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A pre-embryo is the fertilized cell that has not yet been planted into the human host. Once the pre-embryo is implanted into the female host, it is assumed that it will grow and develop into a human being. The pre-embryo is not the same as the embryo, it is simply the raw material.
A national bioethics committee has been assigned the duty of exploring these issues and making recommendations that will shape future public policy (Eiseman 71). This committee will help to assure that research using embryonic stem cells proceeds in an acceptable direction.
4.0 Future of the Issue
egardless of the emotional issues and personal opinions regarding the use of embryonic stem cells in research, and eventually, in the cure of many diseases, stem cell research continues at an increasing rate. A search in PubMed reveals over 23,000 studies that mention stem cells or stem cell research. Stem cell…
Bellomo, Michael. The Stem Cell Divide: The Facts, the Fiction, and the Fear Driving the Greatest Scientific, Political, and Religious Debate of Our Time. New York: AMACOM.
Brentjens RJ. Cellular therapies in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2009
This is why it came as no surprise to the rest of the country when Proposition 71 was passed, in direct opposition to the policies of the ush administration. Even California's governor, a Republican and ush supporter, sided with Californians on the stem cell issue. The promise of freedom to research as they see fit and the funding to do so will likely draw more scientists to California, should Proposition 71 ever get truly off the ground and out from under the stifling thumb of religious conservatives who are a minority in the state. Religious conservatives, though, know how to use the court system to their advantage, and until way is found to make the procedures of the courts more streamlined and more immune to frivolous lawsuits, the religious conservatives have every chance of continuing to block the actual funding and practice of stem cell research in California.
Hall, Carl T. Echoes of Eugenics Movement in Stem Cell Debate. San Francisco Chronicle. San Francisco, October 24, 2005.
Lagos, Marissa. Who Will Benefit from Stem Cells? The San Francisco Examiner. San Francisco, November 1, 2005.
Stem Cell Sideshows. Editorial. The Oakland Tribune. Oakland, California, October 19, 2005.
Vesely, Rebecca. Stem Cell Institute Pushes On. The Oakland Tribune. Oakland, California, November 3, 2005.
Stem Cell esearch Should Have More Government Funding
The topic argument "Stem cell research government funding." For paper, construct argument defending a claim policy. emember argument based a claim policy, writer seeks solve a problem establish a problem exists, part argument entail claims fact
Stem cell research should have more government funding
A stem cell can be defined as type of cell that can be found in many body tissues. Stem cells can develop into many different types of cells Magnus et al.()
Stem cells also serve as an internal repair system within the body where they divide without limitation in order to replenish other body cells. This happens as long as the individual is alive. When a stem cell is divided, the cell produced can remain as a stem cell or it can become another cell type with a specialized function like a brain cell, red blood cell, or…
Burgin, Eileen. "Deciding on Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: Evidence from Congress's First Showdown with President George W. Bush." Politics and the Life Sciences 28.1 (2009): 3-16. Print.
Concannon, James P., et al. "College Students' Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning." Journal of Science Education and Technology 19.2 (2010): 177-86. Print.
Heled, Yaniv. "On Presidents, Agencies, and the Stem Cells between Them: A Legal Analysis of President Bush's and the Federal Government's Policy on the Funding of Research Involving Human Embryonic Stem Cells." Administrative Law Review 60.1 (2008): 65-125. Print.
Herder, Matthew, and Jennifer Dyck Brian. "Canada's Stem Cell Corporation: Aggregate Concerns and the Question of Public Trust." Journal of Business Ethics 77.1 (2008): 73-84. Print.
but, Cuomo continued, Bush's position "…remains a minority view" (Hurlbut, 822).
Christine Todd hitman, who served Bush as administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency in Bush's first term (she served from January 2001 to May 2003), and was the first female governor of New Jersey, supported embryonic stem cell research. hitman noted in her book that right after Bush was re-elected in 2004, Christian conservative organizer Phil Burress was heard to say, "The president rode our coattails" (hitman, 2006).
hitman believes the support of the Christian conservatives (i.e., evangelicals and others) for Bush was exaggerated; to wit, just twenty million of the fifty-nine million who voted for Bush indicated "moral values as their most important issues" -- which is just a third of the Bush victory vote.
Author Gary Scott Smith examines the great lengths the Bush campaign went to in 2004 to identify Bush as anti-abortion and anti-stem cell…
Burgin, Eileen. "Deciding on Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Politics and the Life
Sciences, 28.1 (2009): 3-16.
Chang, Alica. "Stem Cells Shown to Aid Vision in Blind People." Lancet. Retrieved February
4, 2012, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
At this point it should be clear that there are no good reasons to oppose the federal funding of embryonic stem cell research and only good reasons for supporting. Opposition to the federal funding of embryonic stem cell research can only be justified by an appeal to unreasonable and arbitrary moral standards based not on logic, reason, or concern for human well-being, but rather on the dictates of outdated and dangerous religious beliefs. This opposition ultimately values the potential for human life over actual human life, so that, in a perverse twist, the very people claiming to be standing up for the sanctity of life are actually the ones most responsible for continued suffering and death. They pretend that an embryo has the same rights and moral standing as an actual human, and in doing so, they actually devalue the lives of real people suffering from real diseases. In contrast,…
"CIVIL LAW -- FEDERAL FUNDING of HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH
-- D.C. CIRCUIT VACATES DISTRICT COURT's PRELIMINARY INJUNCTION of
FEDERAL FUNDING for RESEARCH USING HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM
CELLS. --Sherley V. Sebelius, 644 F.3D 388 (D.C. Cir. 2011)." Harvard Law Review
Stem Cell esearch
The Legal Argument and Analysis for Stem Cell esearch
Stem cell research is a new field of research that brings many ethical issues and considerations in which U.S. regulations have been mostly hostile while around the world, the response toward the research has been positive. What is the legal culture in which the U.S. finds itself regarding stem cell research? What are the ethical considerations involving our participation in this new and infant field of science? What of other countries and their legal approach to stem cell research? This paper addresses these questions and presents the reader a case that stem cell research is a matter that should be scientifically pursued because of its potential and possibilities.
With any kind of science there are ethical considerations and much of the science is in its infancy in which hyped claims, fraud, and a lack of ethical frameworks can…
Author Unknown (2009). Timeline: A Brief History of Stem Cell Research. Science Progress. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from http://www.scienceprogress.org/2009/01/timeline-a-brief-history-of-stem-cell-research/
Chapman A.R., Frankel M.S., Garfinkel M.S. (November 1999). Stem Cell Research and Applications Monitoring the Frontiers of Biomedical Research. American Association for the Advancement of Science & Institute for Civil Society. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from http://www.aaas.org/spp/sfrl/projects/stem/report.pdf
Francis, B. MEDICAL SCIENCE: Media hype over cloning and embryo stem cells. News Weekly, (22, July 2006). Retrieved June 9, 2011 from http://www.newsweekly.com.au/articles/2006jul22_m.html
The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Stem Cell Research Around the World. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from http://pewforum.org/Science-and-Bioethics/Stem-Cell-Research-Around-the-World.aspx
The media might present an issue as fact without verifying its truth via the appropriate channels, while the public in turn is eager to accept as fact what is presented to them, as this is much more simple than researching the issues themselves, or even simply verifying the truth of a stated fact. Furthermore, the authors hold that simply educating the public regarding issues of scientific controversy is far too simple a solution for a problem of such complexity. Indeed, the variety of opinions as mixed with fact, along with personal and social religious and moral opinion make the issue far more than one of mere cognitive understanding.
In the case of stem cell research specifically, personal, religious, and scientific opinion are also intertwined with politics, as well as either gloomy or bright predictions for a contradictory future should stem cell research be legalized. Indeed, there appears to be little…
Calvari, a. (2008). Governing the Nation, Leading the Party: The Party Politics of President Bush's Actions on Stem Cell Research. Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago.
Dahmen, N.S. And Lundy, L. A Question of Ethics: Comparing Framing of Stem Cell Research in Evangelical and Mainstream News Media. Manship School of Mass Communication, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University.
Forman, L. (2008). Stem Cell Research. Minnesota: ABDO Publishing Company.
Liu, H. And Priest, S. (2007). Understanding Public Support for Stem Cell Research: Media Communication, Interpersonal Communication and Trust in Key Actors. Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Washington, DC.
Stem cell research has generated much media attention in the last decade. Stem cells are a specific type of cell in the human body that can develop in many different types of cell types during the early life growth (NIH, 2010). Stem cells are used today for the treatment of some diseases and scientists are hoping in the future it will be able to cure much more. At this point in the scientific research, stem cells have a limitless potential. Once it has been implanted in the living organism, the cell continues to divide without limit to replenish. When a stem cell divides it has the potential to be another stem cell or another type of cell, such as a muscle cell, blood cell or even brain cell. Scientist has found that stem cell can provide therapy for many diseases. Scientist needs time and money to continuously research how this…
Aaas policy brief: stem cell research. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/stemcells/
Cohen, J. (2005). Stem Cell Pioneers. Smithsonian 36 (9) 78-87.
Federal Register. (2007). Expanding Approved Stem Cell Lines in Ethically Responsible Ways. Federal Register. 72 (120)
Federal Register. (2009). Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells. Federal Register. 74 (46)
In this sense technology turns human life into just another product that can be created in a laboratory and which has no intrinsic or deeper religious value or meaning. As John Paul II stated during a visit to America, "A free and virtuous society, which America aspires to be, must reject practices that devalue and violate human life at any stage from conception until natural death" (Dart, 2001, p. 11).
This also refers to the religious view that human life is sacred from there moment of conception and that stem cell research should be prevented as it in fact destroys the fetus in order to obtain the stem cells, This view is reiterated from different perspectives by theologians from various faiths. "God formed man from the dust of the ground; then, God breathed into the man's nostrils...the breath of life; and man became a living soul...life begins in a mother's…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105876208
Callahan, D. (2003). What Price Better Health? Hazards of the Research Imperative. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Retrieved May 13, 2007, from Questia database:
There are some embryos who are outside of this environment, and will not grow to be people, and are therefore suitable to use in stem cell research.
There is a degree of moral ambiguity related to the debate of stem cell research -- based on the conception of when life actually begins. The acknowledgement of this aspect of the debate is acknowledged on both sides, and is a point of commonality between them. Scientists and researchers can only have opinions about this topic -- and cannot state with any degree of certainty what the actual answer for the inception of human life truly is. Yet what truly decides the debate is the location of embryos. Since there are number of embryos existent outside a womb, "that remain after infertility treatment" (Dresser 2) there are no moral boundaries for using these embryos for stem cell research.
In conclusion, the use of…
Landry, D.W., Zucker, H.A. "Embryonic Death and the Creation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells." The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 114.9 (2004): 1184-1186. This source provides an overview of the debate regarding morality of stem cell research. It posits that killing embryos should be reconsidered and viewed as organ donation.
Napier, S. "A Regulatory Argument Against Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Journal of Medicine and Philosophy. 34 (2009): 496-508. This source argues against the usage of stem cell research. However, it does not do so on moral grounds, but rather based on the fact that there are regulatory issues that affect women and their embryos.
Saxena, a.K.; Singh, D., Gupta, J. "Role of Stem Cell Research in Therapeutic Purpose -- a Hope for New Horizons in Medical Biotechnology." Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology. 2 (2009): 223-233. Print. This source enumerates and explains a number of different approaches and types of stem cell research. Its aim is towards using those that do not directly harm embryos.
ichard Hamilton (2002), says that the embryo cells are very important because they can grow into any organ which can help to solve the increased need of organs for transplant in America. These young cells can be cultured into a new heart that can be used for transplant and save somebody's life which explains why I defend stem cell research.
Economic growth, President George Bush in his famous August 2011 speech cited stem cell research as a source of income not only to the researchers but to the nation as a whole. After coming up with drugs that can treat some of the diseases that grossly affect people this would be a source of income. New organs formed from embryonic stem cells would also be used for transplant which would also be a source of income. This therefore explains why I defend stem cell research and indeed say it should…
Dianne N. Irving, (1999). Stem Cell Research: Some Pros And Cons. Retrieved August 10, 2011
Experiment Resources, (2008). Stem Cell Research- Pros and Cons. Retrieved August 10, 2011
Stem Cell esearch
The debate on stem cell research is getting more heated. The controversial research practice is said to be conducted in the hopes that some of humanity's major diseases will one day be a thing of the past. Yet, it is also clear that the controversy on the living nature of the stem cells used makes the argument against such research much stronger.
Stem cells contain human DNA, and have been used in research to try and unlock cures for serious disease and cases of paralysis caused by spinal injury. They are used within the context of growing medical research. In fact, there are three types of stem cells used. The embryonic stem cells often prove the most productive in that they have "the greatest potential in that they can theoretically become any of the 220 cell types," (obinson, 1). This is where the controversy begins.
American Policy Roundtable. "Arguments Against Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Public Square. 2010. 27 Feb 2011 from http://www.aproundtable.org/tps30info/stemcellresearch.html
Fox News. "The Cases For and Against Stem Cell Research." Politics. 2001. 27 Feb 2011. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,31748,00.html
Reaves, Jessica. "The Great Debate Over Stem Cell Research." Time Magazine. 2001. 27 Feb 2011 from http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,167245,00.html
Robinson, B.A. "Human Stem Cell Research: All View Points." Religious Tolerance. 2010. 27 Feb 2011 from http://www.religioustolerance.org/res_stem.htm
Stem Cell esearch Case:
Many people across the globe are experiencing a spanking liberty from affliction, disease, and infirmity due to the increasing frequency. As several people experience physical restoration and healing in their bodies, their lives are transformed forever with renewed hope and strengthened faith. The healings and physical restoration emanate from the miraculous cures of adult stem cell research despite of the ongoing controversies in mass media that tend to dismiss and obscure medical breakthroughs achieved by the adult stem cell research activities. Actually, adult stem cell research has been widely ignored due to ethical concerns though it has been successful as compared to the embryonic stem cell treatments.
Adult stem cell research is basically conducted on regenerative cells of the human body with the ability of plasticity i.e. developing into other bodily tissues (Hughes, 2004). Adult stem cell research has produced numerous exceptional results because the cells…
Hughes, B.R. (2004, December 1). Real-World Successes of Adult Stem Cell Treatment.
Retrieved April 10, 2012, from http://www.cogforlife.org/adultStemCellSuccess.htm
"Parkinson's Patient Helped By Adult Stem Cell Research -- A Published Case Study." (2009,
February 17). Zimbio: Stem Cell Research and Stem Cell Therapy. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from http://www.zimbio.com/Stem+Cell+Research+and+Stem+Cell+Therapy/articles/44/Parkinson+Patient+Helped+Adult+Stem+Cell+Research
It has been theorized -- and proven in other creatures -- that stem cells could one day be used to regenerate or simply grow healthy nervous tissue, a heretofore unimaginable feat. The host of diseases, disorders, and injuries that this could treat and possibly eradicate would be a great boon to humanity. And this is only one application out of the many different uses currently being researched and hypothesized by those working in the stem cell field. Because the promise of stem cells is so great, it is imperative that federal funding be made available to quicken the pace of research, and to establish more effective ways of using stem cells and directing further research.
Governments are established to protect the people that they govern, otherwise the government would perish. Our government needs to do what it can to end the suffering of many with incurable diseases by increasing funding…
And perhaps most importantly of all, the U researchers continue, stem cells "...provide our only window to the earliest stages of human development and, after differentiation, access to more specialized cells that could vastly improve our understanding of the onset of cell-based diseases, and perhaps ways to prevent them."
Among the diseases that may be able to be treated - and even cured - through stem cell research are Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, spinal cord injuries, burns, and more. How many people could be helped, even relieved of enormous suffering, through successful stem cell science is unknown, but certainly there are millions who cry out for help.
Medical researchers highly value stem cells because they can develop into many types of human tissue," according to an article in the ashington Post (Babbington, 2004). Stem cells "...hold promise for treating spinal injuries among several other afflictions," Babbington explains.…
Babbington, Charles. "Issues Overview: Stem Cell Research." Washington Post, 14 Nov.
Brainard, Jeffery. "Stem-Cell Research Moves Forward." Chronicle of Higher Education (October 2004): 51-6.
Europe Intelligence Wire. "Embryonic Stem Cells Correct Congenital Heart Defect in Mouse Embryos; Can Signal Neighbor Cells to Repair." (October 2004).
Obesity, Fitness & Wellness Week. "First derivation of retinal cells from embryonic stem cells; may treat blindness." October 2004.
Stem Cell Research:
The development of human embryos is largely attributed to the formation and development of stem cells. This is due to the fact that stem cells usually transform into several organs and tissues as the embryo develops into a fetus. Therefore, stem cells are the foundation or source for all internal and external human organs and tissues. Actually, many researchers believe that these stem cells from the embryo can develop into any organs which are necessary for human transplantation. It's also suggested that the use of embryonic stem cells to develop specific cell types by scientists can be utilized to treat certain diseases in the future. Embryonic stem cell research is considered as a means of developing treatment for people suffering from heart, spinal cord and brain diseases and injuries. On the contrary, this research is also viewed as a means of destroying innocent lives through the destruction…
Deem, Rich. "What is Wrong With Embryonic Stem Cell Research?" Evidence for God, 2009.
http://www.godandscience.org/doctrine/stem_cell_research.html (accessed March 31, 2011).
DoNoHarm. "Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research and the Commodification of Human Life."
DoNoHarm: The Coalition of Americans for Research Ethics, n.d. http://www.stemcellresearch.org/commentary/lifeascommodity.htm (accessed March 31, 2011).
Ethics of Stem Cell Research
Nothing has stimulated debate and controversy in America like the idea of stem cell research. Stem cells, which are often harvested from human embryos, have demonstrated the potential for a number of scientific and therapeutic purposes, from curing cancer and Alzheimer's disease, to repairing damage to hearts, kidneys, and other organs. Opponents of stem cell research claim that because these cells have the potential to develop into human life, that the harvesting of these cells from embryos, which results in the termination of the embryo, is immoral. hether the embryo is left over from a fertility clinic, or created specifically for the purpose of harvesting these cells, opponents see no difference. Unfortunately those who oppose stem cell research base their argument on a flawed presupposition: that all potential human life must be treated as if it were a fully developed human life. They…
Allman, Toney. Stem Cells. Farmington Hills, MI: Lucent, 2006. Print.
"Definition, What are Stem Cells?" Academic Health Center. Web. 30 May 2011.
http://www.ahc.umn.edu/bioethics/prod/groups/ahc/@pub/@ahc/documents/asset / ahc_75703.PDF
Francis, Amy. Should the Government Fund Embryonic Stem Cell Research? Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press. Print.
In the words of Obama, "Today, with the executive order I am about to sign, we will bring the change that so many scientists and researchers, doctors and innovators, patients and loved ones have hoped for, and fought for, these past eight years: We will lift the ban on federal funding for promising embryonic stem cell research," President Obama further said. "We will vigorously support scientists who pursue this research. And we will aim for America to lead the world in the discoveries it one day may yield." [Dan Childs] With this change of stance more and more stem cell lines that were previously banned by the ush government policy are now open for researchers increasing the scope and hastening the development of life saving stem cell therapy for a variety of chronic conditions.
Umbilical Cord Stem cells
Compared to the controversies surrounding the embryonic stem cell research, umbilical cord…
1) ACS, "Adults Benefit from Unrelated Donor Cord Blood Transplants," Retrieved Aug 29th 2009, from, http://www.cancer.org/docroot/nws/content/nws_1_1xu_adults_can_benefit_from_unrelated_donor_cord_blood_transplants.asp
2) Audrey R. Chapman, PhD, Mark S. Frankel, PhD and Michele S. Garfinkel, 'Stem Cell Research and Applications: Monitoring the Frontiers of Biomedical Research', retrieved Aug 31st 2009, from, http://www.aaas.org/spp/sfrl/projects/stem/report.pdf
3) B. Soria, FJ Bedoya & J. R Tejoda et.al (2008), 'Cell Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus: An Opportunity for Stem cells?', Cells Tissues Organs 2008;188:70-77
4) CAMR, 'A Catalyst for Cures: Embryonic Stem Cell Research', Retrieved Aug 26th 2009, from http://www.camradvocacy.org/resources/camr_wp.pdf
Unfortunately, these undifferentiated cells cannot be harvested or removed from an adult because an adult's cells have already matured.
Once matured, cells can't be overwritten to become another type of cell. but, embryonic cells are technically at a stage of growth where they are clearly cells but they have not yet reached a stage of becoming a specialized cell. Therefore, the stem cells can still be rewritten or redirected so to speak to become whatever type of specialized cell needed in a human body. In theory, stem cells would function as replacement parts for the body just like an automobile getting a new bumper after a fender bender.
The really great news regarding this technology is that undifferentiated embryonic stem cells have been proven to proliferate indefinitely in controlled cultures. As the world grasps the concept of finite resources such as oil and gold, this type of undifferentiated cell has…
Five Years Later, Stem Cells Still Tantalize. Ed. University of Wisconsin. The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. 25 Sept. 2004 http://www.news.wisc.edu/packages/stemcells/ .
Fumento, Michael. "Stem-Cell Political Science" Nature's Agenda March (2002).
Hughes, Kristina. "Stem cell issue is 'personal, not political' for some." State News - MSU Independent Voice (1996).
A legislature.mi.gov. Ed. Michigan. Michigan Legislature. 24 Sept. 2004 http://michiganlegislature.org/mileg.asp?page=publication
This often means expanding the role of the nurse in the modern medical environment. One of the most important signs of the way that nursing has changed to deal with the problems and possibilities of cloning and stem cell research is that nurses have become more "genetically aware." This means that the issue of genetics and stem cell research has become part of the knowledge that is required of a modern nurse.
Now that sequencing the human genome is completed, nurses are challenged with applying this genetic information to nursing practice. Nursing has moved from the "old genetics" to the "new genetics," with the recognition that common diseases such as cancer and heart disease result from complex interactions between genetic factors and a variety of environmental exposures that trigger, accelerate, or exacerbate the disease process. (Greco E. 2003)
This means that nurses have become more aware of the issues, problems…
In collaboration with University of isconsin physician-scientists, Thomson has subsequently demonstrated the developmental potential of human embryonic stem cells in lineage-specific differentiation, such as blood, trophoblast, neural tissue and heart (James). Currently his focus is directed on understanding how embryonic stem cells can "form any cell in the body, how an ES cell chooses between self-renewal and the initial decision to differentiate, and how a differentiated cell with limited developmental potential can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent cell" (James).
Also of concern are issues of privacy and confidentiality. A woman donating her embryo or fetus to research may fear that the DNA that could exist indefinitely in these sources might one day be traced back to her, thereby revealing her identity and her association with the fertility clinic (Young). For example, if the fetus is obtained via an abortion, whether it can be genetically traced back to the donor plays…
James A. Thomson." University of Wisconsin. Retrieved November 15, 2006 at http://ink.primate.wisc.edu/~thomson/jamie.html
Seely, Ron. "Stem Cell Work Sets Him Apart Pioneering Research Puts UW-Madison
Scientist James Thomson in the National Spotlight." Wisconsin State Journal (Madison, WI). December 30, 2001. Retrieved November 15, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Stem Cell Information." The National Institutes of Health. Retrieved November 15, 2006 from:
stem cell research and its future. The writer explores the history behind the research and then opens the debate on both sides, giving the reader the pros and cons from the vantage points of those who are involved with it. The writer then wraps the whole thing up with a discussion about how stem cell research can be allowed to continue so that the world can reap the benefits while still protecting the extremely strong feelings of the opposition. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.
THE FUTURE LOOKS BRIGHT FOR STEM CELL RESEARCH
For the last several years, the debates around stem cell research have raged with emotions that run high. Those who are against it, line their reasons up and present them with fervor, while those who are for the research being continued, throw their own reasons into the mix. It is an international debate in…
Capell, Kerry "Science & Technology: Stem Cells: AT RISK: A GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY IN BIOTECH.," Business Week, 09-10-2001, pp 85
Munro, Neil SCIENCE: A Debate That Stems From Human Cells., National Journal, 05-26-2001. pp 65
A.S. Wang, MIT president joins other university heads in supporting stem cell research., University Wire, 04-11-2001. pp 70
US DEPT OF HHS: Fact sheet on stem cell research., M2 PressWIRE, 02-01-1999.
In this light, it is argued that use of surplus blastocysts otherwise disregarded after in vitro fertilization might be less instrumental and less questionable than working with specifically designated embryos. Yet, the fact that surplus IVF embryos are unwanted does not mark them as less human, the ethical implication being that humans have rights regardless if they are wanted or not. On the other hand, adult skin tissue-originated, induced pluripotent stem cell research "would leave a survivor behind who is the genetic source of an iPS cell line" (Hyun 2). What is more, the use of adult stem cells is more likely to solve the problem of immune rejection, which may prove to be a major concern with the use of embryonic stem cells.
It can be asserted that limits of research are yet unknown, therefore the whole process should be closely supervised by society. In the case of adult…
Ahsan, T et al. "Stem Cell Research," in Principles of Regenerative Medicine. Burlington: Elsevier, 2008
Grad, N. et al. "Stem Cells Therapy and Research. Benefits and Ethical Challenges." Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, Vol. 11, No. 32 (Summer 2012)
Hyun, I. "Stem Cells from Skin Cells: The Ethical Questions." The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 38, No. 1. (January-February 2008)
REBUTTAL: STEM CELL RESEARCH
Stem Cell research is a horrible and flawed way of attempting to cater to the whims of narcissistic people who long to discover the proverbial fountain of youth and keys to perfect health. These individuals don't care anything about the lives of those they are destroying in an effort to enhance their own lives! If you value human life at all stages, it is only natural to oppose embryonic stem cell research because the taking the stems cells from an embryo means that the embryo will die. Who but a cruel and inhumane person will sanction the death of another human being so that they can live?
I think it's about time that science turn to other cures for diseases and illnesses that plague us. As stem cell research is not without its flaws, according to the Real Promise of Stem Cell Research by Dr. David…
In the case of embryonic stem cell research, it would be the responsibility of legislators to identify the specific types of potential harms that would justify limitations on research or on research funding available through public funds. Given the uncontested fact that embryonic stem cell research applications have the potential to eliminate the need for organ transplantation, to regenerate limbs lost in traumatic amputations, to restore movement in cases of spinal paralysis, and to eliminate many of the most debilitating human diseases, there must be very legitimate specific concerns of potential harm to balance out those tremendously important benefits to society.
In fact, the primary basis for the moral objection to embryonic stem cell research is almost exclusively a function of the religious belief that human life is (1) created in "God's" image, and that (2) human life begins at conception. As is the case with other religious definitions and…
Dershowitz a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Little Brown & Co.
Hursthouse R. (1999). On Virtue Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
They also present several important ethical concerns that were never issues before the computer age, such as plagiarism and even communications intended to cheat during in-class exams (Li & Irby, 2008). Likewise, the use of computers for distance learning also raises issues of the relative quality of various academic programs since online programs are much less capable of being monitored and evaluated for quality and academic integrity than traditional "on-site" academic institutions (Trotter, 2008).
One of the negative consequences of the use of computers in education is that they can be misused as excuses for failing to complete and submit assignments on time in a digital-age form of the age-old "my dog ate my homework" story. Institutions of higher education (and high schools) try to counter this contingency by making sure that students understand that it is always their responsibility to maintain the necessary common sense protocols such as backup…
Li, C, and Irby, B. "An overview of online education: attractiveness, benefits, challenges, concerns and recommendations" College Student Journal; Jun/08.
Trotter, a. "Voluntary Online Teaching Standards Come Amid Concerns over Quality"
Education Week; Mar 5/08.
The prospect of extracting DNA from the patient for combination with embryonic stem cells offers these patients the chance to live normal lives because the organs developed in this manner contain only the patient's own tissues. More importantly, this particular use of stem cell technology would spare the lives of the vast majority of needy organ recipients that die every year before a suitable organ can be found for them (Kinsley, 2007; Pollack, 2007).
Embryonic stem cells represent the greatest potential for medical applications, simply because they retain the greatest ability to develop into virtually any type of human tissue desired; they are capable of being extracted from fertilized human zygotes, such as the fertilized ova produced for each patient by the dozen in fertility clinics using in-vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques. The Michigan proposal centers precisely around the beneficial use of the many excess zygotes produced in IVF clinics that…
Hornstein, D. (2008) Big Fight Over Michigan Stem Cell Proposal. Detroit National Politics Examiner, October 20, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2008 from the Detroit National Politics Examiner Online, at http://www.examiner.com/x-1300-Detroit-National-Politics-Examiner~y2008m10d20-Big-fight-over-Michigan-stem-cell-proposal
Kinsley, M. (2007). Why Science Can't Save the GOP. Time Magazine, December 10, 2007
Pollack, a. (2007). After Stem-Cell Breakthrough the Real Work Begins. The New York Times, November. 27, 2007.
Satyanarayana, M., (2008). Charges Rampant on Stem Cell Issue: Look Into Claims Reveals Facts Behind Stances of Both Sides. The Detroit Free Press, October 12, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2008 from the Detroit Free Press Online Version, at: http://www.freep.com/article/20081012/NEWS06/810120492/1008/NEWS
The report suggested that the planned ban on human cloning should be evaluated inside of five years, but that it ought to be reassessed only if a fresh technical appraisal indicates that the actions are probable to be secure and successful, and if an extensive nationwide conversation on community, spiritual and ethical issues proposes that re-examination is necessary. The panel deemed that the technical and medical contemplations that rationalize a ban on human reproductive cloning at this time do not relate to nuclear transplantation to create stem cells. Numerous other technical and medical groups also have confirmed their resistance to the utilization of cloning for the reason of making a child (Cloning/Embryonic Stem Cells, 2006).
For those who think that the embryo has the moral position of an individual from the instance of conception, study or any other action that would obliterate it is erroneous. For those who think the…
"Cloning/Embryonic Stem Cells." 2006, viewed 23 January 2011,
"Funding Embryonic Stem Cell Research." 2007, viewed 23 January 2011,
Do patients understand what it means to donate tissue to science? Not only that, but use of EG cells confuses stem cell research with the debate over abortion, bring up the risk of biasing emotions (McDonald 7).
So, while stem cell research is an exciting new field that holds much promise, ethical problems arise to delay research, discovery of benefits or dangers, and involve many who have no knowledge of the complexities of the field. Though controversies usually accompany new discoveries in science, this biotechnological process involves manipulating the basis of life itself in embryonic stem cells. But the field is rapidly changing. hat is true today may be outmoded tomorrow. A neutral substitute for stem cells may be discovered that will prove to be the answer to these ethical questions.
Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil…
Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil Steril 2004; 82:Suppl 1:S240-S244.
Hwang, W.S., Roh, S.I., Lee, B.C., et al. -- Patient-specific embryonic stem cells derived from human SNCT blastocysts." Science 2005;308.
Magnus, David and Cho, Mildred K. "Issues in oocyte donation for stem cell research." Science Express Magazine, Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics and Department of Pediatrics, Vol. 308. no. 5729, June 2005. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/308/5729/1747 .
McDonald, Chris. "Stem cells: a pluripotent challenge." BioScan Vol. 13, Iss. 4, (Toronto Biotechnology Initiative.) Fall 2001.
Analysis of the Issues: The ethical concern for the rights and welfare of viable infants is certainly a legitimate concern, but the central ethical analysis that pertains to stem cell research revolves around the issue of defining human life appropriately. Objective criteria like anatomical development, cognitive awareness, and above all, sentience of any degree and in any form are all legitimate bases for the definition of life and for identifying the period of gestation corresponding to the earliest conceivable safeguards necessary to prevent suffering.
On the other hand, purely subjective doctrinal claims without objective criteria of any kind are wholly inappropriate bases for defining scientific concepts like when life begins. The fact that human development varies among individuals and that it may be impossible to know exactly where sentience and other elements of "humanness" first begin in the fetus does not mean that it is impossible to identify periods of…
Dershowitz, a.(2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.
Boston: Little Brown, 2002
Healy, B. On Health: The Other Stem Cells; U.S. News & World Report (Jun. 14/04), p. 77.
Hellemans, a., Bunch, B. (1998) the Timetables of Science. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Stem Cell Ethics
Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells
The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support…
Antiniou, Michael. "The Case Against & #8230;" Nature Medicine 7.4 (2001): 397-399. Web. The author argues that the use of embryonic stem cells for research and medicine poses significant ethical and moral issues that cannot be overcome. Of particular concern is the potential for reproductive cloning, a door that the author believes was opened when the UK government approved the use of embryonic stems cells for research and medicine.
Blow, Nathan. "In Search of Common Ground." Nature 451.7180 (2008): 855-858. Web. The author presents several issues facing researchers who work with stem cells and discusses why they are important to advancing this field of research. Of primary concern is developing standard protocols for producing stem cells and creating the necessary protocols and reagents that will allow the therapeutic use of stem cells in humans.
Leeb, C., Jurga, M., McGuckin, C., Forraz, N., Thallinger, C., Moriggl, R. et al. "New Perspectives in Stem Cell Research: Beyond Embryonic Stem Cells." Cell Proliferation 44.1 (2011): 9-14. Web. The focus of this article is the promises and limitations of embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells, from the perspective of scientists working in this field. The ethical decisions concerning the use of embryonic stem cells are only mentioned in passing.
Power, Carl and Rasko, E.J. "Promises and Challenges of Stem Cell Research for Regenerative Medicine." Annals of Internal Medicine 155.10 (2011): 706-713. Web. The authors discuss in detail the three main types of stem cell technologies: embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent. Ethical issues are mentioned occasionally, but not discussed.
This controversial decision drew all kinds of reactions from different groups on each side of the issue. Some adversaries of hESC research expressed admiration for the decision limiting research to existing cell lines, while others said that no research should be allowed under any circumstances. Advocates of hESC research, meanwhile, generally praised the president for allowing some research to go forward, but criticized the restriction to existing cell lines as too strict, questioning whether enough research would be allowed.
Current U.S. Stem Cell Policy under President Obama
The March 9, 2009 EO changes the way the National Institutes of Health (NIH) can support and conduct human stem cell research. The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), through the NIH Director, is required to review existing NIH and other widely-recognized guidelines on human stem cell research and issue new NIH guidance within 120 days of the date of the EO…
AAAS Policy Brief: Stem Cell Research." 10 March 2009. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 27 March 2009 http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/stemcells/ .
Executive Summary." 2009. The National Institutes of Health resource for stem cell research. 27 March 2009 http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/execSum.asp .
Register, Federal. "Presidential Documents Executive Order 13505." 11 March 2009. Federal Register. 24 March 2009 http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2009/pdf/E9-5441.pdf .
Study of human embryonic stem cell will lead to major advances in human biology, specifically:
Embryonic stem cell research will provide critical insights into mechanisms of cell differentiation, growth, and death (Young, 2006).
Understanding stem cells may provide keys to why people age (Young, 2006).
Scientists are interested in stem cells because they have the potential to become very practical in a way that any other kind of cell in the body might be used to replace tissues that have failed (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3144925.stm,2003).
And lastly, scientists believed that if they become successful in finding cure for lymphoma, and leukemia with this study, there is a great possibility that they can also cure diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, diabetes among others in the near future (http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt,2006).
Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006. http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521
Young, ise. Morality of…
Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006. http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521
Young, Wise. Morality of Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006. http://carecure.rutgers.edu/Lectures/Morality/StemCells_Notes.ppt
Embryonic Stem Cells; an Introduction to Science ethics and Legislation.. 7 October 2006. http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt
Mining Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006. http://arts.usask.ca/policynut/courses/soc292-8.ppt
Stem cells are a hot topic for the media today because our understanding of them has potential for incredible scientific advances in the field of biotechnology, yet we struggle because there are questions of morality raised by the methods by which they might be used. While in centuries past, it was commonly accepted within the scientific community to vivisect the mentally insane or criminally convicted for the purpose of scientific knowledge, today religious groups are concerned about the fate of single stem cells being used in experiments. Stem cells have paved the way to cloning and bioengineering of humans, allowing scientists to "bring... A sperm and ovum together to create an embryo, harvesting the cells, and then discarding the embryo." (Celia) The concern for many people is that working with embryonic stem cells especially may somehow he breaching the rights of people and taking science to a point where it…
Bell, H. (2000) "Case Study: The Uninsured" American Medical Student Association. < http://www.amsa.org/tnp/uninsured.cfm >
Calafut, T. (2000) "Emerging Applications in Human Stem Cell Therapy." Chemical Market Reporter, March 20.
ithout a doubt, one of the most controversial topics of popular discourse is stem cell research. Indeed, one would be hard pressed to peruse the newspaper or magazine stand without encountering some reference to the global stem cell debate -- but what, exactly, are stem cells, and why are they so controversial?
Stem cells intended for use in human applications are harvested from humans, umbilical cords and embryos. The reason these cells are so valuable is because of their capability to produce or "become" other cell types -- for example, brain cells, heart cells, skin, etc. In short, these are "master cells," holding the ability to divide in cultures, and to be manipulated allowing it to transform into any type of cell. Of course, this is extremely important due to the fact that scientists can use this capability to either create organs (thereby helping to meet the tremendous…
Hall, MiMi and Kiely, Kathy. "Proponents of Stem-Cell Research Put on Pressure." USA Today. Online. July 2001. 10 April 2002. Retrieved from Web site on 15 March, 2004
Unfortunately, a tremendous amount of valuable research has been put on hold ever since the ban of federal funding for stem cell research. In the United States, the vast majority of medical research of all types that eventually lead to cures for disease are funded by the federal government. The federal ban on stem cell research does not completely prohibit it, but the effect is nearly the same, just as it would be if the federal government withdrew funding for cancer or diabetes research.
The main opposition to stem cell research comes from the Religious Right who believe that any form of research using fetal stem cells is wrong, because according to their religious views, every fertilized human egg should be considered as much a human being as any living person, even a microscopic zygote consisting of nothing more than four cells of human tissue. Certainly, the concept of religious…
Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of eligion and Public Life 25+.
Patel, K., & ushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.
Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982
Shapiro, .S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell esearch Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.
Stem Cell Basics." (2006). Stem Cell Information from the National Institute of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/
Wagner, C.G. (2007, January/February). Values Conflicts in Stem-Cell esearch: Governments Struggle with Bioethical Issues. The Futurist, 41, 8+.
Precursor cells are also known as pluripotent cells, i.e., having the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells that make…
Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 25+.
Patel, K., & Rushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.
Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. Retrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982
Shapiro, R.S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.
However, we can immediately see that their purposes are distinct from one another.
From a design standpoint, one grievance with Sanford Burnham is the shortage of active links to immediately usable information. First and foremost, it is of note that in a page with several eye-catching graphics pertaining to particular site destinations (the Center for Nanomedicine, Sanford Burnham's blog) none of these photographs is used as an active link. This is a missed opportunity for site usability that may be perceived as being of marginal importance but in reality can have significant impact on how long a visitor remains on a site and how many pages said visitor is inclined to click-through. This is a shortcoming easily resolved but does impact the site's relative dynamism.
The importance of such a matter is highlighted in a comparison between the two sites, with Research America ultimately compiling a site that is a…
Research America: http://www.researchamerica.org/stemcell_issue?gclid=COuYj67at5sCFQuU7QodsmBAAg
The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found." (Info 2006)
Adult stem cells are replicators in such a way that they are able to duplicate a variety of different cells. "Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body, serving as a sort of repair system...they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cell...each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell." (Info 2006).
Researchers tout the belief that a manipulation of stem cells can be beneficial in curing many diseases as well as helping in creating or developing new life, which could be part of the reason why such…
Info Center. (2006) In Stem Cell Information. National Institute for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, www.stemcells.nih.gov/info.defaultpage, Accessed November 13, 2006
Human Genome, Stem Cells, & Reparations
Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because they can replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell to develop into any of the 220 cell types that make up the human body makes it a powerful tool for biological research and medicine. Scientists believe that stem cell research has the potential of leading to previously incurable diseases.
How are Stem Cells Formed?
When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, a zygote (fertilized egg) is formed. The zygote divides itself almost immediately to form stem cells. These unspecialized stem cells have the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells…
James Harper. "About Reparations." [available online] at http://www.blackvoices.com/feature/reparations/trial/
Peter Viles. "Suit Seeks Billions in Slave Reparations." [Available online] at http://www.cnn.com/2002/LAW/03/26/slavery.reparations/index.html
stem cells. It will consider the current moral discourse on the issue of stem cells and at the same time look at the basics or the foundation of stem cells themselves. How these cells can be utilized to conduct studies in cloning will be dwelt upon as well.
The pertinent issue on the floor of the U.S. congress in the deliberations on stem cell studies on humans is how to handle embryonic stem cell research (ESR), a kind of research that may generate crucial lifesaving therapies, which demands the damaging of embryos. Present national government regulations and policy documents tackle this issue basically via the limits on federal funding allocated to ESR (Aylesworth, 2010). The U.S. Department of Human Health Services is not permitted to spend any money on making human embryos for studies whereby the embryos will be damaged, thrown away, or intentionally be exposed to risks such as…
Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.
Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. hile it is a difficult…
Colino, Stacey. (2001). Making Sense of Stem Cells. Lifetime.
Prescott, Bonnie. (2001). Animal Study Find Embryonic Stem Cells Can Repair Heart Muscle. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.
Reaves, Jessica. (2002). The Great Debate Over Stem Cell Research. Time Magazine.
Recer, Paul. (2002). Study says stem cells have fewer mutations than previously thought. AP Online.
Stem Cell Research / Parkinson's
Since Barack Obama has become president, the field of stem cell research has been given new life. One of Obama's campaign pledges
was to allow deeper research -- including the use of federal research funds -- into the use of pluripotent stem cells in order to find solutions for some of the terrible diseases Americans suffer from. Among those medical problems is Parkinson Disease (PD). This paper reviews and delves into the literature in terms of the potential of stem cell interventions into Parkinson Disease (also called "Parkinson's Disease").
ho is the leading authority on stem cell research?
There is no one "leading authority" reflected in the literature; however there are renowned scientists that are considered pathfinders in this field. Dr. Diane S. Krause, Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Associate Director of Stem Processing at Yale University is "…one of the discoverers of previously…
Gallup Poll. (2011). Stem Cell Research. Retrieved March 7, 2012, from http://www.gallup.com/poll/21676/stem-cell-research.aspx .
Gogel, S. Gubernator, M., and Minger, SL. (2011). Progress and prospects: stem cells and Neurological diseases. Gene Therapy, 18(1), 1-6.
Krause, D.S. (2002). Plasticity of marrow-driven stem cells. Gene Therapy, 9(11), 754-8.
Lo, Bernard, and Parham, Lindsay. (2010). Resolving Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Clinical
Stem Cell Differentiation
The need to restore the lives of the individuals calls for more of transplantation than that which is available. There are fewer organs, which can help in the transplantation process, which means that overdependence on the process makes it to be reliable. Further, the process may also end up endangering the life of the donator. Transplantation is the only available process that can for the individuals having kidney and lung problems. However, the numbers of individuals who are suffering from kidney and lung failure are always more than those who are ready to supply the needed organs. This calls for an alternative way, which can help in compensating the loss that the individuals face. One of the major alternatives for the process of translation is stem cell differentiation that may occur in any body cell. The stem cells differentiation offer the possibility of a renewable source of…
Wang, J., Collins, J. et al., (2012). Functional analysis of transcription factor binding sites in human promoters. Genome Biology, doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-9-r50
Guillot PV, Cui W, Fisk NM, Polak DJ. (2007). Stem cell differentiation and expansion for clinical applications of tissue engineering. J Cell Mol Med. 11:935-944.
Gerrard L, Rodgers L, Cui W. (2005). Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Neural
Lineages in Adherent Culture by Blocking Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling. Stem Cells 23: 1234-1241.
Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,
"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).
The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord lood, 2010).
Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in…
"Adult stem cell Plasticity and Transdifferentiation." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.studentsguide.in/animal-biotechnology/stem-cell-technology/adult-stem-cell-plasticity-and-transdifferentiation.html
"Asymmetric Division of Stem Cells." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.molecular-plant-biotechnology.info/animal-biotechnology-genomics/pluripotent-stem-cell-lines/asymmetric-division-of-stem-cells.html
"Diseases Treated by Cord Blood." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.womens-health.co.uk/diseases_treated.html
Jessen, W. "Exactly What are Stem Cells?" 7, July 2008. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.highlighthealth.com/did-you-know/exactly-what-are-stem-cells/
While freedom of religion absolutely guarantees the right to refrain from choosing to submit to stem cell-based treatment, the same freedoms and the concept of separation of church and state absolutely preclude religious beliefs about when life "begins" (or about anything else) from dictating laws that affect other people who may not share those particular beliefs (Dershowitz, 2002).
Beneficence and Non-malfeasance
Certainly, both the concept of beneficence and non-malfeasance absolutely prohibit the use of fetal stem cells from any fetus that is sufficiently developed to be considered a "person" as well as from any fetus that is sufficiently developed to sense pain. Medical authorities may debate where the exact point is where "personhood" first becomes an issue, but in principle, that characterization must be a function of objective criteria and never subjective beliefs of laypeople, especially based in religion (Dershowitz, 2002).
Both beneficence and the duty to avoid malfeasance prohibit…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Little Brown & Co.
Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. Dubuque, Iowa:
3.3 Data Collection
Is maternal UE3A active following iPS treatment: Data will be gathered on the iPS-treated mice via positron emission tomography, and in vivo brain slice preparation, and Western lot Analysis. H1 will essentially be ascertained following these tests.
Does iPS treatment rescue the motor and cognitive deficits associated with Angelman Syndrome: Data will be gathered from testing the treated mice in scientifically recognized tests of cognitive ability in a mouse model. This project proposes using the water maze test, the electric shock test, and the submerged platform test. H2 will effectively be answered using the data gleaned from these tests.
4.1. Potential Therapeutic and Other Considerations
The potential of using iPS treatment to rescue/alleviate the severe motor and cognitive deficits witnessed in Angelman Syndrome is theoretically viable. Reliable mouse models of AS exist with which to run the tests. The technology needed to tease iPS stem…
Abuhatzira, L., Shemer, R., & Razin, A. (2009). MeCP2 involvement in the regulation of neuronal alpha-tubulin production. Human Molecular Genetics, 1415-1423.
Condic, M.L., & Rao, M. (2008). Regulatory Issues for Personalized Pluripotent Cells. Stem Cells, 2753-2758.
Dindot, S., Antalffy, B., Meenakshi, B., & Beaudet, A. (2008). The Angelman syndrome ubiquitin ligase localizes to the synapse and nucleus, and maternal deficiency results in abnormal dendritic spine morphology. Human Molecular Genetics, 111-118.
Dobkin, B. (2007). Behavioral, temporal, and spatial targets for cellular transplants as adjuncts to rehabilitation for stroke. Stroke, 832-839.
That is not to suggest that scientific criteria can necessarily pinpoint any specific instant or moment in time when a developing fetus can logically be considered a living human being, but only because such precision is impossible.
In principle, there is no doubt that medical science can identify the various stages of fetal development associated with the biological structures and processes that make us human. Likewise, they can identify the point where suffering becomes possible because neurological development produces the ability to perceive pain (Levine, 2008).
Therefore, the appropriate use of scientific criteria would be to link ethical concern for the fetus to sentience, and simply to err on the side of caution where pinpoint identification of sentience is impossible to know with certainty.
In principle, science (the discipline) is strictly objective; in practice, scientists are susceptible to human failings such as malice, egoism, and greed. The field of ethics…
Dershowitz, a.M. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Kinsley, M. (2007) "Commentary: Why Science Can't Save the GOP: Time (Dec. 10/07), p. 36.
Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th Ed. Dubuque Iowa: McGraw Hill.
Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. New York: Random House
Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).
Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little
Brown & Co.
Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"
The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004:
This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:
1) Identify novel genetic sequences;
2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…
O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?
Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf .
Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November
Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:. http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html
Moral and Legal Questions of Stem Cell Research
Stem cell research is an experimental, and research-based study as to methods of repairing the human body. y introducing stem cells into a damaged, or degenerating area of the body, the medical profession hopes to prompt the body to regrow healthy tissue, and repair the damage. Degenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, or macular degeneration of a patient's eye retina are conditions in which the healthy tissues cease to function properly. There is no overt damage. There is not a disease which has physically destroyed the affected body part. ut for varying reasons, such as old age, wear and tear, or reasons medical science does not yet understand, the affected body part simply ceases to function properly. Stem cells are the type of cells, which are more numerous in, but not limited to, human embryos. They are the building blocks of the…
Answers to your questions about Stem Cells. 2001. ViaCord. Retrieved 15 Dec 2002. http://www.viacord.com/Preservation/Preservation.asp?section=1&s=sourceOfStemCells 2001>
Bush, George W. "The Bush Decision on Stem-Cell Research" National Review Online.
2002 Retrieved 15 Dec 2002. http://www.nationalreview.com/document/document081001.shtml
Critical Legal Studies." Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. 2000. Retrieved 10 Dec 2002. http://www.law.cornell.edu/critical/theory.html
People with family histories of blood disease, for example, could benefit greatly from a private supply of compatible blood cells. Mixed-ethnicity children could also stand to benefit, since this population often experiences difficulty finding genetically compatible donors for organs or bone marrow (Peterson 56).
The sad reality is that despite its many benefits, the use of stem cells from umbilical cords is hampered by a lack of supply. There are private banks that extract and store a baby's umbilical stem cells for private use, but the costs are too prohibitive for most families. For many private banks, parents have to pay $1,300 up front for the extraction, and an additional $95 each year for storage. Also, many parents are simply unaware of the importance of umbilical stem cells. Sprage, a beneficiary of a cord stem cell transplantation, finds it disturbing that "most cord blood ends up as medical waste." (Peterson…
Peterson, Holly. "Cord-blood Controversy." Newsweek. August 18, 2003: 56.
Seppa, Natan. "Baby Rescue." Science News. May 21, 2005: 323-324.
Smith, Wesley J. "Umbilical Accord." Human Life Review. 31:4, Fall 2005: 87-89.
Value of Umbilical Stem Cell Research in Curing Disease
legislation introduced topic stem cell research. You find Library Congress website helpful research thomas.loc.gov. Pick a piece legislation interest give a summary bill.
The H.R.2433 -- 113th Congress (2013-2014) emphasizes the need for the U.S. To play a more significant role in achieving technological advancements in STEM-cell research. The act was introduced in June 19, 2013. The legislation relates to the idea of changing the Public Health Service Act with the purpose of introducing research processes that make use of human stem cells. The legislation is particularly interesting because of its studies in the field of stem cells involving human embryos.
Although the legislation bring forward problematic ideas because of the difficulty associated with actually coming in possession of human embryonic stem cells, the fact that there are numerous individuals willing to donate such resources with the purpose of promoting scientific advancement makes it possible for experts to progress in…
The authors did a comparison study of 682 adults with acute leukemia. All these patients received a hematopoietic stem-cell (HSC) transplant from a donor that was unrelated to them. The authors compared them to patients who received UCB instead of HSC. One of the important characteristics of UCB is that it does not have to match the donor, which makes it much more flexible in leukemia and other treatments.
The study covered two groups of people. The authors note, "98 received cord blood and 584 received bone marrow. The transplantations were performed from 1998 through 2002 and reported to Eurocord and the European Blood and Marrow Transplant Group" (ocha, V., et al., 2004. p. 2276). They traced participants' ages, weights, level of severity of the disease, and other influences to discover what treatment worked best in treating adults with leukemia. They found that rates of mortality and relapse were very…
Mauro, MJ., and Maziarz, R.T. (2006). Stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia: When should it be used? Mayo Clin Proc. March; 81(3):404-416.
Rocha, V., et al. (2004). Transplants of umbilical-cord blood or bone marrow from unrelated donors in adults with acute leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine 351; 22. 2276-2286.
Tse, WW, SL Zang, KD Bunting and MJ Laughlin. (2008). Umbilical cord blood transplantation in adult myeloid leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplantation 41, 465 -- 472.
Vago, L., et al. (2009). Loss of mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation. New England Journal of Medicine. 361: 478-88.
However, there would also need to be an extended period of longitudinal analysis of the effects of the therapy on the experimental group mice's health to see if the improvement continued and did not produce damaging side effects.
The MSCs in the liver therapy are not derived from human embryos and thus the objections to discarding human embryos are not a factor in the ethical discussion about the therapy. In fact, "the number of MSCs that can be obtained from a donor is significantly lower than the number needed for tissue regeneration. Therefore, MSCs are expanded ex-vivo in media supplemented with growth factors" and created in a lab ("MSC growth factors," R&D Systems, 2013). The main ethical objections to the use of MCSs revolve around the question of scientists' right to create new organs and the possible risks involved. The Japanese research team "relied on a 'cocktail' of so-called induced…
"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]
"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) growth factors." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]
To date, adoptive T-cell therapy have used peripheral blood, tumors, malignant effusions, and drained lymph nodes as sites for injecting the T-cells for adoptive transfer. Those are routinely used are allogenic bone marrow transplantation and peripheral blood stem cell infusion. It is possible that the bone marrow might be a good place too. It is also arguable which precise T-cells are the best to transfer, since T- cells are differentiated into many subsets.
Furthermore, in order to produce enough effectors T-cells, specific T-cells from peripheral blood or tumor specimens are isolated and generated in vitro, and these are then clonally expanded using various approaches. The T-cells are then reinfused into the patient with the expectation that they will then target antigens. There is much evidence that this approach works, although it also seems that this can be engineered in vivo under certain situations.
For most effective T-cell therapy, it has…
Greenberg, P.D. 1991, 'Adoptive T cell therapy of tumors. Ad. Immunol. 49, pp. 281-355.
Jamieson, B.D., & Ahmed, R. 1989,'T cell memory. J. Exp. Med. 169, pp. 1993-2005
June, C.H. 2007, 'Principles of adoptive T cell cancer therapy', J. Clin. Invest., 117, pp.11204-1212.
MedecineNet.com. Definition of T cell. Online. Available at: http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11300
For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."
Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.
Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…
Also, there has been pressure in the different professions for every research design to follow these general procedures (Chadwick, Bahr, & Albrecht, 1984, pp. 19-20).
The researcher needs protection as well as the subject does. An important protection of confidentiality is testimonial privilege. This protection is not absolute and must yield to other concerns in some cases such as state's requirement that certain diseases (infectious diseases) or injuries (child abuse or neglect, gun shot wounds) be reported to prevent further injury. Written, informed consent to release information is the best defense against an allegation of a breach of confidentiality (Brent, 1997, p. 258).
Bioethics and informed consent extend beyond the area of research into that of medical practice, calling for medical personnel to inform patients of what treatment are being given and what options the patient may have. Such efforts are seen as both ethical and as empowering for patients,…
Bower, R.T. & de Gasparis, P. (1978). Ethics in social research: Protecting the interests of human subjects. New York: Praeger.
Brent, N.J. (1997). The home healthcare nurse and confidentiality and privacy. Home Healthcare Nurse, 15(4), 256-258.
Chadwick, B.A., Bahr, H.M., & Albrecht, S.L. (1984). Social science research methods. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall.
Heinrich, Bernd. "What Is Natural?" Discover (June 1994), 40-42.
All living things are complex organisms that are made up of cells. Some are made up of a single cell while others comprise of numerous cells working together. Cells are the basic functional and structural units of living organisms and are known to be the building blocks of life. In humans it is from a group of cells that tissues are made and from tissues that organs are made which enable beings to live.
Cells obtain food and oxygen through their membranes and each membrane has a specific area which can serve contents of only a given volume. Any increase in volume of the cell requires that the area of the membrane increases. Basically, when cells grow the membrane becomes insufficient in aiding the movement of substances in and out and thus to maintain a favourable surface area to volume ratio, cell division must take place. Furthermore, cell…
Bolsover, S., E. Shephard, H. White, and J. Hyams. Cell Biology: A Short Course. 3. Wiley-
Blackwell, 2011. 432.
Conger, Krista. "Scientists turn skin cells into neural precursors, bypassing stem-cell stage." Stanford School of Medicine. n. page. Print.
Morgan, David. The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control. New Science Press, 2007.
STEM and STEAM in the classrooms
Purpose and Major Components
Many countries are currently putting much emphasis on the need to prepare students for higher education and equip them with the necessary skills and knowledge needed in this 21st century. To achieve this goal, learning institutions have adopted the STEAM approach, where they nurture students around the subjects of Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Math. This has gained popularity with all the players in the education sector, including educators, students, parents and even the US president. STEAM is viewed as a means to create a long-lasting interest in arts and sciences right from an early age. The subjects categorized under STEAM are somewhat similar, in that they all involve creative processes in the investigation of the subject matter. It is very important to teach such skills to students so as to prepare them for innovation in this ever-evolving world. This…