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Supporting esearch and esults
Maffulli & Almekinders (2010) conducted a comparable study on 140 patients with Achilles tendon ruptures. Treatment included a conservative protocol. e-rupture rate using this protocol is maintained at 4%. Events of re-rupture were treated using the same conservative regime. A significant percentage of patents utilizing the conservative method were able to return to competitive athletic ability (i.e. their previous sporting level)
(Woo, enstrom, & Arnoczky, 2007) The management of tendinopathy is often based on a trial and error basis. Use of a questionnaire asking about sport history may be useful. In contrast Beeton ( 2003) states that tendinopathy can be resistant to treatment, and symptoms may persist despite both conservative and surgical interventions. The pathology of overuse tendinopathy is non-inflammatory, with a degenerative or failed healing tendon response.
(Wasielewski & Kotsko 2007) Prolonged musculoskeletal stresses are necessary for the development of symptomatic tendinosis; as a result,…
Achilles Tendinitis ( Tendinopathy) What is Achilles Tendonitis?. (2010). Sports Injury Clinic. Retrieved from http:/www.sportsinjury clinic.net
Achilles Tendinitis Exercises. (2010). Retrieved from htto://18.104.22.168:8080/EP SessionID
Ames, P., Longo, U., Denaro, V., & Maffulli, N. (2008). Achilles tendon problems: Not just an orthopaedic issue. Disability & Rehabilitation, 30(20-22), 1646-1650. doi:10.1080/09638280701785882.
Beeton, K. (2003). Manual Therapy Master Classes: The Peripheral Joints. Livingston: Church Hill.
athletic coach I have garnered a wide variety of skills, as well as an extensive understanding of the standard practices and procedures an individual in the field of exercise science should possess. My past experiences have provided me with substantial knowledge of the principles involved in the prevention and care of athletic injuries. With the following, I hope to illustrate that my experiences and subsequent research have provided me with a broad awareness of typical athletic injuries and treatments as they apply to exercise science.
When a member of my dance squad sprained her ankle it became necessary for me to tape it as to provide additional support. I employed the traditional Gibney basket weave procedure. This consists of an interwoven network of stirrup strips "which cover the plantar surface of the hindfoot and extend proximally on both the medial and lateral aspects of the leg, and horseshoe strips, which…
Boyle, Daniel J.M.D. Sports Medicine for Parents and Coaches. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1999.
Brown, Lee E. And Vance A. Ferrigno. Training for Speed, Agility, and Quickness. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2000.
Garrick, James G.M.D. And Peter Radetsky, Ph.D. Anybody's Sports Medicine Book. Toronto: Ten Speed Press, 2000.
Levy, Allan M.M.D. And Mark L. Fuerst. Sports Injury Handbook. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993.
Competitive sports participation opportunities for children continue to grow. Nowadays, children begin their regular sport participation between the ages of 4 to 8 years. Most children enjoy sports and show great enthusiasm for participation. However, the situation changes when young athletes get involved in the elite-level championships organized and directed by adults. Children's play becomes transformed from informal playground games to highly organized sporting events that mirror adult professional sports.
The effects of such intensive training and participation in elite-level competition on young athletes have been investigated. However, most of the research has been devoted to athletes above 10 years of age who are involved in individual sports. Little has been done to explore the impact of the elite-level competition on children under 10 years old participating in team sports.
Indeed, the idea that organized, supervised athletic competition benefits pre-pubertal children is very controversial. However, since more and…
AAP. "Organized Athletics for Preadolescent Children." Pediatrics 84, 1989:583-4.
Ad Hoc Committee on Sports and Children of the FIMS Education Commission. Sports and children. Position stand of the International Federation of Sports Medicine and World Health Organization on "Organized Sport for Children." Olympic Coach, Summer 1997: 6-8.
Backx, F. "Injuries in persons and high-risk sports; a longitudinal study of 1,818 school
Children." The American Journal of Sports Medicine 19, 1991:124-30.
You may think that you have recovered from your previous hard workout and you think you are ready to stress your muscles again (Gabe).
If you push yourself without the proper rest your joints, muscles, and tendons will start aching. If you continue to push though the soreness you may find that the aches and soreness never leave and you may start feeling tired all the time.
Runners that plan hard workouts one to two times a week and rest or jog on the other days may find the recovery time to be faster. y doing this it will help your muscle form more fibrous tissue which helps reduce injuries.
Avoiding Associated Injuries
While avoiding injuries is straightforward, many athletes, runners and joggers included, fall short in proper preparation to avoid injuries. Even if a runner uses the correct preventive techniques in training, it doesn't guarantee that an injury won't…
Cluett, Jonathan. "Running Injury." 17 Aug 2008. About.com: Orthopedics. 30 May 2009 .
Gabe, Mirkin. "Avoiding overtraining." AMAA Journal (Peer-reviewed) (2002): 1.
Matava, Matthew J. "RUNNING AND JOGGING INJURIES." 29 June 2006. American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. 31 May 2009 .
Rodriguez, Carlos. "Traumatic injuries to runners." AMAA Journal (Peer-reviewed) (2006): 1.
But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). unning through Kenya. Slate.com. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Johnson, Jenna. (2010). NCAA graduation rates. The Washington Post. etrieved September 20,
2010 at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/campus-overload/2010/03/another_ncaa_bracket_player_gr.html
Lehrer, Jonah. (2010, August 24). How to raise a superstar. Wired Science. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/how-to-raise-a-superstar/#ixzz107NwUSGh
Lovett, C. (1997). The fight to establish the women's Olympic marathon race. Olympic Marathon, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. etrieved September 21,
2010 at http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/chapter25.cfm
Williams, Kam. (2006). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves. AALBC.
etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://aalbc.com/reviews/forty_million_dollar_slaves.htm
Witt, Jon. (2006). The…
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutRE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Slate.com. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
About two thirds of major chest trauma cases are associated with motor vehicle accidents. About 25% of injuries from motor vehicle accident related to chest trauma. The outcome out of the study made by the North American Major Trauma Outcome Study indicated that about 70% of trauma cases are blunt in nature. About 50% of chest trauma injuries are associated with chest wall. The initial recovery from chest trauma concentrates on the ABCs-airway, breathing, and circulation- subject to all major trauma resuscitation instances. After completion of initial resuscitation and stabilization a concurrent evaluation of a patient is done with suspected chest trauma. Normally chest injuries are diagnosed by chest radiograph alone. The recognition of treatment of chest trauma mostly relies upon a high index of suspicion mixed with the appropriate diagnostic tests. (Lesson 18: Blunt Chest Trauma)
The rate of recovery varies from person to person at various rates. The…
Athletic & Sports Injury Treatment" Retrieved at http://www.scotiachiropractic.co.uk/treatment/sporting-injury.html . Accessed 26 October, 2005
Rib injuries" Retrieved at http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Rib_injuries-open . Accessed 26 October, 2005
Rib Injury" Retrieved from http://www.fairview.org/healthlibrary/content/sma_ribinjur_sma.htm . Accessed 26 October, 2005
Sako, Edward Y. "Lesson 18: Blunt Chest Trauma" PCCU Update. Vol: 15.
career of an athletic trainer, including the background necessary for the career, the necessary education, and job opportunities for athletic trainers. Athletic trainers form a necessary backbone of most professional sports organizations, and many private organizations. A professional athletic trainer can make the difference between a life-changing injury, or returning to the game. Athletic trainers are an essential and integral part of modern sports medicine, and as sports and athletics increase in importance in our society, they will continue to play an important part in our healthy lives.
Athletic trainers have been around for centuries, but today, most trainers are certified, and not only work with sports clubs or educational facilities, they can work in gyms and fitness centers, and even corporate workout centers.
Certified athletic trainers (ATCs) are medical experts in preventing, recognizing, managing and rehabilitating injuries that result from physical activity. Athletic trainers can help you avoid unnecessary…
Author not Available. "Athletic Trainer." NortheastAHEC.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.neahec.org/hc/HealthCareerPgs/AthleticTrainer.html
Editors. "What Does a Certified Athletic Trainer Do?" NATA.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.nata.org/downloads/documents/306CareerInfoBrochure.htm
Hibberts, Rob. "How to Start Your Career." Cerro Coso Community College. 1998. 25 Sept. 2003. http://athletics.cerrocoso.edu/sportsmedicine/how_to_start_your_career.htm
Kornspan, Alan S., et al. "Career Opportunities in Sport and Exercise Among College Students." College Student Journal 36.3 (2002): 367+.
259). These authors assert that crowd management and crowd control constitute two additional vital issues that athletic facility management needs to address when hosting events at any stadium or venue.
Event managers also need to understand the type of event(s) they host and understand that variuos events draw different types of crowds, as no two crowds are alike and each crowd typically behaves in different manners. Abbott and Geddie (2001) warn: "Crowds can behave violently, resulting in destruction of property, personal injury, and, in extreme cases, death. Crowd management plans should be adjusted to meet the needs of the event and the potential crowd" (p. 260). Event managers need to prepare for the unexpected that might occur. They need to also realize that football game may require more security officers than a golf game.
Event managers also need to be aware of the surrounding location of the stadium or venue.…
Abbott, J. & Geddie, M.W. (2001). Event and venue management: Minimizing liability through effective crowd management techniques. Event Management. Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Vol. 6, pp. 259 -- 270. Retrieved July 10, 2009 from http://www.popcenter.org/problems/spectator_violence/PDFs/Abbott.pdf
Borkowski, R.P. (2006). When good facility go bad. Athletic Management. Retrieved July 12,
2009 from http://www.athleticmanagement.com/2007/01/15/when_good_facilities_go_bad/indx.php
The research suggests that sport psychology is useful to athletes because it provides them with the tools needed to fully exploit their physical talents by controlling their mental processes. The research found that here are several techniques associated with sports psychology. These techniques include MPSE, thought stopping, mental rehearsal (imagery) self-talk, visuo-motor behavior rehearsal (VMBR) and establishing goals. All of these techniques can be used to assist the athlete in focusing on the goal that they are attempting to accomplish.
Arvinen-Barrow M., Penny G.,Hemmings B., Corr S. (2010) UK chartered physiotherapists' personal experiences in using psychological interventions with injured athletes: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11 (2010) 58 -- 66
"Careers in Sports Psychology." Retrieved February 16, 2010 from: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm
De Petrillo, L.A., Kaufman, K.A. Glass, C.R. And Arnkoff D.B. (2009) Mindfulness for Long-Distance Runners: An Open Trial Using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE).…
Arvinen-Barrow M., Penny G.,Hemmings B., Corr S. (2010) UK chartered physiotherapists' personal experiences in using psychological interventions with injured athletes: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11 (2010) 58 -- 66
"Careers in Sports Psychology." Retrieved February 16, 2010 from: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm
De Petrillo, L.A., Kaufman, K.A. Glass, C.R. And Arnkoff D.B. (2009) Mindfulness for Long-Distance Runners: An Open Trial Using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE). Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 2009, 4, 357-376
Dreyer, D. (2004). ChiRunning: A revolutionary approach to effortless, injury-free running. Retrieved February 16, 2009 from: http://www.chirunning.com .
Although the coach may not work out with the client every session, he or she may be called upon to demonstrate many of the moves and to assist the client, depending on the nature of the session and the client's needs. For some coaches, the 'best' part of work -- the involvement with people committed to fitness -- may also be the worst part, because their schedules may make it difficult to find time to work out alone. Even then, the coach may be so exhausted from helping others he does not have the motivation to condition himself. But this is vital, so the coach can assist clients in an injury-free fashion.
A typical 'day in the life' of a sports and conditioning coach will vary depending upon the coach's practice setting. A private trainer might get up at 5:30am to go to the house of a busy executive he…
Kinesiology. (2011). University of Michigan. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at http://www.umich.edu/units_kines.php
Sports management. (2011). Syracuse University. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at http://falk.syr.edu/SportManagement/Default.aspx
Waehner, Paige. (2011). How to become a personal trainer. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at http://exercise.about.com/cs/forprofessionals/a/personaltrainer_2.htm
Elliot, D.L., Moe, E.L., Goldberg, L., Defrancesco, C.A., Durham, M.B., & Hix-mall, H. (2006). Definition and Outcome of a Curriculum to Prevent Disordered Eating and Body haping Drug Use. Journal of chool Health, 76(2), 67+. Retrieved February 15, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5028537762
Maletto, Pete. (2008, October 1). ports nutrition: past, present and future: in order to understand where this market is headed it's important to know where it's been. Nutraceuticals World. Rodman Publications, Inc. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-188444472.html
Ray, Tracy R., & Fowler, Rachel. (2004, eptember 1). Current issues in sports nutrition in athletes. outhern Medical Journal. outhern Medical Association. 2004. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1123332696.html
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Sports nutrition vital for athletes.(2005, May 15). New Straits Times. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com /doc/1P1-108754539.html
Tallon, Mark J. (2007, November 1). Enzymes' new potential in an emerging wellness market. Functional Ingredients. Penton Media OH & IL. Retrieved February 15, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Intercollegiate Athletics Program Guarantee the Success of a College?
Intercollegiate athletics programs are a common feature in most colleges, and many of these programs have been shown to contribute to the education and development of the young people who participate in them. Moreover, intercollegiate athletics programs, especially men's football and basketball, are major revenue generators through ticket sales for many educational institutions. In many cases, colleges that feature high-profile intercollegiate athletics programs enjoy the benefits of these programs through increased revenues and publicity. Even the best intercollegiate athletics program, though, cannot guarantee the success of a college for the reasons identified through a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature which is provided below, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Intercollegiate athletics programs in the United States are divided into various divisions (i.e., Division 1A and 1AA), with the…
Enoch, Jessica and Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense, 3rd ed. Bedford/St. Martin's.
Fizel, J. And Fort, Rodney. Economics of College Sports. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Jones, A. (2009). "Athletics, Applications & Yields." College and University 85(2): 10-12.
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234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.
Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…
Allan, E.J., Gordon, S.P. & Iverson, S.V., Fall 2006. Re/thinking Practices of Power: The Discursive Framing of Leadership in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Review of Higher Education, 30(1), pp. 41-68.
Bourdieu, P., 1978. 'Sport and Social Class,' Social Science Information, 17(6): 819-840. [Online]
Available at: http://ssi.sagepub.com/content/17/6/819.ciatation [Accessed 21 May 2013].
Chesebro, J.W. & Fuse, K., Summer 2001. The Development of a Perceived Masculinity Scale. Communication Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 203-278.
And a way to avoid injuries to the elbow, that is fairly obvious, is to use thicker landing mats, and to get expert training in how to fall properly. For males, injuries to the wrist have been identified as being caused by training on the pommel, because "the wrist is exposed to repetitive forces of up to twice body weight during this activity."
Exercises using the plyometric strategy are very useful for gymnasts; plyometric exercises are the "rapid deceleration and acceleration of muscles" that in turn help create a stretch-shortening cycle," according to www.specialolympics.org.These kinds of exercises train the muscles, and train the nervous system to carry out in an effective way the stretch-shortening cycle, which can improve the performance of a gymnast. Drills using plyometrics also help the athlete develop "rhythm, speed, power and even muscular endurance," the Special Olympics site explains. All plyometric exercises must be carried out…
Daly, R.M., & Bass, S.L., & Finch, C.F. (2001). Balancing the risk of injury to gymnasts: how Effective are the counter measures." British Journal of Sports Medicine. Vol. 35, 8-19.
Mayo Clinic. (2006). Core exercises strengthen abs and other core muscles. Retrieved 9 March, 2007 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/core-strength/sm00047 .
Micheli, Lyle J. (1996). Types of Sports Injuries and How They Can Be Prevented. Retrieved March 2007 from Conference Notes / Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Bureau of Family and Community Health, Division of Prevention, Injury Prevention and Control
The sports center at the newly opened high school has to employ at least the following:
Two coaches, preferably one male and one female, each to manage the same gender teams. This measure is to be implemented in order to reduce the chances of immoral conduct on school premises, but no discriminations would be committed during the selection and hiring processes.
One medic is required to be easily reachable and assist sports injuries or otherwise medical necessities. Hiring a new medical professional would be redundant and meaningless, coming as such to a conclusion that the already hired school medic would also assist the medical needs of the sports center.
One counselor. Similar to the school medic, it could initially be stated that the role of sports counselor would be played by the already hired school counselor. However, such a solution is not the most viable one in the…
Conrad, M., 2006, the business of sports: a primer for journalists, Routledge
Delaney, T., Madigan, T., 2009, the sociology of sports: an introduction, McFarland
Mac, B., 2010, Code of ethics and conduct for sports coaches, BrainMac, http://www.brianmac.co.uk/ethics.htm last accessed on July 6, 2010
2010, Sports and exercise safety, Kids Health, http://kidshealth.org/teen/safety/safebasics/sport_safety.html# last accessed on July 6, 2010
Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable…
Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial
and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard
Journal of Communications. 12. (2001): 183-208. Print.
"HR and Employment Law News." Hr.blr.com. HR BLR, 3 October 2003. Web. 4
" Meanwhile the networks have critics cornered; if a reviewer says attractive women are on the sidelines to stimulate libidos in male viewers, those critics are sexist. Although it is obvious in a brutally violent game, an attractive, well-spoken female brightens up the broadcast aesthetically, it is also sexist to assume beautiful women don't understand football. As Andrew writes, "I love it when my wife talks about zone defense."
Meanwhile a research article ("College students' attitudes toward the sexualization of professional women") reported two experiments that examined "how tawdry media sexualizations of… women athletes influence the perceived gender-role orientation of athletes" (Harrison, et al., 2010). The findings revealed that when female basketball players were presented to 85 students (64 women, 24 men) in "tawdry sexualization" scenes, the perception was that they were "feminine" (read that heterosexual). However, female athletes that are beautiful and sexy "violate traditional expectations that athletes have…
Harrison, Lisa a, and Secarea, Ashley M. (2010). College Students' attitudes toward the sexualization of professional women athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 33(4), 403-427.
Levitt, Steven D., and Dubner, Stephen J. (2010). Why Are Most of Football's Sideline
Reporters Women? Freakonomics. The New York Times. Retrieved Dec. 17, 2010, from http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com .
The issue in question is that of developing a standard for injury and illness prevention programs. OSHA notes in the white paper that many companies have such programs already, and that some states have also implemented standards for these types of programs. But OSHA also notes that adoption of this type of program is not universal. Many small businesses, for example, find the implementation of such programs to be onerous in particular with respect to cost and manpower. Thus, it is proposed that national standards be adopted as a means of helping more workers receive this sort of training, and to have more companies implement injury and illness prevention programs. The motivation for OSHA is clear. The organization has a mandate to reduce workplace injuries, yet its data shows that 4500 workers die on the job each year, and 4.1 million workers "suffer a serious job-related injury or illness"…
OSHA (2012). Injury and illness prevention programs Occupational Health & Safety Administration. Retrieved October 17, 2015 from https://www.osha.gov/dsg/InjuryIllnessPreventionProgramsWhitePaper.html
ports and popular culture (NFL/NBA)
Popular culture entails all forms of mass communication such as:
Books and Cartoons and comics
It is somewhat different compared to higher forms of cultural art such as:
In terms of mass communication, popular culture means messages which are intellectually and artistically limited primarily designed to entertain and humor the viewers (Hollander, 2014). Following the industrial revolution, the people had a lot of time to spare which led to a huge demand for entertainment and amusement and gave height to media. The increasing supply of goods also made it necessary for the advertisers to attract the consumers and mass media could reach a large number of audiences at the same time (Hollander, 2014).
The physical activities have always been in the life of human beings in the form of different leisure…
Sports have played a huge role in the American society on the whole as they have become a necessary part of the popular culture. American football is quite a popular game which brings NFL (National Football League) in limelight. NFL is same to same as other sports have an off season too when they are on a season break. Leagues such as NBA (National Basketball Association), MLB (Major League Baseball) and NHL (National Hockey League) follow the same pattern which builds the hype for them (Lee, 2012). It enables the public to forget all about sports for a while until it swings back in action again. The off season usually consists of training sessions, gym, trading players, NFL Combine and NFL Draft. These activities are heavily kept watch of by loyal fans followed by intense discussions (House, 2012).
Super Bowl is intensely popular in United States. Even the non-followers are somehow influenced by it as they hear news about it or by viewing it. The news channels mention regularly and social media is definitely on fire with news and updates. A famous band plays during halftime while a draw exists for watching the advertisements during the game and halftime (Lee, 2012). Companies are compelled to dish out loads of cash to display advertise themselves as the Super Bowl progresses. These ads are usually creative and funny and sometimes mixed. People for the sake of fun choose a particular team and cheer it till the end or otherwise friends pick a team and contend that it will win the title. It's sort of a public gathering event where food is enjoyed and drinks are taken in huge quantities. Tostitos and Doritos are chips found mostly at super Bowl parties while in case of drinks Coke, Pepsi and Budweiser. For the sports fans, it's their day off as they spend the entire day in front of a TV or mocking the opponent's team for fun. TV shows often give reference to Super Bowl just as Christmas and Halloween. Betting on a high level is also involved for the winning team, people are cut some slack from office, schools and colleges as it's the biggest event of the year (Hollander, 2014).
In 'Popular culture and the rituals of American Football' by Mark Axelrod, several cultural practices in America regarding football are mentioned. Before the ports went global, there were a lot of rituals and myths
Given that people engage in sporting events for a wide range of reasons, the authors assert that it is time for athletes to develop a moral code that embraces higher standards of conduct that will help reverse these recent trends and once again provide American sports with a sense of fair play and respect.
Fredenburg, Karen, Rafer Lutz, Glenn Miller et al. (2005). "Dismissals and Perceptions of Pressure in Coaching in Texas High Schools: Similarities and Differences with Previous Studies Show the Contemporary Face of Coaching Pressure." JOPERD-- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76(1):29.
In this essay, the authors report that there have been a number of recent studies and reports that suggest that the pressure in high school sports is growing, rather than declining. The authors cite an article in Sports Illustrated that described the alarming trends of parental misbehavior at youth sport events. The president…
This has already occurred in many sports and the newest and most "extreme" will likely mirror these effects of technology within the next few years.
Technology, according to some, has taken the fun and danger out of many sports that were once considered highly dangerous or extreme. This has led to the abandonment of some sports that were once considered extreme in favor of other ones that are relatively new or are actually more dangerous, technological advancements aside (Horton, 2004). But just as technological advances in other fields invariably appear and creep forward, so too with the advances in these most extreme of extreme sports.
Extreme sports, in one way or another, have been around as long as sport has existed. The effects of commercialization and of technological advances on many of these sports have been profound, and the media's influence and advancement of access for more participants has changed…
Brimer, E and Oades, L.G. (2009). "Extreme Sports- A Positive Transformation in Courage and Humility." Journal of Humanistic Psychology. Vol. 49, No. 1. Pp. 114-126.
Horton, David. (2004). "Extreme Sports and Assumption of Risk: A Blueprint." USFL
Review. Vol. 38. Pp. 599-613.
Le Breton, David. (2000). "Playing Symbolically with Death in Extreme Sports." Body
Motor Processes in Sport
Tom is an 18-year-old goalkeeper who recently moved up in class from youth to adult football. He was an early maturer and has a history of being more advanced in soccer than his peers but now a weakness is exposed. He never learned to kick with his left foot and this has been a problem at this level. The current paper discusses the proposed reasons for his difficulty and outlines a plan of intervention.
Understanding the Effects of Early Maturation as They Apply to Tom
The traditional view holds that early maturation in boys has more positive consequences for psychosocial adaptation than late maturation. The early literature by researchers like Mussen and Jones (1957) described early-maturing boys during late adolescence (17 -- 18 years) as having higher self-esteem and self-confidence, a more positive self-image, and as being more socially mature, which may have led to more…
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: Looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience 4 (10), 829 -- 839.
Banister, E.W. (1991). Modeling elite athletic performance. In H. Green, J. McDougall and H. Wenger (Eds.), Physiological testing of elite athletes (pp. 403 -- 424). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Brewer, J., Balsom, P.D., & Davis, J. (1995). Season birth distribution amongst European soccer players. Sports Exercise Injury, 1, 154-157.
Castaneda, B. & Gray, R. (2007). Effects of focus of attention on baseball batting performance in players of differing skill levels. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29 (1), 60-77.
Snowboarding and Having Patience to Succeed in the Sport
In basic terms, snowboarding is essentially a sport involving the use of specially designed equipment to descend a snow-covered slope. Considered a rapidly growing sport; snowboarding like any other sport undertaken during winter carries a significant level of risk with most injuries taking place amongst beginners. With that in mind, proper training is paramount. However, to master snowboarding and ultimately succeed in the same, the need for patience and an open mind cannot be overstated.
Even to a beginner, watching professional snowboarders going down snow-covered slopes makes snowboarding look relatively easy. However, nothing could be further from the truth. Indeed, it should be noted that for many beginners, the sport comes across as being rather frustrating to master. Further, to learn the relevant moves, maneuvers and safety precautions; beginners must attend demanding snowboarding lessons and allocate a significant amount of time…
Repetitive Motion Injuries can be prevented through a proper workplace setup. Once a worker makes these adjustments to the work area, it is possible to feel more natural about working and be more productive. In addition to exercise, a person should do the following:
• Take short, frequent breaks from computer work. Suggested 10-15 minutes break away from the computer for every hour on the computer.
• Get up and move around whenever feeling symptoms
• Give input when the department is purchasing furniture and computer equipment
Here are other suggestions for repetitive syndrome in a work setting:
If it is not possible for someone to get down to the work load, he/she should bring the work load up. Then, when standing, he/she should not over reach and maintain an upright posture. The longer the handle, the more force it takes to use and lift that tool. Position oneself so…
Similarly figures from the National Tax office also showed a 54% decrease in RTD sales while there was only a 7% increase in the sales of Spirits. These data clearly show that 'alcopops' Tax is the right way to control the growing underage alcohol consumption in Australia. [Tanya N. Chikritzhs, (2009)]
Australia suffers from one of the highest levels of underage alcohol consumption in the world and consequently there is high loss of life and rising health care costs. This could be attributed to aggressive marketing strategy employed by the beverage industry and the lack of financial funding for implementation of programs that encourage healthy lifestyle choices. A serious approach to the problem is of immediate concern. Creating more awareness and encouraging parental participation in healthy life style programs should be considered. From the government perspective, the excise tax regulations introduced in 2008 should certainly be welcomed as a…
1) Rebekah Chapman, (2007) 'The Adolescent Injury Checklist: An Investigation of Transport Related Injuries as Reported by Australasian Adolescents', retrieved Aug 25th 2010, from, http://www.carrsq.qut.edu.au/documents/publication_028.pdf
2) Steven J. Skov (2009), 'Alcohol taxation policy in Australia: public health imperatives for Action', retrieved Aug 25th 2010 from, http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/190_08_200409/sko10279_fm.html
3) Tanya N. Chikritzhs, Paul M. Dietze, Steven J. Allsop Et.al (2009), ' The "alcopops" tax: heading in the right direction' MJA; 190 (6): 294-295
The different types of harm that could happen are when the author is discussing specific effects that this will have on unborn baby. These include: unhealthy genetic material being passed to the embryo, this will have an impact on the development of the organs and it weakens the child's immune system.
Worker's Compensation is when there is a focus on having different provisions in place to ensure that women's health along with the fetus will not be impacted by the chemicals they are exposed to. As, this policy is designed to ensure that corporations are not in violation of the law.
While the various steps that can be taken under federal regulations is when someone who is exposed to these conditions is discussing what action women can take. This includes: damages, when to sue for causation and the standards of care. These different elements are important, because they are illustrating…
Paskal, S. (1988). Save the Fetus or Sue the Employer? Labor Law Journal 39 (6), 323 -- 341.
Many top recruits did not flourish and become great players.
The player's union has opposed salary caps vigorously, but even players might benefit. Yes, they might not make A-od salaries. But there would be less pressure from fans and owners to perform at an unrealistic level. Baseball is attempting to transition into a kinder, gentler era, with less emphasis on using drugs to perform at a high level. Instating a salary cap would be excellent P for the sport, and improving the image of baseball and its players would be good for the game and good for the teams. And ultimately, elevating the image and level of play of teams, rather than the fortunes of a few 'star' players, is the true spirit of the game.
deMause, Neil. (2006). Baseball between the numbers: Why everything you know about the game is wrong. Excerpt available at ESNP July 23, 2011…
deMause, Neil. (2006). Baseball between the numbers: Why everything you know about the game is wrong. Excerpt available at ESNP July 23, 2011 at http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/page2/story?page=betweenthenumbers/salarycap/060405
How salary caps changed sports. (2010). Investopedia. Retrieved July 23, 2011 at http://financialedge.investopedia.com/financial-edge/0910/How-Salary-Caps-Changed-Sports.aspx
Kendrick, Scott. (2009). Salary cap in baseball? Keep dreaming. About.com.
Retrieved July 23, 2011 at http://baseball.about.com/b/2008/12/31/salary-cap-in-baseball-keep-dreaming.htm
All legal stipulations in regard to the usage of licensed and branded merchandise would be respected.
It is initially expected that the aerobics class would sell subscriptions to 1,500 customers. This high volume of sales would be due to promotional offers which promote the aerobics class at lower retail prices. As the promotions expire however, a small decline in the number of sales is expected. The company is however confident that it will manage to sell an estimated 1,300 products following the expiry of the promotions and that it will be able to sustain this level. Additionally, organizational improvements in the product offer and new marketing campaigns would also be implemented and they would attract new customers and as such generate more sales.
Three sponsorships contracts are to be signed -- they have already been negotiated and they would be completed as the project is launched.…
Beech, J., Chadwich, S., 2007, The marketing of sport, Pearson Education
Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., 2010, Principles of marketing, 13th edition, Pearson Education
Luther, W.M., 2001, The marketing plan: how to prepare and implement it, 3rd edition, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn
Mills, G., 2002, Retail pricing strategies and market power, Melbourne Univ. Publishing Schlossberg, H., 1996, Sports marketing, Wiley-Blackwell
D., What is Altitude Training section). The Website promoting products that Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems offers, reports that when a person is exposed to hypoxia, oxygen reduced environments, his/her body "struggles to produce required amounts of energy with less available oxygen. This struggle triggers the onset of a range of physiological adaptations geared towards enhancing the efficiency of the body's respiratory, cardiovascular and oxygen utilization systems" (Hypoxico Altitude Training, N.D., Why it Works section). In consideration of controversial perceptions regarding ethical conclusions relating to hypoxico, Lippi, Guides and Franchini stress that the "spirit of sport" needs to be developed to include the notion of ethics and authenticity. Lippi, Guides and Franchini, nevertheless, report that they do not entirely agree with the assumption that teleologically, no evidence suggests that more harm than good comes from these particular devices. They note that a universal ban on passive training regimens, such as hypoxic,…
Avans, D.E. (2007). Youth and ethical dilemmas in sport. Research Quarterly for Exercise
and Sport. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com /doc/1G1160166064.html
Bach, G. (2006). The Parents association for youth sports: A proactive method of spectator behavior management. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 77(6), 16+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017424445
Personal Values in Sports
As with most dimensions of life, personal values and beliefs have a demonstrable effect on what is rendered in the form of behavior on the sports field of play and with the activities that surround the same. Beyond that, this paradigm is clear and visible irrespective of whether one is talking about the athletes, the coaches or even the parents of child (or sometimes college) athletes in some instances. This research report shall focus on the factors that most significantly engage and affect people when they are operating within the sports realm. The work of Donghun Lee (2011) will be a major focal point of this report but other sources will be looped in as well. While there are many factors and things that can influence somebody when it comes to sports, it is the free will and moral fortitude of an individual and the resolve…
Baby, B. (2016). Art Briles, Baylor officially part ways in wake of sexual assault scandal --
SportsDay. SportsDay. Retrieved 25 June 2016, from http://sportsday.dallasnews.com/college-sports/collegesports/2016/06/24/art-briles-baylor-officially-part-ways-wake-sexual-assault-scandal
Biography. (2016). Tim Duncan Biography. Biography.com. Retrieved 25 June 2016, from http://www.biography.com/people/tim-duncan-40996
CBS. (2016). The Penn State Scandal - CBS News. CBSNews.com. Retrieved 25 June 2016,
ugby -- a Lot More Complicated Than You Might Think
It would be the rare Australian who has not seen a rugby game. Indeed, it would be the rare Australian who has not seen dozens of rugby games. But most of the time when a person is watching a game, s/he is concerned with the score along with how well one's favorite player is doing. but, if one steps back a pace or two, rugby takes on a range of meanings: ugby is an important part of the culture of Australian and therefore worthy of serious analysis as a way of understanding the national culture.
Culture does not refer simply to was gets put into a museum or acted out on the stage, although these are certainly examples of culture. ugby is culture in the sense that those who study society define it: It is a complex set of behaviors…
This is achieved through the increase of metabolic rates and lean body mass while eliminating excess fat and burning calories. hile the required amount of physical activity differs based on the caloric intake and body type, sports can assist an individual to maintain a healthy weight. For people who want to maintain a huge amount of weight loss, high-intensity sports can be the best option while reasonably-intensive physical activity helps in realizing weight stability.
ell-being of Muscles and Bones:
As previously mentioned, bone and muscle injuries are some of the most common health-related risks in sports participation. However, as an individual grows older, there is need for maintenance of the well-being of muscles and bones for proper body functioning. hen an individual takes into consideration the necessary precaution measures, sports and physical activity becomes increasingly for muscles, bones, and joints health. Participation in sports provides people with the required elements…
Bahr, Roald, and Lars Engebretsen. Sports Injury Prevention. Vol. 17. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Print.
Chambers, Abigail E.L., and Grant Cooper. "The Role of Sports and Activity in Osteoarthritis." Arthritis MD - Trusted Arthritis MD - Arthritis Information from Doctors Who Care. Arthritis MD. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. .
Cohen, Bradley. "How Does Playing Sports Affect Your Health?" LIVESTRONG.COM - The Limitless Potential of You. Demand Media, Inc., 30 Mar. 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. .
Gotlin, Robert S. Sports Injuries Guidebook. Illustrated ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2008. Print.
Conceptualization and operationalization of variables
Poor communication between young athletes and coaches leads to longer recovery times and increased levels of frustration amongst athletes regarding their prognosis.
Independent Variable: Effective and ineffective communication between coaches and young athletes.
Conceptualization: Sports injuries are a serious concern. There has been a rise in the rate of youth sports injuries in recent decades, an increase partially attributed to a corresponding rise in youth specialization at an early age and year 'round participation in the same type of competitive sports activity, versus varying sports (Merkel & Molony 2013). In some sports, there are also grave concerns about the risk of permanent injury on every level of competition, as manifested in concerns about head trauma amongst football players, making it all the more critical to reduce the likelihood of such injuries occurring when young (Lopate 2013). Overuse injuries are common many popular youth sports: "Preteens…
Apache, R.R. (2006). The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports:
Validity and reliability. Physical Educator, 63(3), 126-133.
Borggrefe, C., & Cachay, K. (2013). Communicative challenges of coaches in an elite-level sports system: Theoretical reflections on successful coaching strategies. EJSS: European Journal for Sport and Society, 10(1), 7-29.
Caine, D. (et al. 2006). Physical injuries in children's and youth sports:
The Fun Principle stated that as "we take the fun out of physical activities, we take the kids out of them" (Martens, 1996, p. 306). Martens said that learning should be enjoyable and that when winning is pursued in the extreme, it produces behaviors that destroy children's self-worth and rob them of fun. However, adults frequently violate this principle by over organizing, constantly instructing and evaluating, over drilling and routinizing the learning of skills, replacing unstructured play with calisthenics, and using physical activity as a form of punishment. Martens noted that the irony in youth sports is that "we turn young people off of the very thing we want to turn them on to" (p. 309). If lifelong participation in physical activity is the goal, then the emphasis should shift from the outcome to the quality of experiences, according to Martens. (Brady, 2004, p. 48)
Differences in Youth Who Withdraw…
Apache, R.R.. "The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports: validity and reliability." Physical Educator, September 22, 2006. Retrieved October 18, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com /doc/1G1-154459895.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002319178
Barber, H., Sukhi, H., & White, S.A. (1999). The Influence of Parent-Coaches on Participant Motivation and Competitive Anxiety in Youth Sport Participants. Journal of Sport Behavior, 22(2), 162. Retrieved October 18, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002319178 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002582649
Brady, F. (2004). Children's Organized Sports a Developmental Perspective; despite Their Place as a Childhood Rite, Youth Sports Have a High Dropout Rate. Why? And What Can We Do about it?. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 75(2), 35+. Retrieved October 18, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002582649
Brenner, Joel S. And the Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness. "Overuse Injuries, Overtraining, and Burnout in Child and Adolescent Athletes." Pediatrics, Jun 2007; 119: 1242-1245. Retrieved October 15, 2008, at http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/search?andorexactfulltext=and&resourcetype=&disp_type=&sortspec=relevance&fulltext=%22Overuse+is+one+of+the+most+%22&ubmit.x=12&submit.y=14 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002469629
One side argues that, "The specific harm that occurred must have been reasonably foreseeable to the institution in order for a duty to arise" (585). The institutions argue that the student athlete assumes the risk of injury because when playing sports the risk of injury is not unusual. The general feeling that the courts have handed down seems to be that if an athletic is playing an organized sport, that represents the university or school then there is a chance that the said school could be held liable for student injuries, but only if there is evidence of intentional or reckless wrongdoing. When looking at those athlete that have been injured while playing intramural sports the courts have leaned towards the idea that those athletes are aware that there is a risk of injury when they decide to play and that they are thus assuming the risk for such injuries…
Partly because anatomical variation contributes to the development of metatarsal fractures, footwear is particularly important to mitigating any existing predisposing factors to the condition. While conflicting data as to the effect of hard surfaces call into question the assumption that surface density is directly related to metatarsal problems (Laker, Saint-Phard, Tyburski, et al., 2007), the insufficient cushioning properties of athletic footwear likely increases the overall risk nevertheless.
Proper fitting, particularly in the lateral dimension (i.e. width) is directly related to increased susceptibility to metatarsal problems because it further (artificially) contracts the overall surface areas available to dissipate and absorb dynamic forces by squeezing the metatarsals closer to each other as well (Cullen & Hadded, 2004). Finally, excessive roominess in athletic footwear can also contribute to stress fractures and other debilitating foot problems by allowing the foot to develop momentum within the shoe and resulting in momentarily high loads when…
Barsom, R. (2005) Fracture and Fatigue Control in Structures: Applications of Fracture
Mechanics. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Cullen, N. & Hadded, F. (2004). How would you manage the painful midfoot? Pulse,
64(24), p.50 -- 52. Retrieved March 16, 2009, from EBSCO online database.
It is evidenced that soon after lapse of two months of treatment about 67% of the patients administered with manual therapy and 27% of the patients administered with exercise therapy could return to work revealing substantial difference through the follow up period. The study concluded that improvements are noticed in both the groups. However, the improvements in respect the patients administered with manual therapy are more prominent than that with exercise therapy. (Aure; Hoel Nilsen; Vasseljen, 2003)
Thus even though manual therapies are beneficial, it has been debated upon. However irrespective of the fact that delaying methods taking into consideration the reality that it compels the athlete to a therapeutic machine, still then it is acknowledged to have the significant techniques in alleviating pain, rehabilitating the common range of motion, and treating specialized conditions like myofascial pain syndrome. (Holt, 2004) However, such advantages are to be exploited from the physical…
Aure, Olav Frode; Hoel Nilsen, Jens; Vasseljen, Ottar. (15 March, 2003) "Manual Therapy and Exercise Therapy in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized, Controlled Trial with 1-Year Follow-up" Spine. Vol: 28; No: 6; pp: 525-531.
Beeton, Karen. (2003) "Manual Therapy Masterclasses"
Elsevier Health Sciences.
BMJ: Manual therapy beats out traditional treatment." (August, 2003) Journal of the American
5 gram per pound of bodyweight. Proteins give the muscle energy to grow but carbohydrates are just as important to promote the muscle to heal.
The following is a 3 day meal schedule recommended to the athlete:
reakfast- High energy cereal with whole milk
Fruit of his choice
Apricot nectar juice
Corn and peas
Snack (3)- left up to the athlete
reakfast- Eggs and whole wheat or grain toast
Fruit of his choice
aked or roasted fish
Corn and beans
Snack (3)- left up to the athlete
reakfast- Hot cereal with whole milk
Fruit of his choice
Steak or ground beef
Coaching Association of Canada. (2010). "Gaining Weight for Athletes." Retrieved on April 16,
2010 from http://www.coach.ca/admin/pdf_admin/pdf/Nutrition_GainWeight_eng.pdf
Riveria, H. (2010). "Weight Gain and Bulking Up Rules for the Natural Bodybuilder."
Retrieved on April 16, 2010 from http://bodybuilding.about.com/od/nutritionbasics/a/bulkingupdiet.htm
Safety Decisions in High School Football
This paper focuses on one aspect of high school football safety. The study explores the issue of higher levels of injury being associated with a particular brand or brands of football helmets worn by high school athletes who play football, and the institutional decisions and actions that follow disclosure of such information. A recent study by Virginia Tech rated helmets worn by professional football players -- helmets worn by high school students have not yet been rated by the university. The study compared helmets manufactured by three companies. High ratings were given to the iddell Speed, the iddell evolution, the iddell evolution IA, the Schutt Ion 4D, the Schutt DNA, and the Xenith X1. Medium ratings were given to the Schutt Air XP and Schutt Air Advantage. Players were warned by Virginia Tech not to wear the iddell VS4 and the Adams A2000. No…
Di Scala, C., S. Scavo Gallagher, and S.E. Schneps. (1997). Causes and outcomes of pediatric injuries occurring at school, Journal of School Health, 67, 384-9.
FACTS About Certified Athletic Trainers and The National Athletic Trainers' Association Retrieved http://www.vata.us/aboutvata/FactsaboutATCS.pdf
International Federation of Sports Medicine, Excessive physical training in children and adolescents, (1991). Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 1, 262-4.
Gerberich, Susan Goodwin, et al., (1983). Concussion incidences and severity in secondary school varsity football players, American Journal of Public Health, 73, 1370-5.
Practical esearch Finding Implementation and Experimentation Stage -- Phase I
The experimenter did not set out to determine specifically which of the various contributing factors (or combinations of factors) identified by the empirical research of medial tibial stress syndrome was most responsible for the experimenter's symptoms. However, since the initial attempts to resolve the symptoms incorporated changes to all of the external variables except a change in running surface, the experimenter immediately sought a softer running surface and temporarily abandoned running on any hard surface that magnified instead of minimized the physiological trauma associated with running on harder surfaces.
Because the empirical research also implicated poor running stride mechanics and excessive vertical elevation, the experimenter devoted considerable attention to making the following specific changes to the running stride: (1) shorter strides to minimize travel of the body while neither foot is in contact with the running surface; (2) conscious attempts…
AOS. (2007). Shin Splints. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00407 .
Braver, R. "How to Test and Treat Exertional Compartment Syndrome: Why the ECS
Diagnosis Is Often Missed" Podiatry Today; Vol. 15 (May 1, 2002). Retrieved
October 20, 2009, from: http://www.podiatrytoday.com /article/382
The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)
However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.
Severe Traumatic Brain njury
The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…
In describing the course of their patients, experienced clinicians who use HBOT to treat patients with brain injury, cerebral palsy, and stroke refer to improvements that may be ignored in standardized measures of motor and neuro-cognitive dysfunction. These measures do not seem to capture the impact of the changes that clinicians and parents perceive. Caregivers' perceptions should be given more weight in evaluating the significance of objective improvements in a patient's function. Unfortunately, studies have not consistently measured caregiver burden, or have assessed it only by self-report. Studies in which the caregivers' burden was directly observed would provide much stronger evidence than is currently available about treatment outcome. (AHRQ Publication Number 03-E049, 2003)
In other words, this somewhat alternative treatment produces results that are more meaningful to the injured person and his or her caregivers.
I have focused here primarily on the biochemical end of treatments for those with traumatic brain injury because it is this level of treatment that offers the long-term possibility of the greatest level of treatment. Such treatments as are described here have the chance to cure traumatic brain injury. But until these are perfected, every other kind of treatment and therapy -- from drug treatments to speech therapy to the love of friends -- will remain priceless.
Then, light exercise, preferably cross-training if the athlete is dealing with overuse issues, may be undertaken. During the initial phase, aerobic exercise should be confined to "heart rates of 120-140 beats per minute ...this can be slowly built up over the period of 6-12 weeks. The emphasis is increasing volume rather than intensity, and volume should be increased gradually up to one hour per day. Once this is volume is reached, intensity can be gradually increased above the lactate threshold" (Peterson 2011).
Preventing overtraining requires moderating the intensity and the duration of work days, and building in one 'cross-training' or rest day into the training schedule. The mental component of overtraining should not be ignored. Not all athletes who train hard experience the syndrome and one reason some athletes are thought to be more vulnerable to overtraining than others is because of personal stresses that can enact an additional toll…
Meehan, Heidi. (2011). Overtraining syndrome. Sports Injury Bulletin.
Retrieved November 17, 2011 at http://www.sportsinjurybulletin.com/archive/overtraining-causes.html
Peterson, Andrea. (2011). Overtraining. Curtin University. Retrieved November 17, 2011 at http://physiotherapy.curtin.edu.au/resources/educational-resources/exphys/00/overtraining.cfm
To verify this diagnosis, a doctor may then order either an X-ray of the area, or more likely, an MRI, which is better at imaging tears in soft tissues. hen surgery is required, these symptoms persist for several weeks after surgery.
Surgery is a common treatment for a rupture to the Achilles tendon; and most often consists of making an incision to the back of the lower leg and stitching together the torn section of the tendon. ("Surgery for an Achilles Tendon Rupture") if the rupture is complete, then the repair may be reinforced by connecting the torn tendon to other nearby muscles. hile the surgery is often performed through an open surgery procedure, if a patient has heart, circulatory, or poor healing risk factors, a percutaneous surgery will be performed. This surgical procedure differs in that it requires a number of small incisions instead of a single large one.…
"Everything About Achilles Tendons." AchillesTendon.com. Web. 26 Mar. 2012.
new branch of science called Sports Science that respectively makes use of motor learning and motor control in the sports industry.
Motor learning and motor control is a field of science that is being studied from a sports point-of-view. Motor learning is connected to all the processes and conditions that affect one's ability to acquire skills, while motor control ascertains neuromuscular performance of individuals. Many people are taking great interest in the learning of motor skills and expertise, and the development of coordination. This new field of sports is based on the use of the knowledge base in the movement and sport sciences, cognitive sciences, and also physical therapy.
Sports science is a new area of study that is forcing people to explore the scientific explanation for David Beckham's superb soccer skills, and even wondering what would Wimbledon be like if say Pete Sampras had to use an…
Computational Learning and Motor Control Lab, available at http://www-slab.usc.edu/,accessed on: November 20, 2003
Graduate Programs: Masters in Motor Control, available at http://www.indiana.edu/~kines/ms_motor.html , accessed on: November 20, 2003
JCU - Motor Learning and Motor Control, available at: www.jcu.edu.au/school/phtm/ises/lev3sub/sp34hbk.html, accessed on: November 20, 2003
Motor Behavior Specialization - Doctoral Degree Program, available at http://www.hhp.ufl.edu/ess/grad/motrbeh1.htm, accessed on: November 20, 2003
Fractures of Tibia and Fibula
Fractures of the Tibia and Fibula
In the human body there are four specific "long bones:" the femur, humerus, tibia, and fibula. ("Tibia (Shinbone) Shaft Fractures") The tibia and fibula are located in the lower part of the leg, between the knee and the ankle. The tibia is the larger of the two, is the weight bearing bone, but also the most common long bone for a person to fracture. However, because serious complications can arise from a fractured tibia, or a fibula, it is vitally important to "be aware of the early warning signs." (Semer, 2001, p. 205) Failure to treat a fracture early can result in permanent damage including disability, paralysis, an even amputation. But with proper treatment, a fracture of the tibia or fibula, or both, can "heal without complications and a person is able to resume his or her normal activities."…
Semer, Nadine. (2001). Practical Plastic Surgeries for Nonsurgeons. Philadelphia:
Hanley & Belfus. Retrieved from:
"Tibia (Shinbone) Shaft Fractures." American Academy of Orthopaedic
esearchers believe that incorporating evidence-based prevention methods can decrease the incidence of ACL ruptures, but an understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of sports injury are a necessary to do this (Posthumus, 2009).
The highest prevalence of extrinsic ACL injuries tends to occur in organized sports especially adolescents participating in pivoting type sports such as football, basketball, and team handball (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In addition to any intrinsic factors and adolescent may have, or predisposing factors, environmental factors surrounding organized sports can also play a role in injury. For example, weather conditions (slippery surface), type of surface sport is played on (grass vs. pavement), proper footwear, and protective bracing (Posthumus, 2009).
A growing concern regarding these injuries and the populations that incur them is that these injuries increase the risk of osteoarthritis (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In fact, after ten years, around half of all people that have suffered…
Ageberg, E., Thombe, R., Neeter, C., Gravare Silbernagel, K., Roos, EM. Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Treated With Training and Surgical Reconstruction or Training Only: A Two to Five-Year Followup. Arthritis Care & Research. 2008; 59(12):1773-79.
Bahr, R., Krosshaug, T. Understanding injury mechanisms: a key component of preventing injuries in sport. Br J. Sports Med. 2005; 39:324 -- 329.
Grindstaff, TL., Hammill, RR., Tuzson, AE., Hertel, J. Neuromuscular Control Training Programs and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates in Female Athletes: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat Analysis. Journal of Athletic Training. 2006; 41(4):450 -- 456.
Health Information Publications (2011). What is the anterior cruciate ligament? eHealthMD retrieved from http://ehealthmd.com
The office and administrative expenses would remain constant even to that point, as would the insurance expense.
Exhibit B: Cash Flow Statement, Year Two
At this point, the business is earning a healthy return and Mr. Ahn is receiving will be able to bring in a reasonable salary. The nature of the business may well change at this point. At the maximum revenue of $144,000 per year the pretax profit would be $63,600. As a result, it is likely that a clinic will be formed with other practitioners in order to minimize expenses and increase profitability.
e did not include taxes in our cash flow examples because the company is going to be set up as a sole proprietorship. This means that the income from the company will be rolled into the income for Mr. Ahn, as well as his liabilities. Mr. Ahn's personal expenses are therefore not included in…
No author (2007). Traditional Chinese Medicine. Alternative Medicine Foundation. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://www.amfoundation.org/tcm.htm
No author (2005). Regulation of TCM in the United States. Medscape Today. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/511877_7
No author (2008). HIV / AIDS, the U.S.-China Partnership for Public Health at Work, and Traditional Chinese Medicine in the U.S. Fact Sheet. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://www.hhs.gov/news/facts/chinahiv.html
Census information from U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en
Addictive Nature of Vicodin
According to statistics provided by the Department of Health and Human Services, an estimated one and one-half million people in the United States started taking prescription painkillers for "non-medical" purposes in 1998, three times as many as in 1990. One of the most heavily abused painkillers is Vicodin.
Properly used, Vicodin is one of the most commonly prescribed pain medications, especially for those suffering from lower back pain, arthritis, post-operative distress, malignant cancer or sports injuries. It is not time-released, and therefore provides almost instant relief. Vicodin is a compound of two drugs: acetaminophen (found in Tylenol) and hydrocodone bitartrate. Both are painkillers, but together they are far more effective than either one individually.
Twenty tons of Vicodin are produced annually, and it is marketed under a plethora of brand names including Anexsia, Bancap-HC, Ceta-Plus, Co-Gesic, Dolacet, Hydrocet, Hydrogesic, Hy-Phen, Lorcet, Lortab, Margesic-H, Maxidone, Norco and…
Addicted to Vicodin." Extra, The Waismann Institute in the News #08. March 15, 2001. http://www.methadone-detox.com/vicodin_addiction_extra.html[November 10, 2002].
Associated Press article, Naples News, Wednesday, Nov. 21, 2001. "Deaths from abuse of OxyContin, hydrocodone skyrocketing. http://www.naplesnews.come/01/11/florida/d713145a.htm[November 10, 2002].
Costello, Daniel. "Clean and Sober in 48 Hours?." LA Times, October 28, 2002.
Indiana Prevention Resource Center at Indiana University, findings reported in Time article, March 19, 2001. http://www.jointogether.org/plugin.jtml?siteID=iprc&p=1&Tab=News&Object_ID=266437 .[November 10, 2002].
Breggin, Peter, . "Psychostimulants in the Treatment of Children Diagnosed with ADHD: isks and Mechanism of Action. International Journal of isk and Safety in Medicine 12.3 (1999): 3-35.
Hyman, Steven E. "Statement for the ecord on Methylphenidate (italin) for Children with ADHD." Meeting of the Committee before the House Education and the Workforce Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services, 2000. 5 November 2005. http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t000516c.html.
National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH). "The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America." NIH Publication No. 01-4584. Fact Sheet. Washington, D.C.: NIMH, 2001. 5 November 2005. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/numbers.cfm#23.
National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH). "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder." NIH Publication No. 3572. Washington, D.C.: NIMH, 2003. 5 November 2005. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/adhd.cfm.
O'Meara, Kelly Patricia. "New esearch Indicts italin." Insight on the News 1 Oct. 2001: 22. Questia. 5 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000885567.
White, Hazel L., and Baton ouge.…
Breggin, Peter, R. "Psychostimulants in the Treatment of Children Diagnosed with ADHD: Risks and Mechanism of Action. International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine 12.3 (1999): 3-35.
Hyman, Steven E. "Statement for the Record on Methylphenidate (Ritalin) for Children with ADHD." Meeting of the Committee before the House Education and the Workforce Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services, 2000. 5 November 2005. http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t000516c.html .
National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH). "The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America." NIH Publication No. 01-4584. Fact Sheet. Washington, D.C.: NIMH, 2001. 5 November 2005. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/numbers.cfm#23 .
National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH). "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder." NIH Publication No. 3572. Washington, D.C.: NIMH, 2003. 5 November 2005. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/adhd.cfm .
Arthritic conditions found within the joints of the body: their causes, treatment, current research, and what effect they have on athletic participation.
Types of Arthritis
Causes of Arthritis
Arthritis and Athletic Activities
Arthritis is said to be the number one cause of disability in the United States, with more individuals disabled with arthritis than by both heart disease and strokes (Lewis 2000).
Arthritis is also a disease that is plagued with misunderstanding. The Center for Disease Control warns that it is these misunderstandings that result in the disease doing so much harm (Lewis 2000).
Some of the common misunderstandings involve recognizing that there are different types of arthritis and that arthritis is not only a disease of the aged. Arthritis is also often not taken seriously enough in its early stages, preventing individuals from seeking medical help that could…
AAOS: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. (2000). Arthritis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
The Arthritis & Glucosamine Resource Center. (2002). Treating and Preventing Sports Injuries & Secondary Arthritis. http://www.arthritis-glucosamine.net/arthritis/sports-injuries-arthritis.html
Arthritis Foundation. (2002). Progress and Opportunities in Rheumatoid Arthritis. http://www.arthritis.org/research/research_program/RA/default.asp
Lewis, C. (May-June 2000). Arthritis: Timely Treatments for an Ageless Disease. FDA Consumer, 34:3.
It is argued that teacher are exposed to role conflict, role ambiguity, lack of autonomy, social isolation and lack of self-fulfillment resulting from the special position in the schools bureaucratic system. Coupled with this is the general tendency for the teaching profession to be the least rewarded in the hierarchy of jobs.
The physical education teacher and burnout intersect at two different but related points. Firstly the notion that the teacher's reward is in heaven as some writers argue positions the teaching job as sacrificial for which adequate compensation is not given. The situation among physical education teacher has been exhausted in a lot of research because of specific peculiarities. Parsons (1968) has already discovered that the physical education teacher and the teaching profession's professionalism are highly questionable under the functional theory. Parsons who is the originator of this theory has been one of the forthright analysts of teachers and…
Akers RL. (1985) Adolescent marijuana use: A test of three theories of deviant behavior. Deviant Behavior, 6(4):323-346
Akers RL. (1989) Social learning theory and alcohol behavior among the elderly. Sociological Quarterly, 30(4):625-638
Akers RL. (1996) A longitudinal test of social learning theory: Adolescent smoking. Journal of Drug Issues, 26(2):317-343
Akers RL, Krohn MD, Lanza-Kaduce Lonn, and Rodosevich M. (1979) Social learning and deviant behavior: A specific test of a general theory. American Sociological Review, 44:636-655.
For example, because different etiologies require corresponding therapeutic designs and mechanisms (Spector, 2000; Steefel, 2002), specific support group makeup must consider the need to develop different strategies and methodologies for the following types of patients at a minimum if support groups are to provide equal benefit to all patients:
Elderly Patients and Lifelong Laborers - This group typically presents with psychological issues in the realm of a direct link between their sense of purpose and self-worth and their ability to continue to function productively in their community. Their need for acute medical and ancillary services, particularly in the Longview/East Texas community are often precipitated by chronic physical deterioration from a lifetime of relatively hard labor. Therefore, support group rehabilitation services must address the issues of self-esteem as a function of vocational productivity and lifestyle changes necessitated by medical conditions.
Prime-of-Life Victims of Traumatic Injury - This group typically presents with…
Clark, C., Robinson, T. (2000). "Multiculturalism as a Concept in Nursing" Journal of the Black Nurses Association, 11(2), 39-43.
Spector, R. (2000). Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Stanhope, M., Lancaster, J. (2004). Community and Public Health Nursing (6th ed.)
St. Louis: Mosby.
One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.
Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…
Adiguzel, O., Kaptanoglu, E., Turgut, B., & Nacitarhan, V. (2004). The possible effect of clinical recovery on regional cerebral blood flow deficits in fibromyalgia: a prospective study with semiquantitative SPECT. South Med J, 97, 7, 651-655
Baldry, P. (1993). Complementary medicine. The practice of acupuncture needs tighter safeguards. Bmj, 307, 6899, 326
Baumgartner, E., Finckh, A., Cedraschi, C., & Vischer, T.L. (2002). A six-year prospective study of a cohort of patients with fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis, 61, 7, 644-645
Bennet, Robert. (2000). The Scientific Basis for Understanding Pain in Fibromyalgia. Myalgia.com. Retrieved August 21, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.myalgia.com/Scientific%20basis.htm
Social Network and Its Effects on the Developing Brain
The enhancing quantity of time kids are investing on computer systems in their home and institution has actually raised concerns about how using computer innovation might make a distinction in their lives-- from assisting with research to triggering depression to motivating terrible habits. This short article offers a review of the restricted study on the impacts of personal computer use on kids' physical development. Preliminary study recommends, for instance, that access to computer systems enhances the overall quantity of time kids invest in front of a TV or computer screen at the expenditure of other individual tasks, therefore putting them at danger for excessive weight. At the exact same time, intellectual study recommends that playing video game can be an essential foundation to computer proficiency due to the fact that it boosts kids' capability to check out and picture images in…
Deadwyler, S.A. (2008) 'Systemic and nasal delivery of Orexin -- A (Hypocretin-1) reduces the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance in nonhuman primates', Journal of Neuroscience, 27 (52): 14239 -- 47.
Linn, S. And Poussaint, A.F. (1999). The Trouble With Teletubbies. The American prospect. May 1, 1999. June.
Sigman, A. (2007a) Remotely Controlled: How Television Is Damaging Our Lives, Vermilion, London
Sigman, A. (2007b) 'Visual voodoo: the biological impact of watching television', The Biologist, 54 (1): 14 -- 19
The practice of manipulative thrust therapy can be dangerous and cases of injuries and tragic events have been recorded. Cases of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) have been recorded in people that had the cervical spine manipulation technique done and research on the cases from 1966 to 1993 concluded 30% could be attributed to the procedure (Cleland 2007). VADs are spontaneous and can be normally present at the initial onset of headaches or neck pain. This represents the conclusion that the VAD was present before the technique is performed on a patient complaining of neck pain. The debate over the truth is still being waged. Even authors have joined the debate but they are touted as biased and do not support the evidenced based in research (User's Guide 2008).
Other debates rage as well. The risks of the manipulative thrusts therapies are actually no worse the risks from NSAIDs and cervical…
Anonymous. "Activator turns 35." Dynamic Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic CA. 2001. HighBeam Research. 24 Apr. 2010 .
Anonymous. "Study Finds "Manual Therapy" Effective for Shoulder Dysfunction/Pain." Dynamic Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic CA. 2004. HighBeam Research. 24 Apr. 2010 .
Anonymous. "Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics." Dynamic Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic CA. 2006. HighBeam Research. 24 Apr. 2010 .
Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2001 Vol. 47-163-24 April 2010
This is a question of medical ethics and doctor's clinic cannot be held responsible for not taking the case.
Apart from the physicians and specialists working in the doctor's clinic, there is always a registered nurse present who supervises outpatient service. This registered nurse is usually one person who is granted numerous powers because of her ample experience in the field. It is desirable that such a person has had his/her training at various well-known hospitals and is capable of managing outpatient service smoothly. The doctor's clinic might also employ the services of a trained anesthetist. It is important to know that not all doctor's clinics have full-time anesthetists working for them. In most cases, they are called as and when their services are required.
While most people working at the doctor's clinic have had medical training, there are still some positions that do not require medical know-how. These include…
The relevant topics include mental workload, cognition, decision-making, skilled performance, human-computer interaction, human reliability, work stress, training, cultural differences, attitudes, pleasure and motivation.
Organisational ergonomics: Concerned with the optimisation of socio-technical systems, including their organisational structures, policies, and processes. The relevant topics include communication, staff resource management, work design, design of working times, teamwork, participatory design, community ergonomics, co-operative work, new work paradigms, organisational culture, virtual organisations and quality management. (David, nd)
usinesses have responsibilities to those who work for them as well as to those who visit the organization. In the public sector ergonomics are "extremely important n defining standards and legislation and in ensuring compliance with the standards and legislation.
VI. Ten Top Tips for Ergonomics
Ten top tips provided by David (nd) are the tips as follows: "(1) Ergonomics should be an integral part of the design process, preferably involving qualified ergonomists within the design team. Most…
Coleman, Roger (2006) From Margins to Mainstream: Why Inclusive Design is Better. Helen Hamlyn Research Centre, Royal College of Art, London. Online available at http://www.ergonomics.org.uk/espdfs/ErgSocLecture.pdf .
Rennie, Claire (2006) Some Talk of Alexander. Ability. Issue 61 Spring 2006. Online available at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:MysQIVQQ_6UJ:www.ni-libraries.net/app/content/docs/ability61.pdf+Ergonomic+needs+of+users+and+employees+of+UK+Local+Authority+Leisure+Centres&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=56&gl=us.
Mid Devon District Council Annual Report on Health and Safety; 1 April 2005-30 April 2006. Online available at ( http://www.middevon.gov.uk/media/pdf/j/k/Agenda_Item_4 (a).pdf
Employer's Forum Update September (2002) Online available at http://www.employers-forum.co.uk/www/guests/update/september2002/up0902.doc.
PATHOLOGIES AND PROCEDURES
The skull is hard, resilient and provides excellent protection to the brain (Heller, 2012; Khan, 2013). ut a severe head injury caused by a blow or impact can fracture the skull and even injure the brain. Damage to the brain can be in the form of damage to the nervous system tissue and bleeding. It can also be in the form of blood clots under the skull that can press against brain tissue. A simple fracture breaks the bone without damaging the skin. A break on the cranial bone, which resembles a thin line, without splinters, depression or distortion is called a linear skull fracture. A break with a depression towards the brain is called a depressed skull fracture. And a break in the bone with splinters or loss of skin is called a compound fracture. Causes of all these fractures are head trauma, falls,…
Best Practice (2011). Skull fractures. BMJ Evidence Centre: BMJ Publishing Group,
Limited. Retrieved on September 25, 2013 from http://www.bestpractice.bmj.com/best_practice/monograph/398/treatment/step-by-step.html
Heller, J.L. (2012). Skull fractures. MedlinePlus: Adam, Inc. Retrieved on September 26,
2013 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000060.htm
Next, estwood explains how educators must compartmentalize lesson plans as to minimize the amount of information the student must cognitively digest. The smaller the lesson plans, the greater chance that child has at retaining that information. It is large lesson plans filled with complex amounts of information which provides an environment which the memory challenged child will undoubtedly fail.
Another key method for improving learning abilities in children with memory issues is the use of visual material to help aid recall. Visual cues are one of the most efficient ways to improve recall in children with memory loss. By relating necessary information to a picture or object which is less likely to be forgotten, the child will be able to associate the two and therefore remember one with the other. Teachers must also encourage their students to associate information with visual cues which are most familiar with each individual student,…
Westwood, Peter. (2003). Students with physical disabilities and sensory impairments.
Commonsense Methodology for Children with Special Needs: Strategies for Regular Classrooms. RoutledgeFalmer. New York. Pp. 36-54.
(Stasz, and Bodilly, 2004)
In the press release by Mike Bowler and David Thomas (2005), High School Students Using Dual Enrollment Programs to Earn College Credits, New eports Say. According to this report, the federal budget proposes to increase access to "dual enrollment" programs for at-risk students. Out of the approximately 2,050 institutions with dual enrollment programs, almost 110 institutions, or 5% (about 2% of all institutions) offered dual enrollment programs specifically aimed toward high school students "at risk" for failing academically. Two new reports by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics also confirm that high school students currently take advantage of programs to earn college credits. The High School Initiative, designed to help prepare high school students to graduate with skills needed to succeed, permits states and districts to utilize funding for:
individual performance plans, dropout prevention efforts, demanding vocational and technical courses, college awareness…
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Christle, C.A., Jolivette, K., & Michael, N.C. (2007). School Characteristics Related to High School Dropout Rates. Remedial and Special Education, 28(6), 325+. Retrieved March 5, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024401870 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023042611
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