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This implies that it will bridge the existing gap between practice and research and shift of sports activities from clinical models towards educational models. Apart from this, the sports media professionals will focus on important issues such as taking into consideration gender and social issues and interdisciplinary relationships to shape the face of the sports media in the future (yba, 2005).
It is postulated that the constantly changing needs of the fans, teams, marketing professionals and leagues will result in an increased formation of alliances with the media forced to operate, viewers have unprecedented access to numerous sports related distribution channels. This will be characterized by the need for adoption of sophisticated technology to reinvent the sports media. The technology will transform the landscape of the sports media. Most teams, stars, and leagues will develop and control their own companies (media) in the future as compared to the present where…
Andrews, D.L. (2001). Michael Jordan, Inc.: Corporate sport, media culture, and late modern America. Albany: State Univ. Of New York Press.
Billings, a.C. (2009). Communicating about sports media: Culture collide. Lexington, Ky: Aresta
Ryba, T.V. (2005). Sport Psychology as Cultural Praxis?: Future Trajectories and Current Possibilities. Athletic Insight, 7 (4), 14 -- 22.
Schultz, B., & Sheffer, M. Lou. (2011). Factors Influencing Sports Consumption in the Era of New Media. Web Journal of Mass Communication Research, 37 (2), 1. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ufh&an=70879342&site=ehost-live&scope=site
For instance, team allegiances and celebrity athletes may affect personal identity construction. Fans of a team often organize their social lives around sporting events. The Olympics is a special example of how media-sport is used to promote cross-cultural awareness or in some cases as a political tool.
Almost ten years after Moragas (1996) wrote, the media-sport phenomenon has proliferated. Dedicated sports channels on cable have become highly specified so that one type of sport (such as hockey or soccer) can have its own network, and in some cases more than one. The plethora of programming available and the number of paying customers proves how integral sports media and media-sport has become for the culture, the individual, and the marketplace.
Moragas, Miquel de. (1996). The new role of the mass media in the construction of sport and Olympic values. etrieved Feb 1, 2010 from…
Moragas, Miquel de. (1996). The new role of the mass media in the construction of sport and Olympic values. Retrieved Feb 1, 2010 from http://olympicstudies.uab.es/pdf/wp051_eng.pdf
Social Change Through omen's Sports
Promoting Social Change Through omen's Sports Leadership
The problems that cry out for social change solutions
No one who is intelligent, literate, and who is paying attention could avoid the fact that much of the world today is in need of fresh and creative ways to resolve cultural and social conflicts and to build better communities where families feel safe and futures seem secure. ar, bloodshed, racial rage, and mindless military carnage -- in addition to the disturbing, ongoing violence against women -- make up too much of the front pages of daily newspapers. Dramatic social changes are desperately needed, and the plans for those changes have yet to be drawn up by present political leadership in the United States and elsewhere.
Over the first week in October, for example: suicide bombers killed 19 innocent tourists in Bali; car bomb blasts killed numerous citizens and…
American Association of University Women. (2004). Report Card on Gender Equity. Retrieved October 5, 2005, from http://www.aauw.org .
Christofides, Nicola J.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Webster, Naomi; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Abrahams,
Naeema & Martin, Lorna J. (2005). "Other patients are really in need of medical attention" the quality of health care services for rape survivors in South Africa. Bulletin of the World
Health Organization, 83(7), 495-502.
But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). unning through Kenya. Slate.com. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Johnson, Jenna. (2010). NCAA graduation rates. The Washington Post. etrieved September 20,
2010 at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/campus-overload/2010/03/another_ncaa_bracket_player_gr.html
Lehrer, Jonah. (2010, August 24). How to raise a superstar. Wired Science. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/how-to-raise-a-superstar/#ixzz107NwUSGh
Lovett, C. (1997). The fight to establish the women's Olympic marathon race. Olympic Marathon, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. etrieved September 21,
2010 at http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/chapter25.cfm
Williams, Kam. (2006). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves. AALBC.
etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://aalbc.com/reviews/forty_million_dollar_slaves.htm
Witt, Jon. (2006). The…
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutRE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Slate.com. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Media Portrayal of Sexes
abies, when born, have no inherent knowledge about how girls and boys, men and women, are "supposed to act." They learn their cultural roles from the culture around them -- their adult and older-child role models, and more and more, through the media. As one writer quoted lum, "Nothing in biology labels behaviors as right or wrong, normal or abnormal. Any stereotypes we impose on children -- and by extension, adults -- are purely cultural, not biological" (Abels, 2002). Depiction of males and females in popular media is in a constant change of flux, partly based on inaccurate stereotype but partly reflecting the very real diversity seen in both sexes.
Experts in the field believe that children begin to learn what gender role is expected of them early in childhood, and that these expectations are communicated to them both purposefully and in unintended lessons. Part of…
Abels, Lori. 2002. "Sex-role stereotypes in TV Programs aimed at the preschool audience: an analysis of Teletubbies and Barney & Friends." Women and Language, Sept. 22.
Giuliano, Traci A. 2003. "Blood, sweat, and jeers: the impact of the media's heterosexist portrayals on perceptions of male and female athletes." Journal of Sport Behavior, Sept. 1.
MacKenzie, Nancy R. 1998. "Effects of television viewing on children's development." Pediatric Nursing, Sept.
Shugart, Helene A. 2003. "She shoots, she scores: mediated constructions of contemporary female athletes in coverage of the 1999 U.S. women's soccer team." Western Journal of Communication, Jan.
Many will lose income as a result of the event, as will media corporations and sports sponsors. The consumers of sports -- the viewers -- receive information about a political issue rather than a broadcasted game play.
The power of sports to alter political landscapes should not be underestimated. As Spector (nd) points out, the Internet assists boycotts because of the rapid way information is disseminated. Interestingly, sports allows for a type of political protest that protects the actual state government. The vehicle for the dissent is part of popular culture rather than foreign policy. Even when a conscious coalition of nations join into a concerted boycott of a major international event such as Olympics, the boycott remains a peaceful and populist movement. Within a country too, sports boycotts can inspire political activism on domestic issues.
Spector, J.B. (nd). Non-traditional diplomacy: Cultural, academic and sports boycotts and change in…
Spector, J.B. (nd). Non-traditional diplomacy: Cultural, academic and sports boycotts and change in South Africa. Retrieved Feb 1, 2010 from http://www.anc.org.za/un/conference/jbspector.pdf
In many cases, the sports that are largely ignored in the U.S. are equally deserving of national exposure and coverage, because they demand the same level of natural talent, skill, and expertise as those high-profile sports that enjoy extensive national coverage.
Especially in the wake of recent revelations and scandals arising in the major American sports involving use of steroids, violent assaults on women, driving under the influence of alcohol, and federal convictions for those types of crimes as well as for cruelty to animals have undermined the traditional reputation of professional athletes as role models in modern American society. To date, no such controversies have plagued any of the lesser-appreciated sports in the U.S. In that regard, surfing in particular is associated with health, vitality, and natural physical fitness that is not at all likely to fall prey to illegal or performance-enhancing drug use in the sport. Furthermore, unlike…
MEDIA LA: Argue Against: Discuss 1st amendment implications Family Prevention Tobacco Act 2009. Are tobacco
The Family Prevention Tobacco Act of 2009 was one of the more controversial pieces of legislature passed in recent times, for the simple fact that it gave a great deal of authority to the Food and Drug Administration to limit the effectiveness of the tobacco industry and its various companies to sell its products. There are multiple components of this legislation, which encompass various aspects of sales, advertising, inspections and registration of new products on the part of manufacturers. Among the many points of dissension that individual and collective entities within this industry claim regarding this legislation is that it limits their First Amendment right of freedom of speech. A thorough examination of the spirit and the lettering of this act, however, reveals that of its many different components, only one (that pertaining to advertising)…
No author. "Tobacco Controls Have Public Health Impact." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/Features/TobaccoControls/
Sifferland, Alexandria. "Colorful Ways Tobacco Industry May Be Skirting Labeling Rules." Time. 2013. Web. http://healthland.time.com/2013/03/15/colorful-way-tobacco-industry-may-be-skirting-labeling-rules/
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "Overview of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act: Consumer fact Sheet." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2013. Web. http://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/ucm246129.htm
In a one day diary of media consumption, it becomes evident that many of my interactions with the world are via media. I receive most of my information through media forms as well. Even when relaxing, media is something that drives the process. There is also a lot of passive consumption of media in my daily life. My media consumption will be analyzed through the lens of different media theories.
Turow argues that media and advertisers have become exceptionally adept since the 1970s at understanding audiences, their consumption patterns, and how to exploit these. For our part as audience, we have much less understanding of our own consumption patterns. This exercise was the first time that I had really given thought to my daily media exposure, only to realize that my use of media is constant, throughout the day, and sometimes very passive. I used media forms as…
Turow, J. (1997). Breaking up America University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Fenton, N. (no date). The internet and social networking. In possession of the author.
Vietnam films have rewritten the winners and the losers of that saga and action-adventure films reinforce cultural norms of violence and power (175). Despite the increased real presence of women in positions of power, often media representations of women and other formerly disenfranchised groups remain stereotyped or relegated to marginal or token roles, although this is changing. Still, certain outlets like women's magazines often function as advertisements that perpetuate corporate images that make women feel worse, rather than better about themselves (188). Furthermore, a hegemonic ideology is implied by supposedly mainstream news organizations. Consider the construct of 'economic news.' This implies that the 'economy' is in a neat little box, and that social issues of race and political disenfranchisement, limits on wealth and access to education and power, have no role in who possess wealth and who lacks wealth in society. Economics as separate from other issues is essentially an…
Elliot, D.L., Moe, E.L., Goldberg, L., Defrancesco, C.A., Durham, M.B., & Hix-mall, H. (2006). Definition and Outcome of a Curriculum to Prevent Disordered Eating and Body haping Drug Use. Journal of chool Health, 76(2), 67+. Retrieved February 15, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5028537762
Maletto, Pete. (2008, October 1). ports nutrition: past, present and future: in order to understand where this market is headed it's important to know where it's been. Nutraceuticals World. Rodman Publications, Inc. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-188444472.html
Ray, Tracy R., & Fowler, Rachel. (2004, eptember 1). Current issues in sports nutrition in athletes. outhern Medical Journal. outhern Medical Association. 2004. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1123332696.html
haw, Greg, Cox, Greg, & Barnard. Janelle. (2007). ports nutrition: case studies 2. Nutrition & Dietetics: The Journal of the DietitiansAssociation of Australia. Dietitians Association of Australia. Retrieved February 15, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-165578876.html…
Sports nutrition vital for athletes.(2005, May 15). New Straits Times. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-108754539.html
Tallon, Mark J. (2007, November 1). Enzymes' new potential in an emerging wellness market. Functional Ingredients. Penton Media OH & IL. Retrieved February 15, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1399950491.html
2008, March 1). Sports nutrition goes natural. Functional Ingredients. Penton Media OH & IL. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P31456902041.html
Sport Promotion Mix
Kotler's promotion mix consists of advertising, publicity, personal contact, incentives, and atmospherics as well as licensing, sponsorship, and community relations to represent the contemporary sport promotion mix (Irwin, 2008). The New York Yankees the contemporary promotion mix. They have advertising of ticket sales, news articles and videos as publicity, blogs for personal contact with fans, discounts on tickets as incentives, and atmospherics with a showcase of bleachers, licensing with team logo items, sponsorships with corporations, and community relations with donations and fund drives.
Advertising is done for ticket sales (Home Page) and team logo items (New York Yankees), such as t-shirts, hats, etc. The advertised items serve two fold in the promotion mix. Ticket sales contain incentives in 12-game and group packages that offer discounts to consumers. The team logo items are advertised for sale, but also contain the licensing of the team logo. The team logo…
New York Yankees. (2013). Retrieved from ESPN MLB: http://espn.go.com/mlb/team/_/name/nyy/new-york-yankees
Yankee Publications. (2013). Retrieved from Heros Remembered. Legends Born.: http://newyork.yankees.mlb.com/nyy/fan_forum/publications.jsp
Bryant, A. (1993, Apr 5). The Media Business: Advertising; For a Major League Baseball Team, the Season's First Pitch Comes Well Before Opening Up. Retrieved from New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com /1003/04/05/business/media-business-advertising-for-major-league-baseball-team-season-s-first-pitch.html
Home Page. (n.d.). Retrieved from Heros Remembered. Legends Born.: http://newyork.yankees.mlb.com/inde , jsp-c_id=nyy
Anti-discrimination laws are enforced and companies are rated by their policies of tolerance. Homophobia is gradually being extricated from the American consciousness and so is sexism. The media plays a major role in how the American consciousness changes and those changes have an indelible impact on the character of the American Dream.
Thomspon also notes that Thrice was well-loved by his teammates. The community rallied in support of Thrice and there was a general outcry after he died. Being American has always entailed appreciation for grassroots movements. The social and political realities that evolve depend on grassroots movements. Grassroots movements precede legislation and policy changes. America becomes more of a real democracy as grassroots movements offer a voice for the most disenfranchised elements of society. Grassroots movements prevent tyrannnies of the majority and enable minority opinions to make their way into public policy. The American government remains a government of…
The Declaration of Independence." Indiana University School of Law. Retrieved April 1, 2007 at http://www.law.indiana.edu/uslawdocs/declaration.html
Library of Congress (2002). What is the American Dream? Retrieved April 1, 2007 at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/lessons/97/dream/thedream.html
United States Constitution: Fourteenth Amendment. Retrieved April 1, 2007 at
These results are important, however, in understanding if and how media images may be related to eating disorders in women. Polivy and Herman (2004) ask the commonsense question: "Why do women and girls continue to buy fashion magazines featuring thin models that make them feel anxious, depressed, and generally miserable about their bodies?" Some women find them to be a relaxing way to spend time. This shows that it is much too simple-minded for people to say that media images make women feel bad about themselves. Wouldn't it be smart to consider that maybe these small populations of women who do develop eating disorders are already dissatisfied and the media images may reinforce their inherent paranoia about their bodies? Or, perhaps it is people who are critical of every aspect of media who feel like they need to criticize the media because they themselves are made to feel insecure about…
Groesz, L.M., Levine, M.P., & Murnen, S.K. (2002). The effect of experimental presentation of thin media images on body satisfaction: A meta-analytic review.
International Journal of Eating Disorders, 31, 1-16.
Polivy, J. & Herman, P.C. (2004). Sociocultural idealization of thin female body shapes:
an introduction to the special issue on body image and eating disorders. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(1), 1-6.
Government officials and elected officers become unwilling to provide limited public funds to broadcasters whose audiences are becoming smaller, forcing public service programmers to reach for larger audiences with different types of program content. "While multiple program sources -- cable, home video -- make it unlikely that these systems will move toward "mass audience programming" it is the case that the face of broadcasting is changing in these contexts" (Narrowcasting, 2012).
Digital signage networks for narrowcast advertising are becoming part of the mainstream and not some sort of on the edge experimental medium reserved for the daring and advanced. ather than being seen as a risk in the eyes of media buyers, they are becoming a vital communications path for marketers and advertisers wishing to sway consumer spending decisions at the point of purchase. It isn't particularly surprising that narrowcast digital signage networks are entering the mainstream. Advertising buyers and…
Little, D. (2007). Digital signage -- InfoTrends sees significant growth for narrowcasting.
Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Digital-Signage-InfoTrends-Sees -
Narrowcasting. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?entrycode=narrowcasting
This has already occurred in many sports and the newest and most "extreme" will likely mirror these effects of technology within the next few years.
Technology, according to some, has taken the fun and danger out of many sports that were once considered highly dangerous or extreme. This has led to the abandonment of some sports that were once considered extreme in favor of other ones that are relatively new or are actually more dangerous, technological advancements aside (Horton, 2004). But just as technological advances in other fields invariably appear and creep forward, so too with the advances in these most extreme of extreme sports.
Extreme sports, in one way or another, have been around as long as sport has existed. The effects of commercialization and of technological advances on many of these sports have been profound, and the media's influence and advancement of access for more participants has changed…
Brimer, E and Oades, L.G. (2009). "Extreme Sports- A Positive Transformation in Courage and Humility." Journal of Humanistic Psychology. Vol. 49, No. 1. Pp. 114-126.
Horton, David. (2004). "Extreme Sports and Assumption of Risk: A Blueprint." USFL
Review. Vol. 38. Pp. 599-613.
Le Breton, David. (2000). "Playing Symbolically with Death in Extreme Sports." Body
Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable…
Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial
and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard
Journal of Communications. 12. (2001): 183-208. Print.
"HR and Employment Law News." Hr.blr.com. HR BLR, 3 October 2003. Web. 4
Scandal/Controversy in Sports
The following will take a look to see if scandal and controversy benefit sports.
Background of Sports Industry and Scandals
Sports in the U.S. is a multi-billion-dollar industry. Companies try to engage with clients by aligning the services and products they offer with this well-known industry via sports funding and endorsement. The benefit of this involvement has been well-recorded in the sports marketing literature (Hughes and Shank, 2005). The effect on business brands in case a scandal surfaces regarding an athletic supporter like a player, coach, or a team however, is less well-known. Several sports scandals, for instance, the rape case surrounding Kobe Bryant and the University of Colorado recruitment scandal raise very serious questions regarding the effect of sports scandals on amateur and professional athletic institutions, participants, sponsors, as well as other stakeholders.
Whereas conventional corporate sports supporters like Nike maintain omnipresence, several other different kinds…
Alessi. (2014). TheRichest - The World's Most Entertaining Site. Top 10 Sports Betting Scandals and Controversies - TheRichest. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.therichest.com/sports/top-10-sports-betting-scandals-and-controversies/
Doorty, A. (2016). Odyssey. Is Scandal Good for Baseball? Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.theodysseyonline.com/are-scandals-good-for-baseball
Fisher, R., & Wakefield, K. (1998). Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and losers. Psychology & Marketing, 15(1). Retrieved, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199801)15:1%3C23::AID-MAR3%3E3.0.CO;2-P/abstract
Garg. (2010). The Hoya. Scandals Show Need to Pay College Athletes. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.thehoya.com/scandals-show-need-to-pay-college-athletes/
The concept of dividing a mass market into homogeneous segments and targeting one or more with a distinct product offering and unique marketing communication is a fundamental precept of marketing theory. Market segmentation recognizes that different customer groups have different wants and needs that justify the development and offering of different products and services. The process of segmentation theoretically results in a much better understanding of users' needs, their decision criteria, and their approaches. Although much of the theory of market segmentation is appreciated and understood by sport marketers, it remains one of the more difficult marketing concepts to turn into profitable reality.
Consumer segmentation can help the sport marketer in the following areas. First, it allows an analysis of the marketplace, including a knowledge of competitors as well as how and why customers buy. Second, it can contribute to the strategic management of an organization in that it allows…
Wann, D.L., Hamlet, M.A., Wilson, T.M., & Hodges, J.A. (1995). Basking in reflected glory, cutting off reflected failure, and cutting off future failure: The importance of group identification. The Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 23, 377-388.
Zimbalist, A. (1992). Baseball and Billions. New York: Basic Books.
Winning teams are in the news, both on a local and national level (Frank 2004). This then serves as an unprecedented spotlight for national advertising. In 1984, Boston College saw a 12% increase in applications after winning the Orange Bowl (Frank 2004). This win was not any average win. It was an extremely close and exciting game that ending with a miracle passes from Doug Flutie that finished off the game. This excitement and the subsequent media coverage of the game afterwards created a firestorm that provided Boston college with free national advertising. This advertising serves not only to generate more students, but also as a way to increase alumni donations. When a school's name is present in daily or weekly national media, the alumni are constantly reminded of their school and the success it is attaining in the field of athletics. This reminder serves as a powerful marketing tool…
Frank, Robert H. (2004). Challenging the myth. Knight Foundation. Retrieved 23 Oct 2009 at http://www.knightfoundation.org/dotAsset/131763.pdf
Medema, Samantha. (1008). Alumni donations increase. The Retriever Weekly. Retrieved 24 Oct 2009 at http://www.retrieverweekly.com/?module=displaystory&story_id=3937&edition_id=106&format=html
Larimore, David. (2007). Non-economic societal impacts of intercollegiate athletics. The Sports Journal. Retrieved 24 Oct 2009 at http://www.thesportjournal.org/article/non-economic-societal-impacts-intercollegiate-athletics
Porto, Brian L. (2003). A New Season: Using Title IX to Reform College Sports. Greenwood Publishing Group.
" Meanwhile the networks have critics cornered; if a reviewer says attractive women are on the sidelines to stimulate libidos in male viewers, those critics are sexist. Although it is obvious in a brutally violent game, an attractive, well-spoken female brightens up the broadcast aesthetically, it is also sexist to assume beautiful women don't understand football. As Andrew writes, "I love it when my wife talks about zone defense."
Meanwhile a research article ("College students' attitudes toward the sexualization of professional women") reported two experiments that examined "how tawdry media sexualizations of… women athletes influence the perceived gender-role orientation of athletes" (Harrison, et al., 2010). The findings revealed that when female basketball players were presented to 85 students (64 women, 24 men) in "tawdry sexualization" scenes, the perception was that they were "feminine" (read that heterosexual). However, female athletes that are beautiful and sexy "violate traditional expectations that athletes have…
Harrison, Lisa a, and Secarea, Ashley M. (2010). College Students' attitudes toward the sexualization of professional women athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 33(4), 403-427.
Levitt, Steven D., and Dubner, Stephen J. (2010). Why Are Most of Football's Sideline
Reporters Women? Freakonomics. The New York Times. Retrieved Dec. 17, 2010, from http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com .
Football players can be evaluated using a player evaluation form like the one appearing in American Football Monthly:http://www.americanfootballmonthly.com/Subaccess/Magazine/2013/May/images/04_Loney_Nichols_EvaluationForm.jpg
This form can be used in a formal evaluation process, either on intake or during considerations for lineup changes, as well as providing ongoing feedback and assessment for players on the roster. While this form is actually quite thorough, providing both psychological and physical feedback, it lacks a few skills that could be important for receivers. For example, the form could be improved on by simply adding an assessment box for how high the player can jump from a standing position. There would also be some need to specialized skills. Otherwise, the form provides for the breadth of skills a player will need to succeed, including attitude, work ethic, and leadership ability. Any additional comments can be placed in the "notes" section or in the side bars related to player's best quality…
Gender stereotyping is a pernicious and pervasive practice. The media reinforces already existing gender norms, thereby perpetuating structural inequalities and gender inequity. However, the media can also be instrumental in transforming gender norms by combatting stereotypes and depicting gender in unconventional ways. Gender stereotypes can confirm unconscious biases and beliefs about the role and status of men and women. Likewise, the portrayals of gender in the media reinforce behavioral norms. Research shows that “constant exposure to the same dated concepts in the media” can lead to adverse effects that can “last a lifetime,” (Knorr, 2017, p. 1). Therefore, it is critical to become active, engaged consumers of media and to increase media literacy throughout the society.
Gender portrayals in the media will differ according to media type, such as news media versus advertisements, or children’s programming versus programming for adults. Similarly, gender stereotypes vary from culture to culture. Although gender…
This ethnographic observation comprises two separate visits to a NHL hockey game, during the regular season. Both of the observations took place at an evening game, which began at 7PM. There are several predispositions of how I believe people will look and behave in this setting. For example, I believed that men would outnumber women. I also believed that about half of the people at the hockey game would be with groups, and especially with families. I believed that roughly half of the attendants would be wearing a hockey team jersey, and that a quarter of the fans would have purchased beer from the stadium kiosks. Shouting and other signs of fan participation and enthusiasm was also expected. I have been to several NHL hockey games, as well as minor league games. This is why I have some expectations of the game but still tried to keep an open…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). The three types of psychology research. Introduction to Research Methods. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/researchmethods/ss/expdesintro.htm
Munro, C.E.S. (2006). Sports fan culture & brand community: an ethnographic case study of the Vancouver Canucks Booster Club. University of British Columbia [Thesis].
Noto, C.S. (2008). The ethnography: What it is and how to write it. Retrieved online: http://voices.yahoo.com/the-ethnography-write-it-1913940.html
"Writing an Ethnography," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.bethelcollege.edu/users/blowers/writing%20an%20ethnography.htm
Traditional Media Strategies
The use of traditional media in sports marketing remains popular. Indeed, sports marketers spend a great deal of resources on television, print, and radio advertising, with sports comprising a substantial portion of ad spending for television and radio channels. A significant percentage of sports fans actually watch sports events for the commercials. They tend to enjoy the commercials more than the game itself. Traditional media enables sports marketers to reach geographically dispersed consumers at a fairly low cost per exposure (Swayne, 2011). Take an event like the FIFA World Cup, for instance. The event has following from virtually every corner of the world. Without television, radio, and the print media, it may be quite difficult to communicate with such a geographically dispersed fan base. For this plan, it would be important to incorporate traditional media. In fact, traditional media should be allocated a significant fraction of the…
MEDIA (MIS) EPSENTATIONS OF CHINESE-AmericanS
Media (Mis) epresentations of Chinese-Americans
Media (Mis) epresentations of Chinese-Americans
In the west, representations of people who are outside of the standard or norm, (white, middle & upper class, male) are not represented with accuracy. Chinese-Americans are one such group that doese not often receive an accurate or dynamically real representation of the spectrum of the culture or the people within it. Media representations in the west of Chinese-Americans are limited to a few stereotypes, generally. Some of those stereotypes include that all Chinese people practice and have mastered martial arts, and that all Chinese have exceptional intelligence in mathematics, sciences, and technology. Another media stereotype of the Chinese is that they are all short of stature, particularly poking fun at short men. Chinese men are often stereotypically represented as geeks or nerds -- exceptionally "book smart," but lacking in coolness and social skills.…
Cheng, J., Hsieh, C., Talgo, S. (2012). Media Representations of Asians. University of Michigan, Web, Available from: http://sitemaker.umich.edu/psy457_tizzle/home . 2013 March 04.
Kwak, A. (2004). Asian-Americans in the Television Media: Creating Incentive for Change. Boston College Third World Journal, 24(2), 395 -- 420.
Wo, E. (2012). Beyond the Color Line: Asian-American Representations in the Media. Claremont Colleges Scripps Senior Thesis, Paper 114, Available from: http://scholarship.claremont.edu/scripps_theses/114 . 2013 March 06.
ports and popular culture (NFL/NBA)
Popular culture entails all forms of mass communication such as:
Books and Cartoons and comics
It is somewhat different compared to higher forms of cultural art such as:
In terms of mass communication, popular culture means messages which are intellectually and artistically limited primarily designed to entertain and humor the viewers (Hollander, 2014). Following the industrial revolution, the people had a lot of time to spare which led to a huge demand for entertainment and amusement and gave height to media. The increasing supply of goods also made it necessary for the advertisers to attract the consumers and mass media could reach a large number of audiences at the same time (Hollander, 2014).
The physical activities have always been in the life of human beings in the form of different leisure…
Sports have played a huge role in the American society on the whole as they have become a necessary part of the popular culture. American football is quite a popular game which brings NFL (National Football League) in limelight. NFL is same to same as other sports have an off season too when they are on a season break. Leagues such as NBA (National Basketball Association), MLB (Major League Baseball) and NHL (National Hockey League) follow the same pattern which builds the hype for them (Lee, 2012). It enables the public to forget all about sports for a while until it swings back in action again. The off season usually consists of training sessions, gym, trading players, NFL Combine and NFL Draft. These activities are heavily kept watch of by loyal fans followed by intense discussions (House, 2012).
Super Bowl is intensely popular in United States. Even the non-followers are somehow influenced by it as they hear news about it or by viewing it. The news channels mention regularly and social media is definitely on fire with news and updates. A famous band plays during halftime while a draw exists for watching the advertisements during the game and halftime (Lee, 2012). Companies are compelled to dish out loads of cash to display advertise themselves as the Super Bowl progresses. These ads are usually creative and funny and sometimes mixed. People for the sake of fun choose a particular team and cheer it till the end or otherwise friends pick a team and contend that it will win the title. It's sort of a public gathering event where food is enjoyed and drinks are taken in huge quantities. Tostitos and Doritos are chips found mostly at super Bowl parties while in case of drinks Coke, Pepsi and Budweiser. For the sports fans, it's their day off as they spend the entire day in front of a TV or mocking the opponent's team for fun. TV shows often give reference to Super Bowl just as Christmas and Halloween. Betting on a high level is also involved for the winning team, people are cut some slack from office, schools and colleges as it's the biggest event of the year (Hollander, 2014).
In 'Popular culture and the rituals of American Football' by Mark Axelrod, several cultural practices in America regarding football are mentioned. Before the ports went global, there were a lot of rituals and myths
The media has a significant influence not only on individuals but also on the society as a whole. Media representations are not merely an echo and emulate of society but rather they are highly discerning and fabricated portrayals. It is the capability of these representations to form and structure our awareness of the world, which is taken into account in this paper. One important aspect that can be shed light on, is the representation of the minority groups or disadvantaged groups in the media (Sanson et al., 2000). This is particularly of great importance since the issues of discrimination and racism have historically and even today been deemed high-profile subject matters. It is imperative to point out that the roles in which these minority groups are portrayed and represented in the media have a tendency of emphasizing stereotypes about them (Sanson et al., 2000). The focus on this…
Dubriel, J. G. (2006). The television portrayals of African-Americans and racial attitudes.
Moore, K., Jewell, J., & Cushion, S. (2011). Media representations of black young men and boys: report of the REACH media monitoring project.
Punyanunt-Carter, N. M. (2008). The perceived realism of African-American portrayals on television. The Howard Journal of Communications, 19(3), 241-257.
Sanson, A., Duck, J., Cupit, G., Ungerer, J., Scuderi, C., Sutton, J. (2000). Media Representations and Responsibilities: Psychological Perspectives. The Australian Psychology Society.
Intercollegiate Athletics Program Guarantee the Success of a College?
Intercollegiate athletics programs are a common feature in most colleges, and many of these programs have been shown to contribute to the education and development of the young people who participate in them. Moreover, intercollegiate athletics programs, especially men's football and basketball, are major revenue generators through ticket sales for many educational institutions. In many cases, colleges that feature high-profile intercollegiate athletics programs enjoy the benefits of these programs through increased revenues and publicity. Even the best intercollegiate athletics program, though, cannot guarantee the success of a college for the reasons identified through a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature which is provided below, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Intercollegiate athletics programs in the United States are divided into various divisions (i.e., Division 1A and 1AA), with the…
Enoch, Jessica and Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense, 3rd ed. Bedford/St. Martin's.
Fizel, J. And Fort, Rodney. Economics of College Sports. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Jones, A. (2009). "Athletics, Applications & Yields." College and University 85(2): 10-12.
Losco, Joseph and Fife, Brian L. Higher Education in Transition: The Challenges of the New
The Wimbledon Tennis tournament as a hallmark-sporting event creates these social and cultural impact of the community. This is because according to theory transient and recurring events act as important methods of collecting identification of host communities. They present opportunities of asserting, reproducing, reinforcing, and contesting prevailing cultural values and beliefs and social norms (Quinn 2009). Hallmark events are identified as functions that support and reinforce the image of established social and cultural norms.
PR Newswire (2012) indicates the unpredictability of the effects of Olympics as its impact may be difficult to evaluate. However, in the case of London's 2012 Olympics, the games left a lasting impression on the socio-cultural context of ritain. According to Dhar (2012), the games led to the unification and social spirit of unity among the ritish during 2012, as compared to the divided and lawlessness associated with urban riots in 2011. The games increased the…
Akerlund, U 2008. Implementation of hallmark events among tourism stakeholders: the discourses of Umea's bid for European Capital of Culture 2014
Andersson, TD, Armbrecht, J and Lundberg, E, 2008. Impact of Mega-Events on the Economy. Asian Business & Management, 7(2), pp. 163-179.
Andrea, C, Andrew, F, Munday, M, and Roberts, a 2007. Assessing the Environmental Consequences of Major Sporting Events: The 2003/04 FA Cup Final. Urban Studies, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 44(3), pp. 457-476.
Anonymous 2012, Apr 18. Olympics 2012: The Economic Impact Market Assessment 2012. PR Newswire.
Given that people engage in sporting events for a wide range of reasons, the authors assert that it is time for athletes to develop a moral code that embraces higher standards of conduct that will help reverse these recent trends and once again provide American sports with a sense of fair play and respect.
Fredenburg, Karen, Rafer Lutz, Glenn Miller et al. (2005). "Dismissals and Perceptions of Pressure in Coaching in Texas High Schools: Similarities and Differences with Previous Studies Show the Contemporary Face of Coaching Pressure." JOPERD-- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76(1):29.
In this essay, the authors report that there have been a number of recent studies and reports that suggest that the pressure in high school sports is growing, rather than declining. The authors cite an article in Sports Illustrated that described the alarming trends of parental misbehavior at youth sport events. The president…
For instance, an employee of any company -- sports team or not -- chooses whether disclosure of information is an ethical duty or not.
Sports that are highly physical raise their own set of ethical issues that reflect the commonsense ethics of everyday life. The use of performance-enhancing drugs might be an ethical one. Players often claim that steroid use is so prevalent that it is becoming normalized and therefore no longer unethical. Gambling on sports is another example of how sports are about the commonsense ethics of everyday life.
Sports can demonstrate how to treat opponents with respect and how to lose or win with dignity. Respecting opponents is a valuable tool for everyday life, being able to confront adversity with strength and power. Some athletes embody graceful winning, whereas others show how greed and egotism can come in the way of good sportsmanlike behavior.
Sports sometimes allow the…
234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.
Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…
Allan, E.J., Gordon, S.P. & Iverson, S.V., Fall 2006. Re/thinking Practices of Power: The Discursive Framing of Leadership in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Review of Higher Education, 30(1), pp. 41-68.
Bourdieu, P., 1978. 'Sport and Social Class,' Social Science Information, 17(6): 819-840. [Online]
Available at: http://ssi.sagepub.com/content/17/6/819.ciatation [Accessed 21 May 2013].
Chesebro, J.W. & Fuse, K., Summer 2001. The Development of a Perceived Masculinity Scale. Communication Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 203-278.
marketing plan a sports enterprise (e.g. professional, school, community program). You select a "real" enterprise a fictitious . You position manager develop a plan implement employees / contractors.
The modern day society is nowadays characterized by numerous challenges, one of the more notable of these being increasing health problems among the population. And these health problems are more severe not only as they attack more people, but especially since they come to impact younger and younger generations.
A large majority of the health problems of today are related to an inadequate nutrition, combined with a sedentary life style. The youth of the day for instance consume more and more calories from the highly processed foods and they exercise less, as the leisure activities come to be centered on video games or other sedentary activities (Smith and Biddle, 2008).
In such a setting then, the current project proposed the…
Armstrong, N., Van Mechelen, W., 2009, Pediatric exercise science and medicine, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press
Longenecker, J.G., Loeza, M.A.T., Small business management, Cengage Learning
Kaser, K., Oelkers, D.B., 2007, Sports and entertainment marketing, 3rd edition, Cengage Learning
Smith, A.L., Bibble, S., 2008, Youth physical activity and sedentary behavior: challenges and solutions, Human Kinetics
American football is a professional sport that was derived from the game of Rugby by Walter Camp in 1879 (ellis). Walter played football at Yale University where he attended college. He was involved in developing the football rules as we know them today. The rules of football were taken from the sports of Rugby and Soccer. Football has grown into a sport that is widely viewed and attended in the American society. Today, people go to football games at middle schools, high schools, and college stadiums. The college games have become professional games that are attended and viewed through media by millions of fans across the American nation.
The rules that were adopted and changed included; one side, or team, retained the undisputed possession of the ball until that side gives up the ball as a result of violations. The line of scrimmage was also created. The number of…
Bellis, M. (n.d.). History of Football. Retrieved from About.com Inventors: http://inventors.about.com/fstartinventions/a/HistoryFootball.htm
Ormeland, B. (2012, July 10). NFL Dynasties and Hall of Famers. Retrieved from Sports Central: http://www.sports-central.org/sports/2012/07/10/nfl_dynasties_and_hall_of_famers.php
Secondly, the report alluded to by CSC asserts that in "gender symmetric" sports there are "far more scholarships available for women (32,656) than for men (20,206)." The third bullet point in the CSC press release points out that men's volleyball is the "by far the most difficult" scholarship at the Division I level; there are reportedly 489 high school athletes for every full ride NCAA scholarship.
The "underlying" data that CSC used to put together their press release comes from two NCAA reports: "1981-82-2006-07 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rate Report" and "2006-07 NCAA Division I Manual." Also factored into the report is data from the national Federation of State High School Associations. And so what is the College Sports Council calling on the federal government -- and the Department of Education (DOE) -- to do? The press release says that "women are accorded far more opportunities to compete and…
American Association of University Women. "Report Card on Gender Equity." Retrieved
June 28, 2009, from http://www.aauw.org . (2004).
Brake, Deborah. "Revisiting Title IX's Feminist Legacy: Moving Beyond the Three-
Part Test." Journal of Gender, Social Policy & The Law, 12(3), 453-473. (2004).
Addiction to Violence in Sports
Violence is a part of human nature. Violence is a natural part of existence. Human beings have some of the greatest tendencies and great potential for abuse of violence as a means of communication or action. Each person is capable of violence, but that possibility does not mean that that person overall is violent. There are a number of ways in which humans beings can exercise their urges for violence in healthy and productive ways. Participating in sports and sporting events is one such activity where humans can demonstrate violent behavior(s) within specific parameters (game rules) and there be no grave consequences. By the very nature of sports, successful and exceptional players demonstrate at least a moderate level of violence as part of their participation; the violence displayed need not be upon opposing players, though that is a facile example. Violence is sports can…
Hardcastle, J. (n.d.) Sports Violence. Available from: www.cyber-spy.com/ebooks/ebooks/Sports-Violence-(ebook).pdf. 2012 July 17.
James, M., & McArdle, D. (2004) Player violence, or violent players?: Vicarious liability for sports participants. The Tort Law Review, 12(3), 1 -- 12.
Jewell, T., Moti, A., Coates, D. (2011) Chapter 2: A Brief History of Violence and Aggression in Spectator Sports. Violence and Aggression in Sporting Contests: Economics, History and Policy, Sports Economics, Management and Policy 4. Jewell, R.T. (ed) Springer Science+Business Media, LLC: TX.
The creation of green spaces would be a highly advantageous project as these spaces could be used as leisure spaces for adults and playgrounds for children.
The partnership between us and the local authorities could have numerous mutual advantages form this point-of-view as they would help promote the campaign while promoting the common initiative regarding the green spaces. Another initiative would be represented by the partnership with various gyms. As incentive they would offer various types of discounts for the targeted audience, as well as personalized classes within a wide range of activity types (from martial arts to pilates).
The products is represented by any type of physical activity. Indoor and outdoor sports are the focus of our campaign. The price of the product is to be adapted to the target audience. The target aged 25 to 32 is to be addressed with special price offers from the part of…
Marketing mix, the executive fast track, 5 April 2008. http://www.12manage.com/methods_marketing_mix.html
Marketing Mix, Value-Based Management, 5 April 2008. http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_marketing_mix.html
2007) Prevalence of regular physical activity among adults- United States, 2001 and 2005, MMWR weekly, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5646a1.htm?s_cid=mm5646a1_e
Promoting physical activity, a guide for community action, 5 April 2008. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/pahand.htm
Even the much despised soccer is popular amongst American youths. Yet Americans cheer on their favorite individual stars in all of these sports, especially if the starts engage in charity efforts to justify their bloated salaries. The tension remains about what good sports do for both the individual or society, and Americans today are clearly using sports as a means of practical self-improvement like the Greeks as well as a means of collective identification like the English: "in the 1950's or 1960's, few people exercised; baseline fitness-consciousness was just above zero. Today, 20% of the U.S. population works out on a regular basis, while an additional 60%+ can be classified as...'Consciousness III' -- those persuaded of physical fitness, but who by their own admission, don't get enough exercise. As behavior lags enlightened attitudes, 4 out of 5 adult Americans are true believers in exercise and fitness." But the protests remain…
Ancient Olympic Events," Peruses Digital Library Project, Edited by Gregory R.
Crane, 2007, Tufts University, 29 May 2007, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu .
Dillon, Sam. "Schools Cut Back Subjects to Push Reading and Math." The New York
Times. 25 Mar 2006. 29 May 2007. http://www.nytimes.com /2006/03/26/education/26child.html?ex=1301029200en=0c91b5bd32dabe2aei=5088partner=rssnytemc=rss
One hundred thousand people packed into the Museumplein near the city's famous museums in Amsterdam, according to Jolly, et al., writing in The New York Times. In China, fans who decided to become vendors were profiting by the sale of vuvuzelas (those annoying horns that are blown throughout all the World Cup games) for $3 U.S. money. "They're all made in Zhejiang," the vendor said, working the rainy streets at Sanlitun, "the rowdiest place in the city." In ogota Columbia, vendors profited from the sale of "pink cotton candy" to the crowds watching the games at the Palace of Justice in olivar Square (Jolly, p. 3).
In Nigeria the results of the World Cup -- with the help of social media on the Internet -- helped change a politician's policy. In this African country, politicians are not known to be responsive to citizens. After the Nigerian soccer team's "dismal performance"…
Amabebe, Eremipagamo, 2010, 'Nigeria: Who changed the President's mind -- Facebook or FIFA?' Global Voices, Retrieved July 30, 2011, from http://globalvoicesonline.org .
Elliott, Stuart. 2010, 'An Underdog Amid the Giants Lining the World Cup's Fields,' The New York Times, Retrieved July 29, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Gaffer. 2010. '2010 World Cup Final: The Most Watched Soccer Game in U.S. History,' . Epltalk.com. Retrieved July 30, 2011, from http://www.epltalk.com .
Hjarvard, Stig, 2008, 'Global Media Cultures: A Research Programme on the Role of Media in Cultural Globalization,' Department of Film and Media Studies, University of Copenhagen. Retrieved July 29, 2011, from www.nordicom.gu.se/common/publ_pdf/37_hjarvard.pdf.
Similarly, women today feel the need to appear beautiful and perfect all the time in order to be a part of a class in society. According to what Kilbourne suggests, women use their bodies as masks or objects that need to be taken care of all the time and kept in perfect shape and condition. The media and the advertisements program their minds to think that their appearance is not perfect and they need to change themselves in a particular manner (Kilbourne, 2002).
One of the main roles that media has played in this subject is to make an individual perceive themselves from the eyes of others and to take it as a responsibility to be appealing to the eyes of the audience instead of what they themselves want to do. Advertisements today sell the bodies of women, not in the literal sense but metaphorically speaking, all advertisements have women…
Dahlberg, J. (2008). Sexual Objectification of Women in Advertising. Journal of Advertising Research .
Galician, M. (2004). Sex, Love and Romance in the Media: Analysis and criticism of the unrealistic portrayal of women in mass media. Lawrence Elbaum Associates.
Gammel, I. (1999). Confessional politics: Women's self representations in life writing and popular media. Southern Illinios University Press.
Hall, a.C. (1998). Delights, Desires and Dilemmas: Essays on Women and the Media. Praeger Publications.
Media Misrepresent omen?
For a long period of time, hundreds of commercials, movies, as well as TV shows have in one way or another misrepresented women by either objectifying them or presenting them as the weaker sex. It is important to note from the onset that the media plays a significant role in our lives. In addition to shaping our politics, the media also influences the way we think and relate with one another. In the final analysis therefore, how women are represented in the media matters a lot with regard to how they are viewed and/or treated in the real world.
There are numerous instances of women misrepresentation in the media. This is particularly the case in advertising. It is important to note that people are shaped by not only the culture but also the environment in which they are brought up. Today's advertisements bombard our kids with images…
Carilli, Theresa, and Campbell, Jane, Eds. Women and the Media: Diverse Perspectives. University Press of America, 2005. Print.
Klenke, Karin. Women in Leadership: Contextual Dynamics and Boundaries. Emerald Group Publishing, 2011. Print.
Lester, Deborah. "Social Media: Changing Advertising Education." Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 2.1 (2012): 116-125. Print.
Representation of Women Through Media Has Changed From 1960s
How representation of women through media has changed from the 1960s
Susan Douglas suggests that fifty years ago, mass media existed in the form of music, television, and magazines. However, she suggest that the journey has been tough owing to the manner in, which the media represents women. The media used a sexist imagery to represent women, especially women who took part in music. Although researchers suggest that the media is a powerful tool, she suggests that the public had an option to resist the media by turning off their television, or ignoring advertisements in the magazines (Douglas 1995). Mass media had substantial influence on the social, cultural, economic, spiritual, political, and religious phases of the society as well as personal level thinking, feeling, and acting. Notably, mass media has both a good side and a bad side; it is insidious…
Adams, Carol J. 2004. The Pornography of Meat. Continuum. New York/Continuum.
Ames, Jonathan. 2011. "I Guest Directed a Porn Shoot." New York Press. 27 Nov. http://nypress.com/i-guest-directed-a-porn-shoot/
Belkin, Lisa. 2008. "The opt-out revolution." New York Times Magazine. 26, 42 -- 47, 58, 85 -- 86.
Brewer, Chad. 2005. "The Stereotypic Portrayal of Women in Slasher Films: Then vs. Now." Master Thesis, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College.
women political candidates social media differently men? Does social media ultimately empower hurt women politics? Cite "Digital Divas" Essay 2: We 200 million girls world don't attend school.
How do women political candidates use social media differently than men?
The number of women on social networks far outnumber men. Statistics also show that women use social media as their preferred modes of communication compared to men. Generally, politics is thought to be a male dominated field. On social media, it is believed that outsiders and newcomers to politics are favored. This makes social networks to be an asset to women political candidates. This is because in the male dominated field, they are often the minority or newcomers and receive preferential treatment on social media Gelber, 2011()
Gender and communication experts suggest that social media is a better form of communication for women since they are better at writing…
Gelber, A. (2011). Digital Divas: Women, Politics and the Social Network. Shorenstein Center Goldsmith Fellow, Spring 2011.
United States Department of State Bureau of International Information Programs. (2012). Global women's issues: Women in the World today. Washington DC: United States Department of State Bureau of International Information Programs.
These shows depict diverse expressions of sexuality and relationships within the gay and lesbian communities, but they also tend to overgeneralize. Bisexuality is hardly treated at all, because it does not fit into neatly defined categories like "gay" and "straight." Occasionally this theme is discussed in films and television, as with one episode of Six Feet Under.
Stereotypes can constrain real-life behavior as film and television offer visual cues for modeling. This is why it is important to feature more diverse characters and diversity of experiences. Not all black men are highly sexed, aggressive, and dominant in their sexuality, and not all black men abandon women as is sometimes suggested by the media. Likewise, not all Asian men are nerdy and asexual and not all Asian women are detached vixens.
When stereotypes do capture a general truth, they can be funny, which is why they are commonly used in the…
African-American Fixation and Modern Superiority in Sports
Sports are significant in many ways to any individual of the society and their values can notarize any political ideology. Sports have often been considered as a missionary tool of liberation, as anti-hegemonic. Fascists, communists, liberal marketers and filibusters have always revered sports. Even political group of dissidents has also vituperated sports, paradoxically. Sports have marked itself as the most powerful form of human expression during all of man's time. Sadly, sports fail to serve the United States ideology in any ways people decided to define democratic values during this, the American Century, when we became the most powerful purveyors of sports in all history (Gerald Early, Performance And Reality Race, Sports and the Modern orld).
Race does not comprise of a system consisting of the privileged or discredited abilities. It is rather an entirety of clashing rumination of what it means to…
Gerald E. 17 Aug. 1998. Performance And Reality Race, Sports and the Modern World.
The Nation, Sports: A View From Left To Right.
The African-American Sports Fixation. Available on the address http://istsocrates.berkeley.edu/~africam/sportsfix.pdf. Accessed on 14 Mar. 2003.
Black Children Still Victimized By Savage Inequalities. Available on the address http://www.blackcommentator.com/13_education.html . Accessed on 14 Mar. 2003.
strong athletic program keeps former students loyal and draws new, more qualified students into the applicant pool.
t present, I am employed in the aviation industry. I obtained a M.S. In viation Safety at the end of 2006 with a 4.0 GP and have since continued my education, maintaining a 4.0 GP through an online master's program at Delta State University in the field of Commercial viation. My success is testimony to the fact that I believe wholeheartedly in the need to pair athletic and academic success in tandem. I was originally drawn to aviation because of the discipline and teamwork I had seen exhibited in the field, but I have begun to realize that I wish to channel my passions into something even more meaningful, that of creating athletic programs that foster positive values in young people.
I believe that my combination of management, business, and marketing skills, can…
At present, I am employed in the aviation industry. I obtained a M.S. In Aviation Safety at the end of 2006 with a 4.0 GPA and have since continued my education, maintaining a 4.0 GPA through an online master's program at Delta State University in the field of Commercial Aviation. My success is testimony to the fact that I believe wholeheartedly in the need to pair athletic and academic success in tandem. I was originally drawn to aviation because of the discipline and teamwork I had seen exhibited in the field, but I have begun to realize that I wish to channel my passions into something even more meaningful, that of creating athletic programs that foster positive values in young people.
I believe that my combination of management, business, and marketing skills, can create a program with a high graduation rate and attract athletes with high levels of physical ability and personal character. Ideally, I would like to improve all athletic programs, not simply high-attendance like football and basketball, although these sports are my first love. I would also like to contribute to the development of underrepresented college sports, to enable as many students to participate in competitive intercollegiate athletics as possible.
I seek this degree to give me the necessary technical skills to put my enthusiasm and innate abilities into action, as well as to gain further knowledge of the field of intercollegiate athletics administration. I am confident that this program at the University of Oklahoma, a university with such a proud and patriotic athletic tradition is the ideal place, with the ideal atmosphere, to learn what I need to know in order to be successful in my chosen, future career.
Legal Structure and Management of a National Level Sporting Organisation
Sports activities in the world today are becoming more popular and are attracting huge crowd. This is one of the reasons that have made sponsors to come in so as to help such clubs that are not able to support themselves financially. Through sponsoring, the sponsor is able to market and advertise its products within the stadium where the club is playing among other benefits. It is worth noting that sports are viewed as a means of income to each stakeholder including the players. Essendon football club has made Australia to be known worldwide because of the good performance the club has exhibited over the years.
Essendon Football Club is rated as a dynamic world class club in the Australian sporting arena. The success and competitiveness of the club is dependant on its set legal structure and proper management that…
Books, H. 2011. Articles on Essendon Football Club Including: List of Essendon Football Club, Honours, Anzac Day Class. America, AM: Hephaestus Books.
Bools, L., & LLC, G.B. 2010. Essendon Football CLub: Essendon Football Club, List of Essendon Football CLub Honours. United States, U.S.: General Books LLC.
Clark, T. 2007. Stick This in Your Memory Hole. Doncaster East Victoria, VIC: aduki independent press.
Devaney, J.P. 2009. Full Points Footy: Encyclopedia of Australian Football Clubs. Lincoln, LN: Lulu.com.
Free Are American Media
Events occur and become news, news circulate all around the globe. In early times it was almost impossible to convey these happening with in short period of time but with the advent of time technology grew exponentially and gave a fast source of communication called "media."
Media has played a very important role throughout. Any event occurring in one side of the globe gets to the other side within a span of minutes. They cover events such as politics, sports, entertainment etc. And telecast it to the other regions. Every event that had occurred in the past has been covered by the regions local and international media. The point lies in the contradicting news telecasted by the media i.e. one event coverage contradicting to the same event covered by another channel.
The process of broadcasting consist of many events such as coverage, filtration, etc. A channel…
Czitrom, Daniel J. Media and the American Mind: From Morse to McLuhan. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1982. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Davis, Richard, and Diana Owen. New Media and American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Entman, Robert M., and Kimberly A. Gross. "Race to Judgment: Stereotyping Media and Criminal Defendants." Law and Contemporary Problems 71.4 (2008): 93+. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Fox, Julia R., and Byungho Park. "The "I" of Embedded Reporting: An Analysis of CNN Coverage of the "Shock and Awe" Campaign." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 50.1 (2006): 36+. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Anti-Jock, Cyber 'Movement'?
Brian ilson, in his article The Anti-Jock Movement: Reconsidering Youth Resistance, Masculinity, and Sport Culture in the Age of the Internet, uses new social movement theory to examine the nature of a cyber-community that has emerged in opposition to the so-called 'jock culture' endemic in American high schools. ilson divides his analysis of the 'anti-jock' youth resistance into two parts. The first part examines published research on youth resistance and then attempts to weave a cohesive argument by relying on new social movement theory to address the role internet-based social media might be playing. In the second part, ilson briefly reviews what is known about jock culture and applies his theory to the emergent anti-jock websites and webzines to see if new social movement theory is adequate to the task of describing this cyber-community. ilson's approach is therefore qualitative in nature and represents a case…
Wilson, Brian. "The "Anti-Jock" Movement: Reconsidering Youth Resistance, Masculinity, and Sport Culture in the Age of the Internet." Sociology of Sport Journal 19.2 (2002): 206-233.
Bob Hayes -- Sports Hero
One of my all-time inspirational heroes is Bob Hayes, known as the only athlete to win a gold medal in the Olympics and also a Super Bowl ring. Hayes as a young man with a great deal of athletic talent grew up in a segregated community in Jacksonville, Florida, but he went on to dazzle the world with his accomplishments. This paper details that rise to fame.
Bob Hayes struggled from childhood on to become what he knew he could become, and his career should serve as a positive role model for any young man caught in a socioeconomically underserved neighborhood with odds against him because of the color of his skin and because of racial stereotyping.
Bob Hayes' Life and Times
Hayes was born to Mary (Green) Hayes and George Sanders on the 20th day of December, 1942 in a ghetto on the east…
Gale Biography in Context. "Bob Hayes." Retrieved July 29, 2013, from Biography in Context,
Web. (2013): pp. 1-2.
Pro-Football Hall of Fame. "Bob Hayes." Retrieved July 29, 2013, from http://www.profootballhof.com
Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives. "Bob Hayes." Retrieved July 29, 2013, from Biography in Context (2013): pp. 1-3.
Racism in Media
Television news casting has a long history of perpetuating negative stereotypes of the Black community through what the news broadcasts and how it creates images that are transformed into symbols that become associated with the African-American community. Through these images, certain signs and symbols are created that later become associated with the Black community. hile attempts to make media more inclusive have marginally succeeded, failure lies in its inability to create any sort of social change but instead continues to perpetuate stereotypes.
In "Racism and the Media," Yasmin Jiwanai describes the role the media has on people's everyday lives. Jiwani writes that the media provides "us with definitions about who we are as a nation; they reinforce our values and norms; they give us concrete examples of what happens to those who transgress these norms; and most importantly, they perpetuate certain ways of seeing the world and…
Balkaran, Stephen. "Mass Media and Racism." The Yale Political Quarterly Vol. 21 No. 1
(October 1999). Web. 3 December 2012.
Brown, Michael K. Whitewashing Race: The Myth of a Color-Blind Society. Los Angeles:
University of California Press, 2003. GoogleBooks. 3 December 2012.
Super-violence is a new term that defines violence in a grand and exaggerating way. (Klare 16) Seen as an era of constant warfare and violence, it has made its way into entertainment and media. hether it is chopping the heads of people and seeing the blood from their bodies gush like champagne fountains or seeing throats slit by children, today's media has taken on a new level of violence that thanks to visual effects and special effects makeup, shows just how intense the public has become in their quest for savagery. But why does the public desire more and more violence in their stories? hat turn will this take in the future?
The recent invention and use of virtual reality just may be the way people will participate in the increasingly violent nature of media. Through virtual reality people can feel as though they are right in the middle of…
Cornell University, Are Moral Actors Moral, Or Does Moral Action Make An Actor Moral? 1st ed. Cornell University, 2016. Print.
1st ed. Cornell University, 2016. Print.
Klare, Michael T. "The Era of Super-Violence." MERIP Reports 111 (1983): 16. Web.
Lee, Tae Kyoung and Michael A. Shapiro. "The Interaction of Affective Dispositions, Moral Judgments, And Intentionality In Assessing Narrative Characters: Rationalist And Intuitionist Sequences." Communication Theory 24.2 (2014): 146-164. Web.
but, the interesting thing is that their peers, family, friends and young boys are basing their opinion of what these girls should look like from what they see in the media.
Main Cause of Poor ody Images in Young Girls
The media has been with us for years and it is here to stay. There are good aspects of this industry because it serves to keep us informed and aware of what is happening in the world around us. The media can also be viewed negatively because of some of the television programs that are out there today. Technology is so advanced that we can now watch our favorite television shows and read our favorite fashion magazines right from our cell phones. We can assume that as the years go by, technology will get more advanced and the role of the media will become even more prominent.
Such outlets as…
Ata, R.N., Ludden, AB. And Lally, M.M. (2007). The effects of gender and family, friend, and media influences on eating behaviors and body image during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(8), 1024-1037.
Bell, B.T., Lawton R., and Dittmar, H. (2007). The impact of thin models in music videos on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction. Body Image, 4(2), 137-145.
Dohnt, H.K. And Tiggemann, M. (2006). Body image concerns in young girls: The role of peers and media prior to adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(2), 141-151.
Worell, J., & Goodheart, C.D. (2006). Body Image. Handbook of Girls' and Women's Psychological Health (pp. 68-75). New York: Oxford University Press.
Improving Competition and Community Engagement
Sports experts, analysts, and observers agree that club football, especially in Europe, is characterized by increased prosperity and popularity. Football has experienced tremendous prosperity and success over the past decade. The increased popularity and prosperity of football clubs has been characterized by the emergence of numerous commercial opportunities and more involvement of fans in the management/running of football clubs. Sports clubs are increasingly exploiting the commercial opportunities through lucrative sponsorship and television deals. Therefore, the success of football clubs in the current sports environment requires increasing capacities to compete with better funded clubs and enhanced community engagement.
Competing with Better Funded Clubs
As the sports industry has become more prosperous and popular, clubs have attracted lucrative sponsorship and television deals as well as other kinds of funding. Currently, there are better funded clubs in the league, which have the money to attract and keep the…
Media on the U.S. Society
Some years ago, if someone asked us to name the sources of media present in our society, we would easily be able to do so. However, today media has extended and become much more widespread than it was before. ith the process of globalization that has encompassed the entire world, came the concept of media and the need to stay in touch as the infrastructure and mediums of communication grew. e can name a couple of media sources that have come to influence us the most which are firstly the internet and the social networking that has now become an integral part of our society and our lives. It is absolutely essential to be a part of the social media networking (Perse).
Another type of media has been the television which has existed for quite some while now but its implications and its fame is…
Bell, Steve. "Impact of Global Media Revolution." USA Today (1999).
Bennett, Tony. Culture, Society and the Media. Routledge Publications, 1990.
Burton, Graeme. Media and Society: Critical Perspectives. Open University Press, 2005.
Gonzenbach, William J. The media, the president and public opinion: a longitudinal study on drug issue. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996.
As some journalists have brought up, this scandal is evocative of the scandal with the Catholic Church and demonstrates how a marked upheaval in the way universities and institutions are conducted (Hamilton, 2012).
The media, while impartial, can often be a moral compass for the rest of the world. Few people can forget the horrors of the reactions of Penn State's college students when the scandal just broke, upon the firing of Joe Paterno: the media captured how the students rioted the streets, acting out, even turning over a news van. The rest of the world watched in revulsion: these college students, by sympathizing with Paterno, someone who had essentially protected and sheltered a pedophile, these young college students were sympathizing with Sandusky, the pedophile in question. "It's difficult to look at the images of the Penn State University students performing pep rally chants and turning over a media van…
Engel, J. (2012, July 16). Penn State should get death penalty. Retrieved from Foxsports.com: http://msn.foxsports.com/collegefootball/story/penn-state-should-lose-football-privileges-dealth-penalty-in-wake-of-freeh-report-child-sex-abuse-071212/
Hamilton, M. (May, 27 2012). Penn State and Catholic Church Child Sex-Abuse Trials Divide Penn. Public. Retrieved from Dailybeast.com: http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/05/27/penn-state-and-catholic-church-child-sex-abuse-trials-divide-penn-public.html
Kane, C. (July, 23 2012). Penn State penalties: $60 million fine, 4-year bowl ban. Retrieved from Chicagotribune.com: http://www.chicagotribune.com/sports/college/ct-spt-0724-penn-state -- 20120724,0,6965116.story
Muskal, M. (2012, June 22). Jerry Sandusky convicted of 45 child sexual abuse charges. Retrieved from LA Times: Jerry Sandusky convicted of 45 child sexual abuse charges
The ads are meant to convey the solemn viewpoint -- if you use meth, you will die… it is a ticking time bomb and inevitable.
hat are your reactions and/or thoughts about the health issue(s) and how it is presented?
This reminds me of the films seen during driver's ed. Of films so graphic they almost made one ill -- designed to scare kids into being more careful drivers. The images on the Montana Meth Project are designed to shock, designed to cause dialog, and designed, in the long run, to prevent further meth use.
The statistics show that it can be reasonably assumed that the ads had some effect. The reason one cannot make the assumption completely that the campaign worked is because there are too many additional variables that might have something to do with the decrease in meth related activities; price elasticity of the product, law enforcement,…
"Montana Meth Project Summary Results." January 2010. MontanaMeth.org. September 2010 .
"The 8 Most Terrifying Anti-Meth Ads." 1 November 2007. Cracked.com. September 2010 .
Gender and Society
Sexism in the Media: Portrayal of Female Athletes in Media Coverage
Sexist portrayal of men's versus women's athletic events and sporting events has prevailed in the media for some time. Armstrong and Hallmark (1999) note that until very recently, women in profession NCAA Division I women's basketball teams, though popular, had received "virtually no television exposure" during key station segments; women also suffered unfavorable practice times and "hand me down uniforms" (p. 1). Perhaps no other area of media portrayal reveals as much gender inequality as the portrayal of women athletes. This is not because of a lack of interest in female sports necessarily. More and more women are participating in sports formerly considered male only. However the media portrayal or lack of adequate portrayal of women's events has contributed to the perceived lack of enthusiasm and interest in following women's events. The media utilizes sexist attitudes,…
Alexander, S. (1994). "Newspaper coverage of athletics as a function of gender." Women's Studies International Forum, 17 (6), 655-662
Armstrong, Richard N; Hallmark, James R. "Gender Equity in Televised Sports: A Comparative Analysis of Men's and Women's NCAA Division I Championship Broadcasts, 1991-1995). Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, Vol. 43, 1999.
Blinde, E.M., Greendorder, S.L., & Shenker, R.J. (1991). "Differential media coverage of men's and women's intercollegiate basketball: Reflection of gender and ideology." Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 15, (2), 98-114
Bryant, J. (1980). "A two-year selective investigation of the female athlete in sport as reported in the paper media." Arena Review, 4, 32-44
Octagon Sports Marketing Plan
Octagon Sports Marketing
Octagon Sports Company has been proud to be an industry leader in terms of events management, sports and entertainment marketing, and representation of athletes and personalities al over the world. It was founded in the year 1983 and after wards acquired as sports and entertainment event marketing arm of the Interpublic Group of Companies (IPG) in 1997 by the same company (IPG). Currently Octagon Company is able to employ more than 1000 professionals in the more than 60 offices across the globe.
Octagon Sports Marketing Company has been a pioneer in terms of full service sports and entertainment corporate consulting, bringing together various marketing disciplines and services in a single roof for the benefit of our clients. The in-house resources that our company offers are efficiency and convenience and this is apart from traditional and specialized services offered. In several occasion the company…
Davis. The business of sports agents. University of Pennsylvania Press. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
Frank Craighili (2000) Despite costs, buying binge not over yet Retrieved March 15, 2014. http://www.sportsbusinessdaily.com/Journal/Issues/2000/05/20000529/No-Topic-Name/Despite-Costs-Buying-Binge-Not-Over-Yet.aspx
Los Angeles (CA) 2009) Entertainment PR/Marketing/Celebrity Consulting (First Call). Retrieved March 15, 2014 www.octagonfirstcall.com
McLean (2013) Athlete and Property Marketing. Retrieved March 15, 2014 www.octagon.com/AthletesPersonalities/13.