustaffa, M. (2014). Educational Encouragement, Parenting Styles, Gender and Ethnicity as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Special Education Students. International Education Studies, 7(2), 18-24. Retrieved from  http://eric.ed.gov/?q=special+education&pr=on&ft=on&id=EJ1068932
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Ethnography of Special Needs Preschool Children

Words: 1806 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78853558

LABB School

I chose the LABB School because it seems so innovative. They have a preschool program designed for children with special needs, but they also enroll children with no difficulties. Because of this, preschoolers who attend The LABB School get both specialized services and the normality of attending preschool with children who have no disabilities. I was very curious to see how The LABB School makes this concept work.

When I went in I expected to see the children with disabilities separated in some way from the children without disabilities. I also wanted to know how well both groups progressed. I observed in detail and interviewed a teacher, an occupational therapist and a teacher aid to gather information. I did not ask to interview a parent.

The LABB School is spacious and set against woods. The rooms are airy and bright. They have a playground that is brightly colored…… [Read More]

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Students With Special Needs in the Mainstream Classroom

Words: 544 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17501601

Joe

Accommodating students with disabilities means enabling the students to participate in normal classroom activities in the least restrictive environment possible: special provisions must be made for the student to compensate for his or her disability in a classroom otherwise populated by the students' peers. In the case of 'Joe,' a wheelchair-bound 12th grade student, there is no cognitive impairment that prevents him from understanding and participating in classroom learning. Although Joe has some physical challenges, these can be met within the traditional classroom with some support. For example, to accommodate Joe's hearing loss, having an assistant interpreter/note-taker; providing written lecture notes; using visual aids; and incorporating learning materials into the online component of the class are relatively minimal additional, assistive techniques that could help Joe -- and even also assist with the learning of other students (Working together PowerPoint, slide 7). Joe's mobility impairment can be accommodated by having…… [Read More]

References

Working together PowerPoint

Reynolds, T., Zupanick, C.E. & Dombeck, M. (2014). The choice of educational settings:

The pros and cons of mainstreaming children with intellectual disabilities. Seven Counties. Retrieved from:  http://sevencounties.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=10364&cn=208
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Individualized Academic Needs for Special Needs Students

Words: 1059 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58061091

Optimal Individualized Education Program for a Special Needs Student

Special education leaders today are required to fully understand the optimal approaches to developing individualized education programs (IEPs) in general and IEPs for special needs students in particular. Developing optimal IEPs also requires a comprehension of the team operation, eligibility criteria, assessment procedures, and community support systems. To determine the facts about these issues, this paper reviews the relevant literature as it applies to a young learner in a middle school who is struggling to overcome his behavioral and learning deficits. This review is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning IEP development in the conclusion.

Discussion concerning the student, current placement, and the school

Like a growing number of other young learners, 12-year-old Johnny Morris, a sixth-grade student, is experiencing behavioral and learning problems that have required special accommodations in the classroom. To date, though, these…… [Read More]

References

Bernas, K. (2015, January 3). Plan to cut poverty unveiled. Winnipeg Free Press, 9.

Darden, E. C. (2013, March). What's so special about an IEP? Phi Delta Kappan, 94(6), 66-71.

Houston Independent School District (HISD) v. Bobby R., Joyce R., & Caius R., 200 F.3d 341 No. 98-20546 (5th Cir. 2000).

McBride, G. & Dumont, R. (2011). Essentials of IDEA for assessment professionals. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
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Students With Special Needs

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73590579

representation has become a very contentious issue of late. Typically, overrepresentation is characterized with race or socio-economic status. Society often wants to an equal distribution and equal opportunity for all. This concept on the surface should be applauded. However, although it is well intentioned, it should not apply to all facets of life. In some instances, particularly with special education, overrepresentation is welcomed. According to studies, it is estimated that about twelve percent of the American student population experiences some type of disability in regards to physical activity, mental activity, or overall health. Whenever a disproportionate number of students are identified from specific populations of students as having disabilities, this group is considered "over-represented." One would believe that students with disabilities would be roughly equal to the overall demographics of an area. However in some instances, it is not. Overall however, I believe over representation should not be welcomed.

Overrepresentation…… [Read More]

References

1) Birsh, Judith R., & Wolf, B., eds. (2011). Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills, Third Edition. Baltimore: Brookes.

2) Wilmshurst, L., & Brue, A. W. (2010). The complete guide to special education (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

3) Snell, M. E. & Brown, F. (1987, 2011). Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities. (7th edition). Seoul: Pearson.
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Developing of a School-Wide Assessment Plan for ESL Students and Students With Special Needs

Words: 1941 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3965990

School-Wide Assessment Plan

Schoolwide Devlopment Plan

Assessing the Context or Input

As a certified teacher in Special Education and capable to teach English to English Language Learners, I plan to create an assessment plan to measure abilities of students in high need areas in my school to read and write. Since I am equipped with a robust background and the essential skills to teach in these areas and to assess the needs of students who fall under this category, I will appear more subject specific and the overall improvement plan should be easier as I strive to develop and implement the correct assessment-instruction process. My focus during the first part of the project will revolve around the creation of a range of assessments in order to gather background information about my learners and instructional contexts in which we teach them. This information will then help me design my instructional plan,…… [Read More]

References

Bernhardt, V.L. (2006). Using data to improve student learning in school districts. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

Brooks, G.W. (2007). Teachers as Readers and Writers and as Teachers of Reading and Writing. The Journal of Educational Research, 100(3), 177-191. doi: 10.2307/27548176

Hudson, R.F., Lane, H.B., & Pullen, P.C. (2005). Reading Fluency Assessment and Instruction: What, Why, and How? The Reading Teacher, 58(8), 702-714. doi: 10.2307/20204298

Lesaux, N.K. (2012). Reading and Reading Instruction for Children from Low-Income and Non-English-Speaking Households. The Future of Children, 22(2), 73-88. doi: 10.2307/23317412
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Children's Defense Fund-purpose Needs Statement Children's

Words: 548 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Business Proposal Paper #: 97370659

The Cook County CDED was formed in 1985 and is a private, non-profit organization supported by foundation and grants, as well as several individual donations annually.

Our Mission

To end disability-related discrimination and injustice through education and increased legal services for individuals and families with disabilities. This is accomplished through legal support and the support of local community families.

To fight for and increase the rights of children with disabilities by changing discriminatory practices, policies and laws.

To educate children, families and education professionals.

To provide assistance to families with disabilities in need.

To offer educational and extracurricular activities for children with disabilities as well as family members.

To increase awareness overall.

The CDED does not believe any individual or family should be denied the right to fair housing or education because of a disability. The CDED Community Center offers a place of solace for children with disabilities and families…… [Read More]

References

About Us. (n.d.). Children's Defense Fund (CDF): Health Care Coverage for All of America's Children, Ending Child Poverty, Child Advocacy Programs. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from  http://www.childrensdefense.org/about-us/ 

Epilepsy Fdn.-Mission Statement. (n.d.). Epilepsy Foundation-Epilepsy Foundation-trusted, reliable information for people with seizures, and their caregivers. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from  http://www.epilepsyfoundation.org/epilepsylegal/ 

Mission Statement. (n.d.). because a goblin is a terrible thing to waste.. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from http://www.goblindefensefund.org/mission.html
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Special Ed Since the 1990s

Words: 1404 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21479184



Personal Beliefs

Our personal beliefs are that showing educators and parents' specific tactics to use when interacting with special needs students will improve their ability to learn. In the future, this will prepare them for the challenges they will face on their own. Once this happens, is when the student has a good chance of living an independent and productive life.

Literature

To determine what technique are most effective in reaching out to students requires conducting a literature review. According to the research that was conducted, there are specific skills and tools required to help special needs students. Buell (1999) found that the federal government has implemented a comprehensive program in teaching educators about how to deal with these challenges called the Comprehensive System of Personal Development. This protocol is scientifically-based math and reading strategies to improve learning comprehension in these students. When this is used in its proper context,…… [Read More]

References

Buell, M. (1999). A Survey of General and Special Education Teachers. International Journal of Disability, 46 (2),

143 -- 156.

Ingersoll, B. (2006). Including Parent Training in the Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum for Children

with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2), 79-87.
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Special Cultural Inequities for Special

Words: 2208 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 25332614

Doyle ( 2003) states that the educator has an obligation to identify and provide adequate attention to those with special needs and at the same time not deal with these children in a prejudicial way.

Doyle uses the example of students who may have autism, which is a disorder related to special learning need. In order to reduce the possibility of any bias and prejudice the following steps are advised, among others.

It is of the utmost importance to identify and support students in the autism spectrum and students with other special learning needs as early as possible. Do not allow children who may have special needs to go from one grade to another without a professional team assessing the student for eligibility for services and supports. "Waiting" is NOT an effective, educational practice. Although the process of referral can be cumbersome, it is well worth it when it identifies…… [Read More]

References

Campbell F. ( 2008) Refusing Able (ness): A Preliminary Conversation about

Ableism. M/C Journal, 11(3). Retrieved from  http://journal.media-culture.org.au/index.php/mcjournal/article/viewArticle/46 

Cheng D. (2010) Prejudice top obstacle for special needs pupils: Hide. Retrieved from  http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10681999 

Coutinho, M.J., & Repp, A.C. (1999). Inclusion: The integration of students with disabilities. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
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Child Abuse and Neglect

Words: 3043 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41442181

Child abuse and neglect is a highly discussed issue in the present day. For a long time now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. There are significant implications from child abuse and neglect in the United States and it is imperative to come up with the necessary ways of dealing with it. The solution is to have a propagating state program that encompasses poor and underprivileged children. There is also need for family programs that educate and teach households on better child treatment and attaining the necessary skills. Such programs should also be expanded to schools to determine their vulnerabilities and needs.

Child abuse and neglect is a highly debated issue in the contemporary. For a lengthy period now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. Adverse childhood events (ACEs) have been experientially demonstrated to be linked to an assortment of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after intervention. (2005, May 23). The Free Library. (2005). Retrieved February 03, 2017 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after...-a0133049592

A research study undertaken by McMaster University Medical Facility steered Professor Harriet Macmillan, Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences and Pediatrics showed that children that continue being in their homes subsequent to being abused or neglected by their parents, or are taken back to those homes subsequent to intervention by social service institutions are at a high risk for more abuse or neglect in a period of within three years. The conclusion made from examining 163 families with a long-established history of child abuse or neglect is that there is no intervention confirmed or established to decrease the rise of abuse or neglect when the children who have experienced such harsh conditions remain in the home.

The magazine article is pertinent to my paper as it indicates the recurrence of child abuse and neglect.

Cost of child abuse and neglect takes large toll. (2001, May 10). Columbus Medical Association.
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Special Education Child Visitation

Words: 1119 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2418549

Special Education Classrooom

Special Education

Observations of Special Education Classroom

The paper is a description of an observation conducted at a center that provides special education services to children and teens. The observation duration was three hours in a secondary education classroom. I was invited to participate as little or as much as I wanted during the observation. The students were at grade levels 9 -- 11.

Observations of Special Education Classroom

For the purposes of this paper, I gained permission to observe a secondary school-aged classroom at the Association for Metro Area Autistic Children. Children as young as two years old to students aged twenty-one attend the center. There are also adult services provided, at the center and at the private residence. The school is in session from 8am -- 2:30pm, Monday through Friday. I asked to attend on a day and during a timeblock where the students would…… [Read More]

References:

Forness, S.R., & Esveldt, K.C. (1975) Classroom Observation of Children with Learning and Behavior Problems. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 8(6), 382 -- 385.

Lam, S.F. (2001) Educators opinions on classroom observation as a practice of staff development and appraisal. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(2), 161 -- 173.

Martin, J.E., Van Dycke, J.L., Greene, B.A., Gardner, J.E., Christensen, W.R., Woods, L.L., & Lovett, D.L. (2006) Direct Observation of Teacher-Directed IEP Meetings: Establishing the Need for Student IEP Meeting Instruction. Exceptional Children, 72(2), 187 -- 200.
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Special Education - Inclusion the

Words: 12387 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51490180



In their study, "Thinking of Inclusion for All Special Needs Students: Better Think Again," asch and his colleagues (1994) report that, "The political argument in favor of inclusion is based on the assumption that the civil rights of students, as outlined in the 1954 decision handed down in Brown v. Board of Education, which struck down the concept of 'separate but equal,' can also be construed as applying to special education" (p. 36). According to Mcgregor and Salisbury (2002), since then, the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, P.L. 105-17, 1997), and the 1994 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (also known as the "Improving America's Schools Act"; ESEA, P.L. 103-382, 1994), mandate the inclusion of supplementary services and instructional supports in the general education classrooms to provide all students with access to challenging and stimulating learning environments (Mcgregor & Salibury, 2002). In addition,…… [Read More]

References

Allan, J. (1999). Actively seeking inclusion: Pupils with special needs in mainstream schools. London: Falmer Press.

Balfanz, R., Jordan, W., Legters, N., & McPartland, J. (1998). Improving climate and achievement in a troubled urban high school through the talent development model. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 3(4), 348.

Banks, J. (1994). All of us together: The story of inclusion at the Kinzie School. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Bullard, H.R. (2004). Ensure the successful inclusion of a child with Asperger syndrome in the general education classroom. Intervention in School & Clinic, 39(3), 176.
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Special Ed Effective Special Education

Words: 886 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81681092

The IEP takes into account the results of the assessment while developing a plan for the future. The evaluation results include not only behavioral observations but also socio-cultural background. If the student has a physical disability, the IEP might address the need for specialized technologies or classroom adaptations. On the other hand, if the student has a learning disability, the IEP might include recommendations for lesson adaptation.

The IEP is developed in accordance with the principle that the child will thrive in the least restrictive environment (LE). A learning environment must be coordinated to meet the needs of the student. If the mainstream classroom at the child's standard school can provide the LE, then the child will be mainstreamed with some lesson adaptations to suit the child's strengths. However, some students will require special education services in alternative school or classroom settings. The IEP is tailor made and there is…… [Read More]

References

"Special Education in New York State for Children: Age 3-21." Retrieved online:  http://www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/publications/policy/parentguide.htm#InRef 

Stump, C. (n.d.). Before Special Ed: How Pre-Referral Works. Retrieved online:  http://www.greatschools.org/special-education/LD-ADHD/pre-referral.gs?content=517 

United States Department of Education (2007). A Guide to the Individualized Education Program. Retrieved online  http://www2.ed.gov/parents/needs/speced/iepguide/index.html
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Special Education Goetze and Walker

Words: 4835 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11725792

Then students use AlphaSmart software to paste the picture and explain in a paragraph why, how and where in the plot they feel that picture relates to the story. This tests three things: (a) student concentration; (b) student level of understanding of the general plot; and - student imagination. This is an important implementation because it opens the students' horizons and allows them to see the general links and relations that their own lives might have with the stories that they read. The implementation of taking the pictures is one way that this has been successfully achieved. This use of a camera is a very flexible application and is being used in different ways for different special-needs students.

May (2003) found that cameras are being used to also expand the span of words or vocabulary amongst the special-needs students. The teacher hands out a set of words to the students…… [Read More]

References

Beukelman, D.R., Beukleman, H.M., Ranklin, J.L., Wood, L.A. (2003). Early Computer Literacy: First Grades Use the "Talking" Computer. Reading Improvement. 40: 3. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com

Castek, J., Coiro, J., Henry, L.A., Leu, D.J., Mcmullan, M. (2004). The Lessons That Children Teach Us: Integrating Children's Literature and the New Literacies of the Internet. The Reading Teacher. 57: 5. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com

Doering, a., Hughes, J., & Huffman. D. (2003). Preservice teachers: Are we thinking with technology? Journal of Research on Technology in Education. 35(3), 342-362. In Speaker, K. (2004). Student Perspectives: Expectations of Multimedia Technology in a College Literature Class. Reading Improvement. 41: 4. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com

Dowrick, P.W. Kim-Rupnow, W.S, and Power, T.J. (2006). Video Feedforward for Reading. Journal of Special Education. 39: 4. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
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Special Populations Profession Psychology the Future of

Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50591599

Special Populations

Profession psychology

The future of professional psychology:

The influence of special populations on the field of professional psychology

According to the American Board of Professional Psychology: "It is expected that clinical psychologists will demonstrate sensitivity to and skills in dealing with multicultural/diverse populations....Individual and cultural diversity recognizes the broad scope of such factors as race, ethnicity, language, sexual orientation, gender, age, disability, class status, education, religion/spiritual orientation, and other cultural dimension" (Clinical psychology, 2012, ABPP). In other words, the special needs of specific population groups must be taken into consideration when offering care, to ensure that treatment is commensurate and sensitive to the population's needs. The reason for this emphasis on culturally-appropriate care reflects a greater awareness of how not all forms of treatment are appropriate for all population groups within the field, and the degree to which special population needs have and continues to shape the point-of-view…… [Read More]

References

Asian-Americans need culturally competent mental health care. (2012). APA.

http://www.apa.org/about/gr/issues/minority/culture.aspx

Clinical psychology. (2012). American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP). Retrieved:

 http://www.abpp.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3307
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Special Education Director Leadership Styles

Words: 11099 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 58281810

More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way that is and feels qualitatively different from other research traditions we have used in the past, because it is built on valuing. Even though it is challenging at times (Ospina et al. 2002), our inquiry space is enhanced by our collaboration with the social change leaders. (Schall, Ospina, Godsoe and Dodge, nd)

Qualitative Research Methods

Qualitative research methods are those of:

(1) Phenomenology -- this is a form of qualitative research in which the researcher focuses on gaining understanding of how an individual or individuals experience a phenomenon.

(2) Ethnography -- qualitative research that focuses on the culture of a group and describing that culture.

(3) Case Study Research -- form of qualitative research that provides a detailed account of a case…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Betts, Dion E. (2008) Professional Learning Communities and Special education: We Are Gathering Student Performance Data, Now What? PA Administrator.

Blaydes, John (2004) Survival skills for the principalship: a treasure chest of time-savers, short-cuts, and strategies to help you keep a balance in your life. Corwin Press, 2004.

Condelli, Larry and Wrigley, Heide Spruck (2004) Real World Research: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research for Adult ESL paper was presented at the National Research and Development Centre (NRDC) Second International Conference for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Loughborough, England, March 25-27, 2004.

Cotton, K. (1996). School size, school climate, and student performance (School Improvement Research Series, Close-Up #20). Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved September 30, 2006, from  http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/10/c020.html
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Special Ed Case Special Education

Words: 1144 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68118930

J. This limitation is summarized in the following passage:

Sometimes, disagreements about educational benefit are called "Cadillac-Chevrolet" disputes. emember: In owley, the Supreme Court ruled that children are entitled to an appropriate education (i.e. A Chevrolet), not the best education money can buy (a Cadillac). http://www.wrightslaw.com/advoc/articles/iep_guidance.html#Law_and_egulations

The above accurately describes some of the limitations that public schools have to meet the needs of special education children. This may or may not be helpful to remind the grandparents of at this point in the process. It seem entirely likely that they know this (and certainly any well-run IEP program would have made this information known to the grandparents at the very beginning of the process) but the grandparents may need to be reminded of the legal limits for J.J.'s education.

It is significant that one of the most important objections that the grandparents have is that J.J. will face emotional abuse…… [Read More]

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Children Learning in the Classroom

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19981722

Next, estwood explains how educators must compartmentalize lesson plans as to minimize the amount of information the student must cognitively digest. The smaller the lesson plans, the greater chance that child has at retaining that information. It is large lesson plans filled with complex amounts of information which provides an environment which the memory challenged child will undoubtedly fail.

Another key method for improving learning abilities in children with memory issues is the use of visual material to help aid recall. Visual cues are one of the most efficient ways to improve recall in children with memory loss. By relating necessary information to a picture or object which is less likely to be forgotten, the child will be able to associate the two and therefore remember one with the other. Teachers must also encourage their students to associate information with visual cues which are most familiar with each individual student,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Westwood, Peter. (2003). Students with physical disabilities and sensory impairments.

Commonsense Methodology for Children with Special Needs: Strategies for Regular Classrooms. RoutledgeFalmer. New York. Pp. 36-54.
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Special Ed Most of the

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88512475



egular educators are also frustrated with the way NCLB penalizes schools that have high numbers of special education students. Even when those schools are serving special education students well enough to become local "magnets" because their good programs, the government can penalize them using the MCA-II and similar tests (Caputo 2006).

Other issues also complicate special education in the inclusive classroom. egular educators are addressing a more diverse student body than ever before. Even within the rubric of "special education," teachers are working with a seemingly infinite number of special needs. Cognitive disorders, learning disabilities that may or may not be specified, behavioral disorders, developmental disorders, and physical disabilities ranging from mild to severe -- these are just a few of the examples of how special education students may be classified in the classroom. Moreover, autism and similar disorders present added challenges. Some teachers might have identified students with special…… [Read More]

References

Caputo, M. (2006). MCA II testing frustrating for teachers and parents of special needs students. MPR News. Retrieved online:  http://minnesota.publicradio.org/display/web/2006/11/27/mathtestsfolosidebar/ 

Sacks, a. (2001). Special Education: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.

Tomlinson, S. (1982). A Sociology of Special Education. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
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Special Education and Students With

Words: 1459 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 10289465



(4) Have participating teachers develop and lead online collaborative projects for students with emotional and behavioral disorders.

(5) Develop and maintain an online community for teachers in self-contained units where ideas, lessons, and strategies can be shared.

(6) Train staff on the concepts surrounding Positive ehavioral Intervention Support (PIS) and support teachers as they develop preventative behavioral intervention plans that utilize PIS strategies and concepts. (Rush, 2010, p.1)

Rush (2010) states that the key elements of the model were online, collaborative learning and accessible computer-based educational resources. The results are stated to have exceeded initial expectations for "changing the focus in self-contained classrooms from behavior control to academic achievement." (Rush, 2010, p.1) Not only is academic achievement up but as well it is reported that "behavior referrals are down, and teachers report improved student outcomes in all areas." (Rush, 2010, p.1)

The work of Pierangelo and Guiliani (2008) states the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Pierangelo, R. And Guiliani, G.A. (2008) Classroom Management for Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Step-by-Step Guide for Educators. Corwin Press, 2008.

Jolivette, Kristine, et al. (2000) Improving Post-School Outcomes for Students with Emotional and Behavioral disorders. ERIC Clearinghouse. ERIC/OSEP Digest #E597. Online available at: http://eric.hoagiesgifted.org/e597.html

Salmon, Hallie (2006) Educating Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. Law & Disorder. Online available at:  https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/201/salmon%20educating%20students%20with.pdf?sequence=1 

Rush, Sharron (2010) Improving Education for Students with Emotional Disturbances. Knowbility. Online available at:  http://www.knowbility.org/research/?content=improve
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Special Education What Is Special

Words: 3509 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88017095

These are the students who are suffering from sort of problem; it may be a cognitive disorder, a memory problem, a writing problem, or some sort of physical problem that does not allow him to cope with the burden of the educational system without special help and instruction, or anything else. The proponents of the exit exams also state that unless students are held to certain high standards, it would be impossible to identify or address the various inherent flaws and weaknesses in the entire system of examinations. Another advantage of the exit exam system, according to them, is that there will be an increase in the motivation levels for both students and teachers to do better and excel at the exam to the best of their abilities.

This, again, is valid only for those students who are in the normal stream of education, and not for those students who…… [Read More]

References

CA High School Exit Exam." Retrieved at http://www.suhsd.net/html/cahsee1.htm. Accessed on 11 January, 2005

Definition of Special Education" Retrieved at  http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&lr=&oi=defmore&q=define:Special+EducationAccessed  on 11 January, 2005

Goodwin, Sherry Posnick. "Students with learning disabilities campaign against high school exit exams" Retrieved at  http://www.cta.org/CaliforniaEducator/v7i8/MTC_1.htm . Accessed on 11 January, 2005

High school exit examination: District and School Information Packet." (April 2000)
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Children's Literature in Esme Raji

Words: 521 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19351092

Although at first Sahara did not need special education, by being placed in it she was removed from exploring her true gifts for reading and learning. Even when placed in the regular classroom, Sahara continued to view herself as "dumb" and thus able to get by.

esides just Miss Pointy, Sahara grows personally with the assistance of numerous friends and other important individuals. One such character is Darrell Sikes, another inclusion-based special eduation student. Saraha is given the nickname Sahara Special because she spends time with a special needs teacher in the hall with the highly disruptive Darrell Sikes. Darrell is both similar to and different from Sahara. On the one hand, Darrell is probably truly in need of special education, whereas Sahara has a true love for reading and writing. At the same time, Darrell and Sahara share the common relation of being two individuals controlled by the choices…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Codell, Esme Raji. (2004): Sahara Special. New York: Hyperion Books for Children.
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Special Ed Learning Disabilities Chart

Words: 696 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 90030934

Specifically, the parents want their son's teachers to help him not only learn, but to be able to receive instruction from others. So far, they are fairly pleased with the progress that they have seen their son make in the classroom, but wish the teachers could develop more large-group activities and take the time to really make sure their son was a full participant, which they feel would help him to progress socially more than the often individualized instruction he receives.

The difficulty, they acknowledge, is that individualized instruction is how he learns best, and with a class the size of his they understand that the teachers couldn't focus their attention on him during a large group project. Still, they are hopeful that new ideas might come up that will improve his situation even more, and they continue to work closely with the teachers regarding his progress.

eferences

LDA. (209).…… [Read More]

References

LDA. (209). Learning disabilities association of America. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://www.ldanatl.org/

WV Dept. Of Education. 92009). "Schools of Brooke County." Accessed 2 October 2009.  http://wvde.state.wv.us/ed_directory/index.html?county_id=10 

Sheet1

Disorder / impairment Characetristics Teaching Strategy Example
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Special Ed the Integrated Co-Teaching

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48403724



Case Study 2

Cherise's math-related anxiety is only partly due to her being diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Many of our students demonstrate math-related anxiety and do not have any identifiable learning disability. Therefore, the plans used to help Cherise might also help other students, too. The outbursts that Cherise is exhibiting can be addressed by framing math differently for her. If it appears that Cherise needs to be taken out of the mainstream math classroom to receive specialized instruction, then that might help reduce the acute outbursts and behavioral problems. Because Cherise has become self-injurious, it is crucial to address this matter immediately and if necessary, remove her from this particular classroom.

The plan for Cherise will include assistive technologies designed for mathematics instruction. By reframing math as a fun and engaging learning activity, Cherise will eventually be less anxious in a mainstream classroom. The tools used to teach…… [Read More]

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Special Ed Successful Collaboration in

Words: 796 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62136360

But with the increased importance of state standards in measuring student and school performance, it is crucial that the student's educators be mindful of the most appropriate methods of measuring the child's compliance and that the general educators and special educators increase their collaboration to meet these new challenges. For some special needs students, "alternate assessments were developed and implemented...In 2003, most...states used a portfolio or body of evidence approach in their alternate assessments for students with significant cognitive disabilities" (Thompson & Thurlow, 2003) States have also been evolving other methods for students with different types of disabilities to take such exams, including computer-based tests or with modifications, such as being allowed to take lower-level assessments.

Remember, however, that regardless of modifications most students receiving special are required by federal law to access and progress in the general education curriculum, which is aligned with a state's academic content standards and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cortiella, Candace. (16 Oct 2006). "Aligning the IEP and Academic Content Standards

To Improve Academic Achievement." Charles and Helen Schwab Foundation. Retrieved 22 Feb 2007 at  http://www.schwablearning.org/articles.aspx?r=1116 

Thompson, Sandra & Martha Thurlow. (Dec 2003). "2003 State Special Education

Outcomes: Marching On." Published by the National Center on Educational Outcomes. Retrieved 22 Feb 2007 at  http://education.umn.edu/nceo/OnlinePubs/2003StateReport.htm
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Special Education Improving the Resource

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36544136

They will not have to sit through lessons that are not meant for them. Every lesson would be targeted towards that particular group of students.

Teacher etention

Special education is a highly specialized field making teacher retention an even more important issue than in the general population of teachers. Teaching a diverse array of students with specialized needs increases the workload of teachers more than those who only have to concentrate on a single subject. When teachers become overwhelmed, they are likely to experience higher amounts of job related stress. This stress translates into job dissatisfaction and can lead to lower teacher retention (Greiner & Smith, 2006). The proposed strategy would reduce teacher workload by allowing them to concentrate on the needs of only one group of students. They could become more proficient in the needs of this particular group of students, resulting in fewer job related stresses.

Every year…… [Read More]

References

Greiner, C. & Smith, B. (2006) Determining the Effect of Selected Variables on Teacher Retention.

Education,  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3673/is_200607 " Summer 2006. Retrieved December 21, 2007 at
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Parenting Styles and How it Effects Students in Special Education

Words: 1981 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92512400

Adopting Speial Needs Children

When it omes to adoption, parenting styles for speial needs hildren is really no different. There are hundreds and thousands of hildren that are urrently living in the foster are system that are put into the group of "Speial Needs" waiting for a household to support and love them. The word speial need promptly brings to mind the idea of a hild with inability, in adoption terms the word inludes a larger sense. The word speial needs relating to adoption basially is saying that a hild that is hard to plae by the state adoption agenies or adoption unit. Most of these hildren do not have muh health or temperament issues; they are just measured "hard to position" by a lot of adoption organizations. The hoies of ages for hildren that are in this group are from babies all the way up to the age of…… [Read More]

cited in Gray, 2003) on the subject of parents with high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome shows how parents cope with their child's disability. The mother and the father each draws from different resources to cope with how they react toward their child. Furthermore, the research has shown that coping strategies varies for women and men.
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Black's Law Dictionary 1991 Child

Words: 5968 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76815004



Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…… [Read More]

References

Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School

Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.

Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.
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Adaptive Abilities Special Education Dunlap Breaks Down

Words: 802 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20828111

Adaptive Abilities

Special Education

Dunlap breaks down adaptive abilities in children into three primary categories: motivation, socio-emotional skills, and self-care or self-help skills. All of these skills are necessary for healthy and all around development in children. For children with special needs, developing these skills and maintaining them at moderate levels can be challenging, depending on the nature of the conditions that hamper their learning. This paper will consider these skills outlined by Dunlap with respect to problems children with special needs have and to suggest approaches to intervene with such difficulties.

Motivation, as Dunlap (2009) explains it, includes a number of activities. These activities may be intrinsic or extrinsic. Motivational activities include self-regulation with respect to behavior and choices. It also includes behaviors that demonstrate movement toward autonomy. One very fundamental objective of child rearing and education is to develop children who grow into self-reliant, independent, functioning adults. Therefore…… [Read More]

References:

Dunlap, L.L. (2009). An introduction to Early Childhood Special Education. NJ: Pearson.

Chapter 11: Adaptive Abilities.

Torreno, S. (2012). What are Adaptive Skills in Special Ed? Bright Hub Education, Web, Available from:  http://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-ed-learning-disorders/73324-improving-adaptives-skills-in-students-with-intellectual-disabilities/ . 2012 November 20.
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Increasing Number of Students in Special Education

Words: 10876 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30150873

Special Education

Since the introduction of PL-142 the Special education system has received both praise and criticism. Special Education Programs are an essential component to our educational system. The current special education system has aided many people but improvements are desperately needed as rates of enrollment increase and the number of special education teachers' decrease. The growth in the number of special education students is the topic of conversation among educators all across the country.

The purpose of this investigation is to discuss the increase in the American special education population. We will discuss the factors that have contributed to the increase including; the effect of PL-142 on the growth of the special education population early identification of special needs, the additional conditions that qualify students for special education, the placement of low achieving students in special education programs, accountability reforms, pressure from parents, the disproportionate amount of minorities that…… [Read More]

References

Digest of Education Statistics. (2001) U.S. Department of Education.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5001314786

Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132. Retrieved May 30, 2003, from Questia database,  http://www.questia.com .

Presidents Commision on Revitalizing Special Education. 2002. United States Department of Education. Retrieved May 28, 2003, from.  http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/assessment/Pres_Rep.pdf
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Application of a Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students

Words: 60754 Length: 230 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 60817292

Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students

Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…… [Read More]

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Age of Child and the

Words: 1997 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88724012

Additionally, it is apparent that the nature of the phenomenon makes it amiable to a qualitative approach. The literature did identify notable exceptions to the qualitative approach that were useful interrogators of the theoretical basis for practice.

Throughout the literature presented in this work, there is a tacit acceptance of the transition age. The researchers have not challenged this position though many of them did allude to the variation that exists within the population of special education students. This variation is a factor in many of the challenges that special education students experience, so that the past failure to give attention to this factor presents an opportunity for present research to fill this void.

As a proxy for age, Abbot & Heslop (2009) identified timing as an essential factor in the success of the transition program. While in their research timing was connected to multiple concepts, within the framework alluded…… [Read More]

References

Abbott, D., & Heslop, P. (2009). Out of sight, out of mind? Transition for young people with learning difficulties in out-of-area residential special schools and colleges. British Journal of Special Education, 36(1), 45-56.

Carter, E.W., Lane, K.L., Pierson, M.R., & Stang, K.K. (2008). Promoting self-determination for transition-age youth: Views of high school general and special educators. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 31(2), 115-125.

Guy, B.A., Sitlington, P.L., Larsen, M, D., & Frank, a.R. (2009). What are high schools offering as preparation for employment? Career Development for Exceptional

Individuals, 32(1), 30-41.