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Stalking may be defined as any sort of unwanted contact a person called the stalker makes on the intended victim, which could directly or indirectly cause one or more of the following criminal actions, which are fear of death, sexual contact which is of criminal nature, assault, kidnapping, injury and damage to property. (Stalking: www.atss-hq.com) Nearly all stalkers are afflicted with some form of mental or emotional problem. A stalker will travel any distance across a town or around the country or even across continents to pursue the victim. A normal person will not continue to pursue a person in the face of rejection. Stalkers can be classified into three major groups, irrespective of how severe the mental disorder is. The three are Simple Obsession, Love Obsession and Other. (Forms of Stalking)
A Simple Obsession stalker would have had a previous intimate relationship with the victim. Many a time the…
'Forms of Stalking" Retrieved from http://www.esia.net/Forms_of_Stalking.htm Accessed on 24 November, 2004
Gay, Jayson. "Tracking an obsession" (8-15 January, 1998) Retrieved from http://www.bostonphoenix.com/archive/features/98/01/08/TRACKING_AN_OBSESSION.html Accessed on 24 November, 2004
"Intimate Violence" (6 January, 2004) Retrieved from http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/300/300lect05.htm Accessed on 24 November, 2004
MacLaren, Lorna. (16 November 2004) "The dark world of obsession" Retrieved from http://www.theherald.co.uk/features/27988.html Accessed on 24 November, 2004
While the Zona, et al., study closely examines the victim-suspect relationships, another study conducted by Troy McEwen, Paul E. Mullen, and osemary Purcell (2006) focuses more succinctly on the behavioral disorder as regards stalkers' propensity for violence and physical harm to their victims (p. 2). McEwen, et al., found that the longer the behavior of stalking continued, the greater the potential for physical harm to the victim (p. 2). McEwen, et al., identified the risk factors of the stalker with the greatest propensity for violence as: a prior intimate relationship between the stalker and the victim; the presence of explicit threats; a history of substance abuse; and the absence of psychosis in the perpetrator (p. 2).
Both studies go on in their respective directions, providing a plethora of information that when taken in combination, help to profile stalker propensity for violence. The Zona, et al., study goes into more depth…
McEwen, T., Mullen, P., and Purcell, R., 2007. Identifying Risk Factors in Stalking: A
Review of Current Research, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, pp. 1-9.
Palarea, R., Zona, M., Lane, J., and Langhinrichsen-Rohlings, 1999. The Dangerous
Nature of Intimate Relationship Stalking: Threats, Violence, and Associated Risk Factors. Behavioral Science and the Law, pp. 269-283.
Physicial Mental Health Effects of Being Stalked: Men and Women
Stalking is a common problem and one that results in adverse mental and health effects for both men and women who are stalked. The National Institute of Justice reports that stalking victims "have higher levels of fear and distress, including anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. Several studies indicate that partner stalking independently contributes to victim fear and distress." (2014, p.1) Stalking victimization is reported to be linked to "a range of fears and significant psychological distress." (National Institute of Justice, 2014, p. 1) Of individuals who were stalked it is reported that 68% were stalked by an ex-partner while 78% were reported to have had "meal scale scores for somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction and severe depression that were similar to symptoms reported by psychiatric outpatient populations." (National Institute of Justice, 2014, p. 1) In addition, it is…
A study found that partner stalking victims had significantly higher levels of fear across a variety of dimensions, including physical and sexual assault, ongoing harassment and threats, ongoing coercive control, harm and harassment of friends and family, child threat and interference, economic harm, and public humiliation." (National Institute of Justice, 2014, p. 1) Finally, partner stalking is reported to be linked to "sleep and health problems." (National Institute of Justice, 2014, p. 1) Health problems are likely to be developed or heightened by the "stress and distress from stalking, the cumulative stress and trauma from past violence and abuse and ongoing stalking." (National Institute of Justice, 2014, p. 1) Evidence is reported to exist that the "intensity, frequency, and/or duration of stalking" is associated with an increase in both fear and distress. (National Institute of Justice, 2014, p. 1) Other studies are reported to indicate that "explicit threats are significantly associated with violence from the partner stalker." (National Institute of Justice, 2014, p. 1)
1.1 Social Conditions or Any Other Source of Research Problem
Reports state that there is economic
Stalking Victimization in the United States
It wasn't until ebecca Schaeffer was killed by obert John Bardo in 1989 that the word 'stalking' began to take on a new meaning in popular culture, one associated with the pursuit of celebrities by the paparazzi, criminal harassment, and even serial killers (Nicol, 2006, pp. 18-20). A year later California responded by passing the first anti-stalking statute and within another year the other 49 states had followed suit. In 1996 interstate stalking became a federal felony.
The rapid response of federal and state legislatures to the perceived threat of stalking was fueled in part by the growing realization that celebrity stalking represented only a small percentage of stalking victims. The first states to pass anti-stalking legislation witnessed their court dockets begin to fill with stalking cases, leading some to conclude the magnitude of the problem had been underestimated. Nicol (2006, p.…
Baum, Katrina, Catalano, Shannan, Rand, Michael, and Rose, Kristina. (2009). Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report: Stalking victimization in the United States. Retrieved August 8, 2011 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/svus.pdf
Boles, Gregory S. (2001). Developing a model approach to confronting the problem of stalking: Establishing a threat management unit. In J.A. Davis (Ed.), Stalking crimes and victim protection: prevention, intervention, threat assessment, and case management (pp. 338-349). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Collins, Melissa J. And Wilkas, Mary Beth. (2001). Stalking trauma and the traumatized victim. In J.A. Davis (Ed.), Stalking crimes and victim protection: prevention, intervention, threat assessment, and case management (pp. 317-332). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Logan, T.K., Cole, Jennifer, Shannon, Lisa, and Walker, Robert. (2006). Partner Stalking: How women respond, cope, and survive. New York: Springer Publishing.
Stalking in the Computer Age
In the last two decades, there has been an increase in knowledge of computers and other provisions of the technology. Notably, with the increase in the knowledge regarding the use of the computers criminals have found an opportunity for the criminal acts (eyns et al., 2012). For example, there is an increase in the number of spammers, and cyber stalkers hence increase in the number of crimes. This following study elucidates the concept of cyberstalking and the ways of avoiding it.
Cyberstalking is a computer crime that involves the use of electronics or internet means to cause harassment (al-Khateeb et al., 2015). Cyberstalker may target an individual, group of people or and enterprise. The harassment may come in a form of emails or instant messaging to a specific person or a group. At some instances, the criminal may decide to attack an organization by posting…
al-Khateeb, H., Alhaboby, Z. A., Barnes, J., Brown, A., Brown, R., Cobley, P., ... & Shukla, M. (2015). A Practical Guide to Coping with Cyberstalking.
Reyns, B. W., Henson, B., & Fisher, B. S. (2012). Stalking in the Twilight Zone: Extent of Cyber-stalking Victimization and Offending Among College Students. Deviant Behavior, 33(1), 1-25.
Loftus, M. (2016). The Anti-Social Network: Cyber-stalking Victimization among College Students. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(4), 340-341.
(MACV Dir 381-41) This document is one of the first confidential memorandums associated with the Phoenix Program, which details in 1967 the mostly U.S. involvement in counterinsurgency intelligence and activities and discusses the future training and development of South Vietnam forces to serve the same function, that had been supported by the U.S. In civilian (mostly CIA) and military roles. The document stresses that the U.S. role is to emit a "shotgun" type injury to the infrastructure of the insurgency, while eventually the South Vietnamese agencies (based largely on existing U.S. forces) that will be developed later hold the responsibility of directing a more "riffle shot" like blast to the core of the movement, i.e. To perform appropriate apprehension and/or assassination of key figure leaders.
Since this time and likely in part as a response to the controversial clandestine actions of the past the U.S. has abandoned assassination as a…
Andrade, Dale. Ashes to Ashes: The Phoenix Program and the Vietnam War. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1990.
Apel, Dora. "Torture Culture: Lynching Photographs and the Images of Abu Ghraib." Art Journal 64, no. 2 (2005): 88.
The Army School of the Americas Serves a Useful Purpose." The Washington Times, 21 September 1999, 20.
Balestrieri, Elizabeth Brownell. "Abu Ghraib Prison Abuse and the Rule of Law." International Journal on World Peace 21, no. 4 (2004): 3.
It is inevitable that behaviors of students inside a college classroom in a way depend on their race or ethnicity, which does not make it very neutral place of learning and social interaction. Studies have shown non-native speaking students struggle depression because they are in a different country and away from family. Scholars argue whether this is the implication of the alienation to students who form the mainstream population or just one of the effects of being drenched in a multicultural society. Additionally, Studies show non-native speaking students are more pessimistic than any other students and are more likely to anticipate possible problems in their ventures. This insinuates that they are more inclined towards avoidance of future maladies, and thus they always tend to play their affairs safe. Non-native students are also more prone to health problems as aftereffects of their depression and pessimism, not to mention persistent recurrences of…
Burling, J.G. (2007, April 19). Law Limits Scholl after alarms.
MASS SHOOTINGS at VIRGINIA TECH APRIL 16, 2007. (2007, August).
McMurrary, J. (2008, March 28). Colleges are Watching Troubled Students.
Slamlor, P.V. (2007, September 4). PERILOUS PRIVACY at VIRGINIA TECH.
Cyber Bullying and Cyber Stalking
Cyberbullying is a new threat to children where they can be harassed by way of technology such as social media, instant messaging or cell phone texting (Cyberbullying and Cyberstalking, 2012). Cyberstalking is the use of the Internet, email or other electronic communications to stalk, and generally refers to a pattern of threatening or malicious behaviors (State Cyberstalking and Cyberharassment Laws, 2012). Cyberstalking may be considered the most dangerous of the three types of Internet harassment, based on a posing credible threat of harm. Cyberstalking while is typically directed at an individual but can also be harassment directed harassment at a group of individuals or an organization (Cyberbullying and Cyberstalking, 2012). There are people on one side that felt that cyber bullying and cyber stalking are serious crimes which should be punished severely while there are others that feel that since the stalking only…
Cyberstalking & Cyberbullying Have Lasting Effects. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.ivanhoe.com/channels/p_channelstory.cfm?storyid=27780
Cyberbullying and Cyberstalking. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.jonesdykstra.com/cybercrime/88-subservices/129-
Cyber Bullying: Why you need to speak up! (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.teenink.com/opinion/current_events_politics/article/435029/Cyber -
TV series Lost": (1st episode) Synopsis of program- Stripped of everything 48 survivors scavenge what they can from the plane for survival. Some panic. Some pin their hopes on rescue. A few find inner strength the never new they had. The band of friends, family, enemies and strangers must work together against the cruel weather and harsh terrain. Intense howl of the mysterious creatures stalking the jungle fill them all with fear (Lost web site http://abc.go.com/primetime/lost/about.html )
Modern challenges seem somehow different than those of the previous generations. People seem more and more fragmented and fractured, with families spread across countries, continents and even the globe struggling to remain connected through the only means possible, the electronic super highway, cell phones with no long distance charges, cheap airline tickets and a few other more costly means. Challenges faced by these people and the families they comprise seem to be more…
ABC Lost web site at .
Elvin, John. "Is Television Really a Mirror of Our Lives." Insight on the News 18 Feb. 2003: 16. Questia. 30 Sept. 2004 .
Galston, William A. "Divorce American Style." Public Interest Summer 1996: 12+. Questia. 30 Sept. 2004 .
Reiss, Steven, and James Wiltz. "Why America Loves Reality TV." Psychology Today Sept.-Oct. 2001: 52+. Questia. 30 Sept. 2004 .
firms have much to learn from the history of management thought and pioneering management theorists: An Essay
Organizational workforce management issues
The management concepts starting from early eras of 1950s up to 1990s are discussed in relation to their impact on the business and workforce management. The practices and management concepts evolved over a period of time based on various theories and frame works for effective human resources management. The discussed theories are McGregor's theory of X and Y, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory, and Hawthorne's experimentation. The relevance of McGregor's theory is observed relevant for companies following forced staking performance appraisal system (Arslan & Staub 2013).
The traditional management concepts are based on the practices that were adopted in early 20th century. The Newton's mechanistic model and Fayol's analytical view were mostly followed in the organizations to manage their…
Akindele, ST & Afolabi, YA 2013, Leadership and Its Place in Organisations: A Theoretical Synthetic Analysis (Note 1), Public Administration Research, Vol. 2, No. 1.
Arslan, A & Staub, S 2013, Theory X and Theory Y Type Leadership Behavior and its Impact on Organizational Performance: Small Business Owners in the ?ishane Lighting and Chandelier District, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 75, pp. 102-111.
Chattopadhayay, R & Ghosh, AK 2012, Performance appraisal based on a forced distribution system: its drawbacks and remedies, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 61, 8, pp. 881-896.
Cole, GA 2004, Management theory and practice, Cengage Learning EMEA, USA.
Another layer of the proverbial onion is that family members of the above people are involved in politics to some manner or degree. Example of these people would include Hillary Clinton, Beau Biden (son of Joe Biden), ory eid (son of Senate Majority leader Harry eid) and so on. Chelsea Clinton and others would also be potential targets.
As mentioned before, kidnapping is not all that common with United States government officials because the chances of it resulting in anything positive or long-lasting is not all that high. That being said not all kidnappers and assassins are all that mentally balance or logical in their reasoning. For example, John Hinckley (who shot former President of the United States onald eagan during his time in office) was apparently trying to impress Jodie Foster and that is clearly the sign of someone that is off their proverbial rocker. Because of mentally ill…
Baum, K., Catalano, S., Rand, M. & Rose, Kr. (2009, January). National Crime
Victimization Survey: Stalking victimization in the United States. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. Retrieved from http://atapworldwide.org/associations/8976/files/documents/Stalking_in_US_09.p df
Bulling, D., Scalora, M. Borum, R. Panuzio, J., and Donica, A. (2008, July). Behavioral science guidelines for assessing insider threat attacks. Public Policy Center,
University of Nebraska. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi ? article=1036&context=publicpolicypublications
The rapid changes witnessed over the course of the last two decades has demonstrated how technology and, more specifically, the internet, have expanded the rule of law and the accompanying challenges that lie in enforcing the law. The purpose of this essay is to describe the greatest challenge facing law enforcement agencies in investigating exploitation, cyber stalking and obscenity. This challenge is the mere scope of problems that this platform has created. This essay will also discuss how jurisdictional issues often interfere with the true and honest law enforcement in this area.
Subjectivity as the Leading Challenge
Living in a free society, where free speech is protected by federal law, subjective differences often arise when discussing what is obscene or not. This subjective quality of human behavior is the root of all these issues and should be respected as a problem that must be solved, yet individual liberty and…
Kumar, R. (2011). Cyberstalking: Crime and Challenge at the Cyberspace. International Journal of Computing and Business Research, 2 (1), 2011. Retrieved from http://www.researchmanuscripts.com/PapersVol2N1Jan2011/1.pdf
Ramsey, G. (2013). The War on Cybercrime: How Far Can You Go? Corporate Counsel, 16 April 2013. Retrieved from http://www.law.com/corporatecounsel/PubArticleCC.jsp?id=1202596081920&The_War _On_Cybercrime_How_Far_Can_You_Go&slreturn=20130715093530
Shinder, D. (2011). What makes cybercrime laws so difficult to enforce. Tech Repbulic, 26 Jan 2011. Retrieved from http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/it-security/what-makes - cybercrime-laws-so-difficult-to-enforce/
Louisiana- Cyber Stalking Laws
Cyber Stalking Laws in Louisiana
According to Veronica ose (2009) Cyberstalking is the use of the Internet or other electronic communication to harass, threaten, or intimidate someone. Though the frequency of incidences is unknown a 1999 federal report, Cyberstalking: A New Challenge for Law Enforcement and Industry, alluded to the fact that this behavior may be a precursor to more harmful behavior. The report also points out that the ease of use and non-confrontational, impersonal, and sometimes anonymous nature of Internet communications may remove disincentives to Cyberstalking. While a potential stalker may be unwilling or unable to confront someone in person or on the telephone, he or she may have little hesitation sending harassing or threatening electronic communications to a victim.
Certain Internet capabilities facilitate Cyberstalking by increasing the capacity to contact potential victims. These include chat rooms, bulletin boards, newsgroups, instant messaging, and…
Rose, V. (2009, February 23). Cyberstalking. OLR research report,2009-R-0117. Retrieved July 21, 2011, from http://www.cga.ct.gov/2009/rpt/2009-R-0117.htm
"Louisiana Cyberstalking Laws" (2010). Louisiana cyberstalking laws, LSA-R.S. 14:40.3. Abuselaws.com. Retrieved July 21, 2011, from http://www.abuselaws.com/abuse-laws/louisiana-cyberstalking-laws.html
Domestic Violence can be defined as the vicious behaviour used by one person in a relationship to control the other. Partners maybe married or in a dating relationship, could be gay, heterosexual or lesbian. According to social scientists, there is a link between domestic violence and stalking. Stalking can be described as continual following or contacting a person in a threatening and annoying way which can make the person feel insecure. Mostly people that become the target of these stalkers are their ex-intimate partners and thus we can observe/establish the connection between domestic violence and stalking, which has recently become a legal construct. (Douglas and Dutton, 2001)
Most stalkers are psychopathic batterers who are introverts with violent behaviour. These are people are also termed as "borderline" or "cyclical" batterers. Both the batterers and stalkers have the Cluster B personality disorder, the characteristics includes being overly dramatic, having attachment trauma, weak…
Burgess, A., Baker, T., Greening, D., Hartman, C., Burgess, A., Douglas, J., & Halloran, R. (1997). Stalking behaviors within domestic violence. Journal of Family Violence, 389-403.
Douglas, K., & Dutton, D. (2001). Assessing the link between stalking and domestic violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 519-546.
Dutton, D., van Ginkel, C., & Landolt, M. (1996). Jealousy, intimate abusiveness, and intrusiveness. Journal of Family Violence, 411-423.
NCADV. (n.d.). Facts about Domestic Violence and Stalking. NCADV. Retrieved May 2016, from https://www.ncadv.org/files/Domestic Violence and Stalking NCADV.pdf
This collection comprises health-care and social service employees such as visiting nurses, psychiatric evaluators, and probation workers; community employees such as gas and water utility workers, phone and cable TV employees, and letter carriers; retail workers; and taxi drivers (OSHA Fact Sheet, 2002).
The best defense that companies can give is to institute a no tolerance rule in regards to workplace aggression against or by their workers. The company should set up a workplace aggression avoidance course or include the knowledge into an accessible disaster prevention course, employee manual, or handbook of standard operating measures. It is important to make sure that all workers are aware of the rules and recognize that all ascertains of workplace aggression will be examined and dealt with quickly. Additionally, companies can recommend additional shields like:
Providing security training for workers so they understand what behavior is not suitable and what they should do if…
Davidson, Michael. (2010). Federal Workplace Violence Laws. Retrieved October 17, 2010,
from eHow Web site: http://www.ehow.com/list_6116986_federal-workplace-violence-laws.html
Heathfield, Susan M. (2010). Workplace Violence: Violence Can Happen Here. Retrieved October 17, 2010, from About Web site:
Victim Advocacy -- National Center for Victims of Crime
The National Center for Victims of Crime is one of the most respected, most influential national organizations that offer information, services, advocacy and references for victims of crime. This paper covers many of the services that they provide and delves into the ways in which victims can recover from the trauma of having been a victim of a crime. Moreover, this paper goes deeper into the victim issue by referencing the shocking increases recently reported regarding crimes against women -- and the reticence of some elected officials to pass legislation that provides harsh measures against those who attack, rape, and otherwise victimize women.
hy is there a need for victim advocacy groups?
Throughout history there have always been crimes and criminals at one level or another; no data is available to note how far back unkind and vicious acts have been…
AllGov. (2012). More than 3 Million Violent Crimes in the U.S. go Unreported Every Year.
Retrieved October 17, 2013, from http://www.allgov.com .
Human Rights Watch. (2008). U.S.: Soaring Rates of Rape and Violence Against Women.
Retrieved October 17, 2013, from http://www.hrw.org .
Arnold Friend is a Stalker
There are many nebulous aspects to Joyce Carol Oates short story, "here Are You Going, here Have You Been," for example, the origins of Connie's troubled relationship with her mother (is it strictly a jealousy thing?), the peculiarity of Arnold Friend's last name (what kind of friend is he?), the relevance of those secret numbers that Arnold Friend rattles off ("33, 19, 17") or even why the story is dedicated to Bob Dylan (is 'Bobby King' a reference to Dylan?), but one aspect of the story that is certainly clear is that Arnold Friend is a stalker, a predatory malcontent. And it is the purpose of this essay to conclusively demonstrate that Arnold Friend is a prototypical stalker by using three rubrics -- a psychological rubric, a literary comparative rubric, and a public opinion rubric - for evaluating his predatory behaviors.
Perhaps, it's best…
Nabokov, Vladimir. Lolita. New York: Random House Digital, 1955. Web.
Oates, Joyce Carol. "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" Epoch, Fall
Tierce, Mike and Crafton, John M. "Connie's Tambourine Man: A New Reading of Arnold Friend." Studies in Short Fiction. EBSCO Publishing, 2003. Web.
The questionnaires for the purpose of this particular study were completed by 179 participants. The gender preference breakdown of the participants included 60 lesbians, 45 heterosexual females, 39 heterosexual males and 37 gay males (Harkless, Blaine, 2005).
When the study was completed and the data went through analysis it was found that gay men and lesbian women reported a higher degree of post relationship involvement with their former partners than heterosexual couple members reported occurring.
The data reflect how inclusion of sexual orientation can broaden understandings of gender differentiated phenomena beyond more traditional gender-only based accounts (Harkless, Blaine, 2005)."
The study questionnaire asked general demographic data and then moved into couple and gender specific questions. The questions required the participants to acknowledge their relationship with their former partner including whether or not they maintained emotional ties, sexual ties or other types of contact with the former partner. The questionnaire also…
Agnew, C.R., Loving, T.J., & Drigotas, S.M. (2001). Substituting the forest for the trees: Social networks and the prediction of romantic relationship state and fate. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1042-1057.
Anderson, P.A., Elroy, S.V., Guerrero, L.K., & Spitzberg, B.H. (1995). Romantic jealousy and relational satisfaction: A look at the impact of jealousy experience and expression. Communication Reports, 8, 77-85.
Attridge, M. (1994). Barriers to dissolution of romantic relationships. In D.J. Canary & L. Stafford, Communication and relational maintenance. (pp. 141-164) San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc.
Baxter, L.A. (1982). Strategies for ending relationships: Two studies. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 223-241.
Crimes Committed Against Persons in the United States
The United States is one of the world's super powers. Like any other country, it experiences the challenge of crimes committed against people too. The FBI has shown that the rate of violent crimes committed in the US has been declining for the past two decades. Violent crimes can be classified into types that include rape, murder, aggravated assault, and robbery. Statistically, the rate of crimes committed to people in 2016 decreased by 1.1% when it is compared with those reported in 2015. The rates of crimes against people vary across regions. For example, the FBI reports that in 2016, there was a positive change in the rate of 2.0% in murder cases in Northeast region and 1.2% in Midwest (Federal Bureau of Investigation). Therefore, this research paper examines the different types of crimes committed against persons in the US, their characteristics,…
99). Brewster (2000), looking specifically at the question of how threatening language and physical violence are related in intimate relationships. Looking at hundreds of individuals involved in intimate relationships that included verbal threats, some of which went on to include physical violence, she also found that there is a clear cycle of dynamics between the individuals, in which verbal threats generally intermingle with physical violence and in which certain actions such as stalking bridge the difference between threats and action, since stalking can be considered to be an expressive act more like speech (that is, threats) than like physical violence.
Ferstl, inck, & Von Cramon (2005) examined neurolinguistic patterns that show up when threatening language and the accompanying emotions are felt by individuals and found that there are in fact signatures on a neurolinguistic level of assessment of threats. Their fMI analysis on individuals demonstrated that their subjects reacted quite…
Brewster, M.P. Stalking by Former Intimates: Verbal Threats and Other Predictors of Physical Violence. Violence and Victims 15(1): 41-54.
Ferstl, E.C., Rinck, M. & Von Cramon, Y. (2005). Emotional and Temporal Aspects of Situation Model Processing during Text Comprehension: An Event-Related fMRI Study. Journal of Cognitive Science 17(5): 724-739.
Novak, a. & Hubbell, K. (Ed.). (2002). Emergency Care Technician Curriculum. New York: Jones and Bartlett.
identity is a means of classifying an individual when it comes to private matter and the government. How a government identifies someone or an institution, is through the use of an identity card. An identity card has a serial number and a picture that helps law enforcement, government agencies and other organizations identity an individual for potential jobs, loans, and even for medical care. However there are some issues with identity cards. For instance, are can people who have access to this information treat individuals unfairly, will there be higher instances of identity theft? Can "Big Brother" use this as a means of spying on civilians? It's important to look at this issue from various angles.
The UK has, for a number of years, set in motion creation of a system to update their identity card regulations and procedures. "A law was passed which established the intention to create a…
Andreouli, E. And Howarth, C. (2012). National Identity, Citizenship and Immigration: Putting Identity in Context. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 43(3), pp.361-382.
Beynon-Davies, P. (2011). The UK national identity card. Journal of Information Technology Teaching Cases, 1(1), pp.12-21.
It shows that children, who we expect to be innocent and trusting, can have a very dark side, and that can be horrifying, although I wouldn't really call this a "horror" film, either. I would call this a psychological thriller with a twisted ending. This film doesn't have a lot of the elements of many horror films, although Rhoda could certainly be seen as a monster stalking her prey, anyone who has something she wants. The real focus of the film is her mother, Christine, who can't face what her daughter has done, or do the right thing, such as turning her in to the authorities. Instead, she blames herself, tries to kill her daughter with sleeping pills, and then tries to commit suicide. No wonder the daughter has problems!
Like the other films, this film has a message, too, and it has to do with children and what they're…
Moreover, the television show uses the same tactics that law enforcement does when they want to catch sexual predators online. Both law enforcement and the staff of "To Catch a Predator" pretend to be young people. By playing the same game as the sexual predator, police are effectively capturing criminals before they get away with their crimes. Although sneaky, the method of luring sexual predators using their own game is one of the most effective ways of preventing the problem. Knowing they can get easily caught, the sexual predator might think twice before befriending a new child. Using this method of capturing criminals, law enforcement can prevent predators from victimizing young people psychologically, sexually and violently.
Sexual predators should be prosecuted to the full extent of the law. In Canada, the law "makes it a criminal offense to use the Internet to lure or exploit children for sexual purposes," (Media…
Camber, Rebecca. "Arrogant Facebook failing to tackle paedophile threat,' claims child protection expert." Mail Online. 9 Apr 2010. Retrieved online April 10, 2010 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1264609/Facebook-tackling-paedophile-threat-child-protection-expert-claims.html#ixzz0khN214sB
Doctorow, Cory. "Sexual Predators Online: The Real Story." Boing. 2007. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from http://boingboing.net/2007/06/13/sexual-predators-onl.html
Family Watchdog. Website retrieved April 10, 2010 from http://www.familywatchdog.us/
"Internet Predators." Wired Kids. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from http://www.wiredsafety.org/internet_predators/index.html
S1 - No
S2 - No
S3 - No
Rational - This question is intended to determine whether other forms of abuse occur within teenage social relationship even more frequently than actual physical abuse or face-to-face verbal abuse. Had any of the subjects answered affirmatively, that would have suggested specific follow-up questions to explore the issues raised.
6. Have any of your friends ever been the victim of stalking-type of behavior? If yes, through what medium (in person, by phone, via Internet, etc.)? Also, how many people do you know personally who have ever been victimized in this way?
S1 - Yes; four
S2 - Yes; two
S3 - Yes; four
Rational - This question provides a comparison to the subjects in the Claiborne study.
It also expands the anecdotal data to include three separate peer groups.
7. Have you ever before (today) discussed the issue of violence or…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Hsu, C. (2007) Family First: Abuse Is Not Love; Sep 27, 2007. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://wcbstv.com/parenttoparent/family.first.abuse.2.292513.html
This resource consists of a transcript of a television news interview conducted on Smith, T. (2008) "Horrors" Found in Tween, Teen Dating: Survey Uncovers Significant Levels of Physical, Verbal Abuse; Sex at Young Ages; Many Parents in the Dark; Jul 8, 2008. Retrieved October 21, 2008, at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/07//earlyshow/living/relationships/main4240192.shtml
5. There were 2,340 deaths attributed to IPV in 2007 (70% female; 30% male).
Describe the relevance and application of this information to criminal justice professionals.
Despite an increasing amount of research into intimate partner violence, no single theoretical approach has been offered that can explain it (Begun, 1999). The research to date indicates that there is an inextricable relationship between intimate partner violence and problems with stress, depression, or substance abuse (Anderson, 2002).As also noted by the CDC, IPV exists along a "violence continuum" that includes "abusive behaviors that occur within intimate partnerships, such as controlling choices and resources, humiliation and denigration, harassment, stalking, coercion, and so forth" (Begun, 1999, p. 239). This means that intimate partner violence would be of particular interest to criminal justice professionals since early detection and interventions are required in order to prevent an escalation in the level and types of violence that is…
Adler, L.L. & Denmark, F.L. (1999). Violence and the prevention of violence. Westport, CT:
Anderson, K.L. (2002). Perpetrator or victim? Relationships between intimate partner violence and well-being. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(4), 851-852.
Begun, A.L. (1999). Intimate partner violence: An HBSE perspective. Journal of Social Work
In January 2000 a new system was implemented by double click wherein for the first time the linking of the name of the user and any other information that it can pick up as the user moves from site to site. This is done in this manner and that is the user name and address is collected and stored in a cookie from a site where this is entered and the name and address is then linked to all the other activity that the user does on the web sites and stored in the same cookie and thus the activities of the user are linked to the real identity of the user. All this information is then sold to the highest bidder and it is estimated that there are nearly one hundred million such files available on Internet users that clearly indicates that the privacy of a majority of the…
Brain Marshall. How Does Cookie Data Move?. Retrieved at http://computer.howstuffworks.com/cookie2.htm . Accessed on March 15, 2005
Brain Marshall. Problems with Cookies. Retrieved at http://computer.howstuffworks.com/cookie5.htm . Accessed on March 15, 2005
Brain Marshall. Why the Fury Around Cookies? Retrieved at http://computer.howstuffworks.com/cookie6.htm . Accessed on March 15, 2005
Kristin Died -- Case Study
On May 30, 1992, a young woman named Kristin Lardner was shot by her ex-boyfriend, Michael Cartier. Cartier had a long history of violence and criminal activity, not to mention several convictions of domestic violence. At the time of the murder, in fact, Cartier was on probation and under the auspices of a restraining order. A number of public agencies had the task of keeping Cartier away from Kristin, but unfortunately, this did not happen. The gist of the matter deals with the element of bureaucracy, the way they are set up, what keeps them going, what incentives they use to measure efficacy, and what factors inhibit their ability to be responsive.
Within the rubric of public administration, there seems to be at least two theoretical precepts that apply to the case of Kristin Lardner. First, there is the idea of public bureaucracy and the…
Lardner, G. (1992 November 22). The Stalking of Kristin: The Law Made It Easy for My Daughter's Killer. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/newssearch/search.html?st=The+Stalking+of+Kristin&submit=Submit+Query
Rosenbloom, D., Kravchuk, R., Clerkin, R. (2008). Public Administration: Understanding Management, Politics, and Law in the Public Sector. New York: McGraw Hill.
Stillman, R. (2005). Public Administration: Concepts and Cases. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
See for example, the information in the National Domestic Violence Registry. http://www.domesticviolencedatabase.org/
Each day, thousands of New Yorkers experience violence at the hands of someone they love. But only a fraction of victims know where to get help" (p. 3).
Moreover, many domestic violence victims are coerced by the perpetrators into not testifying against them. In this regard, Glaberson (2011) reports that, "The defendants in domestic violence cases are in constant contact with their victims, and they use various means and methods to try to have the case dropped. Many of them cannot seem to stop themselves from sweet-talking, confessing to, berating and threatening . . . The women they were charged with abusing" (p. 3). Because even abusive relationships can be strong, some women who have experienced domestic violence -- even many times -- may be reluctant to prosecute their spouses or partners. In some cases, domestic violence shelters encourage abused partners to seek formal divorces in order to facilitate the…
Duchon-Voyles, a. (2010, October 21). From dangerous home to safe house. The New York
Times. [online] available: http://www.nytimes.com/ 2010/10/24/magazine/24lives-t.html?ref=domesticviolence.
Glaberson, W. (2011, February 25). Abuse suspects, your calls are taped. Speak up. The New
York Times. [online] available:
Federal and State Legislation
Domestic Violence Legislation at the Federal and State Level
Domestic violence is considered any violent act taken against someone involved in an intimate or family relationship (Eulich, 2013). It is a serious problem with countless victims each year. In 1994, Congress passed the United States Crime Bill which gave power to the federal government to help combat domestic violence, in particular violence against women and children. Specifically, the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) was created to address this problem which is considered to not only hurt victims, but also damage families, children and society as a whole (Eulich, 2013). The Act mandates that such crimes may be prosecuted by the Department of Justice and that the Gun Control Act (that existed as part of the federal Crime Bill) be extended to include issues related to domestic violence crimes. This VAWA gives the federal government a platform…
Eulich, W. (2013, February 13). In U.S., big strides in reducing domestic violence. Christian Science Monitor. p. N.PAG.
Employers responsibility in regards to the VAA
Violence against women can be defined as any act of sexually or non-sexually oriented violence that results or is possible to result in physical, sexual and psychological trauma, irrespective of the environment it occurs. Every act of violence diminishes and destroys women's basic human rights and freedoms. Her nature is that of a caring nurturer, while men's character typically includes the desire to go into the marketplace and compete to win at his career. The differences between men and women create the opportunity for women to be taken advantage of and/or suffer violence.
The reauthorization of the Violence Against omen Act (VAA) is a needed step toward protecting women in the workplace, and in society as a whole. Complete with over $3.3 billion over the next five years for VAA programs, the VAA authorizes:
875 million for shelter services for battered women;
Nassar, Salwa. 2000. National center for policy research for women and families. Accessed 3 Sept 2003. Website: http://www.cpr4womenandfamilies.org/violencel.html .
Thomspon, Ericka P. 2003. New laws may help decrease domestic violence., Indianapolis Recorder, 6 June. A1.
Violence againse Women Act Passes. 2000. Now legal defense and education fund. Accessed 3 Sept 2003. Website: http://www.nowldef.org/html/issues/vio/vawapassed.shtml
My perspective on domestic violence has certainly been influenced by some of the information I have learned while taking this course. I was fortunate enough to grow up in surroundings in which I was never exposed to this phenomenon. As such, I was relatively ignorant about the many realities regarding what has been and continues to be one of the most prevalent social issues affecting women in this country. After having taken this course, I now understand that domestic violence is a reality for many women much more than most people are aware of, and that there are a number of systematic aspects of this phenomenon which greatly influences its propagation.
One of the most eminent factors related to domestic violence that I am now cognizant of is its rate of incidence. Because I had never experienced it nor personally knew anyone who had personally experienced domestic violence,…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey." www.cdc.gov. 2010. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/nisvs/index.html
Bradshaw, Camille. Domestic Violence and Self-Esteem. BK Nation. 2013. Web. http://bknation.org/2013/10/domestic-violence-self-esteem/
Felperin, Leslie. "Review: Bordertown." www.variety.com. 2007. Web. http://variety.com/2007/film/reviews/bordertown-2-1200510251/
Haun, Marjorie. "Debunking Feminist Myths about Domestic Violence." www.beforeit'snews.com 2014. Web. http://beforeitsnews.com/opinion-conservative/2014/07/debunking-feminist-myths-about-domestic-violence-2888054.html
Cyberbullying Essay Outline
A. Bullying involves an imbalance of power between the victim and the bully.
B. Bullying is more than just isolated incidents of negative behavior; it requires repetitive behavior.
C. Cyberbullying occurs electronically, via the internet, cell phones, and social media.
II. Imbalance of power
A. Bullies have some type of power over victims.
B. There are different ways that bullies can exert power over victims.
1. Social power
2. Financial power
3. Sexual power
4. Group power
C. Bullying cannot be mutual, but bullies and victims can switch roles over time.
III. Bullying is repetitive.
A. Not all mean actions are bullying.
B. To qualify as bullying, behaviors have to be repetitive.
C. Not all acts of bullying have to be committed by one bully to be considered part of a repetitive pattern of bullying.
IV. Cyberbullying occurs electronically.
A. Cyberbullying can occur several ways:…
The company should then establish clear procedures with regard to reporting of cases and the way they are handled, this can be done by establishing a competent body to handle this issue. The last step is enforcement of the policy, when all this is done then the policies will help safeguard the employees and at the same time reducing on company liabilities since there will be few cases to handle.
Who should be responsible?
Most companies have handed over the responsibility of protecting employees against sexual harassment to the employees themselves claiming that it is them who allow it to happen. Similarly, many individuals have raised the same argument and made recommendations supporting such a move. This should not be the case and is actually one of the factors that have led to the widespread of this vice. Matters are made worse when individuals are given the task of collecting…
Equal Opportunity Employment Commission. (2002). Facts about sexual harassment. Retrieved March 2, 2010 from http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/fs-sex.html
Meloy, J.R. (1998). The psychology of stalking: Clinical and Forensic Perspectives. New York:
Mullen, P.E., et al. (1999). A study of stalkers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156 Prekel, Truida (2001). Sexual Harassment: Causes, Consequences and Cures, Retrieved March 2,
Peter Eckersley, a senior technical staff of the EEF says, "What you don't want the world to know about, don't put it on Facebook. Facebook's security engineering is improving, but it's still not good enough that we'd ever advise people to put private, sensitive information there," [Juan Carloz]
As mentioned above, Facebook continuously changes its privacy policies which makes it all the more difficult for members to understand. The recent changes to privacy settings, which the company introduced, involved access to name, photos and friends list of members to third party Websites. This implementation of this new policy has led to the compromise of user privacy as witnessed in the recent episode where user email addresses which are supposed to be confidential was available to all members on the facebook website. For a short period of time everyone's email was put on public information, which is in clear violation of…
1) Facebook, 'Statistics', (2010), accessed 5th May 2010, available at, http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics
2) Helen Carter, 'Facebook killer Sentenced to life for Teenagers Murder', Accessed May 6th 2010, available at, http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/mar/08/peter-chapman-facebook-killer
3) Harvey Jones & Jose Hiram Soltren, 'Facebook: Threats to privacy', (Dec 2005, Accessed May 5th 2010, available at, http://groups.csail.mit.edu/mac/classes/6.805/student-papers/fall05-papers/facebook.pdf
4) BBC, 'Payout for False Facebook Profile', Jul 2008, Accessed May 6th 2010, available online at, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7523128.stm
Civil penalties, if pursued by an organization such as the IAA, can range from a minimum of $750 per song to thousands of dollars per song. Due to the civil lawsuits filed by the IAA, piracy awareness rose from 35% to 72%. The IAA has since stopped its broad-based end user litigation program [IAA 2010].
The Internet has also facilitated the disturbing trend of cyber-bullying and cyber-harassment. Attempts to curb cyber-harassment may prove difficult as "cyber-bullies" may be anonymous and therefore, difficult to identify. In "Cyber-Bullying in Schools: A esearch for Gender Differences," Qing Li states that school violence is a serious social problem that is persistent and acute during middle school [LI 2006]. Cyber-bullying, as defined by Tanya Beran and Qing Li in "Cyber Harassment: A New Method for an Old Behavior," is defined as "the repeated and intentional use of various forms of technology such as cell-phones, pagers,…
BERAN T., LI Q. 2005 Cyber-Harassment: A Study of a New Method for an Old Behavior
JOURNAL of EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING, Calgary, AB, Canada.
CYBERBULLING RESEARCH CENTER 2010 Accessed 3 December 2010
The responsibility to seek out and use the most appropriate form of protection for a particular system lies with its user. If a user does not regard these duties with the appropriate seriousness, the consequences could be dire indeed. Another very threatening form of computer crime is the phishing scam.
Phishing involves email from an apparently legitimate source such as a bank or other place of business that requires the user to respond with personal information. Most commonly, banks are used as a front for these scams. The most common messages of this type is that a user's account has been disabled and will only be reinstated once the apparent company has received the specific requested data. When a user sends this data, the criminal can then use it for his or her own purposes, such as identity theft or credit card fraud.
According to WiredSafety.org (2011), phishing criminals…
AllAboutCookies (2011). What other steps can I take to protect my privacy online? Retrieved from: http://www.allaboutcookies.org/faqs/protect.html
Bickell, K.D. (2011). 4 Tips for Malware Protection. Retrieved from: http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/4-Tips-for-Malware-Protection/1038740
Bukisa (2010, Nov 8). Protecting Your Identity and personal information over the Internet. Retrieved from: http://www.bukisa.com/articles/390310_protecting-your-idemtity-and-personal-information-over-the-internet
McCandlish, S. (2002). EFF's Top 12 Ways to Protect Your Online Privacy. Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.eff.org/wp/effs-top-12-ways-protect-your-online-privacy
It discusses how each of the different sites varies in terms of its character, and in terms of its usage. The chapter on safety reiterates the fact that users view the anonymity of the web as an excuse to engage in riskier behaviors than they otherwise would, and that this is a mistake. Personal safety often comes down to making smart decisions and always leaving a way out of a situation.
Gormley, Michael. "New Law Requires Dating Websites to Give Safety Tips." Huffington Post. Huffington Post. 1 Sep 2010. Web. 7 Dec 2010. Document URL http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/09/01/bedbug-apartments-online-_n_701683.html
This article announces that New York State has followed New Jersey in enacting an Internet dating safety law. The wording of the law contains advice to New York residents about good online dating habits. Otherwise, the New York law is almost identical to the New Jersey law. This marks the second state that has…
But the fact that Catherine is still drawn to Heathcliff indicates that this apparent veneer of civilization is not 'real' and merely a surface manifestation of finery, not evidence of Cathy's real nature. Catherine lives in a state of internal exile: her soul is at odds with how she is expected to behave, as an upper-class woman and as a wife.
Perhaps the most extreme statement of Catherine's sense of internal exile is her desire to be with Heathcliff rather than in heaven. This statement foreshadows her early death and her haunting of Heathcliff as a tormented spirit. Even though she is 'supposed' to be happy in heaven (and a happy wife and mother when married to a rich man), Catherine is only happy in the presence of a man who satisfies her passion. She feels a sense of alienation, no matter what her location, except when she is with…
Fisher King was a 1991 movie that starred Robin illiams and Jeff Bridges and was directed by Terry Gilliam. The movie provided a unique insight into the world of abnormal psychology. It depicted accurate per trails of a few psychological disorders and psychosis that were brought on by a single stressor for both of the leading roles as well as a plethora of disorders by lesser characters brought on by life. Neither illiams nor Bridges earned grandiose Hollywood awards for their roles and the movie itself did not rake in billions, but it does serve as a very good example of just how delicate human nature is and what can happen to each and every one of us without a moment's notice. At the time of the stressor in this movie, Bridge's character was on top of his game in the world of radio and was about to 'add a…
About.com. "Depression." 2009. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://depression.about.com/cs/brainchem101/a/brainchemistry.htm .
Quicksilver. "The Fisher King: starring Robin Williams and Jeff Bridges." Dir. Terry Gilliam. 1991. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://ipb.quicksilverscreen.com/lofiversion/index.php/t100510.html .
Schizophrenia.com. "Schizophrenia." 2009. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://www.schizophrenia.com/disease.htm .
They reminded readers that Father Cutie joined the priesthood under those rules, with full knowledge of the requirements of priesthood, but that he placed himself above church law (Mayo, May 14, 2009).
Still earlier, in 2006, the Catholic Church in Australia became embroiled in a debate over whether the small and struggling Catholic Church there should cease insisting on clergymen's celibacy when a priests' association said that doing away with the requirement might reverse the decline in the number of priests. More than 40 bishops in Australia and half the Catholic clergy (1,650 in number) wrote to the Vatican's Synod of Bishops requesting they consider changing the requirement to allow married priests to be ordained and to allow priests who had left the church to marry to be reinstated. Father Hal anger pointed out that in Australia many priests converting to Catholicism were married and were allowed to remain married…
Abbott, Elizabeth, (2001). A history of celibacy, New York: Da Capo Press. pp. 382-385.
CNN, (2009). Florida priest removed after beach photos with woman published. Reviewed on June 26, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/2009/U.S./05/06/florida.priest.photos/index.html?iref=newssearch. May 6, 2009.
CNN, (2009) Priest who broke celibacy vow joins Episcopal Church. Reviewed on June 26, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/2009/U.S./05/28/florida.priest/. May 11, 2009.
Deffinbaugh, Robert, (2008). Sex and the Spiritual Christian: True Spiruality: A Study in 1 Corinthians, Reviewed on June 26, 2009 at: http://bible.org/seriespage/sex-and-spiritual-christian-1-cor-71-7 .
A model that stresses the fact that people in a generally bad mood or situation will seek out pro-social behaviors, i.e. To help others to make him or herself feel better. (Berkowitz 185) Though this theory has often been contested, not simply because it tends to negate altruism but because people in bad moods tend not to seek out the doing of good deeds, (Berkowitz 186) these two examples of pro-social behavior in this film are both realistic and examples of the negative state relief model of action.
The first example is when Rob agrees to help two skater slackers and frequent shoplifters at his store to produce a record. Rob does not have a record label but it is a logical extension of his love of music and of human progress. He walks into the store, where Barry and Dick are listening to a demo tape of Vince and…
Berkowitz, Leonard. Causes and Consequences of Feelings. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Geen, Russell G. Human Aggression. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2001.
Heath, Robert L., and Jennings Bryant. Human Communication Theory and Research: Concepts, Contexts, and Challenges. 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
The United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of Illinois and argued that the Fourteenth Amendment was designed to protect against race discrimination only…" Gibson, 2007, Background to Muller v. Oregon section ¶ 1). The Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not include the protection of women's rights.
The following depicts Justice Bradley's concurring opinion regarding Bradwell's
Man is, or should be, woman's protector and defender. The natural and proper timidity and delicacy which belongs to the female sex evidently unfits it for many of the occupations of civil life. The constitution of the family organization, which is founded in the divine ordinance, as well in the nature of things, indicates the domestic sphere as that which properly belongs to the domain and functions of womanhood.... The paramount destiny and mission of woman are to fulfill the noble and benign offices of wife and mother. This is the law…
Babcock, Barbara Allen. (1975). Sex Discrimination and the Law: Causes. Retrieved April 3,
2009, from http://books.google.com/books?id=pi5AAAAAIAAJ&q=Liberti+v.+York&dq=Li
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press. New York.
The "Halloween" films that continue to be so popular are prime examples, but just about any horror film made within the past three decades follows basically the same formula, they have just gotten increasingly sexual and violent, as society has continued to embrace the genre. There are literally hundreds of other graphic examples, such as "Saw," an extremely violent film that has spawned six other films, and the examples of so many films being released in 2009. These films do not celebrate the woman, they demean her, and the fact that they are celebrated by society is troubling and agonizing at the same time.
Some of the films that empower women into the hero roles include "Terminator 2," the "Alien" series, "Misery," and other films glorify or at least acknowledge the female predator or warrior, offering up a different view of women as successful anti-heroes. However, most of these films…
England, Marcia. "Breached Bodies and Home Invasions: Horrific Representations of the Feminized Body and Home." Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography; Apr2006, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p353-363.
Graser, Marc. "Production Houses Pump Out the Horror." Variety. 2008. 10 March 2009. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117994266.html?categoryid=1019&cs=1&query=horror+films .
Iaccino, James F. Psychological Reflections on Cinematic Terror: Jungian Archetypes in Horror Films. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.
Lally, Kevin. "For the Love of the Movies." Film Journal International. 1999. 10 March 2009. http://www.filmjournal.com/filmjournal/esearch/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1000692252 .
(O'Neill, 2001, p. 34)
Thee is gowing evidence to suppot the claim that cetain behavios ae in found hadwied in you DNA. Conventional thinking had usually been that childen ae always poducts of thei envionment and it is this ecological suoundings that often is at the oot cause of eithe good o bad behavio. But looked at fom anothe viewpoint, it could be possible that thei envionment, which is geneated in lage pat by thei paents, is a consequence of paental genetics as well and not the simply the envionmental cause of the behavio. A ecent eseach study at the Univesity of Viginia concluded that:
naughty youngstes aen't simply copying behavio they may have been subjected to at home. Instead, taits such as bullying, lying, o being agumentative could be passed on in the genes. The eseach, fom the Univesity of Viginia, indicates that some childen would be badly behaved…
references and You: What 'Innate' Behaviors and Perceptions Tell Us about Ourselves and Our World. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 6(4), 28-37.
O'Neill, M.E. (2001). Stalking the Mark of Cain. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 25(1), 31-38.
Strickland, S.J. (2001). Music and the Brain in Childhood Development. Childhood Education, 78(2), 100-110.
Tremblay, T., & Gagne, F. (2001). Beliefs of Students Talented in Academics, Music and Dance concerning the Heritability of Human Abilities in These Fields. Roeper Review, 23(3), 173.
Vander Zander, James W. (2003). Human development. (Crandell, L.T. & C.H. Crandell
If the impact was the result of government collusion against Hatfill, then many might believe that actual freedom can only be guaranteed by forcing the press to reveal those sources, so that corruption could be eliminated from the government. However, Martin does not even mention arguments like those found above. Instead, she touts the ideals of the free press, without any mention of who the press is meant to serve, the people, and without any look into the history of journalistic freedom in the United States.
I. Introduction: Martin's fails to adequately support her thesis, which is that the courts are using a new method, financial compulsion, to silence and intimidate journalists.
Martin's describes Toni Locy's predicament.
1. Judge Reggie alton, the judge from the Scooter Libby trial, is presiding over Hatfill's lawsuit.
2. alton has held Locy in contempt for failing to divulge sources.
3. Hatfill's sued the…
Miller, Judith. "Journalism on Trial." The Wall Street Journal 21 Feb. 2008: A16.
Consequences of these choices only compound his deep-seated insecurities. (Zushi)
Both Ben and Miko are Japanese-Americans, and their shared ethnic background impacts on their lives in significantly different ways. Miko is proactive and politicised -- she is the assistant organiser of a film festival showcasing Asian-American talent. Ben, meanwhile, is a depressive manager of a local cinema, seemingly content in his life of slow-burning frustration and -- not surprisingly -- covert masturbation.
Sexual stereotyping is at the heart of the story. The title itself is a reference to Ben's feeling of inadequacy in the trousers department (underneath the dust jacket, the book cover bears a life-size image of a ruler). At one point, Ben recalls a "stupid joke": "hat's the difference between Asian men and Caucasian men?" The punchline -- "the cauc" -- is both funny and deeply uncomfortable. "I actually heard a girl tell that joke in college! I…
The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 16 Jan. 2008 www.bartleby.com/66/.
The Comic-Book Heroes with a Touch of Genius." The Daily Mail (London, England) 22 Dec. 2006: 64. Questia. 15 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5018563927' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
If money was his motivation, this hardly seems like a logical way to proceed. This also undercuts the idea that there was premeditation of how to use the funds, as he had no evident plot to hide the goods or to fence them. His actions after the murder actually highlight his delusional and confused state of mind.
The prosecution has called Raskolnikov's subsequent feverish illness evidence of remorse, and evidence of his knowledge that his actions were wrong. Immediately after committing the crime, including the unexpected murder of the woman's sister, he took to his bed, raving, according to his friends and family, like a lunatic. This supports, however, the idea that Raskolnikov was suffering a mental and physical illness that inhibited his ability to discern right from wrong. Friends and neighbors of the accused note that before the crimes took place he was taken to wandering the streets at…
Freedman, Lawrence Zelic. (Mar, 1983). "The Politics of Insanity: Law, Crime, and Human Responsibility." Political Psychology. 4. 1: 171-178. Retrieved 8 Jan 2007 at http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0162-895X%28198303%294%3A1%3C171%3ATPOILC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6
In addition, gang activity and association is a big problem in many schools today, and many school systems are turning to local law enforcement agencies to help them combat school violence on a number of levels.
One of the activities that is being utilized across the country is the COPS is Schools (CIS) program, which helps local agencies hire school resource officers (SOs) to work inside the schools and develop community oriented programs that reach out to students, educators, and parents to identify and address violence issues in their particular schools. This can help the law enforcement agencies to identify the biggest problem schools in their area and address these schools with distinct problem oriented policing techniques geared to control the specific issues at a specific school, whether it is gang activity, truancy, or vandalism.
These SOs can also develop student programs that help students understand how they can help…
Editors. "Gangs." Center for Problem Oriented Policing. 2007. 8 Nov. 2007. http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=1593
Editors. "School Safety." Center for Problem Oriented Policing. 2007. 8 Nov. 2007. http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=106
What appears to explain their shared high rates of violent behavior is their increased interpersonal dependency. They are socially withdrawn and entertain a negative view of themselves. These difficulties with trust are common in the two disorders. They are thus more personally dependent on their partners. Furthermore, veterans with a major physical health problem are likelier to commit domestic violence than the other veterans surveyed. The physical problem tends to increase their irritability and dependence on their partners. Other studies found this characteristic high partner-specific dependency among physically abusive men who exhibit personal inadequacy, low social self-confidence and increased reliance on those nearest them. Many of these physically abusive men greatly fear abandonment and are anxiously attached. They are thus hypersensitive to rejection and often show anger in their intimate relationships. Veterans often display excessive coercion to which the partners respond by distancing themselves. The veterans' fear and dependencies can…
Blasko, K. et al. (2007). Therapists' prototypical assessment of domestic violence Situations. 13 pages. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy: Blackwell Publishing
Brammer, a. (2006). Domestic violence crime and victims act 2004. 4 pages. Journal of Adult Protection: Pavilion Publishing (Brighton) Ltd.
De la Hey, M. (2006). Gender differences seen in consequences of domestic violence. 2 pages. Cross Currents - the Journal of Addiction and Mental Health: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
Kelly, K.a. (2004). Working together to stop domestic violence. 14 pages. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare: Western Michigan University School of Social Work
Twelve ESL learners who participated subsequently found that participating in text-based online chat rooms promoted a noticeable difference in their face-to-face conversations, particularly in noticing their own linguistic mistakes.
Psychologists stress little if any learning occurs without attention. "Text-based online chat, a particular form of synchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) involving written oral-like conversation, has the great potential of increasing noticing for two reasons:
1. Compared to face-to-face conversations, CMC allows conversations to flow at slower speeds than face-to-face; consequently permitting "speakers" to have longer times to process receiving and producing the target language.
2. CMC can save texts (previous messages) in format that users may later access. (Lai and Zhao)
The following copy of "ESL Online Talk Community" illustrates concept Lai and Zhao present.
Practice makes perfect, but many ESL students do not have opportunities to practice speaking English. This Website is trying to establish an online community to enable…
4. Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.
The counselor should address issues at the time they occur with the patient and:
acknowledge importance of feelings, emphasize the provider-patient relationship and the importance of maintaining objectivity"; and finally "emphasize that the rejection of a requesting behavior does not imply a lack of caring." (arbour, 2007)
If the boundary issues affect the ability of the counseling in providing objective and compassion care, the counselor should seek professional counseling for self and possibly for the patient and their family. (arbour, 2007)
The work of Michael Liimatta entitled: "Issues of Personal oundaries in Counseling: Part I" states that many times the phrase 'professional distance' is taken by people to mean cold and uncaring but in reality 'professional distance' is quite opposite of uncaring and is actually a strategy geared toward protecting the client from the counselors loss of objectivity." (Liimatta, 2001)
IV. Maintaining the Delicate alance between Rapport and Professional oundaries…
Anastasi, a. (1988). Psychological testing (6th ed.).(New York: Macmillan)
Barbour, Lise Taylor (2007) Fast Fact and Concept #172: Professional-Patient boundaries in Palliative Care. End-of-Life Physician Education character. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 28, 194-207.
Claiborn, W. (1982). The problem of professional incompetence. Professional Delrojo, James (2004) Six Tips for Building and Maintaining Rapport. Counseling and Therapy. Online available at http://www.enhancedhealing.com/articles/view.php?article=862
Dubin, S. (1972). Obsolescence or lifelong education: A choice for the professional.
Inter-office relationships that end badly often bring many hard feelings to the working environment, and these feelings tend to make other people uncomfortable when they are faced with acting as though nothing is wrong, or when they feel forced to take sides between the two former lovers. The breakup can also affect the company, as the two individuals involved in the broken relationship may still have to work together closely, participate on the same teams, and attend the same meetings. Discomfort about doing those things often doesn't occur to people when they are dating, and the problem only appears later, when they have ended their relationship for one reason or another and suddenly realize that they still must see each other every day, no matter what their feelings for one another may be.
Dating in the workplace has been an issue for many years, and it will continue into the…
Wilson, R.J., Filosa, C., & Fennel, a. (2003). Romantic relationships at work: does privacy trump the dating police? Defense Counsel Journal.
CRM is not "speed dil" on your desk phone or the
telemrketers' desk, it is set of technologies tht need to be
selectively nd crefully pplied to selling strtegies. At the
intersection of the book nd the rticle ssignment is the use of CRM s n
enbler of building reltionships of trust with employees.
Critique of the rticle
The uthors, writing this in 2002, were insightful nd even prophetic in
the sttements mde specificlly regrding business strtegies nd
processes being the primry determinnts of demnd for CRM.
While Siebel Systems hd enjoyed meteoric rise nd mny credit Tom Siebel
with originlly defining the term nd softwre ctegory of CRM, in 2002
there ws still strong focus on fetures, functions nd benefits in CRM
pplictions. This ws n er of big-bng CRM deployments, with literlly
thousnds of sets of softwre delivered. The uthors refuse to get on the
"big is better"…
and cost of CRM to be fully defined for the reader.
 Harvard Business Review (February, 2002) - Darrell K. Rigby, Frederick
F. Reichheld and Phil Schefter, Avoid the Four Perils of CRM. Harvard
Business Review. February, 2002. pages 101 - 109
Television remains the single most influential medium in the lives of young people. However, a three-year National Television Violence Study found: "two-thirds of all programming contains violence; children's programs contain the most violence; the majority of all entertainment programming contains violence; violence is often glamorized; and the majority of perpetrators go unsanctioned" (Muscari 2002).
Television violence is graphic, realistic and involving, shows inequity and domination, and portrays most victims as women, children and the elderly (Muscari 2002). Children tend to focus on the more intense scenes, such as violent moments, rather than story components, and these "aggressive acts lead to a heightened arousal of the viewer's aggressive tendencies, bringing feelings, thoughts and memories to consciousness and can cause outwardly aggressive behavior" (Muscari 2002).
hen video games were introduced in the 1970's, they quickly became a favorite pastime for children, and now make up a $10+ billion industry. Today, children average…
Chory-Assad, Rebecca M. (2005 December 01). Effects of affective orientation and video game play on aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Kirn, Timothy F. (2006 September 01). Nature and media's nurture spawn girl violence.
Family Practice News. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Muscari, Mary. (2002 November 01). Media violence: advice for parents.
Therefore, it would tend to hold more credibility. Social theories based on bone breakage were based on theory alone. hen one considers the merits of these two conflicting theories, one has to examine the behaviors and condition of modern animals, especially when making such general statements.
If one considers what happens to modern animals when they are hurt, the non-social theory would have more support. Dehydration would be the most critical factor in death after an injury. However, one flaw in this theory is that they gave no comparison of evidence to support their supposition that the animals could live on their body mass while healing. There is simply not enough known about the metabolism of the smilodon to make such as suggestion. Overall, the theories of McCall, Naples, and Martin hold more credibility than the social theories, save for the one exception.
Genetics and DNA
Several researchers were able…
Anyonge, W. Microwear on Canines and Killing Behavior in Large Carnivores: Saber
Function in Smilodon fatalis. Journal of Mammalogy, (Nov., 1996), Vol. 77, No. 4 pp. 1059-1067.
Basel, K. On the Ecological Connection Between Sabre-tooths and Hominids:Faunal
Dispersal Events in the Lower Pleistocene and a Review of the Evidence for the First Human Arrival in Europe.2006.
So, symbolically, Bobby is forced to the ground and treated like an animal, and when he rises he, and the group, have accepted this new animalistic nature.
All, of course, except Drew. Drew is the last moral holdout among the group, arguing that the men should not bury the slain attacker and should do the right thing and go to the police. He is a voice of peace and reason, and when he eventually falls from the boat into the water (presumably shot), it signifies the final moral collapse of the group. Not long after, Ed kills the second mountain man who the group believes is stalking them. In the cases of both the mountain man and Drew, the men weigh down the bodies so they will never resurface - in the case of Drew, the action is symbolic in that it shows the men's former sense of morality will…
Domestic violence is a multifaceted idea but can roughly be referred to as exhibition of abusive behaviors towards a mate in an intimate relationship such as family setting, dating instances, marriage, cohabitation and even friendship. These abuses are usually used to control the other partner in a relationship (Domesticviolence.org, 2009). This paper therefore sets out to look at the possibility of the work schedule being a contributing factor to the ever rising domestic violence among the policing families. It also seeks to expand on the responses that have been made to mitigate the effects of the shift working system on the violence in homes.
Depending on the context and region of use, domestic violence can be called domestic abuse, intimate partner violence, spousal abuse or even family violence. However, all these manifest themselves in various forms including but not limited to: Physical violence/attack (like shoving, kicking, slapping, hitting, restraining etc.),…
Beverly J.A., (2002). The Echoes of Violence in the Police Family. Retrieved September 4, 2011
CBS Interactive. (2010). The Effects of Sleep Deprivation. Retrieved September 4, 2011
If they need to access a site for business purposes, they may not be able to do so, and that can lead to frustration and even lost contracts and opportunities (Miller, 2005). With that being the case, it would seem as though there should be a way to get around these restrictions. If people start avoiding restrictions, though, where does that end? At what point does it become unacceptable and dangerous, and at what point does it jeopardize the privacy, safety, and security of other people who have their information online?
The people who own the information (i.e. The people whose information is being collected) should be the ones to control how secure that information is in the sense of who can see it and access it. Because their names, dates of birth, addresses, phone numbers, and other information belongs only to them, they should be able to determine whether…
DiBattiste, C. (2009) Privacy and Information Security 101: Have a plan Information Security Best Practices 2009 conference archive The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. Zicklin Center for Business Ethics Research. Retrieved on July 26, 2010 from http://technopolity.editme.com/files/isbp2009talks/DiBattiste-summary.doc
Cranor, L. (2008) A Framework for Reasoning About the Human in the Loop. Retrieved on June 10, 2011 from http://www.usenix.org/events/upsec08/tech/full_papers/cranor/cranor.pdf
Miller, M. (2005). Computer Security: Fact Forum Framework Retrieved on July 26, 2010 from http://www.caplet.com/security/taxonomy/index.html
Evaluation regarding how accurately and thoughtfully the article presents the subject matter
While everyone has choices, of course, some people have far more than others. In this article, Mencimer made the connection between helplessness and domestic violence clear by pointing out the inordinately adverse impact that the economic downturn has had on many young unwed mothers. Moreover, the author takes special pains to graphically illustrate how this connection can become inextricable over time, with the exigencies of day-to-day living with a newborn and perhaps several other children, making escape from this pattern particularly challenging. Rather than being so many "baby machines" churning out one dependent after another to pad the welfare checks, Mencimer emphasizes that Clark's situation is more complicated because of her mental health issues (she suffers from DHD and bipolar disorder), but it is mirrored time and again across the country, and her baby, "Gabby," differing only in…
An interesting issue to quickly emerge from this article concerned the desire of many unwed mothers to improve their condition rather than simply have more babies to make more money from welfare. According to Mencimer, "Clark was worried. She needed to get a job so she could keep food in the house; she was haunted by the possibility of losing Gabby if she didn't. But there were serious obstacles. She's been diagnosed with bipolar disorder and ADHD" (2009, p. 41). This condition even affected Clark's ability to use public transportation to seek and maintain gainful employment, even assuming she could secure a job with her childcare needs and mental health issues.
If there is an intersection of intimate partner violence and child abuse, does the article appropriately address this?
Although not specifically addressed, Mencimer does discuss the effects of family violence and how child abuse can even extend into adulthood. For instance, Mencimer reports that one of the positive outcomes of Clark's visit to the local Division of Family and Children Services office was the assistance she received to prevent further abuse by her baby's father who continued to stalk her after their split-up. In this regard, Mencimer writes, "Federal law requires caseworkers to ask applicants about domestic violence, and when Clark mentioned that Gabby's father was stalking her, a concerned caseworker
Anothe poblem associated with Paint hoses is 'lethal white' syndome, in which Paint maes give bith to white foals that ae unable to pass feces and die shotly afte bith. "The mutated gene altes neual cest cell migation o suvival, which affects the pogenito cells fo melanocytes and intestinal ganglia. Affected foals suffe fom aganglionosis of the submucosal and myenteic ganglia of the distal pat of the small intestine and of the lage intestine, esulting in intestinal immotility and colic" (Lightbody 2002). Accoding to genetic eseach conducted though the Minnesota Paint Hose Association, it was found that of 100 hoses that poduced lethal white syndome foals, all OLWS (Oveo Lethal White Syndome) foals had two lethal alleles, thei paents had a nomal and a lethal allele, and contol goup of solid-coloed hoses all had two non-lethal alleles (Votsos & Santschi 1998). Howeve, unlike the moe geneal 'nevousness' associated with piebald…
Lightbody, Tamara. (2001). Foal with Overo lethal white syndrome born to a registered quarter horse mare. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 43(9): 715 -- 717. Retrieved October 18, 2011
Vrotsos, Paul D. & Elizabeth M. Santschi. (1998). Stalking the Lethal White Syndrome.
Paint Horse Journal Retrieved October 18, 2011 at http://www.apha.com/breed/lethalwhites03.html