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We have over 337 essays for "Stem Cell Research"

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Stem Cells the Ethical Controversy

Words: 2407 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87608673



Analysis of the Issues: The ethical concern for the rights and welfare of viable infants is certainly a legitimate concern, but the central ethical analysis that pertains to stem cell research revolves around the issue of defining human life appropriately. Objective criteria like anatomical development, cognitive awareness, and above all, sentience of any degree and in any form are all legitimate bases for the definition of life and for identifying the period of gestation corresponding to the earliest conceivable safeguards necessary to prevent suffering.

On the other hand, purely subjective doctrinal claims without objective criteria of any kind are wholly inappropriate bases for defining scientific concepts like when life begins. The fact that human development varies among individuals and that it may be impossible to know exactly where sentience and other elements of "humanness" first begin in the fetus does not mean that it is impossible to identify periods of…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a.(2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.

Boston: Little Brown, 2002

Healy, B. On Health: The Other Stem Cells; U.S. News & World Report (Jun. 14/04), p. 77.

Hellemans, a., Bunch, B. (1998) the Timetables of Science. New York: Simon & Schuster.
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Stem Cell Ethics Debating the Ethics of

Words: 1900 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10694307

Stem Cell Ethics

Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells

The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Antiniou, Michael. "The Case Against & #8230;" Nature Medicine 7.4 (2001): 397-399. Web. The author argues that the use of embryonic stem cells for research and medicine poses significant ethical and moral issues that cannot be overcome. Of particular concern is the potential for reproductive cloning, a door that the author believes was opened when the UK government approved the use of embryonic stems cells for research and medicine.

Blow, Nathan. "In Search of Common Ground." Nature 451.7180 (2008): 855-858. Web. The author presents several issues facing researchers who work with stem cells and discusses why they are important to advancing this field of research. Of primary concern is developing standard protocols for producing stem cells and creating the necessary protocols and reagents that will allow the therapeutic use of stem cells in humans.

Leeb, C., Jurga, M., McGuckin, C., Forraz, N., Thallinger, C., Moriggl, R. et al. "New Perspectives in Stem Cell Research: Beyond Embryonic Stem Cells." Cell Proliferation 44.1 (2011): 9-14. Web. The focus of this article is the promises and limitations of embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells, from the perspective of scientists working in this field. The ethical decisions concerning the use of embryonic stem cells are only mentioned in passing.

Power, Carl and Rasko, E.J. "Promises and Challenges of Stem Cell Research for Regenerative Medicine." Annals of Internal Medicine 155.10 (2011): 706-713. Web. The authors discuss in detail the three main types of stem cell technologies: embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent. Ethical issues are mentioned occasionally, but not discussed.
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Stem Cell Policies Scientific Breakthrough

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78401625



This controversial decision drew all kinds of reactions from different groups on each side of the issue. Some adversaries of hESC research expressed admiration for the decision limiting research to existing cell lines, while others said that no research should be allowed under any circumstances. Advocates of hESC research, meanwhile, generally praised the president for allowing some research to go forward, but criticized the restriction to existing cell lines as too strict, questioning whether enough research would be allowed.

Current U.S. Stem Cell Policy under President Obama

The March 9, 2009 EO changes the way the National Institutes of Health (NIH) can support and conduct human stem cell research. The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), through the NIH Director, is required to review existing NIH and other widely-recognized guidelines on human stem cell research and issue new NIH guidance within 120 days of the date of the EO…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AAAS Policy Brief: Stem Cell Research." 10 March 2009. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 27 March 2009  http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/stemcells/ .

Executive Summary." 2009. The National Institutes of Health resource for stem cell research. 27 March 2009  http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/execSum.asp .

Register, Federal. "Presidential Documents Executive Order 13505." 11 March 2009. Federal Register. 24 March 2009  http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2009/pdf/E9-5441.pdf .
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Stem Cell Are Commonly Known

Words: 495 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73370232

Study of human embryonic stem cell will lead to major advances in human biology, specifically:

Embryonic stem cell research will provide critical insights into mechanisms of cell differentiation, growth, and death (Young, 2006).

Understanding stem cells may provide keys to why people age (Young, 2006).

Scientists are interested in stem cells because they have the potential to become very practical in a way that any other kind of cell in the body might be used to replace tissues that have failed (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3144925.stm,2003).

And lastly, scientists believed that if they become successful in finding cure for lymphoma, and leukemia with this study, there is a great possibility that they can also cure diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, diabetes among others in the near future (http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt,2006).

orks Cited

Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006. http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521

Young, ise. Morality of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006.  http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521 

Young, Wise. Morality of Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006.  http://carecure.rutgers.edu/Lectures/Morality/StemCells_Notes.ppt 

Embryonic Stem Cells; an Introduction to Science ethics and Legislation.. 7 October 2006.  http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt 

Mining Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006. http://arts.usask.ca/policynut/courses/soc292-8.ppt
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Stem Cells Are a Hot Topic for

Words: 1341 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76797705

Stem cells are a hot topic for the media today because our understanding of them has potential for incredible scientific advances in the field of biotechnology, yet we struggle because there are questions of morality raised by the methods by which they might be used. While in centuries past, it was commonly accepted within the scientific community to vivisect the mentally insane or criminally convicted for the purpose of scientific knowledge, today religious groups are concerned about the fate of single stem cells being used in experiments. Stem cells have paved the way to cloning and bioengineering of humans, allowing scientists to "bring... A sperm and ovum together to create an embryo, harvesting the cells, and then discarding the embryo." (Celia) The concern for many people is that working with embryonic stem cells especially may somehow he breaching the rights of people and taking science to a point where it…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bell, H. (2000) "Case Study: The Uninsured" American Medical Student Association. <  http://www.amsa.org/tnp/uninsured.cfm >

Calafut, T. (2000) "Emerging Applications in Human Stem Cell Therapy." Chemical Market Reporter, March 20.
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Stem Cells Without a Doubt One of

Words: 2215 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2707824

Stem Cells

ithout a doubt, one of the most controversial topics of popular discourse is stem cell research. Indeed, one would be hard pressed to peruse the newspaper or magazine stand without encountering some reference to the global stem cell debate -- but what, exactly, are stem cells, and why are they so controversial?

Stem cells intended for use in human applications are harvested from humans, umbilical cords and embryos. The reason these cells are so valuable is because of their capability to produce or "become" other cell types -- for example, brain cells, heart cells, skin, etc. In short, these are "master cells," holding the ability to divide in cultures, and to be manipulated allowing it to transform into any type of cell. Of course, this is extremely important due to the fact that scientists can use this capability to either create organs (thereby helping to meet the tremendous…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hall, MiMi and Kiely, Kathy. "Proponents of Stem-Cell Research Put on Pressure." USA Today. Online. July 2001. 10 April 2002. Retrieved from Web site on 15 March, 2004
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Stem Cell Cience Must Be

Words: 852 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86882230



Unfortunately, a tremendous amount of valuable research has been put on hold ever since the ban of federal funding for stem cell research. In the United States, the vast majority of medical research of all types that eventually lead to cures for disease are funded by the federal government. The federal ban on stem cell research does not completely prohibit it, but the effect is nearly the same, just as it would be if the federal government withdrew funding for cancer or diabetes research.

The main opposition to stem cell research comes from the Religious Right who believe that any form of research using fetal stem cells is wrong, because according to their religious views, every fertilized human egg should be considered as much a human being as any living person, even a microscopic zygote consisting of nothing more than four cells of human tissue. Certainly, the concept of religious…… [Read More]

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Stem Cell Stems Cells Are

Words: 1836 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12906512



eferences

Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of eligion and Public Life 25+.

Patel, K., & ushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.

Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982

Shapiro, .S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell esearch Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.

Stem Cell Basics." (2006). Stem Cell Information from the National Institute of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/

Wagner, C.G. (2007, January/February). Values Conflicts in Stem-Cell esearch: Governments Struggle with Bioethical Issues. The Futurist, 41, 8+.

Precursor cells are also known as pluripotent cells, i.e., having the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells that make…… [Read More]

References

Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 25+.

Patel, K., & Rushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.

Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. Retrieved on March 4, 2007 at  http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982 

Shapiro, R.S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.
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Stem Cell Website Stem Cell

Words: 1215 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11919197

However, we can immediately see that their purposes are distinct from one another.

From a design standpoint, one grievance with Sanford Burnham is the shortage of active links to immediately usable information. First and foremost, it is of note that in a page with several eye-catching graphics pertaining to particular site destinations (the Center for Nanomedicine, Sanford Burnham's blog) none of these photographs is used as an active link. This is a missed opportunity for site usability that may be perceived as being of marginal importance but in reality can have significant impact on how long a visitor remains on a site and how many pages said visitor is inclined to click-through. This is a shortcoming easily resolved but does impact the site's relative dynamism.

The importance of such a matter is highlighted in a comparison between the two sites, with Research America ultimately compiling a site that is a…… [Read More]

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Stem Cells Since it Is

Words: 550 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80381147

The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found." (Info 2006)

Adult stem cells are replicators in such a way that they are able to duplicate a variety of different cells. "Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body, serving as a sort of repair system...they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cell...each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell." (Info 2006).

Researchers tout the belief that a manipulation of stem cells can be beneficial in curing many diseases as well as helping in creating or developing new life, which could be part of the reason why such…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Info Center. (2006) In Stem Cell Information. National Institute for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, www.stemcells.nih.gov/info.defaultpage, Accessed November 13, 2006
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Stem Cell Genome Reparations

Words: 2991 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18920097

Human Genome, Stem Cells, & Reparations

Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because they can replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell to develop into any of the 220 cell types that make up the human body makes it a powerful tool for biological research and medicine. Scientists believe that stem cell research has the potential of leading to previously incurable diseases.

How are Stem Cells Formed?

When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, a zygote (fertilized egg) is formed. The zygote divides itself almost immediately to form stem cells. These unspecialized stem cells have the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells…… [Read More]

James Harper. "About Reparations." [available online] at  http://www.blackvoices.com/feature/reparations/trial/ 

Peter Viles. "Suit Seeks Billions in Slave Reparations." [Available online] at  http://www.cnn.com/2002/LAW/03/26/slavery.reparations/index.html 

Research Issues
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Stem Cells It Will Consider the Current

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94244861

stem cells. It will consider the current moral discourse on the issue of stem cells and at the same time look at the basics or the foundation of stem cells themselves. How these cells can be utilized to conduct studies in cloning will be dwelt upon as well.

The pertinent issue on the floor of the U.S. congress in the deliberations on stem cell studies on humans is how to handle embryonic stem cell research (ESR), a kind of research that may generate crucial lifesaving therapies, which demands the damaging of embryos. Present national government regulations and policy documents tackle this issue basically via the limits on federal funding allocated to ESR (Aylesworth, 2010). The U.S. Department of Human Health Services is not permitted to spend any money on making human embryos for studies whereby the embryos will be damaged, thrown away, or intentionally be exposed to risks such as…… [Read More]

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Stem Cells and Umbilical Cords

Words: 4604 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68647678

Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.

Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. hile it is a difficult…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Colino, Stacey. (2001). Making Sense of Stem Cells. Lifetime.

Prescott, Bonnie. (2001). Animal Study Find Embryonic Stem Cells Can Repair Heart Muscle. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

Reaves, Jessica. (2002). The Great Debate Over Stem Cell Research. Time Magazine.

Recer, Paul. (2002). Study says stem cells have fewer mutations than previously thought. AP Online.
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Use of Stem Cells in Parkinson's Patients

Words: 2013 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79904362

Stem Cell Research / Parkinson's

Since Barack Obama has become president, the field of stem cell research has been given new life. One of Obama's campaign pledges

was to allow deeper research -- including the use of federal research funds -- into the use of pluripotent stem cells in order to find solutions for some of the terrible diseases Americans suffer from. Among those medical problems is Parkinson Disease (PD). This paper reviews and delves into the literature in terms of the potential of stem cell interventions into Parkinson Disease (also called "Parkinson's Disease").

ho is the leading authority on stem cell research?

There is no one "leading authority" reflected in the literature; however there are renowned scientists that are considered pathfinders in this field. Dr. Diane S. Krause, Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Associate Director of Stem Processing at Yale University is "…one of the discoverers of previously…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gallup Poll. (2011). Stem Cell Research. Retrieved March 7, 2012, from  http://www.gallup.com/poll/21676/stem-cell-research.aspx .

Gogel, S. Gubernator, M., and Minger, SL. (2011). Progress and prospects: stem cells and Neurological diseases. Gene Therapy, 18(1), 1-6.

Krause, D.S. (2002). Plasticity of marrow-driven stem cells. Gene Therapy, 9(11), 754-8.

Lo, Bernard, and Parham, Lindsay. (2010). Resolving Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Clinical
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Stem Cell Differentiation the Need to Restore

Words: 3613 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42462808

Stem Cell Differentiation

The need to restore the lives of the individuals calls for more of transplantation than that which is available. There are fewer organs, which can help in the transplantation process, which means that overdependence on the process makes it to be reliable. Further, the process may also end up endangering the life of the donator. Transplantation is the only available process that can for the individuals having kidney and lung problems. However, the numbers of individuals who are suffering from kidney and lung failure are always more than those who are ready to supply the needed organs. This calls for an alternative way, which can help in compensating the loss that the individuals face. One of the major alternatives for the process of translation is stem cell differentiation that may occur in any body cell. The stem cells differentiation offer the possibility of a renewable source of…… [Read More]

Reference

Wang, J., Collins, J. et al., (2012). Functional analysis of transcription factor binding sites in human promoters. Genome Biology, doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-9-r50

Guillot PV, Cui W, Fisk NM, Polak DJ. (2007). Stem cell differentiation and expansion for clinical applications of tissue engineering. J Cell Mol Med. 11:935-944.

Gerrard L, Rodgers L, Cui W. (2005). Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Neural

Lineages in Adherent Culture by Blocking Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling. Stem Cells 23: 1234-1241.
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Stem Cells Are Non-Specializing Cells

Words: 1687 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 11451725

Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,

"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).

The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord lood, 2010).

Conclusion

Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Adult stem cell Plasticity and Transdifferentiation." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.studentsguide.in/animal-biotechnology/stem-cell-technology/adult-stem-cell-plasticity-and-transdifferentiation.html

"Asymmetric Division of Stem Cells." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.molecular-plant-biotechnology.info/animal-biotechnology-genomics/pluripotent-stem-cell-lines/asymmetric-division-of-stem-cells.html

"Diseases Treated by Cord Blood." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from  http://www.womens-health.co.uk/diseases_treated.html 

Jessen, W. "Exactly What are Stem Cells?" 7, July 2008. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.highlighthealth.com/did-you-know/exactly-what-are-stem-cells/
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Healthcare Ethics -- Stem Cells

Words: 577 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50662077

While freedom of religion absolutely guarantees the right to refrain from choosing to submit to stem cell-based treatment, the same freedoms and the concept of separation of church and state absolutely preclude religious beliefs about when life "begins" (or about anything else) from dictating laws that affect other people who may not share those particular beliefs (Dershowitz, 2002).

Beneficence and Non-malfeasance

Certainly, both the concept of beneficence and non-malfeasance absolutely prohibit the use of fetal stem cells from any fetus that is sufficiently developed to be considered a "person" as well as from any fetus that is sufficiently developed to sense pain. Medical authorities may debate where the exact point is where "personhood" first becomes an issue, but in principle, that characterization must be a function of objective criteria and never subjective beliefs of laypeople, especially based in religion (Dershowitz, 2002).

Both beneficence and the duty to avoid malfeasance prohibit…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:

Little Brown & Co.

Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. Dubuque, Iowa:

McGraw Hill.
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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to

Words: 2115 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 87064250



3.3 Data Collection

Is maternal UE3A active following iPS treatment: Data will be gathered on the iPS-treated mice via positron emission tomography, and in vivo brain slice preparation, and Western lot Analysis. H1 will essentially be ascertained following these tests.

Does iPS treatment rescue the motor and cognitive deficits associated with Angelman Syndrome: Data will be gathered from testing the treated mice in scientifically recognized tests of cognitive ability in a mouse model. This project proposes using the water maze test, the electric shock test, and the submerged platform test. H2 will effectively be answered using the data gleaned from these tests.

4. Conclusion

4.1. Potential Therapeutic and Other Considerations

The potential of using iPS treatment to rescue/alleviate the severe motor and cognitive deficits witnessed in Angelman Syndrome is theoretically viable. Reliable mouse models of AS exist with which to run the tests. The technology needed to tease iPS stem…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abuhatzira, L., Shemer, R., & Razin, A. (2009). MeCP2 involvement in the regulation of neuronal alpha-tubulin production. Human Molecular Genetics, 1415-1423.

Condic, M.L., & Rao, M. (2008). Regulatory Issues for Personalized Pluripotent Cells. Stem Cells, 2753-2758.

Dindot, S., Antalffy, B., Meenakshi, B., & Beaudet, A. (2008). The Angelman syndrome ubiquitin ligase localizes to the synapse and nucleus, and maternal deficiency results in abnormal dendritic spine morphology. Human Molecular Genetics, 111-118.

Dobkin, B. (2007). Behavioral, temporal, and spatial targets for cellular transplants as adjuncts to rehabilitation for stroke. Stroke, 832-839.
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Ethics - Stem Cells the

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15356357

That is not to suggest that scientific criteria can necessarily pinpoint any specific instant or moment in time when a developing fetus can logically be considered a living human being, but only because such precision is impossible.

In principle, there is no doubt that medical science can identify the various stages of fetal development associated with the biological structures and processes that make us human. Likewise, they can identify the point where suffering becomes possible because neurological development produces the ability to perceive pain (Levine, 2008).

Therefore, the appropriate use of scientific criteria would be to link ethical concern for the fetus to sentience, and simply to err on the side of caution where pinpoint identification of sentience is impossible to know with certainty.

In principle, science (the discipline) is strictly objective; in practice, scientists are susceptible to human failings such as malice, egoism, and greed. The field of ethics…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a.M. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Kinsley, M. (2007) "Commentary: Why Science Can't Save the GOP: Time (Dec. 10/07), p. 36.

Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th Ed. Dubuque Iowa: McGraw Hill.

Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. New York: Random House
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Human Stem Cell Medical -

Words: 4660 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11610140

This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:

1) Identify novel genetic sequences;

2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…… [Read More]

Bibliography

O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?

Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at  http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf .

Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November

Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:.  http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html
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Political Influence Over Stem Cell

Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 14376102

Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).

Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little

Brown & Co.

Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"

The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004:
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Moral and Legal Questions of Stem Cell

Words: 3247 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35666810

Moral and Legal Questions of Stem Cell Research

Stem cell research is an experimental, and research-based study as to methods of repairing the human body. y introducing stem cells into a damaged, or degenerating area of the body, the medical profession hopes to prompt the body to regrow healthy tissue, and repair the damage. Degenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, or macular degeneration of a patient's eye retina are conditions in which the healthy tissues cease to function properly. There is no overt damage. There is not a disease which has physically destroyed the affected body part. ut for varying reasons, such as old age, wear and tear, or reasons medical science does not yet understand, the affected body part simply ceases to function properly. Stem cells are the type of cells, which are more numerous in, but not limited to, human embryos. They are the building blocks of the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Answers to your questions about Stem Cells. 2001. ViaCord. Retrieved 15 Dec 2002.  http://www.viacord.com/Preservation/Preservation.asp?section=1&s=sourceOfStemCells  2001>

Bush, George W. "The Bush Decision on Stem-Cell Research" National Review Online.

2002 Retrieved 15 Dec 2002.  http://www.nationalreview.com/document/document081001.shtml 

Critical Legal Studies." Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. 2000. Retrieved 10 Dec 2002.  http://www.law.cornell.edu/critical/theory.html
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Value of Umbilical Stem Cell

Words: 1182 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73891278

People with family histories of blood disease, for example, could benefit greatly from a private supply of compatible blood cells. Mixed-ethnicity children could also stand to benefit, since this population often experiences difficulty finding genetically compatible donors for organs or bone marrow (Peterson 56).

The sad reality is that despite its many benefits, the use of stem cells from umbilical cords is hampered by a lack of supply. There are private banks that extract and store a baby's umbilical stem cells for private use, but the costs are too prohibitive for most families. For many private banks, parents have to pay $1,300 up front for the extraction, and an additional $95 each year for storage. Also, many parents are simply unaware of the importance of umbilical stem cells. Sprage, a beneficiary of a cord stem cell transplantation, finds it disturbing that "most cord blood ends up as medical waste." (Peterson…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Peterson, Holly. "Cord-blood Controversy." Newsweek. August 18, 2003: 56.

Seppa, Natan. "Baby Rescue." Science News. May 21, 2005: 323-324.

Smith, Wesley J. "Umbilical Accord." Human Life Review. 31:4, Fall 2005: 87-89.

Value of Umbilical Stem Cell Research in Curing Disease
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Stem Research and the Anti-Discrimination Position Statement

Words: 518 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84820583

legislation introduced topic stem cell research. You find Library Congress website helpful research thomas.loc.gov. Pick a piece legislation interest give a summary bill.

The H.R.2433 -- 113th Congress (2013-2014) emphasizes the need for the U.S. To play a more significant role in achieving technological advancements in STEM-cell research. The act was introduced in June 19, 2013. The legislation relates to the idea of changing the Public Health Service Act with the purpose of introducing research processes that make use of human stem cells. The legislation is particularly interesting because of its studies in the field of stem cells involving human embryos.

Although the legislation bring forward problematic ideas because of the difficulty associated with actually coming in possession of human embryonic stem cells, the fact that there are numerous individuals willing to donate such resources with the purpose of promoting scientific advancement makes it possible for experts to progress in…… [Read More]

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Treating Leukemia With Stem Cells

Words: 1240 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 20776421



The authors did a comparison study of 682 adults with acute leukemia. All these patients received a hematopoietic stem-cell (HSC) transplant from a donor that was unrelated to them. The authors compared them to patients who received UCB instead of HSC. One of the important characteristics of UCB is that it does not have to match the donor, which makes it much more flexible in leukemia and other treatments.

The study covered two groups of people. The authors note, "98 received cord blood and 584 received bone marrow. The transplantations were performed from 1998 through 2002 and reported to Eurocord and the European Blood and Marrow Transplant Group" (ocha, V., et al., 2004. p. 2276). They traced participants' ages, weights, level of severity of the disease, and other influences to discover what treatment worked best in treating adults with leukemia. They found that rates of mortality and relapse were very…… [Read More]

References

Mauro, MJ., and Maziarz, R.T. (2006). Stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia: When should it be used? Mayo Clin Proc. March; 81(3):404-416.

Rocha, V., et al. (2004). Transplants of umbilical-cord blood or bone marrow from unrelated donors in adults with acute leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine 351; 22. 2276-2286.

Tse, WW, SL Zang, KD Bunting and MJ Laughlin. (2008). Umbilical cord blood transplantation in adult myeloid leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplantation 41, 465 -- 472.

Vago, L., et al. (2009). Loss of mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation. New England Journal of Medicine. 361: 478-88.
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Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regenerative Medicine

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 39588755

However, there would also need to be an extended period of longitudinal analysis of the effects of the therapy on the experimental group mice's health to see if the improvement continued and did not produce damaging side effects.

The MSCs in the liver therapy are not derived from human embryos and thus the objections to discarding human embryos are not a factor in the ethical discussion about the therapy. In fact, "the number of MSCs that can be obtained from a donor is significantly lower than the number needed for tissue regeneration. Therefore, MSCs are expanded ex-vivo in media supplemented with growth factors" and created in a lab ("MSC growth factors," R&D Systems, 2013). The main ethical objections to the use of MCSs revolve around the question of scientists' right to create new organs and the possible risks involved. The Japanese research team "relied on a 'cocktail' of so-called induced…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]

 http://www.rndsystems.com/molecule_group.aspx?g=805&r=7 

"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) growth factors." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]

 http://www.rndsystems.com/molecule_group.aspx?g=818&r=7&g2=805
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Cells Are a Type of

Words: 760 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 54959512



To date, adoptive T-cell therapy have used peripheral blood, tumors, malignant effusions, and drained lymph nodes as sites for injecting the T-cells for adoptive transfer. Those are routinely used are allogenic bone marrow transplantation and peripheral blood stem cell infusion. It is possible that the bone marrow might be a good place too. It is also arguable which precise T-cells are the best to transfer, since T- cells are differentiated into many subsets.

Furthermore, in order to produce enough effectors T-cells, specific T-cells from peripheral blood or tumor specimens are isolated and generated in vitro, and these are then clonally expanded using various approaches. The T-cells are then reinfused into the patient with the expectation that they will then target antigens. There is much evidence that this approach works, although it also seems that this can be engineered in vivo under certain situations.

For most effective T-cell therapy, it has…… [Read More]

Sources

Greenberg, P.D. 1991, 'Adoptive T cell therapy of tumors. Ad. Immunol. 49, pp. 281-355.

Jamieson, B.D., & Ahmed, R. 1989,'T cell memory. J. Exp. Med. 169, pp. 1993-2005

June, C.H. 2007, 'Principles of adoptive T cell cancer therapy', J. Clin. Invest., 117, pp.11204-1212.

MedecineNet.com. Definition of T cell. Online. Available at:  http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11300
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Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of

Words: 5874 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95138553



For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."

Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.

Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

 http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Bioethical Research One of the

Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59899446

Also, there has been pressure in the different professions for every research design to follow these general procedures (Chadwick, Bahr, & Albrecht, 1984, pp. 19-20).

The researcher needs protection as well as the subject does. An important protection of confidentiality is testimonial privilege. This protection is not absolute and must yield to other concerns in some cases such as state's requirement that certain diseases (infectious diseases) or injuries (child abuse or neglect, gun shot wounds) be reported to prevent further injury. Written, informed consent to release information is the best defense against an allegation of a breach of confidentiality (Brent, 1997, p. 258).

Bioethics and informed consent extend beyond the area of research into that of medical practice, calling for medical personnel to inform patients of what treatment are being given and what options the patient may have. Such efforts are seen as both ethical and as empowering for patients,…… [Read More]

References

Bower, R.T. & de Gasparis, P. (1978). Ethics in social research: Protecting the interests of human subjects. New York: Praeger.

Brent, N.J. (1997). The home healthcare nurse and confidentiality and privacy. Home Healthcare Nurse, 15(4), 256-258.

Chadwick, B.A., Bahr, H.M., & Albrecht, S.L. (1984). Social science research methods. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall.

Heinrich, Bernd. "What Is Natural?" Discover (June 1994), 40-42.
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Complexity of Cell Division

Words: 1475 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12632910

Cell Division

All living things are complex organisms that are made up of cells. Some are made up of a single cell while others comprise of numerous cells working together. Cells are the basic functional and structural units of living organisms and are known to be the building blocks of life. In humans it is from a group of cells that tissues are made and from tissues that organs are made which enable beings to live.

Cells obtain food and oxygen through their membranes and each membrane has a specific area which can serve contents of only a given volume. Any increase in volume of the cell requires that the area of the membrane increases. Basically, when cells grow the membrane becomes insufficient in aiding the movement of substances in and out and thus to maintain a favourable surface area to volume ratio, cell division must take place. Furthermore, cell…… [Read More]

References

Bolsover, S., E. Shephard, H. White, and J. Hyams. Cell Biology: A Short Course. 3. Wiley-

Blackwell, 2011. 432.

Conger, Krista. "Scientists turn skin cells into neural precursors, bypassing stem-cell stage." Stanford School of Medicine. n. page. Print.

Morgan, David. The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control. New Science Press, 2007.
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Classrooms STEM and STEAM Implementation

Words: 2086 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90521860

STEM and STEAM in the classrooms
Purpose and Major Components
Many countries are currently putting much emphasis on the need to prepare students for higher education and equip them with the necessary skills and knowledge needed in this 21st century. To achieve this goal, learning institutions have adopted the STEAM approach, where they nurture students around the subjects of Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Math. This has gained popularity with all the players in the education sector, including educators, students, parents and even the US president. STEAM is viewed as a means to create a long-lasting interest in arts and sciences right from an early age. The subjects categorized under STEAM are somewhat similar, in that they all involve creative processes in the investigation of the subject matter. It is very important to teach such skills to students so as to prepare them for innovation in this ever-evolving world. This…… [Read More]