Sperm Essays (Examples)

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A R T Assisted Reproductive Technology Has

Words: 2838 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84395023

The majority of women can return to their normal routine the next day ("In Vitro Fertilization"). In most cases total bed rest is not required unless there is some risk associated with the development of OHSS ("In Vitro Fertilization").

The NIH further explains that women who utilize IVF must take the hormone progesterone for at least two months following the embryo transfer ("In Vitro Fertilization"). The hormone is taken through daily shots or pills. Progesterone is a naturaly produced hormone produced that assists in thickenign the lining of the uterus ("In Vitro Fertilization"). This thickening makes it easier for the embryo to implant to the wall of the uterus. If there is ot enough progesterone the woman will miscarry ("In Vitro Fertilization").

In additon to the risks associated with this type of reproductive technology, IVF is very expensive ("In Vitro Fertilization"). The NIH explains that many states require that insurance…… [Read More]

References

Becker, G. (2000). The Elusive Embryo: How Women and Men Approach New Reproductive Technologies. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Bleiklie, I., Goggin, M.L., & Rothmayr, C. (Eds.). (2003). Comparative Biomedical Policy: Governing Assisted Reproductive Technologies. London: Routledge. Retrieved Burfoot, a. (Ed.). (1999). Encyclopedia of Reproductive Technologies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

In Vitro Fertilization. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved March 18 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007279.htm

Sloan, G.A. (1993). Postponing Parenthood: The Effect of Age on Reproductive Potential. New York: Insight Books.
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Family Law Part Two the Following Is

Words: 2110 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51798723

Family Law, Part Two

The following is an overview of the various topics covered in Family Law, Part Two. The pertinent areas of discussion will be defined, explained, described, compared and contrasted in order to illustrate the information garnered from this segment of Family Law. Included is a description of the impact of the Child Support Enforcement and Establishment of Paternity Act of 1974 on state requirements in the area of child support. Also offered, in a section on spousal support, is a comparison and contrast of permanent alimony, lump-sum support, and rehabilitative support. Then, an explanation is presented regarding the significance of timing in the classification of property in the division of marital property. Additionally, a description of how the 1968 case of Levy vs. Louisiana significantly changed the legal status of children of unwed parents. Finally, the pros and cons of using a sperm bank for artificial insemination…… [Read More]

References

CSEA legislation annual report (2009, March 25). Retrieved December 12, 2012 from http://csea.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_CSEA/en-U.S./CSEA-legislationHistory032509.pdf

Kitzman, J. (no date). Classification of Property in Divorce: A Step-by-Step Guide with Cases.

Retrieved December 12, 2012 from  http://www.dklawyers.com/pubs/Classification.Manuscript.pdf 

Laws.com (2013). Children Laws. Retrieved December 12, 2012 from Laws.com website:
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Should Parents Be Allowed to Select the Sex of Their Baby

Words: 1674 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66052007

Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender?

THE TWO SIDES

Should Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender?

A revolutionary lab technique, called sperm sorting, can now establish the gender of an offspring (Mail Online, 2013). The sperm carries the sex chromosome of a future child and sorting involves choosing the desired sex chromosome and then inseminating a woman with it. Gender can also be selected by abortion and before the embryonic stage through IVF or in vitro fertilization. Gender selection has been the subject of much debate because of its many consequences (Mail Online).

Artificial insemination consists of inserting concentrated sperm into the uterus to achieve a greater chance of fertilization (Stephens, 2011). Other methods are used to choose the gender of the baby. One is by using a dye on the desired gender from the sperm and then returning the dyed cell into womb. The Ericsson…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dahl, E. (2003). Ethical issues in new uses of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis:

should parents be allowed to use pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to choose the sexual orientation of their children? Vol. 18 # 7, Human Reproduction. Retrieved on November 11, 2013 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12832358 

Knoppers, B.M. et al. (2006). Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis: an overview of socio-

ethical and legal considerations. Vol. 7, Annual Review of Genomic and Human
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Men vs Women

Words: 393 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33693996

Men vs. omen' -- Nonverbal communication and the egg meeting the sperm

One need look no father than the bookshelves that proclaim men are from Mars, omen are from Venus to see the point-of-view of Emily Martin advocated in her essay "The Egg and the Sperm: How Science Has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles." Although readers may like to think of science as objective in its categories, in fact, beginning a study by looking at men and women as the absolute categories of human sexual nature is itself biased, Martin suggests. The language of biological texts is equally as coded between activity and passivity, sperm vs. egg, just as subjective as the language that 'sees' certain planets as male or female.

Scientific language is human created, and it both affects and reflects the way we think about gender. Even in a female-created and directed study such as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gray, John. Men are from Mars, Women are From Venus. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.

Martin, Emily. (1991) "The Egg and the Sperm: How Science Has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles" Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 16 (3): 485-501.

Moore, Monica M. (1995) "Nonverbal Courtship Patterns in Women: Context and Consequences."
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Reproductive Counseling

Words: 1280 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31418744

eproductive Counseling

Studies have shown that the mean maternal age of motherhood has been increasing since 1980, which although may suit many modern careers and life styles, it puts women at a greater risk of declining fertility. The fundamental manifestation of ovarian aging is not just because of a decrease in the number of oocytes, but also because of a decline in its quality. Moreover, women of advanced maternal age are at a greater risk of developing aneuploidy in embryos. This contributes to their inability to bear a child by increasing both implantation loss and pregnancy failure. (Judy et al., 2012)

In Vitro Fertilization, IVF is one of the forms of assisted reproductive technology that enhances the chances of conception. In IVF, ovaries are stimulated to produce mature oocytes which are retrieved transvaginally under sonographic guidance. Oocyte retrieval is normally an outpatient procedure, performed with adequate analgesia. The sperm and…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

Adewumi, A., Etti, E., Tayo, A., Rabiyu, K., Akindele, R., Ottun, T., & Akinlusi, F. (2012). Factors associated with acceptability of child adoption as a management option for infertility among women in a developing country. International Journal of Women's Health, 5, 365-372. doi: Pubmed

Bauer, U. (2011, Nov). 2009 assisted reproductive technology. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/art/ART2009/PDF/ART_2009_Full.pdf

Echols, D.W. (2010, Feburary 19). The effects of oklahoma city law on surrogate motherhood and child custody. Retrieved from http://family-law.lawyers.com/child-custody/blogs/archives/3994-The-Effects-of-Oklahoma-City-Law-on-Surrogate-Motherhood-and-Child-Custody.html

Goldberg, J.M., Falcone, T., & Attran, M. (2007). In vitro fertilization update. Cleaveland Journal of Medicine, 74(5), 329-338. doi: 10.3949/ccjm.74.5.329
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Family Law

Words: 1844 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35355807

Mr. Smith deserves custody of Samantha Smith

In the hypothetical custodial and child support-related case of Smith v. Smith, Mr. Smith is suing for child support payments for Samantha Smith, a child whom is not biologically the natural child of either Mr. Or Mrs. Smith. However, as a result of in vitro parentage and surrogate pregnancy, Samantha became the child of both parents, to be raised as if she were biologically their child, according to an agreement both of them signed. During the first year of her life Samantha lived with both Mr. And Mrs. Smith. During the second two years of Samantha Smith's life she lived solely with Mr. Smith. These two years were marked by at first frequent and then sporadic visitation by Mrs. Smith.

Of course, the issue of child custody is a difficult one even in cases where reproductive technology is not involved. But in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Areen, Judith. (1999) Family Law: Cases and Materials. Fourth Edition. New York: Foundation Press.
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Gender and Science

Words: 840 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22706559

gender have influenced the historic development of science in the west, as reason and science have long been seen as male traits. Similarly, gender ideals such as the characterization of females as maternal, associated with nature, irrational, and week have been reflected in scientific literature. Today, science continues to be influenced by ideas of gender, as literature reflects gender biases, and female scientists routinely must challenge gender biases.

Many of the ideals the influence the historic development science come from the Enlightenment, a time during the 17th and 18th centuries where reason was seen to be a driving force for progress. Enlightened men were rational, and sought happiness, knowledge, and freedom. Given this emphasis on rationality, and the association of women with the home and emotion, women were largely excluded from the ideals of the Enlightenment. The rational affairs of humankind were thought to be left to men, who acted…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Martin, Emily. 1991. The egg and the sperm: How science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles. Signs 16:3, 485-501.

Schiebinger, Londa. 1993.

Why Mammals Are Called Mammals. In: Nature's Body: Gender in the Making of Modern Science. Beacon Press, 40-74.
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Gestational Surrogacy Even Though it

Words: 2181 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56425393



A also consider that a proper legislation should protect the surrogate mother, in order to avoid situations in which her rights would not be respected. Therefore, she should be paid her medical expenses and, as a sort of benefit for her act, she should be granted a free medical insurance and the right to free medical analyses. Moreover, the legislation should stipulate that the surrogate mother should be of the same nationality - American in this case - as the future parents, in order to avoid situations as those which occurred in the Indian women case, who have thought to have been abused, a thing they have accepted because of their poor material status.

All in all, it seems that gestational surrogacy is not among the best surrogacy practice, and this is because of the ethnic, legal and cultural misunderstandings it might generate. In addition, I consider it should be…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ciccarrelli, John K., and Janice C. Ciccarrelli. "The Legal Aspects of Parental Rights in Assisted." Journal of Social Issues 61 (2005): 127-137. Tufts Library. 17 Mar. 2007.

Baker, Brenda M. "A Case for Permitting Altruistic Surrogacy." Hypatia. Bloomington 11.2 (1996): 34. Alt-Press Watch. Tufts Library. 17 Mar. 2007. http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.library.tufts.edu/pqdweb?did=9766076&sid=1&Fmt=3&clien tId=28972&RQT=309&VName=PQD>.

Ciccarrelli, Janice C., and Linda J. Beckman. "Navigating Rough Waters: an Overview of Psychological Aspects of Surrogacy." Journal of Social Issues 61 (2005): 21-43. Tufts Library. 17 Mar. 2007.

Douglas, Carol Anne. "Women as Wombs." Off Our Backs Jan. 1994: 12. Alt-Press Watch. Tufts Library. 17 Mar. 2007, at http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.library.tufts.edu/pqdweb?did=592569041&sid=11&Fmt=3&clientId=28972&RQT=309&VName=PQD.
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Genetics Student Response Original DNA Strand 3'-T

Words: 799 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5067039

Genetics

Student esponse

Original DNA Strand:

3'-T ACCCTTTAGCCACT-5'

Transcription (base sequence of NA):

3'-A UGGGAAAUCGGUGA-5'

Translation (amino acid sequence):

Met -- Gly -- Asn -- His -- Arg -- STOP

Mutated gene sequence one:

3'-T ACGCTTTAGCCATT-5'

Transcription (base sequence of NA):

3'-A UGCGAAAUCGGUAA-5'

Translation (amino acid sequence):

Met -- Arg -- Asn -- His -- Arg -- STOP

Mutated gene sequence two:

3'-T AACCTTTACTAGGCACT-5'

Transcription (base sequence of NA):

3'-A UUGGAAAUGAUCCGUGA-5'

Translation (amino acid sequence):

Ile -- Gly -- Asn -- Asp -- Pro-STOP

What is the significance of the first and last codons of an mNA transcript?

The first codon ("Met") indicates the beginning of the transcription sequence. The last codon indicates the end of a protein sequence, which stops transcription.

Explanation:

Each protein sequence is coded with a starting and ending point, to indicate the length and type of the protein according to the sequence transcribed from the…… [Read More]

References

Bernstein, H., & Bernstein, C. (2010). Evolutionary Origin of Recombination during Meiosis. BioScience, 60(7), 498-505. doi:10.1525/bio.2010.60.7.5

Ding, D., Haraguchi, T., & Hiraoka, Y. (2010). From meiosis to postmeiotic events: Alignment and recognition of homologous chromosomes in meiosis. FEBS Journal, 277(3), 565-570. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2009.07501.x
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Genetics Original Gene Sequence 3'-T AC CC

Words: 724 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41406203

Genetics

Original Gene Sequence: 3'-T AC CC T. TT AGTAGCCAC T-5

Transcription of Original: 3'-A UG GG A AA UCAUCGGUG A-5'

Translation of Original: Start codon Met, Gly, Asn, His, Arg, Stop

Mutated Gene Sequence 1: 3'-T ACGCT TT AGTAGCCAT T-5'

Transcription of Mutated 1: 3'-A UGCGA AA UCAUCGGUA A-5'

Translation of Mutated 1: Start codon Met, Arg, Asn, His, Arg, Stop

Mutated Gene Sequence 2: 3'-T AACCT TT ACTAGGCAC T-5'

Transcription of Mutated 2: 3'-AUUGGAAAUGAUCCGUGA

Translation of Mutated 2: Ile, Gly, Asn, Asp, Pro, Stop

The first and last codons of the sequences are the start and stop codons respectively. The start codon indicates where transcription should begin. The stop codon indicates where transcription should end.

When a mutation occurs in the start codon, transcription will not be initiated and thus a protein will not be produced. When a mutation in the stop codon occurs sometimes the mutation will…… [Read More]

References:

Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J. (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition. New York: Garland Science.

Bailey, R. (2011). Sexual Reproduction: Fertilization. Retrieved January 10, 2011, from About.com website: http://biology.about.com/od/genetics/a/aa040805a.htm.

Campbell, N., Reece, J. (2002). Biology, 7/E. Pearson Education: Benjamin Cummings.

Schorderet-Slatkine, S., Huarte, J. (2008). Gametogenesis and gamete interaction during fertilization. Geneva: University Cantonal Hospital.
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Ethical Dilemmas Surround Surrogacy and the Donation

Words: 1670 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17607130

ethical dilemmas surround surrogacy and the donation of egg and/or sperm? Because surrogates are paid, is this a practice that exploits the poor, such as surrogate mothers in ndia? Why or Why not?

Egg donation and surrogacy raises ethical dilemmas on all four basic principles of medical ethics: autonomy, justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence.

Autonomy -- .

Consent has to be given freely and with full volition of the surrogate mother. Yet, most times, intense pressure is involved aside from the fact that poor women in ndia may capitulate to the need for money and be taken in by the huge sums offered. The emotional and medical pressures are immense, but these women are often grossly misinformed about the situation that they are bound to undergo. Their poverty hampers them from making the clear, informed decisions that they would otherwise need to in order to undergo the procedure. Whilst most egg…… [Read More]

International Journal of Health Services, 20, 373 -- 392

What Are the Ethical Concerns Regarding Egg Donation? http://www.stanford.edu/class/siw198q/websites/reprotech/New%20Ways%20of%20Making%20Babies/eggethic.htm

Perloe, M. (nd) Eight is Enough: Balancing the risks of advanced fertility treatment. Georgia Reproductive Specialists.  http://www.ivf.com/eightenough.html )
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Infertility the Inability to Naturally

Words: 2812 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40383504

However, proper treatment may restore fertility. During pregnancy, existing fibroids may grow at a greater pace due to the increased blood flow and estrogen levels but they usually return to their original size after delivery.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Definition & Cause: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a general term for infection of the lining of the uterus, the fallopian tubes. It is a very common disease and in the United States alone, nearly 1 million women develop PID each year and more than 100,000 women become infertile as a result of PID (NAID Fact sheet, 2005). It is caused in a majority of cases through sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia and gonorrhea but PID-causing bacteria may also cause infection through other means such as during childbirth, abortion, or IUD insertion.

Complications: PID can damage the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, and cervix, leading to chronic pelvic pain and serious damage…… [Read More]

References

Carson-DeWitt, R., and Odle, T.G. (2006). "Infertility.." The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Third Edition. Jacqueline L. Longe, Editor. 5 vols. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006.

Frequently Asked Questions About Infertility." (2006). American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.asrm.org/Patients/faqs.html

General Infertility FAQ." (2006). The InterNational Council on Infertility Information Dissemination (INCIID). Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.inciid.org/faq.php?cat=infertility101&id=1

Mallari, B. (2001). "Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome." 3 RX.com. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at  http://www.3-rx.com/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome/default.php
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Health Care and Ethics

Words: 2238 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4230402

oman Clings to Hope of Having Dead Fiancee's Baby

Today medical science is capable of things only imagined in the past. One of these possibilities stems from the technique of Invitro fertilization and cryobiology. It is now possible to freeze a man's sperm and impregnate a woman with it at some future time. This practice raises many ethical issues as far as the legal professions are concerned, primarily informed consent, ownership of the sperm and many other issues. However, it also raises issues for the medical profession as well. Now it is possible, but the primary question remains, should we? This research will examine the role of the nurse in relation to her ethical obligations and the moral issues imposed upon her concerning this tricky moral issue.

Recently a court case surface where a woman wants to have he fiancee's sperm inseminated into her in order to get pregnant with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ANCI. National Competency standards of the Registered Nurse. Domain: Professional and Ethical Practice. June, 2002. http://www.anci.org.au/codeofethics.htm. Accessed March,

Artificial Conception Act 1985 - Section 3 (1-3). http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/aca1985203/s3.html#procedure

Accessed March, 2003.

Davies, Julie-Ann. Sandy Plans to Win Her Race Against Life. The Age Newspaper. May 27,
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Rapid Movement of the Modern Age and

Words: 1803 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35043421

rapid movement of the modern age and the vast usage of technological equipment, it has become a constant question on whether radio frequencies are damaging to human health. Cell phones are known to emit relatively high doses of electromagnetic waves, which in some research, has been pinpointed to the adverse effect that it has on males, namely the issue on fertility. eports have been made indicating that cell phones might be another risk factor regarding the rise of male infertility due to its frequency emissions. While previous research has found no conclusive tie-ins to the phenomena, the latest technology and data have shown the contrary, though even this research is still subject to much scrutiny. Overall, there are too many variables to indicate that cell phones would be a main cause for male fertility, not without discussing the various other factors that help infertility along.

Male Infertility

Infertility as defined…… [Read More]

Resources

Agarwal, Ashok, Deepinder, Fnu, Makker, Kartikeya. "Cell Phones and Male Infertility: Dissecting the Relationship." Reproductive BioMedicine Online 15.3 (2007): 266-70. RBM Online. Web. 5 Mar. 2011. .

De Iuliis, Geoffry N., Rhiannon J. Newey, Bruce V. King, and R. John Aitken. "Mobile Phone Radiation Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production and DNA Damage in Human Spermatozoa In Vitro." PLoS ONE. 31 July 2009. Web. 05 Mar. 2011. .

Wdowiak, Artur, Leszek Wdowiak, and Henryk Wiktor. "Evaluation of the Effect of Using Mobile Phones on Male Fertility." Ann Agric Environ Med 14 (2007): 169-72. Web. 5 Mar. 2011. .
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Genetics What Parents Do Not

Words: 1228 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87581812

With recessive genes (in which both mother and father have to contribute a 'positive' set of the same genes) are designed to work in precisely the same way that hemophilia does: One out of four offspring (on average) will have the condition, two will be carriers, and one will be neither sick nor a carrier.

Klinefelter's syndrome, on the other hand, arises from a mechanical mistake that occurs on the genetic level during the process of the way in which egg and sperm come together to create a genetically whole zygote/fetus/baby. Under normal genetic conditions, an egg brings half of the needed genetic material to an individual. This female contribution is referred to as the X chromosome. Sperm, which also contribute half of an individual's genetic material, can be either X or Y in terms of chromosomal type. An X sperm combines with the X chromosome of an egg to…… [Read More]

References

Klinefelter syndrome (2007).

http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/klinefelter_syndrome.cfm

Samango-Sprouse, C.A. (2010). Expansion of the phenotypic profile of the young child with XXY. Pediatric endocrinology reviews, 160-68.

Simm, P.J. & Zacharin, M.R. (April 2006). The psychosocial impact of Klinefelter syndrome: A 10-year review. Journal of pediatric endocrinolgy and metabolism 19(4), 499 -- 505.
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Prequel to the Movie 28 Days Later by Danny Boyle

Words: 1984 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23923252

Chromosomal Abnormality: Down Syndrome

Down Syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality which is accompanied by both serious physical and mental developmental problems, and it is one of the most common genetic syndromes. According to Rebecca Saenz (1999), Down Syndrome occurs in one out of every 800 to 1,000 live births, which is an extremely high rate of incidence. This disorder occurs equally among both boys and girls. There are several genetic occurrences that can cause Down Syndrome to appear in a child, but all of them lead to the same chromosomal abnormality. An extra chromosome, which is the unit of genetic information that exists within each cell, appears in the genetic code of the affected person. When a baby is normally conceived, the egg cell of the mother and the sperm cell of the father each contribute 23 chromosomes to the genetic makeup of the child. In some cases, there may…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bower, B. "Disabilities develop as family affair." Science News. Nov. 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1200/18_160/80344963/p1/article.jhtml

Carson-DeWitt, Rosalyn. "Down syndrome." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/g2601/0004/2601000443/p1/article.jhtml

Mayor, Susan. "Parents of people with Down's syndrome report suboptimal care." British Medical Journal. Mar. 1999. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0999/7185_318/54342406/p1/article.jhtml

Saenz, Rebecca. "Primary Care of Infants and Young Children with Down Syndrome." American Family Physician. Jan. 1999. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m3225/2_59/53730237/p1/article.jhtml
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Turner Syndrome Date Month and

Words: 2711 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46933163

Particularly, the risks of diverse neoplasms have been seen to be raised in Turner Syndrome is quite low quantum, however, except for gut cancer and gonaboblastoma in patients having occult Y chromosome sequences. (Cabanas; Garcia-Caballero; Barreiro; Castro-Feijoo; Gallego; Arevalo; Canete; Pombo, 2005)

Additionally, there appear to have no prior indication of the relationship between the Turner Syndrome and papillary thyroid carcinoma, irrespective of the fact that there has been one report of an anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a TS patient in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Several epidemiological studies and studies relating to exhaustive long-term monitoring of GH-associated patients have been seen to have benefited therapeutically from GH treatment and found to be safe having no detectable effect on risk of cancer. But the current studies have shown a probable relationship between GH-IGF axis and the pathogenesis of neoplasms. The study on papillary thyroid carcinoma after GH therapy for Turner Syndrome…… [Read More]

References

Cabanas, P; Garcia-Caballero, T; Barreiro, J; Castro-Feijoo, L; Gallego, R; Arevalo, T;

Canete; R; Pombo, M. (2005) "Papillary thyroid carcinoma after recombinant GH therapy for Turner syndrome" European Journal of Endocrinology. Vol: 153; No: 4; pp: 499-502

Dowshen, Steven. (2005) "Turner Syndrome" Retrieved at http://www.kidshealth.org/teen/diseases_conditions/genetic/turner.html. Accessed 8 November, 2006

Gordon, John D; Lebovic, Dan I; Taylor, Robert N. (2005) "Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility: Handbook for Clinicians" Scrub Hill Press, Inc.
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Vitro' Fertilization Is One of the Applications

Words: 1218 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81617249

Vitro' fertilization is one of the applications of advanced technology that provides a solution to infertility among couples. The practice has long been in existence, and many referred to offspring of couples who have undergone this process, 'test tube babies.' In vitro ('in glass') fertilization is only one of the many treatments for infertility. The general term by which in vitro can be identified is through artificial insemination, wherein semen taken from the woman's partner or male donor is "injected" into a woman's uterus. In the technique of in vitro fertilization, however, "eggs are removed from a woman's ovaries and fertilized in a laboratory dish with her partner's sperm" (Dmowski 1991 265).

There are several reasons why infertility happens, and indications that show that a couple needs to undergo an in vitro treatment. Infertility may be due to either the man or the woman's infertility. A man becomes infertile when…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dmowski, Paul. "Infertility." World Book Encyclopedia Vol 10. USA: World Book Inc. 1991.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): "Test Tube Babies." 2001. Fertility Confidential Webpage. 10 June 2002 http://www.fertilityconfidential.com/fertilityconfidential/infertility/conventional/ivf.cfm.

IVF Program. 2000. South Jersey Fertility Center Webpage. 10 June 2002 http://www.sjfert.com/assisted_reproductive_Programs.html.

Williamson, Miryam. "Waiting Longer to Get Pregnant: The Advantages and Disadvantages for Women." 6 November 2000. Rockhill Communications. Laurus Health News Feature. 10 June 2002 http://www.laurushealth.com/HealthNews/HealthNewsFeature/hnf1110600.htm.
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Scrimshaw

Words: 2856 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27916028

Scrimshaw: As History and Currency of a Bygone Era

The art of Scrimshaw is an art of idle hands. Scrimshaw, as we know it today dates back to the early part of the nineteenth century. Sailors on long idle whaling expeditions would use the leavings of the hunt to create art. haling required many more crew than was actually needed to man the ship, as the animal required many men to finish the kill once it was injured and also many to ground it, bring it on board or on shore and hundreds sometimes to quickly finish the butchering and harvest. (Paszkiewicz 1)

haling was even seen as a punishment for young evil doers and in that way

Scrimshaw could be compared at least somewhat to prison art, probably its closest folk art neighbor. "haling, after all, was better than most systems of peonage that flourish to-day, for it released…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dunkelman, Mark H. Gettysburg's Unknown Soldier: The Life, Death, and Celebrity of Amos Humiston. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999.

This is the biographical interpretation of the life of the famous civil war soldier

Amos Humiston. The importance of the work for this application is in regard to Humiston's life aboard the whaling ship Harrison prior to his service in the civil war. It chronicles the life of a novice whaler and also the fascinating history of a Gettysburg celebrity.

Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783-1860. Boston; New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1921.
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Timing and Principle Characteristics of Developing Female

Words: 1228 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41992603

Timing and Principle Characteristics of Developing Female and Male Germ Cells From Differentiation in Early Embryo to Point of Fertilization

Principle Characteristics Male and Female Germ Cells

The female and male germ cells are reproductive cells that fuse with one another during fertilization (Encarta, 2005; Burfoot, 1999). Each possesses unique characteristics and molecular structure during the prefertilization phase of development and post fertilization. These characteristics are influenced by the production of various hormones in the male and female body.

Fertilization occurs when the materials from two gametes come together to form an embryo. The female gamete is often referred to as the egg or female germ cell whereas the male gamete is often referred to as sperm or the male germ cells (Encarta, 2005; Burfoot, 1999). Developing female germ cells are generally large and contain nutrient reserves including what is referred to as the egg 'yolk' or sometimes white and…… [Read More]

References:

AUA. (2005). "Management of male infertility." American Urology Association,

Available: http://www.urologyhealth.org/adult/index.cfm?cat=11& topic=129

Burfoot, Annette. (1999). Encycolopedia of Reproductive Technologies. Boulder:

Westview Press.
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Hermaphrodite Is an Organism in Which a

Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63693030

Hermaphrodite is an organism in which a single individual has both male and female gametes. Many plants and some animals are naturally hermaphroditic and can self-fertilize and reproduce themselves from a single organism. (Omoto & Lurquin, 2004, p. 209) While some species actually reproduce asexually, such as single celled organisms and other creatures, this is not the same as being hermaphrodite. There are benefits to the species in some sense in being able to self-fertilize and reproduce in this way. Sexual reproduction in effects cuts the population's growth rate in half. Only females produce offspring, not males. If half the population is male, then the speed of population growth is half that of an all-female population. An all-female species can quickly out produce a male/female species, allowing an all-female species to survive in high mortality habitats where a male/female species can't succeed. This result is also true in hermaphrodite species,…… [Read More]

References

Corazza, E. (2004). Reflecting the Mind: Indexicality and Quasi-Indexicality. Oxford: Clarendon Press

Dreger, A.D. (1998). Hermaphrodites and the Medical Invention of Sex. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hope, Ian A. (1999) C. elegans: a practical approach. London: Oxford University Press.

Kaplan, J. (2006). Misinformation, Misrepresentation and Misuse of Human Behavioral Genetics Research. Law and Contemporary Problems, 69(1-2), 47-59.
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Rebecca Dresser and John Robertson

Words: 1698 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39649138

I do not believe that wearing glasses or make-up is wrong, even though this is an enhancement of the human body by improving one's life by being able to see, or covering blemishes and unsightly birthmarks that might make an individual self-conscious. Is selecting the best sperm donor really so much different than a man or a woman basing his or her choice of a mate upon that individual's appearance, intelligence, and lack of unpleasant 'skeletons' in the genetic closet? Svaulescu's idea that one has a moral obligation to screen for genetic defects or to personally improve the human race through reproduction makes one queasy, but the idea of leaving everything up to nature, in theory, would mean an end of folic acid for pregnant women or even birth control.

But really, the ultimate argument for allowing patients to attempt to engineer their offspring by selecting 'better sperm' may be…… [Read More]

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Biology Blake the Features and

Words: 583 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51100741

Instead, it depends on pollination. Pollination refers to the process where the male gametophyte, in the form of pollen, travels to the female gametophyte, in the form of the seed. The pollen can travel over a much greater distance than sperm. This ability to disperse is important and reduces the requirement for water. In saying this, it must be noted that when the male part is in the form of sperm, it requires water. This is partly because the sperm does not have any vascular tissue. This is also because the sperm's only form of movement is swimming, which clearly requires water. For terrestrial plants then, not having water is a major problem. Having a seed and pollen solves this problem and makes dispersal without water possible.

Pollination then occurs when a pollen grain reaches a seed and passes through its micropyle, a tiny hole in the seed covering present…… [Read More]

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Earthworm Dissection Phylum Annelida Is

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63095956



Earthworms are hermaphrodites since they can generate both sperm and eggs. Mating involves 2 earthworms inseminating each other where sperms are exchanged. The male and female sexual cavities are located near the clitellum. They connect the lower ends of their anteriors with heads positioned in reverse directions. Mucous secreted joins the openings with slime. Sperm is pushed into the longitudinal channels formed by the mucous. They reach the sperm receptacles of their partner, which then break apart. Laying of the eggs and fertilization follows ("Native Australian," 2006)

The circulatory system is constituted of the heart, blood and blood vessels. It is needed to distribute nutrition to different areas in the body and is of two types -- open and closed. An open circulatory system (used by earthworms) is the simpler of the two where the heart drives blood into open spaces. The organs and tissues in the body are soaked…… [Read More]

References

n.a.(n.d.) Earthworm. Retrieved from http://animals.howstuffworks.com/worms/earthworm-info.htm

Sherwood, R. (2010, May 25) How many hearts does an earthworm have?. Retrieved from  http://www.ehow.com/about_4597386_many-hearts-earthworm-have_.html 

n.a.(2006, Feb 19) Native Australian Earthworms. Retrieved from http://www.wormdigest.org/content/view/209/2/

Higgins, J.(2010, June 6) Difference Between a Closed & Open Circulatory System. Retrieved from  http://www.ehow.com/about_6594843_difference-closed-open-circulatory-system.html
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Precis on the Book Myth Literature and the African World by Wole Soyinka

Words: 2403 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6890626

Multiculturalism

Myth, Literature, and the African World

The book Myth, Literature, and the African World, was published in 1976, twenty years before the author, Wole Soyinka, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.

In his Preface, he clearly wants to convey that African academia has created a kind of "intellectual bondage and self-betrayal" by not facing up to truths about the fact that African literature must not be merely "an appendage of English literature." This was written twenty-eight years ago, of course, and because the instructions ask that "only this reference" be used, one cannot know if indeed African universities now have a section for "Comparative Literature" -- which would presumably allow for the inclusion of literature about Africa, by Africans. And that literature would, hopefully, be reflective of what African cultures were like during the continent was dominated by European colonial powers -- something that Soyinka clearly would like…… [Read More]

Reference

Soyinka, Wole. Myth, Literature and the African World. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press, 1976.

. Wole Soyinka, Myth, Literature and the African World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), ix.
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Stem Cell Genome Reparations

Words: 2991 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18920097

Human Genome, Stem Cells, & Reparations

Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because they can replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell to develop into any of the 220 cell types that make up the human body makes it a powerful tool for biological research and medicine. Scientists believe that stem cell research has the potential of leading to previously incurable diseases.

How are Stem Cells Formed?

When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, a zygote (fertilized egg) is formed. The zygote divides itself almost immediately to form stem cells. These unspecialized stem cells have the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells…… [Read More]

James Harper. "About Reparations." [available online] at http://www.blackvoices.com/feature/reparations/trial/

Peter Viles. "Suit Seeks Billions in Slave Reparations." [Available online] at  http://www.cnn.com/2002/LAW/03/26/slavery.reparations/index.html 

Research Issues
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Morality of Cloning in Her Book Discovering

Words: 3583 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99058078

Morality of Cloning

In her book "Discovering Right and Wrong," Louis Pojman consistently makes the same point throughout her chapters: beyond all the debate and lack of consensus, and beyond all the confusion of relative morality, there should exist a true objective standard which a rational being can discover. In all her writing she seems to challenge the readers to look for objective evidence of truth, a plea which often has much in common with a more conservative position on politics and morality. When it comes to the issue of cloning, however, it seems that the search for rational objective evidence is frequently put aside in favor of often illogical "gut reactions." It is high time that a truly reasonable approach to cloning was attempted. In order to best approach this from an objectivist standpoint, it seems reasonable to backtrack to one of the founding fathers of modern objectivism, Immanual…… [Read More]

Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 129.

Christopher bard quoted in: Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 126.

Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 127
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Stem Cell Stems Cells Are

Words: 1836 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12906512



eferences

Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of eligion and Public Life 25+.

Patel, K., & ushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.

Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982

Shapiro, .S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell esearch Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.

Stem Cell Basics." (2006). Stem Cell Information from the National Institute of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/

Wagner, C.G. (2007, January/February). Values Conflicts in Stem-Cell esearch: Governments Struggle with Bioethical Issues. The Futurist, 41, 8+.

Precursor cells are also known as pluripotent cells, i.e., having the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells that make…… [Read More]

References

Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 25+.

Patel, K., & Rushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.

Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. Retrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982

Shapiro, R.S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.
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Controversial Bioethical Issues of the

Words: 1788 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3993568

Chimpanzees and gorillas can be taught human sign language, and sign with one another even without humans present. (MMMC, 2002) They argue that to use intelligence and compassion as a sliding scale of the right to life would cause many humans to be justified out of existence.

However, even if one accepts that too many animals are experimented upon, and researchers should use other means, it is similarly hard to justify the elimination of all animal experimentation, altogether, as this would have meant the end of such recent drug developments in AIDS research, as well as more questionable animal tests, as for instance, the use of rabbits in cosmetic testing, for which there are acceptable substitutes that do not require animals.

orks Cited

Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php

BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q &…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php

BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q & A: Cloned Embryos." BBC Official Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3481159.stm

Bird, Gloria W. And Sporkowuski, Michael J. (1992) Taking Sides. The Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. Guilford, CT.

CNN.com. (Feb 12, 2004)" Scientists 'cloned human embryos' CNN News Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/02/12/science.clone/
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Women With Infertility Want Registered

Words: 1200 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33430357



2. Sociocultural needs. The study by Gibson and Myers examined the relationships among social coping resources, growth-fostering relationships, and infertility stress in 83 women who participated in fertility treatments at urban medical clinics. The findings of their study suggest that both social coping resources and growth-fostering relationships contribute significantly to the variance in infertility stress, with infertility stress decreasing as social coping resources increase; these findings are congruent with the findings of earlier research on the positive effects of social coping on emotional health, particularly as they concern infertile women. In addition, Gibson and Myers found that partner support and family support contribute significantly to the prediction of the variance in infertility stress. "Based on these results," they say, "it is clear that family and partner supports are very important coping resources for women coping with infertility stress" (emphasis added) (p. 69).

3. Biological needs. While the psychosocial and sociocultural…… [Read More]

References

Atwood, J.D., & Dobkin, S. (1992). Storm clouds are coming: Ways to help reconstruct the crisis of infertility. Contemporary Family Therapy, 14, 385-403.

Daniluk, J.C. (2001). Reconstructing Their Lives: A Longitudinal, Qualitative Analysis of the Transition to Biological Childlessness for Infertile Couples. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 439.

Gibson, D.M., & Myers, J.E. (2002). The Effect of Social Coping Resources and Growth- Fostering Relationships on Infertility Stress in Women. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(1), 68.

Men and Women React Differently. (1993). USA Today, 122(2581), 14.
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Assisted Reproductive Technologies Science Has

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87811639

But if you want a baby badly enough, you will do it" (The Women's Health Council). Women are subjected to a wide range of drugs which have harmful side effects. Some drugs induced to facilitate ovulation have also caused infertility in the male child. When women are put through the consumption of such drugs, the chances of multiple births increases, thus the woman gives birth to twins, triplets or even more.

In 2000, 53% of infants born through AT were multiple births, compared to 3% of births in the general population. The twin rate was 22 times higher than the general population; the triplet and higher multiples rate was 50 times higher. Their higher risk for birth defects and low birth weight add to already over-burdened health care costs." (Marie Anderson and John Bruchalski)

Many couples cannot afford to bring up more than one child at a time and hence…… [Read More]

References

1) Tomorrow's Child - Plot Synopsis [online website] Available at http://www.vh1.com/movies/movie/35838/plot.jhtml[Accessed on: 07/09/2005]

2) Magisterium of the Catholic Church. Instruction on respect for human life in its origin and on the dignity of procreation: replies to certain questions of the day (22 February 1987), Vatican City.

3) Steinbock B. Life before birth: the moral and legal status of embryos and fetuses. New York, Oxford University Press, 1992. Pages: 59-71.

4) Claudia Kalb with Karen Springen - "Brave New Babies" [online website] Available at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3990134/site/newsweek/[Accessed on 07/09/2005]
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Obesity Late Obesity in Florida Obesity Refers

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12413392

Obesity

Late Obesity

Obesity in Florida

Obesity refers to when a person has more weight than it is required by his height. Excessive fats are being gathered in the body parts in a condition. It has a number of adverse effects. It has been increasing in the various countries over the recent years. Physical training and diet are done in order to prevent obesity. Sugar and fat free products are to be consumed for proper dieting (Murphy, 2012).

What facilitates obesity?

Eating a lot of junk food

Unhealthy items available in nearby markets

Lack of exercises and physical activities.

Florida ranks 27 in state ranking according to the obesity. The obesity rate in Florida is 26.1%. The percentage of males having obesity is 73.6% and the number of females having obesity is 56.5% from 2008-2010 the percentage of average adult having obesity was 26.1% and the percentage of adults who…… [Read More]

References

Murphy, W. (2012). Obesity. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books.

Nies, M.A., & McEwen, M. (2011). Community/Public Health Nursing. St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier/Saunders.
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Personhood Debate vs IVF in

Words: 2253 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71572460

Additionally, the utilitarian position presents the advantage of objectively quantifying the interests of everyone affected by the decision, for the sole purpose of promoting common welfare. Thus, harvesting, fertilizing, genetically screening, implanting and researching human embryos at the risk of damaging or destroying them - is entirely justified from this perspective, and any progressive endeavor is encouraged.

Nevertheless, this approach might involuntarily discourage many IVF clients as it appears to be too rigid and provides them with little autonomy in making decisions regarding their own embryos. Interestingly, a utilitarian might not even support IVF treatment, due to the risks involved in the whole process - namely a large financial loss if the process should fail -, an therefore it is uncertain whether or not this infertility treatment would meet the Utilitarian requirements of avoiding pain and creating the most amount of happiness; there might be a lot of future un-happiness…… [Read More]

References

Balasubramanian, J. And Narayanan, N. "Assisted Reproductive Technology: life cycle of reproduction." Discovery Life Journal, Vol. 3 No. 9, March 2013:13-16.

Beauchamp T.L. And Childress, J.F. Principles of Biomedical Ethics (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Botkin, J.R. "Ethical Issues and Practical Problems in Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis." In Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 16 (1998): 17-28.

Kolata, G. "Robert G. Edwards Dies at 87; Changed Rules of Conception With First 'Test Tube Baby'." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 10 Apr. 2013. Web. 4 June 2013. Available: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/11/us/robert-g-edwards-nobel-winner-for-in-vitro-fertilization-dies-at-87.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.
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Women's Biology Review and Critique of a

Words: 1954 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43259632

Women's Biology

Review and critique of a current article relating to women's biology

How Emergency Contraception Works to Prevent Pregnancy

Emergency contraceptives are drugs used to prevent pregnancy after women indulges in unprotected sex. There is a slight difference between birth control methods and use of contraceptives in preventing unplanned pregnancy. It is significant for women and men to learn and choose the appropriate method that guarantees their well-being. Use of contraceptives prevent fertilization of the ovum, while as birth control pills prevents pregnancy, and includes use of contraceptives such as, IUDs, sterilization, and abortion. This article reviews the health effects of various emergency contraceptives on female reproductive functions. The author argues that limited knowledge about Emergency contraceptive contributes to its overuse or its underuse and enhanced knowledge could trigger development of new ways, maximize use of current methods and increase acceptability of emergency contraceptives (Berger, 2012).

Review of the…… [Read More]

From: http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/population-groups/women/reviews/our-review

Ries, N.M. & Tigerstrom, B. (2010). Roadblocks to laws for healthy eating and activity,"

Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 182, no. 7, pp. 687 -- 692
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Biological Psychology

Words: 1127 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81446152

Biological Psychology

Grade Course

Moss sex driven by scent by Gisela Telis (2012).

Mating is a natural process observed in every living thing in its own unique way. While worms can reproduce in the opposite head position, the sexual intercourse between humans is completely a different phenomenon. A similar yet different reproduction method is used by the Mosses. The article written by Gisela Telis (2012) demonstrates the recent findings on the innovative mating procedure of the Mosses. The article also compares the recent findings with the earlier studies done in previous years and is related to the field of biological psychology as it focuses upon plant evolution and the idea of pheromones.

Telis (2012) has found out that Mosses require help from tiny little creatures to play an important role in their mating procedure. Earlier it was observed and widely believed that Mosses reproduce by wind and water. In essence,…… [Read More]

References

Telis, G. (2004, July 18). Moss sex driven by scent. Science AAAS. Retrieved 21st July, 2012 from http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/07/moss-sex-driven-by-scent.html?ref=hp

Williams R. (2012). Mairjuana reveals memory mechanism. Scientific American Mind, No. 45.
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Genetics Study of Biological Information

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42968352

The information is then transcribed into the traits and phenotypes of the offspring depending on the dominance and recessive alleles within the gene (erg, Tymoczko, & Stryer, n.d). The egg is fertilized by the sperm from the mother and their nuclei fuses together to form a zygote. The zygote contains 23 chromosomes from the mother and 23 from the father. From this combination of genes and the environmental conditions of the uterus, the traits and phenotypes of the individual are determined.

The principle of segregation for all organisms is as follows:

1. Hereditary traits are determined by specific genes. In the DNA molecule, genes are coded to specify a certain, single characteristic; this includes height, weight, eye color, etc. Any variations of the gene that correlates to the same trait are called alleles.

2. Individuals carry two genes for each trait, one from the mother's egg and one from the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alberts, Johnson, Lewis, Raff, Roberts, & Walter. n.d. "Molecular Biology of the Cell." 4th edition. Retrieved on May 7, 2010 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=mboc4&part=A592

Berg, J.; Tymoczko, J.; & Stryer, L.; n.d. "DNA, RNA, and the Flow of Genetic Information." Biochemistry, 5th edition. Retrieved on May 7, 2010 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=stryer&part=A621

"Gene School" 2010. Retrieved on May 7, 2010 from http://library.thinkquest.org/19037/heredity.html

"Genetics: Elementary Human Genetics." 2010. Retrieved on May 7, 2010 from http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/parta/paper1knowledge/2_diseasecausationdiagnostic/2d_Genetics/2d1.asp
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Non Surgical Sterilization of the

Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5393951



Varied Perspectives on Non-Surgical Sterilization Methods:

There have been varied perspectives on the use of non-surgical sterilization of the dog since these products do not entirely solve the problem of the overpopulation of dogs and cats. Additionally, the varied perspectives and arguments on the use of these methods have also been due to the fact that some people don't care since they want to breed their animals. Given that there is no secure and effective non-surgical sterilization method of the dog that has been identified and announced, the varied perspectives have continued to increase. However, there have been various approaches to identify non-surgical products though none of the products have shown tremendous results to be widely adopted and implemented (Bowen, 2006).

One of the major perspectives has been against the non-surgical sterilization of the dog since the methods that have been explored have not only been ineffective but have also…… [Read More]

References:

Bowen, R. (2006, April 25). Nonsurgical Sterilization of Dogs and Cats. Retrieved Colorado

State University website:  http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/petpop/nonsurg.html 

Singer, J. (2010, January 13). Non-Surgical Pet Population Control: A Godsend or Nightmare.

Retrieved November 16, 2010, from http://www.petside.com/petsideblog/2010/01/non-surgical-pet-population-co.php
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Leadership Leaders Are Often Put

Words: 348 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47598254

The wife may wish the hospital to do something very important to her, but it is certainly not the hospital's obligation to follow those wishes. The administrator must, in this situation, weight the interests of the organization above those of the individual making the request. It must always be remembered to whom the duty of care is owed. In this case, that is the hospital. The leader may ultimately make this decision on the basis of reducing legal risk to the hospital, but the true leadership is in the rendering of that decision in such a way that all stakeholders, even the ones with the most to lose by the decision, feel confident in the person's ability to make the decision. Thus, the leader here will likely decide not to allow the posthumous sperm removal and must show strength and clarity in announcing this decision to the stakeholders in order…… [Read More]

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Human Reproductive Health and Sexuality

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94387018

Ideally, the diaphragm is used with contraceptive agents to increase effectiveness. The male condom covers the entire penis to prevent any sperm from entering the female after ejaculation. The female condom works on the same principle, only instead of fitting around the penis, it is designed to line the inside of the vagina where it is intended to perform the same function (Taylor, Lillis, & LeMone, 2005).

Chemical contraception includes oral birth control pills, most of which contain various combinations of estrogen-based hormones designed to inhibit ovulation. Other forms of chemical contraception include skin patches and subcutaneous implants that perform the same essential function as oral contraception except directly through the circulatory system. Similarly, injectable contraceptives such as Depo-Provera eliminate the need for oral pills as well as for estrogen because Depo-Provera uses progestin instead of estrogen, which is safer for many women and associated with fewer side effects. Generally,…… [Read More]

References:

Taylor, C., Lillis, C., LeMone, P. (2005). Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science

of Nursing Care. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.
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Embryo Ovum Donation Embryo and

Words: 2884 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14958180

A range of side effects has been reported in donors undergoing all of the above. Donation also makes demands on a donor's time, energy, and emotions. (Burfoot, 1999, p. 269)

For women who are receiving IVF, with their own Ova these side effects and ensuing risks are likely to be palatable, as the lasting effect if all goes well is a full term healthy child. For Ova donors the incentive of a pure, altruistic act might not be enough to allow her to make a discernible decision of sacrifice vs. reward, and this would likely be particularly true in the case of young women, who are less likely to have experience with infertility and who relatively recently experienced the hormonal turmoil of puberty, which is comparatively minor, as noted by some, to the artificial hormonal syncing and stimulating that occurs prior to Ovum retrieval. Ehrensaft stresses throughout her work that…… [Read More]

References

Bender, L. (2003). Genes, Parents, and Assisted Reproductive Technologies: Arts, Mistakes, Sex, Race, & Law. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, 12(1), 1.

Burfoot, a. (Ed.). (1999). Encyclopedia of Reproductive Technologies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Embryo Adoption on Increase; Donors Help Other Infertile Couples Build Families. (2006, November 29). The Washington Times, p. A03.

Ehrensaft, D. (2005) Mommies, daddies, donors, surrogates: answering tough questions and building strong families. New York: Guilford Press.
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Speech on the Benefits of

Words: 1420 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1325449



Since the war in Iraq, thousands of American soldiers have been injured, and some of them paralyzed by explosions that shattered their spinal columns.

Traumatic paralysis is often irreversible because the network of nerves in the human spinal cord cannot repair themselves when they are badly damaged.

Applications of cloning technology will allow us to grow new nerve tissue for implantation into damaged spinal cords to restore their functions (Sagan, 1997).

Seventh Point - Cloned Human Organs Can Save Thousands of Lives Every Year:

Medical applications of cloning technology already allows doctors to grow human skin for burn victims.

The exact same technology will allow us to make human organs by actually cloning the cells from the same person to make replacement organs (Soares, 2002).

This means an end to long waiting lists for donor organs and will make the difference between life and death for thousands of people every…… [Read More]

References

Krock, L. (2001) on Human Cloning: Three Views. (NOVA/PBSonline)

Accessed November 1, 2007 at www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/cloning.html

Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. Random House: New York

Soares, C. Why Human Clones Won't Work Yet. Discover (Jan/02)
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Bark Scorpions of the Southwest

Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 709088

Also, much to the distress of many homeowners (where bark scorpions also make their homes) "the bark scorpion is also one of relatively few species that are able climbers" (Gouge et.al, 2007). Because of their small size, the Bark Scorpion is sometimes called the Home Scorpion, because it is the species most commonly found in infested homes.

Another annoying feature of the pest for humans is that scorpions are immune to most pesticides. Exterminators are necessary to control them within human structures, often using the species' glow under the glare of UV light to spot them (Hedding, 2007). Furthermore, the Bark Scorpion's sociability makes the scorpion more prolific. "Scorpions have a complex mating ritual in which the male uses his pedipalps to grasp the female's pedipalps...The sperm from the male is contained within a structure called a spermatophore, which is deposited by the male on a surface over which the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bark Scorpion." Insects, Spiders, and Scorpions. Arizona Highways Magazine. 2005.

http://www.arizonahighways.com/custom.cfm?name=c_nature.cfm&secid=32&id=125

Gouge, Dawn H. & Kirk a. Smith, Carl Olson, Paul Baker. "Scorpions."

Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences: The University of Arizona. 2007. [8 Apr 2007]
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Jellyfish Are Marine Invertebrates Which

Words: 3078 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29181795

.. provide nourishment for the small organisms on which jellyfish feed. In waters where there is eutrophication, low oxygen levels often result, favoring jellyfish as they thrive in less oxygen-rich water than fish can tolerate. The fact is that jellyfish are increasing is a symptom of something happening in the ecosystem."

Researchers have been the ones that have as well contended that in some arias, such as the Gulf of Mexico or the Adriatic Sea, jellyfish have taken the role of fish, the former animals' number being far greater than the one of the latter's, and this can be as well put on the intensity with which the human intervene in the nature's life. Moreover, it has been observed that in the above-mentioned areas jellyfish have formed a sort of "gelatinous cover" of the water. In my opinion, this might be the reason for which during many years, Jelly researchers…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Pieribone, V. And D.F. Gruber, Aglow in the Dark: The Revolutionary Science of Biofluorescence. Harvard University Press, 2006, 288p;

Jacobson, Morris, Wonders of Jellyfish. New York: Dodd Mead, 1978

Jellyfish - Sea Science Series, at http://www.dnr.sc.gov/marine/pub/seascience/jellyfi.html

Kyle McGilligan Bentin, "Jellyfish up close," at http://danenet.wicip.org/mmsd-it/jellyfish.html
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Ethics Behind Stem Cell Research

Words: 1818 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74121630

Do patients understand what it means to donate tissue to science? Not only that, but use of EG cells confuses stem cell research with the debate over abortion, bring up the risk of biasing emotions (McDonald 7).

So, while stem cell research is an exciting new field that holds much promise, ethical problems arise to delay research, discovery of benefits or dangers, and involve many who have no knowledge of the complexities of the field. Though controversies usually accompany new discoveries in science, this biotechnological process involves manipulating the basis of life itself in embryonic stem cells. But the field is rapidly changing. hat is true today may be outmoded tomorrow. A neutral substitute for stem cells may be discovered that will prove to be the answer to these ethical questions.

orks Cited

Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil Steril 2004; 82:Suppl 1:S240-S244.

Hwang, W.S., Roh, S.I., Lee, B.C., et al. -- Patient-specific embryonic stem cells derived from human SNCT blastocysts." Science 2005;308.

Magnus, David and Cho, Mildred K. "Issues in oocyte donation for stem cell research." Science Express Magazine, Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics and Department of Pediatrics, Vol. 308. no. 5729, June 2005. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/308/5729/1747.

McDonald, Chris. "Stem cells: a pluripotent challenge." BioScan Vol. 13, Iss. 4, (Toronto Biotechnology Initiative.) Fall 2001.
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Vitamin E Can Be Useful

Words: 1665 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11279613

These research findings were very significant because all the men who were studied in this were smokers. The researchers of this study admitted that vitamin E surely reduces the risk of prostate cancer. This study was used in a relatively low dose of 50 IU of the prostate but higher dose of 400 IU does have a greater benefit to the heart and prostate. (Challem, 37) Further a study published in the Journal Nutrition and Cancer 2000 states that natural vitamin E or d-alpha-tocopherol arrests the growth of the two types of prostate cancer cells and causes these cells to self-destruct. (Challem, 38)

However though vitamin E is a free-radical scavenger and is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer, men with a history of bleeding problems or who take blood thinners should surely discuss the use of vitamin E with their doctor before consuming them. (Heaney; Ellsworth; Gill,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Challem, Jack. User's Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Basic Health Publications, Inc.

Health-Prostate Cancer. Retrieved at  http://www.webindia123.com/health/disease/cancer/prostate/index.htm . Accessed 5 November, 2006

Heaney, John A; Ellsworth, Pamela; Gill, Oliver. 100 Questions and Answers about Prostate

Cancer. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2003.
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Phenotype How Variations Arise Within a Phenotype

Words: 1091 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81307836

Phenotype

How variations arise within a phenotype?

Phenotype is the specific characteristics that are displayed by the organism. Phenotypic variation is a prerequisite for evolution due to natural selection, thus without the former, there is no latter. Qualitative traits are traits that show a difference between phenotypes like skin color, sex, and eye color. However, such descriptions are controlled by a small number of genes so environmental influence on these traits is low since it involves the genetics of individuals. Quantitative traits are traits that exhibit a continuous range from one phenotype to another. Therefore, there is no difference between phenotypes and are usually influenced by several gene pairs while the environment has a significant influence on the trait. This type of trait involves the genetics of populations. It is a combination of genetic and environmental factors to produce phenotypes that blend into each other. Phenotypic variance or VP is…… [Read More]

References

Bellevue College Science Division (2011) Mutation and Genetic Diseases, [online] Available at:  http://scidiv.bellevuecollege.edu/rkr/Biology211/lectures/pdfs/GeneticDisease211.pdf  [Accessed: 20 April 2011].

Biology 346-Evolution (2011) Chapter 13-Evolution of Phenotypic Traits, [online] Available at: www.cbu.edu/~esalgado/BIOL346/ch13.doc [Accessed: 20 April 2011].

Chicago Center for Jewish Genetic Disorders (2008) Intro to Genetics, [online] Available at: http://www.jewishgenetics.org/?q=content/intro-genetics [Accessed: 20 April 2011].

Grimmel College (2011) Lab 2 -- Sources of Phenotypic Variation, [online] Available at:  http://web.grinnell.edu/individuals/brownj/edu/136_lab2.html  [Accessed: 20 April 2011].
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Legalize Marijuana Now Today the United States

Words: 1583 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94331501

Legalize Marijuana Now!

Today, the United States enjoys the dubious distinction of incarcerating more of its citizens than any other industrialized nation on earth. Perhaps even more troubling still, the majority of these citizens have been imprisoned for nonviolent crimes involving drugs, with marijuana being one of the most prominently drugs. Furthermore, these issues have assumed new importance and relevance in recent years. As the country continues to struggle to recover from the Great Recession of 2008, dwindling federal and state budgets have forced lawmakers to scramble to identify ways to save money in order to turn the tide for economic recovery. One initiative that has been advanced time and again is the legalization of marijuana because it would reduce the number of people being incarcerated and help generate new tax revenues. To determine if this is the legalization of marijuana is a truly viable option, this paper provides a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cameron, Kenzie A., Campo, Shelly and Brossard, Dominique. (2003). "Advocating for Controversial Issues: The Effect of Activism on Compliance-Gaining Strategy

Likelihood of Use." Communication Studies 54(3): 265-266.

Dripps, Donald A. (1998). "The Liberal Critique of the Harm Principle." Criminal Justice Ethics

17(2): 3.
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HIV Prevention it Is a

Words: 3251 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58965717



A person infected with HIV is able to transmit the virus to others at any time, as it is impossible to totally rid the body of the virus. There is currently no cure for HIV. Drugs used to treat HIV may be able to decrease the number of the virus by 99.9%, but they are unable to get rid of it completely. Even though it is less likely, with a low number of the virus it is still possible to transmit HIV to others. For this reason, those already infected with HIV should take measures to prevent spreading the disease to others (Bartlett and Finkbeiner 3).

Individuals infected with HIV should follow all prevention measures listed above. These individuals should also notify anyone they may have exposed to HIV. This way, anyone who may have been exposed to HIV can get tested for it. Notifying those who may have been…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bartlett, John G., and Ann K. Finkbeiner. The Guide to Living with HIV Infection. 5th ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

Campos-Outcalt, Doug. "HIV Prevention Enters a New Era." Journal of Family Practice July 2004: 563-565.

Gibney, Laura, Ralph J. DiClemente, and Sten H. Vermund. Preventing HIV in Developing Countries. New York: Plenum Press, 2003.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control. "What Does Loving Responsibly Mean? http://www.prevent-hiv.com/6 Dec. 2004
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Freud and Surrealism

Words: 1164 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84199371

Freud and Surrealism

Art and science are strongly interrelated fields. It has been through the recognition of the compatibility between art and science that some of the greatest achievements in both areas have been created. It was Michaelangelo, the artist, that made revolutionary anatomical discoveries in the pursuit of art, discoveries which would become an integral part of the development of medicine. The early mapmakers were the first to create mathematical grids, and those principles would be translated into perspective and proportion for artists recreating three-dimensional objects in two-dimensional art. Along this same vein, the scientific study of the mind, psychology, has had a significant impact on art. The father of modern psychology, Sigmund Freud, discovered the metaphysical "psyche" in his search to understand the symptoms of his patients, opening up science and medicine to the world beyond the physical. Artists latched onto his theories about the importance of the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dali, Salvador. "One Second Before Awakening from a Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee Around a Promegranate." 1944.

Rostrup, Truls. "The Surrealists and Freud." 1996. http://www.uib.no/people/ssptr/surreal.htm

Sanchez, Monica. "Surrealism: The Art of Self-Discovery." http://www.bway.net/~monique/surreal.htm
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Penis Since the Beginning of Time the

Words: 2660 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38761943

Penis

Since the beginning of time the male species has had an obsession with that part of the personal anatomy known by its Latin root as the "tail"; or today known as one's pecker, "wankie," monkey, and a host of other rather humorous titles. Somewhere, however, in creating the world God must have became confused when creating man as, and being politically correct, he/she placed the tail on the man's front side and on the animals' rear side -- or maybe God just had a bad day on his/her day of creation. Regardless of what one wants to call his penis or tail, history has proven that man's obsession with the penis is ever ending. Simply consider the folklore surrounding John Dillinger whose penis was reportedly over 20 inches. If medical science were correct it would likely have taken Dillinger 20 minutes to get enough blood circulating in his penis…… [Read More]

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Innocents Project Exoneration

Words: 1661 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47748216

Corrections/Police - Criminal Justice

Innocents Project Exoneration

On November 19, 1991, 14-year-old Cateresa Matthews left her great-grandmother's house in Dixmoor, Illinois. She was not seen again until December 8, 1991, when her body was found on a well-worn path running along I-57 as it passes through Dixmoor. "She had been shot in the mouth at close range with a .25 caliber pistol. She was also an apparent victim of sexual assault, as her body was naked from the waist down. A pair of white panties was found around her right ankle, and her jeans were draped across her chest. Seminal fluid was recovered from the vaginal and rectal swab of the victim" (obert Taylor, n.d).

The Investigation

The police made no arrests and apparently had no leads in the case for over ten months, until October 20, 1992. On that date, a police report specified that Keno Barnes, 15, supposedly…… [Read More]

References

Exonerated, freed and facing a new life. (2011). Retrieved from http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2011-11-25/news/ct-met-dna-freedom-

20111127_1_stateville-correctional-center-prison-new-life

Law School's Exoneration Project helps free wrongly convicted man. (2011). Retrieved from http://news.uchicago.edu/article/2011/11/04/law-school039s-exoneration-project-helps-free-wrongly-convicted-man

Robert Taylor. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/Robert_Taylor.php
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Human Papillomavirus

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41055836

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that causes warts. HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It belongs to the Papovaviridae family. HPV is a small oncogenic DNA virus, which infects epithelial cells of skin and mucous membranes. The epithelial surfaces include all areas covered by skin and/or mucous membranes of the mouth, genital and anus (the area that poop comes out of). A definitive diagnosis of HPV infection depends on the detection of nucleic acids (DNA or NA) or proteins.

Morphology

HPV is a relatively small, non-enveloped virus, and 55 nm in diameter. It has an icosahedral capsid composed of 72 capsomers, which contain at least two capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Each capsomer is a pentamer of the major capsid protein, L1. Each virion capsid contains several copies (about 12 per virion) of the minor capsid protein, L2. The virus is said to somewhat…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, N. And Pearsall, R. (2004). Microbiology a human Perspective. New York: Mc-Graw Hill

Burd, E. (2003) Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer -- Burd 16 (1): 1 -- Clinical

Microbiology Reviews [Online]. [Accessed 25th April 2005]. Available from World Wide

Web:
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Hypothalamo-Pituitary Axis in Order to

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96369381

There are two types of steroidal oral contraceptives: combination estrogen-progestin and progestin-only (Patton & Thibodeau, 2012). Combination estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives suppress the release of GnH, LH, and FSH, which inhibits the follicular development portion of the menstruation cycle; this means that no ovulation will occur. Because of this co-administration, alterations in tubal peristalsis, endometrial receptivity, and cervical mucus secretions occur, therefore preventing the egg, if it is indeed released, from implanting itself in the endometrial wall of the uterus. The thickness of the wall is determined by the release of LH and FSH during the normal menstrual cycle, however oral contraceptives inhibit this release and instead the estrogen-progestin combination control the endometrial lining directly. Estrogen thickens up the wall, however, too much estrogen alone can cause abnormal cell growth and could potentially lead to cancer; combining it with progestin helps maintain a balance and prevent too much growth of the…… [Read More]

References:

Patton, K.T., & Thibodeau, G.A. (2009). Anatomy & physiology. (7th ed.). Missouri: Mosby.
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Positive and Negative Impacts of DNA Microarrays

Words: 2243 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88372260

positive and negative impacts of DNA microarrays, Genetic engineering and cloning on the society, environment and the living beings.

In the past years, people have heard much about the biological revolution and they have seen it coming too. Biology, with its modern discoveries, has not only influenced agriculture, medicine and economy but it has affected the nature of man as well. In today's era, where both, biology and technology are developing at a fast pace it is impossible for anyone to survive without having sufficient knowledge about science. The information related to scientific issues will enable the people to make good choices about their health, environment, surroundings and the society in which they reside. This information also enables the people to logically analyze different inventions and advancements in biology so that they can decide that whether the projected discovery is good for them or not. (Silva, 2008)

In the past…… [Read More]

References

Agarwal, N. The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS), (2010).The pros and cons of cloning. Retrieved from The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS) website:  http://cosmos.ucdavis.edu/archives/2010/cluster7/Agarwal_Nisha_Cloning.pdf 

Asbury, L. The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre, (2005). DNA microarrays. Retrieved from The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre website: http://arabidopsis.info/students/microarrays.pps

Brock, D. Brown University, (2009). Cloning human beings. Retrieved from Brown University website: http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nbac/pubs/cloning2/cc5.pdf

Silva, K. Flinders University, School of Biological Sciences. (2008). Biology and society: A new way to teach tertiary science to non-science students. Retrieved from Flinders University website:  http://dspace.flinders.edu.au/xmlui/bitstream/handle/2328/12252/2006009592.pdf;jsessionid=507BB9A61E39EF7034A7C025D0896D59 ?
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Argument Against the Proposition That Sales of Organs Should Not Be Compensated

Words: 1300 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37869287

elling Human Organs: The Ethical Issue

elling body transplants is one of the latest ventures that entrepreneurs have devised. ome see it as servicing a public good, whilst others perceive it as one more example of capitalism at its worst.

Barry Jacobs is an example of an international broker for bodily parts whose business involves matching up kidney "donors" with patients needing kidney transplants. The donor receives a magnanimous paycheck; the recipient receives a healthy kidney, and Jacobs, himself, profits by business in worse ways (Chapman, 1984). Jacobs and other advocates of organ-selling see this business as filling a necessary void. Approximately, 100,000 organ transplants are needed per annum, and only an annual 10,000 are performed due to the deficiency of matching organs. Biomedical breakthroughs have increased the success of these operations, but the procedures cannot always be accomplished due to depletion of stocks. People are simply not willing to…… [Read More]

Sources

Annas, GJ (1984) Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Organ Sales, Hastings Center Report, 14, 22-23.

Chapman, FS (1984) The Life and Death Questions of an Organ Market, Fortune 108-118.

Borna, S (1987) Morality and Marketing Human Organs, Journal of Business Ethics, 6, 37-44.
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Marine Bioluminescence

Words: 3296 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12473168

Marine Bioluminescence

Bioluminescence can be discovered across an extensive selection of some of the key categories of organisms. This includes classifications such as bacteria and protists and also squid as well as ?she's, with numerous phyla amid them. In many of these organisms, luminescence is made by these organisms themselves and never by bacterial symbionts. A few organisms in this category that are not considered to be self-illuminescents are (1) terrestrial vertebrates, such as birds, mammals and amphibians (2) ?owering plants. Luminescence is usually higher in deep-living species along with planktonic ones than in shallow organisms (Haddock et al., 2010).

A summary of known luminous organisms had been documented by Herring (1987). However, since that time there have been a number of new discoveries of luminous organisms. In some instances, it is very difficult to determine that the species are nonluminous. Amid ?lter-feeding species, luminescence is very difficult to inspect.…… [Read More]

References

Bush SL, Robison BH, Caldwell RL. 2009. Behaving in the dark: locomotor, chromatic, postural, and biolu- minescent behaviors of the deep-sea squid Octopoteuthis deletron Young 1972. Biol. Bull. 216:7 -- 22

Carnevale G. 2008. Miniature deep-sea hatchet-sh (Teleostei: Stomiiformes) from the Miocene of Italy. Geol. Mag. 145:73

Fleisher KJ, Case JF. 1995. Cephalopod predation facilitated by dino-agellate luminescence. Biol. Bull. 189:263 -- 71

Fristrup KM, Harbison G. 2002. How do sperm whales catch squids? Mar. Mammal Sci. 18:42 -- 54
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Sex and Culture

Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 633045

Sex and Culture

What are the advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction (animal/human world)?

Sexual reproduction is an evolutionary phenomenon, which entails the cooperation of two species: the male and the female. In any aspect of sexual reproduction, the energy of male spermatozoa and the female oocyte must both be expended in order to reproduce, as opposed to the efficient method of asexual reproduction, which only involves the singular (female) organism. Furthermore, sexual reproduction has a failing in that humans and animals tend to reproduce much less than organisms that reproduce asexually. However, this evolutionary method of reproduction allows for genetic variation and adaptable feasibility. The offspring of the sexually reproductive parents will have gained half of the mother's genetic characteristics and half of the father's genetic characteristics. Genetic variation increases the immunity against otherwise deadly genetic diseases.

Is the capacity that female primates have for orgasm detrimental to their…… [Read More]

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Why Evolution Is True

Words: 3309 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98702351

Jerry Coyne's hy Evolution is True

I understand it contradicts the account in the Bible and other holy texts, if one takes a literalist interpretive stance, but given that most texts have more significant internal conflicts, I did not see why this particular theory would cause people to have such visceral emotional responses. I understand, intellectually, that evolution is not the first scientific advance to be met with tremendous hostility; there was also significant opposition to the notion of a heliocentric universe and to the idea that the earth was not flat. However, because people understand that other scientific ideas that were intertwined with biblical teachings have been proven incorrect before without damaging religious belief, I imagine that I assumed that people would be more open-minded about "modern" scientific theories. On the contrary, because of the strong scientific support for the idea of evolution, the choice not to believe evolution…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coyne, Jerry. Why Evolution is True. New York: Penguin Group, 2009.