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(2011). Anxiety characteristics of competitive windsurfers:
relationships with age, gender, and performance outcomes. Journal of Sport Behavior. Retrieved September 4, 2011 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6401/is_3_34/ai_n58009371/
his article attempts to understand performance anxiety around what the authors of the article consider to be an 'extreme' sport. Windsurfing is considered a typical extreme sport because of its unconventional nature and the fact that it tends to take place outside of conventional competitive venues like gyms and enclosed sports venues. Rather than experiencing intense anxiety, windsurfers tended to show less performance anxiety, perhaps because they also rated higher in extroversion and emotional resiliency than athletes in more conventional sports. he descriptive study involved seventy-nine participants: 35 were male and 19 were female; 25 were regional-level competitors and all male. he Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) was used to assess athlete anxiety and self-confidence levels along with the Sport Competition Anxiety est. Findings indicated moderate stress…… [Read More]
1. Lose weight through improved diet.
Specific strategy -- Identify the foods that are responsible for my unwanted body weight; eliminate those foods entirely on a permanent basis to establish a lifelong diet capable of allowing me to maintain my ideal weight for decades.
2. Establish optimal physical fitness training routine.
Specific strategy -- Establish a consistency to my fitness workouts that will enable me to meet my goal; permanently eliminate those barriers to consistency that have sabotaged those efforts previously.
3. Stop smoking.
End the repetitive cycle of smoking cessation followed by relapse and subsequent attempts focusing on the number of cigarettes smoked per day or per month. Stop making excuses for "comfort" and habitual smoking by never allowing smoking to be enjoyable ever again. Allow only the (smoking) equivalent of a maintenance dose of nicotine when absolutely necessary and only under circumstances that eliminate any possible…… [Read More]
Complete 4 workouts during Weeks 3 and 4, each. Establish a routine that lends itself to long-term maintenance of the 4-week plan over a much longer term (i.e. For life).
Begin to live a fitness lifestyle that does not require constant short-term effort to maintain.
Goal #3 -- Stop smoking permanently
Create a list of specific situations in which smoking will no longer be permitted at all (i.e. wakeup cigarette, smoking with other people under any circumstances, smoking after meals, and smoking in any situation that is either enjoyable or comfortable). Decide what specific method will be used to make smoking purely "maintenance dose"-related (i.e. standing on one leg, smoking in the cold, smoking only with one palm on the floor, etc.) Inform friends of methodology to avoid any misinterpretation of intentions.
Identify any lapses in the rules established in Week 1 and take…… [Read More]
Multidimensional Model of Sport Leadership
Effective leaders manage the majority of successful organizations or teams, athletic or otherwise. A leader may be an expert, a supervisor, a respected person, someone who controls aversive power or someone that has the capacity to dispense rewards (Ryan, 1982). A leader may possess have one or more of these characteristics, depending on the individual.
In addition to leadership characteristics, leaders may also differ in their leadership styles (p. 32). For example, a directive or possessive style of leadership means that the leader takes complete charge of the team, closely monitoring athlete behavior and performance. A permissive style of coach may leave much of the responsibility to the athletes and spend more time on the critical issues.
Chelladurai (1993) proposed a normative model of decision styles (autocratic, participative, and delegating) in coaching (Butler, 1996). A casual observer of the dynamics on a typical competitive sport…… [Read More]
Attributions in Sports Psychology
hat is attribution theory? It is a "cognitive approach to motivation that focuses on how individuals interpret the causes of success and failure," according to an article in the Australian Psychologist (Grove, et al., 1995, 92). In that regard, studies that Grove and colleague reference show that high achieving athletes tend to use internal attributions more readily after success than failure, which is reasonable considering that a successful baseball pitcher knows when he has his best "stuff" and when he wins a game, the attribution is rightly aimed at his skill. hen that same pitcher loses, he can chalk it up to the fact that he faced outstanding hitters. And an athlete with less ability tends to use internal attributions "…more after failure than success" (Grove, 92). He might say, "I just didn't come up with the right pitches at the right time." This paper delves…… [Read More]
The involvement of students in sporting activities in their respective school is a crucial element of their education, either in private or public-school settings. Encouraging sporting activities in schools is backed on educational basis by educational results and educational philosophy. Several educational leaders are of the opinion that students who take part actively in school sporting activities enjoy better psychomotor, cognitive and affective development (Zaichkowsky, 2006). The rapidly developing concept of sport psychology is loaded with benefits for schools, especially regarding the provision of much-needed expertise for increasing the likelihood of exercise and sport bringing about positive experiences for the school children. Importantly, sport psychology applies research and theory to advise and teach coaches, athletes and even parents with the aim of engendering optimal sport performance and participation (Zaichkowsky, 2006; Anshel, 2011).
Generally, three commonly intersecting sectors form the basis on which sport psychology is built on, and these…… [Read More]
The research suggests that sport psychology is useful to athletes because it provides them with the tools needed to fully exploit their physical talents by controlling their mental processes. The research found that here are several techniques associated with sports psychology. These techniques include MPSE, thought stopping, mental rehearsal (imagery) self-talk, visuo-motor behavior rehearsal (VMBR) and establishing goals. All of these techniques can be used to assist the athlete in focusing on the goal that they are attempting to accomplish.
Arvinen-Barrow M., Penny G.,Hemmings B., Corr S. (2010) UK chartered physiotherapists' personal experiences in using psychological interventions with injured athletes: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11 (2010) 58 -- 66
"Careers in Sports Psychology." Retrieved February 16, 2010 from: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm
De Petrillo, L.A., Kaufman, K.A. Glass, C.R. And Arnkoff D.B. (2009) Mindfulness for Long-Distance Runners: An Open Trial Using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE).…… [Read More]
These are the topics covered on this site.
Brief History Employment
Important Terms Learning More
A Typical Day Summary
Pros and Cons Acknowledgments
The Association for the Advancement of Applied Sports Psychology, on the other hand, is a regularly updated website for professionals in this field. It covers a number of different types of information, including an overview of what is Applied Sports Psychology and the different areas of specialization within the field, common questions and answers, and terminology.
Another area covered is learning about certified consultants and how to find one. There is also a list of suggested consultants' websites, and they are still up and running when linking to them. Since this is an organization for Sports Psychologists, the emphasis is on the conferences and services that the organization provides for members. What is missing here that was helpful on the previous website was…… [Read More]
career of an athletic trainer, including the background necessary for the career, the necessary education, and job opportunities for athletic trainers. Athletic trainers form a necessary backbone of most professional sports organizations, and many private organizations. A professional athletic trainer can make the difference between a life-changing injury, or returning to the game. Athletic trainers are an essential and integral part of modern sports medicine, and as sports and athletics increase in importance in our society, they will continue to play an important part in our healthy lives.
Athletic trainers have been around for centuries, but today, most trainers are certified, and not only work with sports clubs or educational facilities, they can work in gyms and fitness centers, and even corporate workout centers.
Certified athletic trainers (ATCs) are medical experts in preventing, recognizing, managing and rehabilitating injuries that result from physical activity. Athletic trainers can help you avoid unnecessary…… [Read More]
y that time, several guards had become sadistic and the behavior of the prisoners provided clear indications of psychological breakdown. Interviews with study participants suggested that merely the perception of their respective roles influenced their behavior. More importantly, the groupthink that prevailed within the group of prison guards overcame any individual personal reluctance they may have had to treat their prisoners so harshly (Macionis 2003). The Significance of the Phenomenon of Groupthink on Individual ehavior:
Like deference to authority, groupthink is a natural human tendency that likely evolved as a necessary component of human social relationships that were essential to the early success of our species (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). In modern context, however, groupthink represents tremendous destructive potential because in the extreme, it involves the complete suspension of individual judgment and perception. In benign situations groupthink is evident in popular culture, such as in the cycle of fashion trends,…… [Read More]
Shame and Doubt, according to Erickson, children develop a sense of self-control as they control their bodily functions. This makes them feel confident and able to handle problems independently. But Tom's mother would not relinquish her control over his bodily functions at this time. Her forcing him to void on her schedule and not his, gave him a sense of shame and the feeling that he was not in control of his world. He therefore felt inadequate and doubtful of his ability to cope with anything. As she continued to control him by denying him food, love and choices of clothing, he became increasingly angry at the world, frustrated at the impression that his body and whole life was under the control of someone other than himself. This created anger and depression.
It is a wonder that Tom was as normal as he was during his teen years. He was…… [Read More]
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
1.2 Objective…… [Read More]
Psychology of Gender in usiness
Traditional gender roles have defined the business lives as well as the home lives of families and breadwinners for numerous generations. Certain expectations were put in place at what seems to be the dawn of time. The evolution of these decided obligations went on to shape the traditional family and the roster of the traditional workplace. Expansions and millenniums of progression in this historical framework then gave way to what the modern world still often considers gender specific job roles. Though, without question, this segregative and selective approach to the business world is surely archaic. Nevertheless, over the last decade or so there has been a revolution that is gaining steam in the business community. The idea of equality is becoming more and more popular among businesses and government agencies. Such powerful and influential entities have finally realized that the furthering and promotion of gender…… [Read More]
Third, certain circumstances are more likely to prompt self-objectification than others. These experiments confirmed that trying on a swimsuit is one of these circumstances. This circumstance appears to lead to a sense of being on display even though no actual observers were present. Data from the manipulation check suggested that wearing the swimsuit reduced the person's to feeling that they were nothing more than their body. Trying on swimwear led females to feel embarrassment and repulsion, while this identical circumstance led men to experience bashful and ridiculous thoughts. Shame has been thought to a failure to obtain moral standards. The researchers interpreted the increased shame felt by women as representing the increased cultural strains put on women to adhere to physical beauty standards.
Inducing state self-objectification also reduced math performance only for women, which was consistent with the prediction, that self objectification consume mental assets. The performance decrement established here…… [Read More]
Women perceive their gossip as conversing regarding something/someone. o them, gossiping regarding a particular person not close to them only strengthens shared principles and global perspectives. Male humans perceive women's gossip as conversing against somebody/something. Although men take serious topics such as business and politics whilst a topic such as kid-bearing is tagged unimportant, it is basically a replication of social principles that describe what they do. In other words, what men do is perceived important. In stark contrast, what women do is perceived unimportant (Suzanne, 1999).
Men and women rowing teams offer a good setting for gossip studies. hat is so because performance of a particular boat is not basically the sum of every member of the team. As an alternative, balance and synchronization are paramount "faction-level" skills which should prevail if the team is to succeed. More importantly, rowing teams allow a comprehensible sight of the variable…… [Read More]
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
The research into how young women perceive their own bodies -- in response to constant exposure to media images of un-naturally thin and extraordinarily beautiful females -- has been a popular topic for many years. But when it comes to male models that are nearly perfect, handsome and muscular in exactly the right places, there has not been as much attention or research. This paper reviews the potential of -- and reality of -- dissatisfaction in males based on the media's model images of males.
Body Image for Males -- Background
Annette La Greca is Professor of Psychology at the University of Miami and Gerald Koocher is the Dean of the School for Health Studies at Simmons College. As co-authors of The Parents' Guide to Psychological First Aid: Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Predictable Life Crises they assert that the research for body dissatisfaction among…… [Read More]
Whereas the harms associated with some illicit (and prescription) drugs is cumulative, some of the most popular recreational drugs such as ecstasy actually destroy neurons each and every time they are used.
Each time you take ecstasy, for example, neurons dedicated to respond to the neurotransmitter dopamine lose their ability to do so. As a result, ecstasy use in particular is known to interfere with the natural neurotransmitter reuptake mechanism. This impairs your ability to maintain a healthy mental frame of mind because dopamine reception and reuptake is fundamentally important to perceiving pleasure and to experiencing happiness. Ultimately this is a major cause of clinical depression in young people, requiring life-long treatment with antidepressant medications which are associated with negative side effects of their own. Suicide is also directly attributable to the psychological effects of clinical depression. Therefore, if you hope to achieve your academic potential and to avoid causing…… [Read More]
I have also noticed I have a tendency to eat more, as I worried about. Part of that is the oral gratification missing when I do not smoke, but I have also found that food simply tastes better now that I am not smoking, and I find myself eating more, as a result. I am attempting to monitor this so I do not gain weight, as so many people do in the course of their intervention.
Another con is that I have been irritable, suffered from headaches, and have been short with some of the people trying to aid me in my intervention. I know this is common during smoking cessation, but it makes the process more difficult, and makes me feel dreadful as well.
However, the pros of my action stage are quite compelling. I do feel better about myself, and my psyche is improving each day I continue…… [Read More]
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
Over the last several years, the issue of compulsive buying has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a number of individuals are making decisions that are not considered to be financially prudent. Instead, they are based the person feeling good about their purchase in the short-term. This is giving them a sense of emotional satisfaction. However, in the longer periods of time, is when these kinds of decisions can lead to varying financial consequences. As a result, marketers are more likely to target specific segments that are considered to be impulsive.
Two specific groups that were often perused include women and younger adults. This is because a number of studies were indicating, how these two segments are more than likely to engage in compulsive shopping. The main reason why is because women and young adults were often the focus of their surveys. This…… [Read More]
Psychology Foundation of Learning -- Coping with a disobedient Child
Punishing the child to create a change in behavior would be one method to employ at the camp. This could be accomplished by creating an avoidant behavior punishment strategy by withdrawing the presence of the leader and the group, from the girl, when the child engages in self-harm or bites another individual. The punishment could involve forcing the girl to spend a 'time out' period in the camp director's office or in her bunk under the supervision of a reliable person, but not someone whom the girl feels the same positive feelings towards as her friends and the group leader. Or, the girl could be assigned an additional duty to the directive she initially refused.
Method II: Substitution
Substituting an alternative behavior by reinforcing an incompatible response in the girl is another possibility to deal with her behavior. The stimulus…… [Read More]
Anti-discrimination laws are enforced and companies are rated by their policies of tolerance. Homophobia is gradually being extricated from the American consciousness and so is sexism. The media plays a major role in how the American consciousness changes and those changes have an indelible impact on the character of the American Dream.
Thomspon also notes that Thrice was well-loved by his teammates. The community rallied in support of Thrice and there was a general outcry after he died. Being American has always entailed appreciation for grassroots movements. The social and political realities that evolve depend on grassroots movements. Grassroots movements precede legislation and policy changes. America becomes more of a real democracy as grassroots movements offer a voice for the most disenfranchised elements of society. Grassroots movements prevent tyrannnies of the majority and enable minority opinions to make their way into public policy. The American government remains a government of…… [Read More]
It appears that the experimental hypothesis was confirmed by the data. The fact that no checkpoint agents permitted building access to strangers regardless of attractiveness established that if the phenomenon does exist at all, it is limited to situations where the checkpoint agent perceives no actual security risk (i.e. where the cohort is recognized by the agent as a building employee). The fact that male cohorts were denied access in every trial strongly implies that physical attractiveness in general does not influence the specific behavior being studied. Similarly, the fact that highly attractive female cohorts were denied access by female checkpoint agents in every instance strongly suggests that female attractiveness is not, generally associated with influence over the behavior being studied, but that female attractiveness does strongly influence
In hundreds of trials, no males and no average looking females were permitted unauthorized access. No female agents permitted any cohort…… [Read More]
Drugs thought to enhance serotonin-mediated neurotransmission have been shown to diminish appetite for carbohydrates. In a study done by Heraief, Burckhardt, Wurtman and Wurtman, (1985), they examined the ability of tryptophan (TP), serotonin's amino acid precursor, or a placebo to influence weight loss among 62 obese Swiss outpatients who were on a reducing diet known as the Protein-Sparing Modified Fast (PSMF) Diet which is often associated with severe carbohydrate craving. This diet provided relatively large amounts of protein but little carbohydrates, thus stimulating ketone body production. Its consumption also reduced the ratio of plasma TP to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids, thereby probably diminishing brain TP and serotonin levels. It was found that among moderately obese patients the TP significantly enhanced weight loss, especially during the first treatment month but also during the total. The TP didn't modify the reported adherence to the PSMF diet.…… [Read More]
It may be necessary to start with continuous conditioning and gradually increase the fixed number of responses necessary for a reinforcer to be delivered. The nature of this schedule "produces a high rate of responding, with a pause after the reinforcer is delivered" (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219), and then another burst of responses.
ith a variable-ratio schedule, responses follow a steady pattern, with few pauses after the reinforcer is delivered. Here, reinforcement follows an average number of responses that is varied between trials (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219). A participant may need to respond 25 times in one trial to receive reinforcement, whereas the second trial will require 20 responses for the delivered reinforcer. hile each trial is unpredictable, more trials bring the ratio of response to reinforcement to a predetermined average (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219).
Interval schedules use time to determine the delivery of the reinforcer. ith a fixed-interval schedule,…… [Read More]
Psychology of Gender
In psychological circles there is a case made famous by a psychologist by the name of John Money, who dedicated his life to the study of sexuality. This case is so well-known, that undergraduate psychology students are as familiar with it as they are with the Stanford Prison experiment. efore the year 2000, it was simply known as the "twin's case" or the "John/Joan case." Nowadays, the psychological community uses the name of the little boy who was anonymously famous, written about, and studied extensively for almost 20 years: David Reimer. In a deeply heartbreaking and shocking work of nonfiction, John Colapinto retraces the steps that David Reimer took as a baby boy, to a sex-assigned girl, and back to manhood.
Although David Reimer was born a healthy and anatomically correct boy, an accident during babyhood put him in a special category with other numerous cases that…… [Read More]
However, because I anticipated some of the uncomfortable situations that might arise if I went to my normal gym, I decided to take the opportunity to use a guest pass for a different gym that I had been carrying around for a while.
When I entered the gym, I completely ignored the polite greeting by the front desk staff and just slid the guest pass across the glass without saying a word. I was directed to a membership consultant in a small office and when the gentleman who introduced himself as "Mike" extended his hand to shake mine, I said that I was getting over a cold and didn't want to give it to him by shaking his hand. Mike thanked me, but from the way he looked at me, it seemed to me that he didn't seem to believe me and immediately assumed I was some sort of weirdo.…… [Read More]
There's an understood supposition of opposing causal agency at work. No matter what pressures and factors came to bear, the addict could have done something else, but simply decided not to (Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction, 2010).
A more behavioral approach to understanding addiction is the social learning model, which suggests that people learn how to behave by watching others in their environment and by duplicating actions that create affirmative consequences. One learns to take drugs or alcohol through ones connections with family, friends, or even popular media. And through personal experimentation with drugs or alcohol, one learns that they like the way drugs make them feel. Whether it is the elation of a high, the augmented confidence they feel while intoxicated, or a reduced sense of social nervousness, intoxication can be a positively reinforcing state of being.
As one discovers how much they like…… [Read More]
Whereas more substantive friendships are characterized by shared philosophies, fundamental beliefs, moral values, and principles, superficial friendships usually reflect nothing more than the fact that two individuals share a circumstance (such as a place of employment) or a superficial interest (such as sports).
More significant friendships are those between individuals who choose each other's friendship specifically rather than the types of relationships between individuals who just happen to share circumstances or superficial interests. In fact, because genuine friendships are based on fundamental shared attitudes and beliefs, they need not necessarily share any other of the superficial bases of work friendships or hobbyists.
Genuine friends may have nothing in common in terms of interests or lifestyle; they may not even see each other very often compared to friends with whom we share workspaces or bowling schedules. Genuine friendships share essential characteristics of honesty and substantial (if not full) mutual…… [Read More]
The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)
However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.
Severe Traumatic Brain njury
The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…… [Read More]
He also is the richest man in the world, and came from a high-achieving family. (His mother was a college regent and the head of United Way.)
Gates was known for years as an autonomous loner. He did not marry until he was nearly 40, and he keeps a very low public profile, unlike the more charismatic and outgoing Branson.
Gates is legendary for his need for dominance. Neither he nor Branson "need" to work anymore, they could live comfortably off their income for the rest of their lives. However, Gates continues to run Microsoft, and be involved in all the decision making. He is "transitioning" out of the leadership role to lead his charitable foundation, but it will take two years and he will still be involved in high-level decisions. It seems it is very difficult for him to give up the reins and he must dominate the company…… [Read More]
Similar sport-specific performance improvement was found in the earlier study conducted by Smith, Wright, Allsopp, and Westhead (2007).
Smith, Wright, Allsopp, and Westhead (2007) compared the effects of PETTLEP-based imagery against the improvements found with the use of traditional imagery, in hockey players and gymnasts. In the first study, 48 varsity hockey players were divided into four groups. These groups included: 'sport-specific' imagery, 'clothing' imagery, 'traditional' imagery, and a control group. Following a six-week period, the sport-specific group saw the most improvement in penalty flicks. Other than the control group, the traditional imagery group experienced the least amount of improvement. The author's second study featured 40 junior gymnasts. These participants were divided into four groups that included: PETTLEP, stimulus only imagery, physical practice, and a control group. As was found in both Wright and Smith's (2009) and Smith, Wright, and Cantwell's (2008) research, there was significant improvement in both the…… [Read More]
Motor Processes in Sport
Tom is an 18-year-old goalkeeper who recently moved up in class from youth to adult football. He was an early maturer and has a history of being more advanced in soccer than his peers but now a weakness is exposed. He never learned to kick with his left foot and this has been a problem at this level. The current paper discusses the proposed reasons for his difficulty and outlines a plan of intervention.
Understanding the Effects of Early Maturation as They Apply to Tom
The traditional view holds that early maturation in boys has more positive consequences for psychosocial adaptation than late maturation. The early literature by researchers like Mussen and Jones (1957) described early-maturing boys during late adolescence (17 -- 18 years) as having higher self-esteem and self-confidence, a more positive self-image, and as being more socially mature, which may have led to more…… [Read More]
Not unlike the wold of business, many eseaches and pundits have evaluated and looked at the wold of spots as a way to analyze whethe and how cetain coaching styles ae beneficial o non-beneficial in tems of the pefomance and outcomes of the team in question. Of couse, the question is a multi-faceted one and analyzing such a question in a contolled envionment can be difficult. Samples sizes and "apples to apples" compaisons can be difficult. Even so, thee ae many takeaways and points of analysis that can and should be undetaken so as to gauge the efficacy of a team if it is subjected to the suppotive-autonomy coaching ac as opposed to othe methods.
The subject of this epot is an analysis of whethe autonomy-suppotive coaching is o is not beneficial and effective in boosting pefomance of the athletes subjected to the method.…… [Read More]
According to Smoll and Smith, there are two basic attitudes toward competition; an ego attitude and a mastery attitude. Parents who have an ego attitude toward their own competition -that is, they compete to win and to be better than others - are especially likely to be competitive with other parents about their child's achievements. Essentially, the parent goes from being proud to being boastful.
These, then, are the four psychological factors that must be recognized as we try to understand the youth sports experience of families: the identification of the parent with the child, the tendency of parents to fantasize about their child's potential, the sense of youth sport as an investment, and competitiveness between parents. Combined, these factors drive many parents to push their child to excel, and to take action when they feel that their child's potential is being ignored or inhibited. The unfortunate result is children…… [Read More]
The concept of dividing a mass market into homogeneous segments and targeting one or more with a distinct product offering and unique marketing communication is a fundamental precept of marketing theory. Market segmentation recognizes that different customer groups have different wants and needs that justify the development and offering of different products and services. The process of segmentation theoretically results in a much better understanding of users' needs, their decision criteria, and their approaches. Although much of the theory of market segmentation is appreciated and understood by sport marketers, it remains one of the more difficult marketing concepts to turn into profitable reality.
Consumer segmentation can help the sport marketer in the following areas. First, it allows an analysis of the marketplace, including a knowledge of competitors as well as how and why customers buy. Second, it can contribute to the strategic management of an organization in that it allows…… [Read More]
D., What is Altitude Training section). The Website promoting products that Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems offers, reports that when a person is exposed to hypoxia, oxygen reduced environments, his/her body "struggles to produce required amounts of energy with less available oxygen. This struggle triggers the onset of a range of physiological adaptations geared towards enhancing the efficiency of the body's respiratory, cardiovascular and oxygen utilization systems" (Hypoxico Altitude Training, N.D., Why it Works section). In consideration of controversial perceptions regarding ethical conclusions relating to hypoxico, Lippi, Guides and Franchini stress that the "spirit of sport" needs to be developed to include the notion of ethics and authenticity. Lippi, Guides and Franchini, nevertheless, report that they do not entirely agree with the assumption that teleologically, no evidence suggests that more harm than good comes from these particular devices. They note that a universal ban on passive training regimens, such as hypoxic,…… [Read More]
sports betting. Discussed are the problems with the betting, players getting gifts from betting agents, and effect of sports betting on the economy. Seven sources are used.
Sports and Betting
More Americans play more sports than in any other country in the world. Moreover, we watch more sports than anyone else on earth. Football and figure skating, two sports that could not be more different have drawn the biggest TV audiences in history. Sports bind us together as Americans. It has the ability more than just about anything else to tear down the barriers of race, class, gender, politics and geography (McDonald 1998). Sports is part of our national culture. It's part of our national conversation. A waitress at the local cafe talks Friday-night football with the cop and the banker. A Democratic gardener, trimming the greens at the country club, discusses golf swings or last week's tournament with a…… [Read More]
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, "From Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience
Reading 2: Robert M. Sapolsky, "From Why Zebras don't Get Ulcers: An Updated Guide to Stress, Stress-Related Diseases and Coping"
In the opening of the chapter, Csikszentmihalyi discusses the concept of life and living life without enjoyment. Unlike Sapolsky who goes into a much more clear and direct explanation of the topic at hand, Csikszentmihalyi kind of builds off tangents to get to his point. He explains building enjoyment every day and having an individual take personal responsibility in how that enjoyment comes about. The introduction for Sapolsky, much like Csikszentmihalyi has a little bit of a story, discussing people prone to pursuit of biology and then discussing the mechanisms behind stress. But unlike Csikszentmihalyi, his transitions seem more cohesive. The introduction for Csikszentmihalyi has an almost mystical quality to it although a bit jagged in its interpretation of enjoyment and…… [Read More]
Throughout my studies in psychology, I find the classes and topics on emotion and motivation interesting and educative. This is because the class touched a lot on the issues that made me understand myself better than I did before the topic was introduced. The class aided my understanding on the aspect of sexual orientation, especially homosexuality. This is due to the information that was present on the materials offered in class. There was adequacy of explanation on the issue of motivation and emotion in relation to human psychology (Weiten, 2011). The topic on motivation and emotion touched on various issues, for example, the significance of groups, power plus obedience, and the perception about us and other people.
The aspect of social psychology seemed to fascinate me most, because of information regarding how the people we interact with influence our lives. I came to understand that the perception about…… [Read More]
Self-Conception Lit eview
What follows in this brief report is the culmination of prior outlining and research on the subject of self-conception and its place in the broader field of psychology. In total, there are six high-level points that have been covered within the prior assignments relating to this final literature review. For each section, there were questions and blanks to be answered to including how, that is, for example and beyond. What is referenced shall include a number of prominent authors that speak about self-conception and what goes into it. The different conditions and other subsections of the theory will be touched upon. While there are some that suggest that self-conception and psychology in general are going in the wrong direction, the different facets and lessons that are currently coming out of the proverbial woodwork are fascinating.
One thing that needs to be known off the top is…… [Read More]
Caffeinism: The Psychology of Caffeine, Coffee-Drinking, And Coffee-Addicts
Coffee has been generally considered as an addicting drink, primarily because it contains the vital ingredient, caffeine, which is known for its ability to stimulate the central nervous system. Despite this common knowledge, there is still insufficient literature and studies that will provide empirical evidence that indeed, coffee has psychological effects on the individual. Thus, this paper collates studies and related literature that proves empirically how coffee, due to its caffeine content, is a psychoactive drug that elicits psychological effects from the individual.
Studies looking into the affective dimension of coffee to drinkers show that there are three dimensions where "caffeinism" or coffee-drinking is characterized: coffee's psychoactive properties, predilection to substance dependence of coffee drinkers, and reinforcing behavior resulting to coffee (caffeine) addiction.
Coffee's psychoactive properties stem from the argument and observation that "low doses of caffeine have been shown to increase…… [Read More]
This ethnographic observation comprises two separate visits to a NHL hockey game, during the regular season. Both of the observations took place at an evening game, which began at 7PM. There are several predispositions of how I believe people will look and behave in this setting. For example, I believed that men would outnumber women. I also believed that about half of the people at the hockey game would be with groups, and especially with families. I believed that roughly half of the attendants would be wearing a hockey team jersey, and that a quarter of the fans would have purchased beer from the stadium kiosks. Shouting and other signs of fan participation and enthusiasm was also expected. I have been to several NHL hockey games, as well as minor league games. This is why I have some expectations of the game but still tried to keep an open…… [Read More]
Cultural Influence and Critical Thinking
No psychological perspective is really free of cultural biases, as every perspective is rooted in something, whether it is Freud's perspective rooted in his own cultural experience or Augustine's rooted in (more anciently) in his own. If cultural bias is defined as something by which a psychologist bases certain presumptions about life, the human mind, experience, etc., it is impossible to hold the view that any one psychological perspective has been developed that is free (i.e., cultivated in a vacuum) of any influence or impact from one's culture. Freud was no doubt influenced by German modernism (Enlightenment ideology coupled with omanticism) just as Augustine was no doubt influenced by Catholic teaching later in his life and the dualists in his younger life. To free a psychological perspective from culture is like freeing ice from water or divorcing a compound from its parts. Culture is to…… [Read More]
West (1997) stated that clinicians, researchers, policy makers and others who work in the area of addiction, with addicts or who have to deal with the consequences of addiction, cannot easily ignore the strong ethical dimension to the problem. Ethics is concerned with determining the nature of normative theories and applying these sets of principles to practical moral problems. It is concerned with how we should live, as individuals and societies, what is right and wrong, what is good and bad and what is just and unjust. The bases on which such judgments can be made have been subject to systematic enquiry since before the time of Plato. Utilitarianism is perhaps the strongest thread running through the analysis of ethical and policy decisions in the field of addiction.
(Weissman, 1997) reported the following findings regarding tobacco companies and their advertising, He reported that the tobacco companies are expected to meet…… [Read More]
Aspara, J. (2009). Stock ownership as a motivation of brand-loyal and brand-supportive behaviors. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 26(6). Pp. 427-436. Retrieved from: http://www.yconomie.com/aspara/articles/aspara-2009_stock_ownership_brand_loyal_behaviors.pdf
In this work, Aspara investigates the psychological motivations underlying stock ownership and its influence on brand loyalty as well as finding empirical evidence to support the explication of these motivations. The author points out that, although consumption and investment psychologies, respectively, have been seen as separate realms, the study reveals that they can have a significant mutual influence. Indeed, the author has found that many individuals who become stockowners in a company also experience a positive and increased motivation towards brand loyalty for that company. Positive word-of-mouth has also been found among individuals becoming stock owners in a company.
What this means for the study to be conducted on brand loyalty among the youth in the United States and Kenya may not be considered in terms of…… [Read More]
Psychology of Work
In accordance to iggio (2013), industrial organizational psychology is purposed to improve the level of self-esteem and performance of human beings, and the organizations they operate in, by progressing the knowledge and understanding of human conduct and behavior. Due to globalization, the workforces within organizations have increasingly become more diverse in the recent decade. In accordance to research studies, diverse teams and groups that are well managed outdo standardized and uniform groups as they have a tendency of being more inventive, creative and effective at resolving problems. Nonetheless, when these teams commonly experience problems with regard to communication, which results in lower performance, personnel from different nationalities, cultures, generations, gender and beliefs are presently forced to work together and operate in tandem within the same organization. As a result, these dissimilarities have come to be a current communication issue within organizations. This is for the reason that…… [Read More]
Goals of Psychology
Psychologists in various areas of specialty put emphasis on different behavioral aspects though often with similar goals, that of getting acquainted to the human behavior. The paper will look at these four goals of psychology as well as an example of a study created that would help elaborate on each of these four goals of psychology. These four goals of psychology are to describe behavior, to explain behavior, to predict behavior and to control behavior.
This involves the naming and classification of a behavior that is displayed by an individual or a group of people. A description is normally based on careful, systematic procedure carried out which is a contrast to the haphazard description that may be put forth without backing of well researched data. Description is important as it clarifies the phenomenon under study and it is only after a description of the phenomena…… [Read More]
Social psychology view: What ensures that women are treated fairly in office settings in the United States?
One of the most prudent applications of social psychology within contemporary settings are those that relate to gender. Gender issues can become exacerbated when they are viewed within particular social constructs, such as the work environment. Due to the fact that the majority of the world was initially a patriarchal society (particularly in the United States) before modern conceptions of gender became prevalent, the role of women within the work environment is one which is certainly worthy of investigation in terms of how women are treated, what sorts of issues they must contend with, and how others (men) consider working women. The principle difference between contemporary and most historic notions of gender pertaining to women in the workplace is that in modern times, there is supposed to be a substantial greater amount of…… [Read More]
sit-down with an experience psychologist recently and a very enlightening and expansive conversation ensued. The psychologist in question did request that her name and her practice be excluded from being named within this report, but there is a bevy of great information that was gleaned during the interview and will be shared in this report. She said she wanted to be very candid and felt she should not do so if her name (or the name of her practice) are in play. At the request of the professor, topics to be mentioned in this summary include how long the psychologist has been working in the field, what orientation the psychologist was trained for and the time splits that the psychologist allocates her time to, the assessment tools she uses and the associated training engaged in to be able to use those tools, the ethical dilemmas that the psychologist has encountered…… [Read More]
History Of Social Psychology
Social Psychology studies how people's thoughts emotions and feelings are influenced by what they see, hear or observe from their immediate environment (Feenstra, 2013). It also involves to how the same people respond to these influencers within their living environment. We must appreciate the fact that human beings are sensitive and receptive to all that goes on within their living environment. They react to the stimuli they get through sight or hearing. It the early days before the Second World War, psychologists and sociologists used to interact mostly in their course of action. This interaction resulted in the development of this field of social psychology. It has helped in understanding the intricate aspects of human socio-psychological phenomena (Burns, 2008).
Social Psychology theories
There are more than ten theories developed as from the late mid 20th century concerning the area of social psychology. They all explain the…… [Read More]
This has already occurred in many sports and the newest and most "extreme" will likely mirror these effects of technology within the next few years.
Technology, according to some, has taken the fun and danger out of many sports that were once considered highly dangerous or extreme. This has led to the abandonment of some sports that were once considered extreme in favor of other ones that are relatively new or are actually more dangerous, technological advancements aside (Horton, 2004). But just as technological advances in other fields invariably appear and creep forward, so too with the advances in these most extreme of extreme sports.
Extreme sports, in one way or another, have been around as long as sport has existed. The effects of commercialization and of technological advances on many of these sports have been profound, and the media's influence and advancement of access for more participants has changed…… [Read More]
marketing plan a sports enterprise (e.g. professional, school, community program). You select a "real" enterprise a fictitious . You position manager develop a plan implement employees / contractors.
The modern day society is nowadays characterized by numerous challenges, one of the more notable of these being increasing health problems among the population. And these health problems are more severe not only as they attack more people, but especially since they come to impact younger and younger generations.
A large majority of the health problems of today are related to an inadequate nutrition, combined with a sedentary life style. The youth of the day for instance consume more and more calories from the highly processed foods and they exercise less, as the leisure activities come to be centered on video games or other sedentary activities (Smith and Biddle, 2008).
In such a setting then, the current project proposed the…… [Read More]
With this approach, consultation psychology focuses on the issues of the group as a whole and therefore typically uses group discussions, interviews and observations as opposed to singling out specific individuals. The result is that, by using consultation psychology in the field of industrial and organizational psychology, the focus is on the group and the roles the individuals who make up the group play. With this focus, industrial and organizational psychology is better able to meet its goals of increasing organizational productivity, well-being and success.
In the case sample cited in the introduction of this paper, the issue was how consultation psychology could be utilized as a method for providing industrial and organizational psychological services to a mental health related organization. From the overview provided in the previous section, it can be seen that utilizing consultation psychology, as opposed to clinical psychology, will be the best method of…… [Read More]
Moss sex driven by scent by Gisela Telis (2012).
Mating is a natural process observed in every living thing in its own unique way. While worms can reproduce in the opposite head position, the sexual intercourse between humans is completely a different phenomenon. A similar yet different reproduction method is used by the Mosses. The article written by Gisela Telis (2012) demonstrates the recent findings on the innovative mating procedure of the Mosses. The article also compares the recent findings with the earlier studies done in previous years and is related to the field of biological psychology as it focuses upon plant evolution and the idea of pheromones.
Telis (2012) has found out that Mosses require help from tiny little creatures to play an important role in their mating procedure. Earlier it was observed and widely believed that Mosses reproduce by wind and water. In essence,…… [Read More]
Many women are afraid of getting older and are willing to do right about anything to appear always young. infarct many people perceive it is rude to ask a woman her age since the society has no room to accommodate old women and the changes that their bodies go through. It is not possible for women in the society not to struggle with issues of their appearance .this has resulted to many women trying to change how they look as they age so that they can be accepted in the society. They go to an extent of denying themselves food and applying anti-wrinkle cream so that they maintain their states of their bodies and faces.
Aging is always a taboo subject with women as compared to their male counterparts. Women are afraid of the aging factor due to the perceptions in the society. The society tends to create…… [Read More]
They perceive their self-worth mainly in connection with those achievements and their confidence in social situations is largely dependent on the knowledge that others recognize them for those attributes (Branden, 2007).
The Shift from False Confidence to Self-Efficacy
I experienced a period during my later childhood and adolescence where I now realize I had substituted unjustified fears and apprehensions with unjustified confidence and positive beliefs about myself that exceeded my actual abilities. My parents meant to instill in me a sense of self-esteem by inflating my self-image. However, in doing so, they actually infused me with what I have more recently learned to recognize as false confidence. Because I was taught to "be confident" I became equally confident in situations where I knew almost nothing as I was in situations where I deserved to be confident. On several occasions, I allowed myself to become argumentative even after realizing that I…… [Read More]
Psychology: Alcohol & Drug Abuse
The over-all focus of this paper is to show how alcohol, drug addictions and abuse is fundamentally a disease of the brain. It will focus on various psychological aspects of addiction, such as some theories as to why people get addicted to drugs or alcohol in the first place, and some theories for treatments of those addictions; some psychological processes of how certain drugs work; how those drugs shape addiction through their processes; and finally analyzing the understanding of addiction within the brain.
Some major theories for why people begin to use substance such as drugs (legal or not), and alcohol are the reward and reinforcement theory, recreational use, and the stress-reduction theory. Some theories for treatments include using combinations of cognitive/social support rehabilitation, or using some form of rehabilitation with medications as well. The types of drugs and their effects that will be discussed…… [Read More]
Hispanic psychology has allowed clinical researchers to study the unique complexities of the Hispanic experience. Among the cornerstones of Hispanic psychology include issues related to biculturalism, acculturation, the immigrant experience, racism, oppression, in-group/out-group relations, and identity construction. Hispanic psychology has both individual, behavioral-cognitive components, as well as social-psychological components.
This article is relevant to both the text and lecture material on ethnicity, identity, and psychology. Issues related to cultural competence, and the biases within the social science are also relevant. This article helps to remove cultural bias in the field of psychology in particular because instead of imposing culturally biased frameworks and paradigms, Hispanic psychology uses a culturally specific and relevant paradigm. Also, this article is relevant to specific lessons and readings on Hispanic culture. Hispanic culture is itself heterogeneous, and within the overall rubric of Hispanic culture there are many subsets of identity from Nicaraguan to Cuban.
eflection…… [Read More]
However, these statements can certainly have some merit when Florin attempts to place it the category of an addictive/abusive substance. She further goes on to state that the withdrawal symptoms may qualify as a DSM disorder in and of themselves and merit further medical and psychiatric concern. She does admit that coffee users who have no risk factors, such as cardiovascular problems, diabetes, etc. may be able to manage a comfortable addiction to the substance.
While the research is interesting and yelds some provocative information, there are several problems with this article, not the least is the trivializing of addiction and substance abuse by associating it with a morning cup of coffee. Nehlig agrees, "Thus, dependence and abuse should not be associated, and, as pointed out recently, discussing caffeine in terms of drugs of abuse might in fact trivialize the dangers of drugs such as cocaine." (2004,…… [Read More]
Since males of all sexually reproducing species are naturally drawn to signs of fertility in females (Zuk 2002), they naturally express more interest in females when they ovulate, or come into heat in the vernacular applied to non-human animals. In many other species that do not rely as much on a monogamous pair bond for the survival of the fetus (Barash & Lipton 2001), females exhibit very clear external signals corresponding to their ovulation. This system is very well suited to species where a single male (or several) mate with many females, such as among lions and many mammals; in fact, it probably reduces any potential for conflict among harem females for male attention.
Human females replaced the outward signals of ovulation and fertility by evolving a suppression of any outward manifestation, precisely, to ensure that males provided for, guarded, and protected them continually rather than only that portion of…… [Read More]