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RECOMMENDED ESSAY

Violence in the community was operationalized from various files.

The interater reliability of low, moderate, or high violence risks showed acceptable significant results as to correspondence. The final risk judgment were not only significantly predictive of community violence after release, but effect size too showed moderate to large results indicating that the study was not only significant but also weighty and therefore its results were worthy of consideration. esearchers therefore suggested that the HC-20 violence risk assessment sample could contribute meaningfully to assessment of violence risk given that certain conditions were in place.

2. Lalumiere and Quinsey (1994) used phallometric assessments in order to assess degree to which rapists could be identified from non-sex offenders, whether rapists respond more to description of rape than to consenting sex, and what are the variables that may allow one of identify rapists.

The population consisted of 415 rapists and 192 non-sex offenders who…

References

Douglas, K., Ogloff, J., & Hart, S. (2003) Evaluation of a model of violence risk assessment, Psychiast. Serv. 54, 1372-1379

Lalumiere, M. & Quinsey, V.L. (1994) The discriminability of rapists from non- sex offenders using phallometric measures. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 21, 150-175.

RECOMMENDED ESSAY

tatistical ignificance in Published cientific Works

The study I chose to examine is from the field of psychology: Todd, Hanko, Galinsky, and Mussweiler (2011), "When Focusing on Differences Leads to imilar Perspectives. This study was recently published in Psychological cience, a high-impact journal in the field. The research has to do with perspective-taking in conversation; the authors hypothesize that people are better at taking another person's perspective if they are in a "difference mindset" -- i.e. are more aware of interpersonal differences than usual. The authors propose to induce this "difference mindset" by a variety of means, across five experiments. Below, I will discuss the use of statistics in their study and how well they conveyed the size and significance of the results.

Experimental Design

All five experiments used a similar design: participants were randomly assigned to a similarity-mindset, difference-mindset, or control condition. Experiment 1 tested perceptual perspective differences, Experiment…

Study Conclusions

The authors claim that the five experiments presented show "clear and consistent support" for their hypothesis that the difference mindset improves conversational perspective-taking. Speaking as a statistician, I would be hard pressed to let the strength of this claim pass. The significance of their t- and F-tests varies in strength from p = 0.05 (approaching "marginally significant") to p = 0.001 (a solid result). This indicates that the five experiments in the study have different impacts on their subjects, and may in fact operate by different mechanisms. This suspicion is upheld by the consistently low effect size obtained in each experiment. Overall, I am somewhat surprised by the study's appearance in such a high-impact journal, although the rigor and size of the experiments, literature review, and theoretical support is considerable. In addition, the topic (whether being sensitized to differences affects human interaction) is a very interesting one. I hope to see more research on this topic in future studies that explore and explain the low effect sizes found in this set of experiments.

Todd, A., Hanko, K., Galinsky, A., & Mussweiler, T (2011). When Focusing on Differences Leads to Similar Perspectives. Psychological Science, 22(1): 134-141.

RECOMMENDED ESSAY

The relationship between the two variables, those being statistical significance and effect size is clear. A study's result may or may not be statistically significant. If it is not, then one need not really go any further. However, if it is statistical significant, the effect size should be calculated to determine whether the statistical significance is of any import. If there is statistical significance but the effect size is less than 0.1, than the statistical significance is not all that extraordinary.

This distinction is important in the studies reviewed during this course because just because one or more studies had statistical significance does nto mean that the significance is all that big a deal. The source for this report covers such an instance where a pre-test and a post-test of an examination are off by a full point (on a scale of 100) and this is deemed to be statistically…

References

MEERA. (2013, July 7). Power Analysis, Statistical Significance, & Effect Size | My Environmental Education Evaluation Resource Assistant. Welcome to MEERA | My Environmental Education Evaluation Resource Assistant. Retrieved July 7, 2013, from http://meera.snre.umich.edu/plan-an-evaluation/related-topics/power-analysis-statistical-significance-effect-size

RECOMMENDED ESSAY

Statistical Significance and Meaningfulness

Scenario

Critically evaluate the sample size

To begin with, sample size is very significant. In this particular scenario, the sample size is much more 30, and therefore considered to be a large sample size. Owing to the large sample size, it is expected that the sampling error will be small. And, a small sampling error results in a significant test, in most cases. This is similar to the results proclaimed by the statements.

Critically evaluate the statements for meaningfulness

In assessing the statements for statistical significance it can be said that the statistical p value ought to be employed solely to gauge as to whether the null hypothesis has been rejected, and not whether any other hypotheses such as H1 and H2 have been accepted. Therefore, the statements are meaningful (Page, 2014).

Critically evaluate the statements for statistical significance

The statements are statistically significant. This is…

References

Dahiru, T. (2008). P-value, a true test of statistical significance? A cautionary note. Annals of Ibadan postgraduate medicine, 6(1), 21-26.

Page, P. (2014). Beyond statistical significance: clinical interpretation of rehabilitation research literature. International journal of sports physical therapy, 9(5), 726.

RECOMMENDED ESSAY

Meaningfulness refers to the practical, real world application of a statistic. If a statistically significant correlation between variables, for instance, has meaningfulness that correlation says something to the real world and understanding that correlation can have an impact on how people adjust to the situation from here on out. Therefore, while statistical significance is helpful, it is not the end-all-be-all for research: a research finding has to be meaningful for it to have importance. It has to have some sort of impact in the real world for it to be meaningful.

For the researchers who stated that “given this research was exploratory in nature, traditional levels of significance to reject the null hypotheses were relaxed to the .10 level,” I would first suggest that statistical significance is not something that necessarily has to be considered of paramount importance in exploratory research. Statistical significance is more appropriate for testing…

RECOMMENDED ESSAY

Statistically Significant Results

One of the most important aspects of research findings is to ensure that the results are significant or meaningful in order to influence an appropriate course of action. In this case, the significance of the findings of a study can be described as the quality of being important. Therefore, the efforts carried out by a researcher or group of researchers should be geared towards ensuring the process generates important findings. However, there have been numerous concerns regarding the statistical significance and/or practical significance of the findings of a study. These concerns are attributed to the fact that the findings of a study can be statistically significant but not meaningful.

Statistically significant findings of a study basically predict the probability that a relationship observed in the data was a by-product of chance and the likelihood that the variables are actually unrelated. In this case, the research tests attempt…

Works Cited

"Statistical Significance and Clinical Importance." Significance vs. Importance. Faculty of Medicine - University of Ottawa, n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2015. .

"Tests of Statistical Significance." PPA 696 RESEARCH METHODS. California State University Long Beach, n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2015. .

In other words, p values correspond to statistical significance, while NNT corresponds to clinical significance. In clinical trials, statistical validity reflects the theoretical basis of the study, with hypotheses being formulated and quantified in terms of likelihood. Clinical significance is concerned with the practical outcome of trials, and with the results of actual treatment and how this relates to the hypotheses that are proven or void.

2.

In nursing practice, both statistical and clinical significance play an important role in research. In practice, however, it is clinical significance that should have the greatest impact upon nursing practice. Clinical significance provides actual data from research conducted to determine such effects. It concerns the outcome of trials, while statistical significance is more concerned with determining new research and the likelihood of success before trials have been conducted.

Indeed, Davidson notes that an advantage of NNT is the format of its results --…

References

Davidson, Richard a. (1994) Does it Work or Not?: Clinical vs. Statistical Significance. Chest, Vol. 106, No. 3. Retrieved from http://chestjournal.chestpubs.org/content/106/3/932.long

Kain, Z.N. (2005, Nov.) the Legend of the P. Value. Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 101, No. 5. Retrieved from http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/101/5/1454.full

Male Mean Per Question Analysis x Department

Source of Sum of d.f.

Mean

Variation

Squares between error

Required F. value: 4.21 ? < 0.05

Concluding Statement: With a received F. value of 1.04 and a required value of F = 4.21 the conclusion can be drawn that no statistically significant differences exist in attitude toward Career Choice, Professional Relationships and Development for male radiographer participants within the three health care departments at a probability level of 95%. Therefore, all three health care groups consisting of males perceive attitudes towards Career Choice, Professional Relationships and Development the same.

Female Mean Per Question Analysis x Department

Source of Sum of d.f.

Mean

Variation

Squares between error

Required F. Value: 4.21 ? < 0.05

Concluding Statement:…

List the statistical procedures used to describe the sample.

Power analysis was used in order to discover power of effect. The power was set to 0.8 with a significant level of 0.05. Differences between the intervention and the control group were tested with Pearson's Chi. A t-test was used for the other perimeters. ANCOVA was used for testing changes between the two groups over time.

Was the level of significance or alpha identified? If so, indicate the level (.05, .01, or .001).

The level of significance was described. The power of the effect size was set to 0.8 with a significant level of 0.05. 0.05 was used throughout as perimeter of significance.

Complete the table below with the analysis techniques conducted in the study:

Identify the purpose (description, relationships, or differences) of each analysis technique.

Power analyses was used in order discover whether the test actually did…

The Independent sample t-test is among the group of inferential statistical test. This test seeks to compare the means of two unrelated samples in a survey. The t-test determines whether the mean of the two sample is significantly different statistically (Paul & Garg, 2014). According to Ruane (2005) for this test to be undertaken, both samples must have scores with one carrying nominal scale and another one a numerical scale. The sample carrying the nominal is a grouping variable and is the independent variable. The sample with the numerical scale is a test variable and is the dependent variable (Ruane, 2005).

This paper seeks to determine the statistical significance between the means of work shift (day and night shift) and the mean of the number of widgets produced in either shifts. This will be undertaken by use of the independent sample t-test. The work shift is…

60.2% of white inmates were executed that had initially been removed from being under a sentence of death versus 38.9% of blacks that met these criteria as part of the sample. While this cross-tabulation shows there is not a statistically significant relationship between blacks vs. whites having their sentences commuted, Hispanic Origin will prove to have statistical significance when bivariate correlation analysis is used to analyze the data. Additional research into the strength of relationships between those receiving commuted sentences and race need to be completed however, before a statistically significant conclusion can be reached across all ethnic groups in the sample. More in-depth analysis techniques including factor analysis to either accept or refute these findings as they pertain to this data set.

The third analysis is based on bivariate correlation matrices using both Pearson's correlation coefficient for parametrically-based analysis and Kendall's Tau_b and Spearman's ho for non-parametrically based analysis.…

References

Mark Douglas Cunningham, Jon R. Sorensen. (2007). Capital Offenders in Texas Prisons: Rates, Correlates, and an Actuarial Analysis of Violent Misconduct. Law and Human Behavior, 31(6), 553-71. Retrieved December 18, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1385818841).

Stewart JH McCann (2008). Societal Threat, Authoritarianism, Conservatism, and U.S. State Death Penalty Sentencing (1977-2004). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(5), 913. Retrieved December 19, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1481555391).

Mark Peffley, Jon Hurwitz. (2007). Persuasion and Resistance: Race and the Death Penalty in America. American Journal of Political Science, 51(4), 996-1002. Retrieved December 15, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1353540041). (U.S. Department of Justice, 2008)

United States Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Capital Punishment in the United States, 1973-1993 [Computer file]. ICPSR06512-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-11-12. doi:10.3886/ICPSR06512. Retrieved December 18, 2008, at http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/cocoon/NACJD/STUDY/06512.xml

Introduction

Criminological theory is not always based on evidence—that is, on statistical evidence. Sometimes it is based on ideas that seem logical at the time. Theorists will notice correlations in the ways in which crime emerges in certain communities and they will base their theories of crime on these observances, though no statistical evidence is actually accumulated to verify the theory. The theory simply makes sense from a logical or rational point of view and in this manner it can be promoted. Its basis of evidence is qualitative (i.e., content-related, conceptual or thematic) rather than statistical and empirical (i.e., data that can be measured, quantified and verified through testing). Broken Windows Theory is one example of criminological theory that was based on qualitative assessments rather than on statistical data (Jean, 2008). While the theory has been embraced over the years since it was first developed,…

ANOVA) can best be described as statistical analysis of data with a variety of different variables and variations and is oftentimes used in a medical and professional research and practices environment. Using ANOVA in research is a commonplace technique, but there are some disadvantages to this usage; the application of the analysis is often conducted in applications where it is inappropriate (Patel, Naik, Patel, 2015). Ensuring that ANOVA is used in the appropriate manner, and that it is applied in situations that call out for ANOVA requires understanding and comprehension exactly what ANOVA does and how it is used in research. The Patel (2015) concluded that "conceptual understanding and application of ANOVA and Post hoc test was lacking among bio-medical research" (p. 117). Developing the required understanding will assist the researcher(s) in implementing data analysis that will create a more valid and reliable study, along with results that can be…

References

Mi, G. & Li, Y.; (2015) The level of residual dispersion variation and the power of differential expression tests for RNA-Seq data, PLoS ONE, 10(4) p. 1-25

Patel, S.; Naik, V. & Patel, P.; (2015) An analysis of application of multiple comparison tests (post-hoc) in ANOVA in recently published medical research literature, National Journal of Community Medicine, 6(1) p. 117-120

Wang, M. & Sun, X.; (2013) Bayes factor consistency for unbalanced ANOVA models, Statistics, 47(5) p. 1104-1115

Pearson r can tell us how strong the relationship is between two variables. The closer to 1, the stronger the relationship is and the closer to 0 the weaker the relationship is. If the Pearson r value is positive, the relationship is direct, and if negative, the relationship is inverse. In our hypothetical case study, the r value is negative and thus the older a worker gets the less engagement they demonstrate with the customers.

The chi-squared measure indicates how likely two variables are to be independent of each other (such as a person's favorite color and their last name) or dependent on each other (such as a person's race and his/her income). In this case, the value of chi-square at less than .05 indicates that the possibility that gender and customer engagement are randomly related is less than 5%.

Important to this analysis are two concepts. A result is…

Sustainability

Perceptions of sustainability improved slightly in the experimental group, however this change was not significant and the null hypothesis is not rejected (p=.32). The flag exposure did not improve perceptions of sustainability to a noteworthy degree.

Traditionality

Once more, there was statistically significant change -- and once more, it was so significant that the null hypothesis would be almost certainly rejected (p-value is effectively 0) -- but that this change was again in the wrong direction. Flag perception (or possibly the confounding variable of healthy eating desires, though that seems far less likely for this item) is correlated with a significant decrease in perceptions of traditionality, not an increase as predicted in the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis remains in place, therefore.

Conclusion

With one confounding variable between the groups, the examination of the given experimental variable (i.e. The inclusion of the flag on the product image) and its…

ANOVA) is a combination of statistical techniques in which a variance in a certain variable is divided into parts characteristic to various sources of variation. ANOVA provides a statistical evaluation of whether or not the ways of several congregates is equal and generalizes t-test of more than two groups. This technique is usually beneficial in comparing two, three, or more means of given tests, which can help businesses to identify trends. Moreover, the statistical technique is a practical tool that can be used to compare two groups either with a single independent variable or with two independent variables. It can also be used to assess differences in worker responses to employee engagement in a certain organization or to determine variations in employee productivity on specific work shifts depending on certain variables. As a result, analysis of variance is considered as a tool that can be used in manufacturing to improve…

References:

Edward-Nutton, S. (2008, March). Standard Costing and Variance Analysis. Retrieved February

9, 2014, from http://www.cimaglobal.com/Documents/ImportedDocuments/cid_tg_standard_costing_and_variance_analysis_mar08.pdf.pdf

"Manufacturing Performance Management." (n.d.). Stratum-MPM. Retrieved February 9, 2014,

from http://www.silvon.com/pdf/Stratum-MPM.pdf

Map of Prescription Filling at an HMO and SIPOC for Problem Analysis (Bertrand

Filling prescriptions and the estimated time each activity takes consist of four steps in most pharmacies (Bertrand, 2012). The first is entering the prescription when received from two to 10 minutes. It may be longer according to the duration of the billing process and the ease or complicatedness of the prescription. The second is filling the medication, which takes from three to 15 minutes or longer, depending on the type of prescription and its storage or if it has to be reconstituted or compounded. The third is checking it, which can take between three and 10 minutes. The pharmacist makes sure it is the correct prescription, the dose, the interactions and the genuineness of the prescription. The duration depends on the prescription and the patient's history and profile. And the fourth is the release of the prescription.…

WORKS CITED

Banerjee, D. (2016). SIPOC: beyond process mapping. ISixSigma. Retrieved on January 30,

2016 from http://www.isixsigma.com/tools-templates/sipoc-copis/sipoc-beyond-process-mapping/

Bertrand, M. (2012). How are medications filled in a pharmacy? Hub Pages: Hub Pges, Inc.

Retrieved on January 30, 2016 from http://hubpages.com/health/How-are-Medications-Filled-in-a-Pharmacy

clinical significance of the problem. Fatigue is one of the most common and serious complaints from patients undergoing dialysis. Dialysis causes fatigue that then may have significant negative impacts on the physical and psychological health of the patient.

What is the research purpose of the study? The specific purpose of the research study is to explore any potential physical performance changes in strength and exertion within the sample study of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

What are the objectives or aims of the study The current research aims to study the extent of fatigue experienced by patients undergoing and the possibility of introducing exercise as an intervention in order to present possible resolutions that could help patients in their everyday lives. The main objectives of the study are to understand the variables that care causing such fatigue in order to combat them so that patients can exercise more and experience a…

20. How were the rights of human subjects protected? The participants had to have their nephrologists' permission to participate in the study. In order to protect the patients' rights, they had to have agreed and understood the confidentiality aspects of the study.

REFERENCE

Straub, Cynthia K., Murphy, Susan O., & Rosenblum, Ruth. (2008). Exercise in the Management of Fatigue in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis. Nephrology Nursing Journal. 35(5), 469-477.

Hoteling T^2 Control Charts

Multivariable statistics is an aspect of statistics that involves analysis of more than one variables. In other words, the multivariable analysis is concerned with the statistical analysis of more than one variables how they are related to one another. Some problems involve using the multivariable data using multiple regression or linear regression, and one of the aspects of the multivariable analysis is an area that involves analysis of quality control using the linear regression. Contrary to the univariable analysis that uses two variables, the multivariable analysis uses two or more independent variables or dependent variables. The concept independent variables are the variables manipulated by the researcher to carry out the analysis. With this control, the researcher will be able to correlate the dependent and independent variables. However, the manufacturing companies are increasingly using the multivariable statistics to enhance product quality. In the contemporary manufacturing environment, increasing…

Reference

Bersimis, S. Panaretos, J. &. Psarakis, S. (2005). Multivariate Statistical Process Control Charts and the Problem of Interpretation: A Short Overview and Some Applications in Industry. University of Piraeus, Department of Statistics and Insurance Science, Piraeus, Greece.

Harris, K., Triantafyllopoulos., K. Stillman., E. et al. (2016). A Multivariate Control Chart for Autocorrelated Tool Wear Processes. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, 32: 2093 -- 2106.

Hidalgo, B; Goodman, M (2013). "Multivariate or multivariable regression?". Am J. Public Health. 103: 39 -- 40.

Lyu, J.& Chen, M. (2009). Automated Visual Inspection Expert System for Multivariate Statistical Process Control Chart. Expert Systems with Applications 36: 5113 -- 5118.

Nonpaametic Tests

Many inteesting questions elated to students ae categoical. Fo instance, thee is consideable inteest in the diffeent enollment pattens of male and female students in the following majos: Science, technology, engineeing, and mathematics (STEM). While the liteatue does povide obust data fo the numbes of students enolled in these majos, intiguing questions emain that may be bette suited to moe qualitative data collection. Fo instance, a eseach question is: What baies ae peceived by female students with egad to focusing on these majos, and do male students face simila baies? Categoical epesentation of pesumed baies could fom the basis fo a study using Chi-squae analysis to exploe the fequency of students who identify paticula baies to selecting STEM majos. Chi-squae analysis, o goodness of fit, elies on fequency data, which means that it has applicability fo nominal data ("SPSS Help Sheet," n.d.). The vaiables of gende and the…

references of middle grade students, findings that have long-term implications for healthier lifestyle choices. Moreover, the Chi-square analyses offered a partitioning of the data that pointed to specific preference patterns that are useful to educators planning physical education courses for middle grade students.

Suitable P-Value for a Clinical Trial

Statistical testing to determine whether results are significant is extremely useful in all types of research. In most cases, where a significant level, or p-value, is being chosen, a p-value of .05 is deemed to be sufficiently accurate. However, while this may be suitable for many types of research, it may be argued that in clinical trials from drugs, a lower p value may be more appropriate, due to the nature of the research. To understand this, it is necessary to understand what the p-value is, what it signifies.

The p value gives a probability, but is easy to misunderstand, as it indicates the level of support for the null hypothesis, with the probability level used to determine whether to accept or reject the null hypothesis. The p-value provides the probability of gaining an effect at the same level if the null hypothesis is…

References

Berenson, A, (2006, May 31), Merck Admits a Data Error on Vioxx, The New York Times, retrieved 13 November 2015 from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/31/business/31drug.html?_r=0

Cowen, G. (1997). Statistical Data Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

digit integers {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}.

Sampling distribution of each sample is .04

Mean () Probability P (x)

If a population has a standard deviation ? of 25 units, what is the standard error of the mean if samples of size 16 are selected? Samples of size 36? Samples of size 100?

Standard error for sample size 16 25 / 4= 6.25

Standard error for sample size 36 25/6= 4.17

Standard error for sample size 100 25/10= 2.5

According to Nielsen's Television Audience report, in 2009 the average American home had 2.6 television sets (more than the average number of people per household, at 2.5 people). If the standard deviation for the number of televisions in a U.S. household is 1.2 and a random sample of 0 U.S. households is selected, the mean of this sample belongs to a sampling distribution.

a.What is the shape of this sampling distribution?…

8.39

From candy to jewelry to flowers, the average consumer was expected to spend $123.89 for Mother's Day 2009, according to an April 2009 National Retail Federation survey. Local merchants felt this average was too high for their area. They contracted an agency to conduct a study. A random sample of 60 consumers was taken at a local shopping mall the Saturday before Mother's Day and produced a sample mean amount of $106.27. If ? = $39.50, does the sample provide sufficient evidence to support the merchants' claim at the 0.05 level of significance?

Z star is .0575, which means the p value is .48 and is not smaller than the established level of significance. Therefore, the sample does provide sufficient evidence to support the merchants' claims.

Gall states sampling strategies like these may be incompletely accurate due to the verbal data given and artifacts researched. it's never 100% accurate, the sampling, due to the fact the data is gathered through verbal, at times, unproven means. Levin names certain strategies that could easily be devoid of accuracy due to researcher's lack of funds. "View that data-analysis strategies such as cross-validation, boot-strapping, and jackknifing "indicate the likelihood of replication" (Nix and Barnette) or "may provide an estimate of replicability" (Daniel). For readers not in the know and who might be misled by such semantic twists, allow me to elaborate briefly. A "replication" defined by corroborating analyses based on alternative slices or samples of the same data" (esearch in the Schools 1998)

Statistical power ought to be included in research because it implies the nature of accuracy. "Some of Nix and Barnette's assertions about statistical power and a study's…

References

Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance of Research Results. 2012.Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance of Research Results. [ONLINE] Available at: http://pages.uoregon.edu/mgall/statistical_significance_v.htm . [Accessed 12 May 2012]

Research in the Schools (1998). Volume: 5, Issue: 2, Publisher: MIT Press, Pages: 43-53. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/d/m/dmr/sigtest/6mspdf.pdf . [Accessed 12 May 2012]

H0: There will no difference in flu rates between groups that get the nasal spray and shot.

H1: There will be a difference between the groups in flu rates.

The Descriptions suggests the use of random assignment to the two different conditions of the study indicating that this is a variation of a true experiment (however there really is no control group). The results are significantly different as the alpha level was set at .05 and the obtained p value was .008. The results were statistically significant because there was…

Please make sure to show all work for each problem requiring calculations. Please highlight final answer.

What is the level of measurement for each of the following:

a) Final grades in this class ____Ordinal

b) Weights of newborn babies ____Nominal

c) Seasons of the year ____Interval

d) Boiling temperatures of different liquids ____Ratio

Types of sampling used:

a) I collect data from my class ____Simple

b) Data from every fourth patient in the hospital ____Stratified

c) Data from 400 randomly selected students from those majoring in business, 763 randomly selected students from those majoring in education, and 392 randomly selected students from those majoring in criminal justice. ____Cluster

d) Data from 4230 adults after phone numbers were randomly generated ____Quota

3. The following data were collected on amounts of lawn debris after the major storm this past summer:

Pounds

Frequency

2-5

2

6-9

2

10-13

6

14-17

15

a)…

Demographic and independent variables relevant to complete a demand analysis include population size and Average income per household. An area with a high population size is most likely to have potential for demand of products, According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2010) the there are 403,892 people in Raleigh, NC. In line with this, the population must be able to have disposable income to buy these products. The relationship between product demand and income is a good indicator of Gross Domestic Product. It is the broadest measure of income generated in the economy. However in demand analysis, personal or household incomes are useful. The income per capita of Raleigh is estimated at $29,771 (Sperlings Best Places, 2010). Therefore, it is critical for a serious business to consider these two demographic factors in demand analysis and estimation. The economy must be an active one in order for…

Randomized Trial of Uncertainty and Certainty of Receiving Intercessory

Prayer." American Heart Journal. Vol. 151 (2005): 934-42. Reported by Carey,

in "Long-Awaited Medical Study Questions the Power of Prayer" The New

York Times, (March 31, 2006). Retrieved March 12, 2011 from:

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/31/health/31pray.html

Intercessory prayer in medicine is the use of prayer to divine powers to assist and benefit the welfare of patients in clinical circumstances. Various studies have produced conflicting results with some purporting to demonstrate a benefit toward positive clinical outcomes and other concluding that the act of praying for medical patients is useless. This study sought to examine the issue empirically through a formal quantitative analysis designed to compare the medical outcomes of surgery patients who received intercessory prayer and those who did not.

Statistical Procedures…

nd their hypothesis made fully testable experimental predictions -- using a process that has previously shown to increase the degree of liking between strangers, how much does this process affect the number of complied-with requests vs. refusals?

The methods section should follow from the hypothesis, clearly laying out the exact tests, procedures, and participants used in the study. The methods section should not be lengthy, but should allow any reader to replicate the study if they seriously question the results. Most importantly, it should walk the reader through the study step-by-step, without getting too wrapped up in the details. Data on numbers of participants and demographic variables are important for controlling sampling errors between replications and reducing the chance that results will be overextended to all populations. ny instruments or manipulations borrowed from previous literature should be cited in the Methods section.

Burger, J., Soroka, S., Gonzago, K., Murphy, E.,…

As an illustration, consider this statement of the hypothesis in a study done by Burger et al. (2001): "[S]mall, ephemeral increases in liking toward a stranger will lead to an increased likelihood of complying to a request from that person." The preceding section of the article -- the introduction -- cited numerous examples that provide evidence that this hypothesis might be supported, such as findings that repeated exposure increases interpersonal liking, or that people are more likely to donate to a cause (e.g. comply with a request for money) if they are given a "free gift" (to increase liking). The authors were careful to draw attention to the negligible, marginal character of the degree of liking -- going so far as to call it a "mindless heuristic" -- suggesting that a null outcome for this study was perfectly conceivable, if in fact the increase in liking had no direct effect on compliance with a request. And their hypothesis made fully testable experimental predictions -- using a process that has previously shown to increase the degree of liking between strangers, how much does this process affect the number of complied-with requests vs. refusals?

The methods section should follow from the hypothesis, clearly laying out the exact tests, procedures, and participants used in the study. The methods section should not be lengthy, but should allow any reader to replicate the study if they seriously question the results. Most importantly, it should walk the reader through the study step-by-step, without getting too wrapped up in the details. Data on numbers of participants and demographic variables are important for controlling sampling errors between replications and reducing the chance that results will be overextended to all populations. Any instruments or manipulations borrowed from previous literature should be cited in the Methods section.

Burger, J., Soroka, S., Gonzago, K., Murphy, E., & Somervell, E. (2001). The Effect of Fleeting Attraction on Compliance to Requests. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27: 1578-86.

ANOVA Test

The focus of this proposal is to use the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test whether the video games influence behavior. There has been a general public concern on the risk factor of video games on the youth's behavior especially children under 18 years of age. Science Daily (2013) shows that video games are the risk factors to aggression and criminal behavior. Despite this assertion, there still a paucity of valid and reliable academic research on the risk factors of video games on behavior. This proposal attempts to fill the gap by using ANOVA to test whether the video games influence behavior.

Do video games influence the aggressive or criminal behavior?

ANOVA is an appropriate statistical test for the proposal because it will be used to test for a significant difference of two means. Using the ANOVA for the proposal, the researcher will be able to produce valid…

Reference

Jackson, S.L. (2012). Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Office of the Surgeon General. (2001).Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. USA.

Science Daily (2013). Violent Video Games Are a Risk Factor for Criminal Behavior and Aggression, New Evidence Shows. Science News.

()

. This as a major development of the industry is bound to come out in the analysis.

ecession and the Performance of Banking Industry

ecession worked negatively on the banking industry especially so because the industry was still at its initial growth stage. The industry has reformed and change significantly following changes in observed. The data analyzed is expected to show how much recession influenced the changes in policy and regulations. It will also show that banks had a lesson to learn as far as the economic performance and trends were concerned. To date, given the trends banking industry are seen as most susceptible to the economic downturn and the key resolving this is to make changes as a safe guard measures. This is expected to come out in the data analyzed showing the existence of policy and operation changes and strategies adopted in light of economic performance.

Influence…

References

Avery, et al. "Consolidation and Bank Branching Patterns." Journal of Banking and Finance 23.2-4 (1999): 497-532. Print.

Barzun, J., and H. F Graff. The Modern Researcher 6th Ed. Belmont CA: Thomson Wadsworth 2004. Print.

Boyd, John H., Sungkyu Kwak, and Bruce Smith. "The Real Output Losses Associated with Modern Banking Crises." Journal of Money, Credit and Banking 37.6 (2005): 977-99. Print.

Mishkin, Frederic S., and Philip E. Strahan. What Will Technology Do to Financial Structure? . Washington Brookings Institution 1999. Print.

p = 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results.

The researchers were able to conclude that the finding was significant because the Statistical value (F) had a p-value of less than .05, which is the cut-off point for significance. Consequently, they can conclude that there is a significant difference between the control and treatment groups over time.

State the null hypothesis for the Baird and Sands (2004) study that focuses on the effect of the GI with PMR treatment on patients' mobility level. Should the null hypothesis be rejected for the difference between the two groups in change in mobility scores over 12 weeks? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The null hypothesis is that there are no differences in mean scores. The p…

Parkville Maryland

Parkville is located in the state of Maryland in the Baltimore metropolitan area. Parkville is mainly located in the County of Baltimore with parts of it in Baltimore City County. Parkville is bordered to the south by Carney, which is primarily in the City and to the north by Perry Hall, Hampton, Overlea, and Towson, to the west, north and east. There are several Pizza establishments in the area an indication of demand of the product. However, it is important to establish the demand of the product using statistical analysis. In conducting this analysis, it is critical to take into consideration the demographics of the area including population and income per capita.

According to the United States Census Bureau (2010), the population of Parkville had gone up to 69752 from 69100 over the past decade. The Median Household Income in Parkville is $54,373 and can be socio-economically referred…

Reference

Jian, S., & Yan, L. (2011). MGMT Panel. Guangdong University of Finance.

United States Census Bureau. (2010). Population Census. U.S. Population Report.

Wood, M. (2012, July 6 ). P values, confidence intervals, or confidence levels for hypotheses? Retrieved November 7, 2012, from http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0912/0912.3878.pdf

Part B

6)

The sample population for this study will be a group of elderly individuals that visits a senior activity center operated by the city. Elderly individuals represent the overall population of study in this research, and the senior center will provide an easy way to meet and access a diverse representative sample of this population. The fact that these seniors are active at the center might skew results somewhat, however.

7)

The sampling frame for this study includes a list of gender, racial, and other demographics, as well as an assessment of certain life events and lifestyles (e.g. marital status, number of children, former occupation, income level, etc.). In order to ensure a random and representative sample, all of these factors and more must be included in the sampling frame.

8)

The specific sampling technique that will be employed in this research is a non-probability technique, based more…

statistics statistics and inferential statistics.

Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics are used for different types of designs. For example, correlational studies will utilize descriptive statistics to measure a set of data's central tendency along with the way variables vary and relate to one another. A Pearson r would be a type of descriptive statistics test conducted to evaluate the strength of the relationship or if there relation goes in any one direction but descriptive statistics can also be used in causal-comparative design studies to measure data variability (Statistics for the non-statistician, n.d., p. 70). Inferential statistics on the other hand are used to compare means (typically a t-test is conducted) and statistical significance is determined by whether the p value is > or < than alpha (commonly .05) (Statistics for the non-statistician, n.d., p. 61).

Another way to think of descriptive statistics is that they are "used to synthesize and…

References

Dormann, C. et al. (2012). Collinearity: a review of methods to deal with it and a simulation study evaluating their performance. Ecography, 35: 1-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2012.07348.x Retrieved from http://www.biom.uni-freiburg.de/Dateien/PDF/dormann2012ecography_proofcorrections.pdf

Junco, R., Elavsky, M., Heibegger, G. (2012). Putting twitter to the test: Assessing outcomes for student collaboration, engagement and success. British Journal of Educational Technology. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01284.x Retrieved from http://blog.reyjunco.com/pdf/Juncoelavskyheibergertwittercollaboration.pdf

First of all only a scant few of these Veterans groups will acknowledge the "promise" of free health care; for the most part these groups will tout the benefits already promised by the Veterans Administration and assert that cuts in these benefits are the same a broken promise-or contractual breach in legal terms. The idea of the United States military making a "promise" or forging a legally binding agreement between individual veterans or groups of veterans is barred by the United States Constitution. As will be demonstrated in the Literature eview, specific Constitutional language from Article I give Congress and only Congress the express authority to make laws and regulations pertaining to the armed forces. Therefore, the idea the military breached a contract with service members is, ultimately, inherently inaccurate. Combining the lack of specific language within the materials provided by any governmental agency with the clear language of the…

References

.... (n.d.). The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. Retrieved November 29, 2010, from http://mrgrg-ms.org/

Best, R. (2003, August 7). Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-17.

Birkey, a. (2010, July 21). Fraudulent vets charity raised big money in Minnesota. The Minnesota Independent, p. 3.

Burrelli, D. (2008, August 12). Military Health Care: The Issue of Promised Benefits. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-14.

Hypothesis Five

In the fifth hypothesis of measuring the business ethics levels of Taiwanese ITPs the Null and Alternative Hypotheses are defined as follows:

H0: In the ethical climate of independence, the business ethics level of Taiwanese ITP's is high.

H1: In the ethical climate of independence, the business ethics level of Taiwanese ITP's is low.

Results of Testing Hypothesis Five

It has been established in the fourth hypothesis that the greater the ethical climate of independence, the greater the level of ethical self-direction and ownership of ethical outcomes. This also holds true when the ethical climate of instrumental low. The adherence to self-defined ethical standards is high. When the specific variable of in this company, the employees are expected to do their job according to their personal belief of ethics is correlated against the variable of in this company, the employees can make decisions based on their personal judgment,…

e. managerial, social, political, economic benefits are linked to the study's results) the proposed helpful outcomes are realistic (i.e. dealing with questions that can actually be answered through the type of data gathering and analysis you're proposing. The suggested helpful outcomes do not go beyond the data that's to be collected).

The increase in teen smoking may be abating, or may be taking a pause before it continues the climb seen in the past 10 years, from 1996 to 2005. In either case, reducing smoking at an early age has a lifelong effect on individuals' health, and can lead to better quality of life for millions of people who might otherwise take up smoking. A secondary benefit is that lessons learned may help to reduce the current 3.1 million teen smokers, many of whom try smoking and quit -- it would be useful to know why they started in the…

Bibliography

Bobo, J.H. (2000). Sociocultural Influences on Smoking and Drinking. Alcohol Research & Health, 225-234.

Cooper, T.K. (2003). A prospective evaluation of the relationships between smoking dosage and body mass index in an adolescent, biracial cohort. Addictive Behaviors, 501-512.

Falba, T. (2005). Health events and the smoking cessation of middle aged Americans. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, n.p.

Gies, C.B. (2007). Effect of an Inpatient Nurse-Directed Smoking Cessation Program. Western Journal of Nursing Research, n.p.

Where the hypotheses were well-followed throughout the text, the conclusion ignores the relevance of these factors to the delay experienced by patients in seeking treatment. Instead of developing a correlation between the identified behavior and the subject matter, importance of creating awareness among the general public was the highly emphasized. Furthermore, the responsibility of nurses and government authorities in this regard, was also discussed.

Limitations

The study itself had a rather limited scope. Selection of convenience sample along with a particular racial background and non-inclusion of patients who died within hours of reporting AMI acted as major drawbacks. Secondly, a selection of considerably small sample also raised questions on the reliability of the sample.

Confidence

The evaluation of this research does not lead to a confident and reliable conclusion. The limited scope of the sample, controlled questionnaires, neglect of other factors and the comparative analysis instead of individual examination of…

References

Lesneski, Lisa. (2010). Factors Influencing Tretment Delay for Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction. Applied Nursing Research. 23, pg- 185-190.

Workers With in Small Firms

Chapter I outlines the problems this research aims to address, namely an information gap that may, if filled, enhance employment for potential and existing workers with disabilities. This chapter defines the problem background, purpose of research, theoretical framework through which conclusions will be drawn from survey data gathered in the field, the research questions the survey instrument seeks to answer, the definition of terms those questions employ and limits and delimitations of the intended research. Once those parameters are outlined, the claim this argument attempts to support, that closing a gap in information describing satisfaction and productivity for workers with disability in small firms below conventional definitions of 500 workers or less may improve employment for a historically marginalized population, leads to conclusions that thus inform the subsequent methodological and analytical chapters.

Problem Background: The Uncashed 'Triple Paycheck'

Title I of the Americans with Disabilities…

References With Prospectus (toward inclusion in Literature Review chapter)

Day, N.E. And Greene, P.G. (2008). A case for sexual orientation diversity management in small and large organizations. Human Resource Management 47(3): 637 -- 654. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1002/hrm.20235

Deveau, J.L. (2011). Workplace accommodation and audit-based evaluation process for compliance with the employment equity act: Inclusionary practices that exclude -- an institutional ethnography. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers canadiens de sociologie 36(3), 151-172. Retrieved from ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/CJS/article/view/10479

Erickson, W., Lee, C., von Schrader, S. (2011). Disability Statistics from the 2009 American

Community Survey (ACS). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Demographics and Statistics (StatsRRTC). Retrieved Jun 11, 2012 from www.disabilitystatistics.org

Duchin, Ozbas & Sensoy (2010) is to study "how shocks to the supply of external capital affect the real economy" (p. 419), using archival data from the 2007-08 recession. They use conventional models to study change within firms over time before and after the initial onset of the financial crisis, in a "differences-in-differences approach" (Duchin, Ozbas & Sensoy, 2010, p. 419) that compares firms' investment before and after the crisis sorted for particular factors, and then compares that difference between a large sample of firms. Firms are compared based on measures of "internal financial resources (cash reserves and net debt), external financing constraints, and dependence on external finance" (Duchin, Ozbas & Sensoy, 2010, p. 419) after controlling for cash flow and a variable that models investment opportunity, "Q." The goal is to rule out differences between firms based on whether they are dependent on and have access to external finance,…

References

Coase, R. (1960). The problem of social cost. Journal of Law and Economics 3, 1-44. Retrieved from www.sfu.ca/~allen/CoaseJLE1960.pdf

Duchin, R., Ozbas, O. & Sensoy, B. (2010). Costly external finance, corporate investment, and the subprime mortgage credit crisis. Journal of Financial Economics 97 (2010) 418 -- 435

Gallagher, T. And Andrew, J. (2000). Financial management principles and practice (2nd ed.).

New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

ANOVA study

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Analysis of variance is a term used in statistics which involves a collection of statistical models and procedures that are associated with them where the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into components that can be attributed to different sources of variations. It is therefore a statistical technique that is useful for evaluation whether there are differences between average values or mean across several population groups. This model also entails that the response variable is continuous in nature while the predictor variables can be categorized. For there to be a test for statistical significance between means then there has to be a comparison i.e. analyzing variances hence the name of the model. There are various concepts in variance analysis these are; the partitioning of sums of squares .at the core of variance analysis is the fact that variances can be divided or…

References

Shera, J (2006). Statistical Errors (Type I, Type II, Power).Retrieved August 4, 2013 from http://www.herkimershideaway.org/writings/type12.htm

1.3. Summary of argument, Hypothesis

The role of leadership styles and their applicability to the success or failure of mergers, acquisitions and alliances is the focus of this research. Any leadership study, to be relevant, must also focus on the needs of those served by the organizations studies. That is why in the proposed Change Management Equilibrium Model have customer-driven processes at their center or core. The focus of the research to either validate or refute the model is based on consistency and collaboration as two factors that also serve to create greater levels of integration between the two or more healthcare providers merging or changing their organizational structures to better serve the market. This market orientation is what many public-ally-owned and operated healthcare providers struggle with, as often the source of funding becomes their "customer" or whom they serve (Brinkmann, O'Brien, 2010). Studies by AM esearch for example show…

References

Abbott, R., Ploubidis, G., Huppert, F., Kuh, D., & Croudace, T.. (2010). An Evaluation of the Precision of Measurement of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales in a Population Sample. Social Indicators Research, 97(3), 357-373.

Faten Fahad Al-Mailam. (2004). Transactional vs. Transformational Style of Leadership-Employee Perception of Leadership Efficacy in Public and Private Hospitals in Kuwait. Quality Management in Health Care, 13(4), 278-284.

Antonakis, J., & House, R.J. (2002). The full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. 3 -- 33. Boston: JAI Press.

Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Introduction to, and overview of, transformational and charismatic leadership. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. xvii -- xxiii. Boston: JAI Press.

His intention is to use an experimental approach by using statistical tools to quantify and assess program effectiveness by comparing school effectiveness ratings before implementation of the program with schools effectiveness ratings following the implementation of the program.

5. Is there anything in the procedures for collecting the information or in the instruments themselves that could bias the results or weaken the study?

The author does not describe the source of his schools merely stating the inclusive and exclusive criteria that they satisfied. The schools, all in Milwaukee, had to satisfy three main criteria: firstly that the program under study was introduced during a period when rating were available, secondly, that the number of schools introducing the program must be sufficient for statistical results, and thirdly, that there should be sufficient and adequate comparison groups. His research seems immune to bias.

The author does, however, mention the possibility of bias…

Reference

Thompson, B. (2006). Evaluating Three Programs Using a School Effectiveness Model: Direct Instruction, Target Teach, and Class Size Reduction, Third Education Group Review, 2, 1-10.

Cloning has been a hot issue in the news media in recent years. Many feel that it is a good idea and that there could be many benefits to mankind. However, there are those who feel that the issue is beyond our human capabilities and that we are playing with fire. There have been many surveys conducted on public opinion concerning the issue. Some of the studies have been formal, conducted by the research community, and others are informal, conducted by parties such as the news media. Many of these studies failed to separate answers according to gender, age and other demographic issues. Not knowing the demographics of the sample population and taking into account the number of members in each demographic group could essentially add sample bias to the answers.

It is a commonly accepted idea in the academic community that there are significant differences in opinions expressed by…

Works Cited

America's next ethical war." The Economist. Print Edition. April 12, 2001. Washington, D.C.

Bailey, M. (1994, April). "Women and support for the animal rights movement, 1948-1985."

Paper presented at the meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago,

IL.

To test whether the research results are statistically significant an appropriate test of statistical significance should be run. A chi-square "goodness-of-fit test is used to determine whether a set of proportions have specified numerical values" (Hypothesis testing, 2009, Quick MBA). However, in this specific instance, since it is likely that multiple batch tests for defects will be run, an ANOVA test would be more appropriate: "The primary purpose of ANOVA is to test for differences between multiple means. Whereas the t-test can be used to compare two means, ANOVA is needed to compare three or more means. If multiple t-tests were applied, the probability of a TYPE I error (rejecting a true null hypothesis) increases as the number of comparisons increases" (Hypothesis testing, 2009, Quick MBA). A one-way ANOVA examines whether multiple means differ. "ANOVA calculates the ratio of the variation between groups to the variation within groups" (Hypothesis testing,…

References

Hypothesis testing. (2009). Quick MBA. Retrieved December 9, 2009 at http://www.quickmba.com/marketing/research/

Lane, David M. (2009). Null hypothesis. Hyperstat: Online contents.

Retrieved December 9, 2009 athttp://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/A29337.html

The most significant variables are income, social class and then age. Life cycle comes last. This is when all of the entertainment activities are considered en masse.

3. An explanation of the statistical test that is used in this task

The statistical test which has been used in the process of selecting the superior correlation coefficient is test of statistical significance. The statistical coefficients for the various variables were determined using various techniques and then their values tabulate for use and non-use. In order to bring out the best picture of the entertainment scenario activities, the frequency of use was incorporated into the coefficients. The final value indicated the most accurate picture of the level of statistical significance of the various variables.

eference

Hisrich, obert D. And Michael P. Peters (1974), "Selecting the Superior Segmentation Correlate," Journal of Marketing, 38 (July), 60 -- 63.

Reference

Hisrich, Robert D. And Michael P. Peters (1974), "Selecting the Superior Segmentation Correlate," Journal of Marketing, 38 (July), 60 -- 63.

Correlation of Seller's ating (0.30) to Auction's Highest Bid correlates at the.01 level of confidence.

Conclusions

The conclusion seems incomplete as negative ratings of online sellers would need to strongly correlate with low bidding to make adverse selection completely proven in this study. The fact that there is no strong correlation in this study to negative rankings, a foundational element of asymmetric information, makes one see the research as incomplete in its design.

Selection of Independent and Dependent Variables

The research design is incomplete in that it does not capture sales lost due to prices being too high and statistically proving the full hypothesis of adverse selection. The selection of the studies' independent variables quantified and validates high trust emanating from proven reputation systems. It does not however show the full elasticity of adverse selection on the price bands of cars sold on Ebay Motors. There is no demand curve,…

References

Akerlof, George A. (1970) - The Market for 'Lemons:' Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism, Quarterly Journal of Economics, August 1970, 84, 488-500.

Wolf & Muhanna (2005) - Adverse Selections and Reputation Systems in Online Auctions: Evidence from Ebay Motors, Proceedings from the 2005 -- Twenty-Sixth International Conference on Information Systems

mortgage default (Elul, Souleles and Chomsisenghept). This model suggests that home owners should only ever default if they have negative equity in their residence. If there is negative equity, then there would be an incentive for the borrower to walk away from the property. However this also does not consider subsidiary effects such as the impact upon the person's credit or the possibility that the property could regain equity in the medium or long-term. Furthermore, other researchers have also proposed that other factors such as being illiquid would also provide a motive for someone to default on their mortgage. A combination of these two variables would also act to amplify the incentive to voluntarily default; and of course being so illiquid that there is no possibility to make a mortgage payment virtually guarantees that a default will occur.

Although this research paper does not necessarily define its hypothesis directly, it…

Works Cited

Elul, R., et al. "What "Triggers" Mortgage Default?" American Economic Review (2010): 490-494. Web.

This result is somewhat different from that of a colleague which found that teenagers who are more likely to be at the high school level of education responded in higher numbers. This difference can be attributed to the differences existing in the posts. The other post was on the use of the GPS feature on smart phones. Teenagers are more likely to engage in tech talk compared to other age groups.

Conclusion that can be drawn about interpreting data

ata interpretation is an important exercise that comes after the data is analyzed. It helps to draw conclusions from the data itself. In the data interpretation process, it is possible to tell whether the hypothesis has been accepted or not. It is also possible to know how the sampling or data collection methods affected the results that have been collected. ata interpretation also helps to provide the answer to the research…

Data interpretation is an important exercise that comes after the data is analyzed. It helps to draw conclusions from the data itself. In the data interpretation process, it is possible to tell whether the hypothesis has been accepted or not. It is also possible to know how the sampling or data collection methods affected the results that have been collected. Data interpretation also helps to provide the answer to the research question. This is because the data collected is integrated with the hypothesis in order to find an answer to the initial research question. It is also learnt that data interpretation helps to discuss the summaries and data presentation methods in order to know whether they were appropriate for the type of data collected. Predictions regarding the elements of uncertainty that result from the data collection exercise and data presented can then be discussed and analyzed to acknowledge the role that variation plays in hypothesis testing. The inferential analysis was conducted in order to help draw conclusions about the results of the small data collection exercise. The statistical tests that have been used which are the ANOVA and t-test also show the relationships that exist between the variables. Data interpretation is also an essential step towards making evidence-based predictions for future related research questions.

Reaching research conclusions

Chicago is a famously polarized city in terms of racial and class tensions, thus focusing on community needs generates an important sense of unity between members of the police force and specific community members. It has been praised for its effective implementation of POP. It recently began a much-heralded initiative to bring POP to its public school system. Killings occur with alarming regularity in the city's public schools. There were 67 deaths during the first half of 2007 -2008 academic year alone, the year that POP was instituted to combat the problem within the school system. "If this doesn't sound bad enough, the 67 doesn't include the hundreds of students who were shot or beaten but managed to survive" (Waldek 2009). To implement POP, the Chicago police first surveyed the assessed patterns of school violence and causation possibilities. Over 500 students who suffered school violence were studied. "The students at the highest risk of violence, by statistics, are most likely to be black, male, without a stable living environment, in special education, skipping an average of 42% of school days at neighborhood and alternative schools, and having a record of in-school behavioral flare-ups that is about eight times higher than the average student" (Waldek 2009). Violent outbursts also tended to occur within a relatively narrow window of opportunity, either two hours before or after school and

There are many more challenges involved in the development of forecasting models and the development of predictive analytics as they relate to the impact of both CoffeeTime's and competitor's advertising spending. The following are additional considerations in the development of more thorough predictive analytics and statistical forecasting models of the Indian market for CoffeeTimes' beverages and sandwiches:

Advertising spending increasing overall market growth or cannibalizing competitive sales? This is a major question that needs to be addressed through more econometric modeling, specifically looking at the aggregate impact of industry-wide spending on increasing the total market size for served coffee in key segments of the market vs. forcing consolidation of the market and cannibalization of sales. This dichotomy of market direction could best first be tested from the standpoint of attempting to predict aggregate demand and consumption for coffee in India for three to five years. Next taking the approach of…

Restorative Justice Approaches Reduce Youth Offending

Restorative justice is a new paradigm within the criminal justice, particularly in the context of youth offenders. The philosophy behind restorative justice is to consider the juvenile's interests to develop them into beneficial citizens, and it augments the principle behind juvenile justice and corrections. Restorative justice approaches provide the juvenile justice system with leniency when approaching youth offenders while at the same time holding the offenders accountable through rehabilitative approaches. The core elements of restorative justice include rehabilitating and restoring the youth offender, restoring and making restitution to the victim, and restoring the entire society. Programs employed in the restorative approaches can apply in both community correction centers and institutional treatment programs. Juvenile court and statutes aim to protect the child and not to punish them (Latimer, Dowden, & Muise, 2005).

However, juvenile justice has evolved over the centuries, and this has seen to…

Bibliography

Bell, J. (1993). Doing Your Research Project. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Bynum, J.E., & Thompson, W.E. (2005). Juvenile Delinquency: A Sociological Approach (6th

ed.). New York: Pearson.

Dawson, C. (2009). Introduction to research methods: A practical guide for anyone undertaking a research project. Oxford, UK: How to Books, Spring Hill

In interacting, factors may also modify each other:

nurse who might return to work for a higher salary might decide to do so only later when her children are older. The incentive of salary is therefore modified by the factor of young children.

The table is significantly complicated by the inclusion of more than two factors:

Any combination of the factors could result in the majority of nurses returning to work. Individually, each nurse has his or her own motivations for doing so.

The iterative proportional fitting procedure can be used to calculate expected frequencies.

Note: pecifically, the indication of this study is that nurses would return to work were certain factors in the work situation to change. pecifically, the highest frequencies are assigned to work load and hours. These are also the two most common factors in causing burnout and stress in the profession. Concomitantly, if inactive nurses were…

Sources

StatSoft, Inc. (2008). Log-Linear Analysis of Frequency Tables. http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/stloglin.html

Williams, Kimberly a., Stotts, R., Jacob, Susan R., Stebauer, Cheryl C.; Roussel, Linda, & Carter, Donna (2006, April). Inactive Nurses: A source for alleviating the nursing shortage? In Journal of Nursing Administration, Vol. 36(4).

Since the beginning of time the male species has had an obsession with that part of the personal anatomy known by its Latin root as the "tail"; or today known as one's pecker, "wankie," monkey, and a host of other rather humorous titles. Somewhere, however, in creating the world God must have became confused when creating man as, and being politically correct, he/she placed the tail on the man's front side and on the animals' rear side -- or maybe God just had a bad day on his/her day of creation. Regardless of what one wants to call his penis or tail, history has proven that man's obsession with the penis is ever ending. Simply consider the folklore surrounding John Dillinger whose penis was reportedly over 20 inches. If medical science were correct it would likely have taken Dillinger 20 minutes to get enough blood circulating in his penis…

Hering, Pritsker, Gonchar, & Pilar (2009), the statistical procedure used examined students who were from Tirat HaCarmel, Israel. These students were studied at the town's health and child care center. Non-obese children were the control group, and they were matched up with obese children who were also studied. The match-ups included both gender and age. Then, children were divided even further into specific groups by age. These were 4-7 years, 8-11 years, and 12-18 years (Hering, et al., 2009). Four different criteria were used over a period of two years in order to get results that were statistically significant. These criteria were visits to the emergency department, visits to the clinic, medication usage, and whether the child was hospitalized (Hering, et al., 2009).

The study reached the conclusions that there were more than 4000 children treated at the care center, and there were 363 children who were obese and who…

References

Hering, E., Pritsker, I., Gonchar, L., & Pilar, G. (2009). Obesity in children is associated with increased health care use. Clinical Pediatrics, 48(8): 812-8.

Transportation and Logistics

Assessment of Technology Adoption In

Small and Medium-Sized Logistics Providers

Assessment of Technology Adoption By

Small and Medium-Sized Logistics Providers

The adoption of technologies for streamlining and unifying supply chains globally continues to show promise as a means to take supplier coordination and product quality to a new level transparency and velocity. Of the many aspects of technology adoption throughout supply chains, the contributory effects of information and communication technologies (ICT) in third party logistics providers (3PL) has become a leading indicator of an industry's ability to adapt to turbulent market conditions (Brah, Lim, 2006). Despite the many benefits of adopting technologies in 3 PLs and across supply chains, there are many factors that limit their use. The study Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-Sized Logistics Providers (Evangelista, McKinnon, Sweeney, 2013) highlights the challenges small and medium logistics providers face in adopting ICT-based solutions throughout their businesses.…

References

Bourlakis, C., & Bourlakis, M. (2005). Information technology safeguards, logistics asset specificity and fourth-party logistics network creation in the food retail chain. The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 20(2), 88-98.

Brah, S.A., & Lim, H.Y. (2006). The effects of technology and TQM on the performance of logistics companies. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 36(3), 192-209.

Evangelista, P., McKinnon, A., & Sweeney, E. (2013). Technology adoption in small and medium-sized logistics providers. Industrial Management + Data Systems, 113(7), 967-989.

Kerr, A. (1989). Information technology - creating strategic opportunities for logistics. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Materials Management, 19(5), 15.

Organizational Commitment

The author of this report is asked to compare and contrast three articles relating to organizational commitment. The three articles in question are all heavy-hitters on the topic and all emanate from the academic and peer-reviewed scholarly spheres. The first was the 2002 treatise offered by Swailes. This more dominant offering relating to organizational commitment will be compared to the 2008 work or ikettta and the 2006 work of Harrison et al. While there are definitely differences in the options and conclusions made by the three studies, they also share very strong corollaries.

Questions Answered

Swailes started off by covering the early viewpoints of organizational commitment dating back to the work of Fayol in the 1940's. He also covered Weber's work in 1947 as well as other works through the 1970's, 1980's and 1990's. The earlier work that Swailes seized on and identified as pivotal when speaking of…

References

Harrison, D.A., Newman, D.A., & Roth, P.L. (2006). How important are job attitudes?

Meta-analytic comparisons of integrative behavioral outcomes and time sequences. Academy of Management Journal, 49(2), 305-325.

doi:10.5465/AMJ.2006.20786077

Riketta, M. (2008). The causal relation between job attitudes and performance: A meta-

patients undergoing mechanical ventilation contract Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP). This acute medical condition always results in increased death rates and associated medical costs among patients. This article reviews several literatures that try to enlighten masses on the diagnosis, medical treatments and VAP prevention methods. In addition, this article outlines recommendations medical practitioners can implement in their daily practices to curb VAP and offers an insight on controversies that usually arise during VAP diagnoses, treatment plans and prevention methodologies. This article defines VAP to be the causative agent of approximately 25 to 54% mortality rates among patients undergoing mechanical ventilation in ICUs. Factors responsible for VAP among patients include patients' population in ICUs, hospital stay durations and antimicrobial treatments. Even though antimicrobial medications are confirmed to reduce VAP casualties, further studies should be undertaken such as the ones outlined in the literatures below to help in early identification and treatment of…

References

Arroliga, A.C., Pollard, C.L., Wilde, C.D., Pellizzari, S.J., Chebbo, A., Song, J., et al. (2012).

Reduction in the Incidence of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia: A Multidisciplinary

Approach. Respiratory Care, 688-696.

Camargo, L.F., De Marco, F.V., Barbas, C.S., Hoelz, C., Bueno, M.A., Rodrigues Jr., M., et al.

Ethical Communication

The Definition of Ethics

In practically all areas of society ethical subjects are rapidly increasing. Professionals in the health field struggle with ethical questions in relation to abortion, transplants, birth control, informed consent, life-support systems, malpractice suits, patient privacy, human genetics, and high costs of insurance, as well as care on the whole. Ethical matters in relation to nuclear power accidents, oil spills, disposal of industrial waste, defense weaponry, lead and asbestos poisoning, acid rain, as well as ecological balance challenge those in technology, science, and industry. People in the political ground deal with ethical queries in relation to unemployment, homelessness, foreign policy decisions, Social Security, welfare reform, electioneering costs, law enforcement practices, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities, racial and gender discrimination, immigration control, drugs, crime, and lobbying actions. The legal profession is blamed of unethical customs like engaging in doubtful plea-bargaining practices, motivating a harmful litigious spirit,…

Reference

Arnett R.C. (1992). Dialogic education: Conversation about ideas and between persons. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Berlo D.K. (1960). Dimensions for evaluating the acceptability of message sources. Public Opinion Quarterly, 33, 563-576.

Bauer R.A. (1964). The obstinate audience: The influence process from the point-of-view of social communication. American Psychologist, 19, 319-328.

Converse E.J., Campbell D.T., Miller R.D. And Stokes L. (1960). Nonreactive measures in the social sciences. (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

The steps of evidence-based practice include formulating an answerable question. How does knowing about statistics improve our ability to be an evidence-based practitioner at this step?

How understanding statistical principles can enable you to better understand if a question is answerable or not.

Are 'baselines' in descriptive function, or predictive function available for assessment.

In application of statistics to social phenomena, the frequency, duration and intensity of the subject tested will contribute to analysis where more than nominal (i.e. numbered) distributions are involved. Merely 'counting' a population is not a significant activity in statistical renderings as independent variables require dependent variables in order to acquire statistical meaning. Evidence-based practice references studies that 'replicate' existing tests, toward reinterpretation of former statistical outcomes in a new study of parallel significance, with variables of the same classification. Patterns in longitudinal tests over time offer insights into stasis or transformations…

Regression is a significantly common technique used for analyzing data. Regression analysis is employed to delineate the relationships between a group of independent variables and the dependent variable. In this case, the dependent variable is substance abuse. On the other hand, the set of independent variables comprise of exposure to substance abuse, ethnicity, age, and gender, poverty, and loneliness. Regression would play a significant role in helping with the learning process regarding the nature of the relationship between the variables. The analysis will particularly entail descriptive statistics as well as regression, correlation, and ANOVA analysis. Descriptive statistics will be used to present demographic data and provide measures of central tendency such as averages and median, while the statistical analyses will be important for testing the relationship between the dependent and independent variables…