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But how, then one might ask, to structural functionalists explain deviance at all? "ithout deliberate planning on anyone's part, there have developed in our type of social system, and correspondingly in others, mechanisms which, within limits, are capable of forestalling and reversing the deep-lying tendencies for deviance to get into the vicious circle phase which puts it beyond the control of ordinary approval-disapproval and reward-punishment sanctions" (Parsons, cited by Gingrich, 1999, from the Social System, pp. 319-320). In short, although 'normal' people' exist within an approval-disapproval and reward-punishment network, and their behavior can be modified and controlled through schemas of approval and disapproval, rewards and punishments, psychologically deviant or anomalous persons like criminals ignore these networks. Also, deviant circles can themselves generate positive rewards and an approval and disapproval micro system that rewards 'bad' behavior, forming a subculture. As this subculture becomes eradicated, crime goes down, but as law-abiding behavior…… [Read More]
One could, for instance, examine the role that the authority structures of the Catholic Church have had in shaping the formation of societies and they way that they function. This form of analysis can also be extended to other religions - such as the role of power and conflict in a Muslim world and the role that religion plays in the coercive structures of many Middle Eastern societies.
On the other hand, one can also use the theoretical and methodological tools that are provided by structural functional theory to analyze the way that religious institutions act as an integrative and cohesive structure in society. This could also be extended to less prolific but influential religion such as the Mormon Church that helped to shape society and integrate people in regions of the United States.
Interactionist theory also provides a very useful method of analyzing the way that various religious groupings…… [Read More]
In the case of violence, there are no clear problems, but rather a broad range of contributing factors that impact the level of violence in American society. The broad-based, integrative approach of structural functionalism is well-suited to understanding how this broad range of factors influences violence because it examines each factor not only individually but in context with each other as well.
There are a number of preferred solutions to the social ill of violence. Norms and customs are often the target of such solutions. For example, public education programs are utilized to help convey that violence is unacceptable in society. The issue is often dealt with in terms of both prevention and intervention strategies (Eisenbraun, 2007). This flows from an approach focused on reducing the structural antecedents of violence, while allowing that there are times when violence but be addressed on an individual and specific level owing to the…… [Read More]
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…… [Read More]
Hermeneutics (interpretive) paradigm
This is a more complex approach to the explanation of the social events live poverty. Basically it deals with a detailed interpretation of written/oral histories to explain current social order and the social happenings like poverty among other factors. There are varies backgrounds that people come from, an in each community or society or even culture, there is always the stories of people and how they lived with each other. Therein are the details of the people who were once rich within that society as well as those who were poor (Joe eichertz, 2012).
The historical poverty within a given group of people is a thing that is found among all religions and all cultural groupings. Even in the Bible, there are those who were historically known to be from the richer tribes and those from the poorer tribes. It is on the same vain that the…… [Read More]
Social conformity inhibits the individuals' referentiality that was an intrinsic governance of the self. Although neither Durkheim nor Giddens arguments are without merit, it would seem, therefore, as Elias argued, neither society nor the individual can exist in total isolation from the other. In many ways they are defined by each other and the actions of the collective. Society can serve as the barometer by which individual identity is measured, and the converse is true. Interdependencies exist between individuals and society.
Bourdieu, P 1977, Outline of a Theory of practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Cleaver, F 2007, 'Understanding Agency in Collection Action' Journal of Human Development, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 223.
Cuff, E, Sharrock, W, & Francis, D 1984, Perspectives in Sociology, 3rd edition, London,
Elias, N 1995, 'Introduction: Figuration and Process Sociology' Culture
and Economics, vol. 34.
Elias, N 1996, 'Problems of Involvement and Detachment', British…… [Read More]
Family Theoretical Perspective
The family is a social institution that has attracted a lot of research. There are many things that revolve around this institution and hence the reason why it attracts a lot of attention and consequent research. The topic of this paper is family and the chosen article is, "Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational bonds."
The structures of family forms vary just as their definitions. There is no single form of true family. In earlier years the nuclear family that comprises of a single set of biological parents and their children was prevalent. However, there has been a trend towards multiple generations of the same family living and working together in the same household. Today, there are many types of family forms that can be seen and they are due to the evolution of the family that started off as a result of a…… [Read More]
Town in Turmoil
A Town in Conflict
Every story can be told a number of different ways. Each person in a given narrative understands what went on from a particular perspective. Sometimes, if that person is especially perspicacious and especially curious, then she or he can see a particular event from the perspective or one or two other people. But the individual's perspective is always limited, and this is a good thing. If we cannot see the world from our own point-of-view then we have no hope of understanding our own virtues and vices, our own sense of cause and effect.
But it is also true that there is an important place in the world for understanding an event from a larger perspective. This is the role (or, at least, one of the roles) that scholarship plays in our lives. Scholarship provides that larger lens, that broader focus on the…… [Read More]
Gallant, J. (2016). Alleged sex abuse victim's fight for justice turns into bureaucratic nightmare. Toronto Star. 2 Dec, 2016. Retrieved online: https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2016/12/02/alleged-sex-abuse-victims-fight-for-justice-turns-into-bureaucratic-nightmare.html
In this article, Gallant (2016) describes the ongoing legal battle between Sveta Kholi and her former neurologist, Paul O'Connor. Kholi has accused O'Connor of sexual abuse. After the complaint was lodged formally, a complex bureaucratic process ensued whereby the entire case appears to have been stalemated. The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario has a committee that formally handles complaints, and the Health Professions Appeal and Review Board (HPARB) is a civilian body that hears appeals specifically from that very same College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario.
However, the bureaucratic complications become even trickier. According to the journalist, the College of Physicians and Surgeons also has an Inquiries, Complaints and Reports Committee. The HPARB has ordered on two separate occasions for the Inquiries, Complaints, and Reports…… [Read More]
Perhaps the best example of a structural-functionalist theory in action is at Google, where specific types of organizational institutions, such as free lunches and yoga classes, create a common organizational culture and generate a community of freedom, openness, tolerance, and constant mutual exchanges of thoughts and ideas. A negative example of organizational structures, such as the cutthroat competition that encouraged irresponsible lending practices at many investment banking firms, also demonstrates how organizational structures create certain commonly-accepted standards that people tend to obey to promote social harmony.
Conflict theory, however, would emphasize how within organizations there is often intense factionalism between different groups of people. Particularly in modern organizations where historically discriminated-against groups are gaining traction within managerial positions, but still often experience discrimination, the struggle between opposing forces of change and stasis is manifest (Smith & ogers 2000). Conflict may also be seen after two large organizations merge, meshing two…… [Read More]
In this regard, Nead notes that because she was an art lover, Richardson experienced a moral dilemma in her decision to attack "The Rokeby Venus," but she felt compelled to do so anyway based on her perception that the government was failing to act responsibility towards women in general and the suffragettes in particular. "In her statement during her trial, Richardson appears calm and articulate and nothing is said explicitly about any objections that she might have had to a female nude. Indeed, it was not until an interview given in 1952 that Richardson gave an additional reason for choosing the Velazquez: 'I didn't like the way men visitors to the gallery gaped at it all day'" (emphasis added) (Nead 36).
Figure 1. Velazquez, The Rokeby Venus.
Source: The Social Construction of Gender, 2006.
According to Mann (2002), functionalism could help explain the attack by Richardson on "The Rokeby…… [Read More]
John ommel Case Study
Why would John be considered a deviant? What social foundations of deviance appear to be evident in this case study?
Deviance is defined as the recognized violation of cultural norms. Social deviance is defined as any behavior that violates the social norms within a culture or greater community. This behavior can be criminal but does not necessarily need to violate a law to qualify. Criminal acts such as theft or assault are common types of social deviance, but so are incidental behaviors like lying, excessive drinking, or nose picking. The theory of social deviance is the foundation of the study of criminology and splinters into three classes of deviant behavior: conflict, structural functionalism, and symbolic interactionism.
2.Examine the three theoretical foundations of deviance (structural-functional, symbolic-interaction, and social-conflict). Determine which foundation applied to John's situation, and why. Give specific examples.
British sociologist A.. adcliffe-Brown developed the structural-functionalism…… [Read More]
Rules America?' By G. illiam Domhoff
Does the book primarily rely on a structural, symbolic interactionist or conflict theoretical perspective to understand and explain the behavior or event it is studying.
Discuss what your book has to say about social inequality, whether social economic, gender, race, ethnicity or age.
If your book describes a social problem or an undesirable condition in society, discuss the a) discrepancy between the actual and the ideal, b) intended and unintended consequences, and c) "moral crusader."
Domhoff, G. illiam. ho Rules America? Power and Politics in the Year 2000.
illiam Domhoff's ho Rules America is an insightful look into the sociology of modern America. ritten from a conflict and structural functionalist perspective, the book largely feels that individual choices are determined by society. Dumhoff suggests that the root of most social inequalities comes from the existence of a power elite that control social and economic…… [Read More]
People read the world differently and that explains why they respond to the world differently. For instance my mother is very tidy and neat whereas my father is the exact opposite. When my family is looked at from the social interaction perspective then it can be clearly concluded that symbolic interaction definitely can explain the divorce (Farley, 2012).
The conflict theory looks at how people within a family struggle for power; how they disagree and how they compete for resources. Wealth and prestige form the basis for most of the competitions. When my family is looked at from the conflict theory it can be said that our family underwent conflicts and disharmony. This was due to the fact that there are different dynamics and roles played by my family members. First traditionally the father are seen as the head of the family and it should come naturally. However this was…… [Read More]
Same-Sex Marriages in Canada
Although the debate over whether same-sex marriages should be allowed, a number of countries have legalized these unions in recent years, and the same trends are taking place through North America as well. In fact, given the increasing pace of reform, it is reasonable to suggest that most if not all states in the United States and Canada will have legalized same-sex marriages someday, a process that transform the debate over whether same-sex marriages should be allowed to one that focuses on why it took so long. Because many social and legal benefits accrue to the legal institution of marriage, these are important issues since the legalization of same-sex marriages will convey these social and legal benefits to homosexual partners who believe they are entitled to the same treatment as their heterosexual counterparts. To gain some additional insights into these recent trends and provide an overview…… [Read More]
Town in Turmoil
The actions of people in a group are among the major theoretical underpinnings of sociology. The study talks about how those actions happened, why they happened, and what the ramifications are for society at large. Sociological theories try to explain the complexities of how people relate to one another and the major theoretical stances include: structural functionalism, social conflict, and symbolic interaction. With these three theories the article labeled "A town in Turmoil" will be analyzed.
Structural Functionalist Perspective
Basically, this theory states that there are certain structures within society that each have distinct functions. If a certain structure ceases to perform its function, then the entire system breaks down (Deiner, 1999). Many times the human body is used as an example of this theory. Within the body are structures called organs and they all serve distinct functions that are needed for the body to survive. If…… [Read More]
According to functionalism, societal values also play an important role in governing a society by offering general guidelines for acceptable behavior through the establishment of roles and norms. For example, such societal institutions as the family, economy, education and government are essential aspects to the social structure, with each institution playing a role, related to the roles of the other institutions. In this sense, individuals will become interconnected through these institutions and therefore form a community.
Functionalism is based on three fundamental concepts. First, functionalism views society as a system. Accordingly, society is defined as a collection of interdependent parts that each exhibit a tendency toward reaching an equilibrium. Second, in order for a society to survive, certain functional requirements must be satisfied. An example of such a function is reproduction. Without reproduction, the population will not survive. Third, all societal phenomena or trends exist for the sole reason that…… [Read More]
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…… [Read More]
In addition, the views presented by sociologists concerning idealistic tradition is based on the significance of the concerned group that is sort to motivate, influence to belief and the subject of interest. In this regard, sociologists will not disassociate from the scientific data but will involve the subject of interest to attempt to understand the environment in its own context, showing how sociologists have subjective explanations and not objective ones (Adams et al. 267).
ith regard to the above, there exists queries on whether the sociological theory is a micro or a macro understood occurrence. Apart from the philosophical aspects of knowledge, the micro and macro aspects of sociological theory are highly debated in there associations. It inquires on how these sociological theories on character, reactions, and interpersonal procedures can associate with other social influences. Just like in sciences where there exists micro-macro differences which even with the advanced technology…… [Read More]
family by applying theories, concepts and knowledge. Through the study of the theories and concepts, the study will look at how families communicate, behave, operate and will also highlight common problems facing the family and especially tackling the health issue and how social systems affect provision of health care, and will illuminate this through an in-depth study of how it applies or affect the family unit. The study will discuss diversity issues in relation to the social system.
Family life is being scrutinized, and a new definition of a family is emerging every day, but in simple terms a family is a group consisting of parents and children living together in a household, caring and supporting each other. According to Merriam-ebster Dictionary; a family is a fundamental social group in society typically consisting of one or two parents and their children.
The family is the natural and fundamental group unit…… [Read More]
Teen Plastic Surgery: A Controversial Medical Practice
According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, in 2007, more than 87,000 teenagers had cosmetic surgery; and that number has grown exponentially since. Although aesthetic cosmetic surgery is popular amongst United States teens, physicians and plastic surgeons worry that such invasive surgery on teens' still growing bodies can be dangerous. Other developed countries, including Germany and Australia, are considering banning all but medically necessary plastic surgery for anyone under the age of 18. However, the question remains, if such a measure were taken like that in the United States for minors stem the tide of teenagers going under the knife? This paper will address the controversy associated with teenagers and aesthetic cosmetic surgery in the United States, and the business of plastic surgery for teens, from a legal, ethical, and social responsibility standpoint.
In a country, and dare say…… [Read More]
What ethical dilemmas do sociologists face?
One dilemma that Sociologists deal with is competence. Many of them do strive to uphold the highest levels of capability in their work. A lot of them try to recognize the limits of their knowledge; and they assume merely those responsibilities for which they are competent by training, education, or knowledge. Sociologists recognize the necessity for continuing education so as to remain professionally competent; and they also apply the suitable scientific, expert, technical, and administrative resources wanted to assure competence in their professional doings. Another dilemma is integrity. Sociologists are fair, honest, and reverent of others in their expert activities -- in teaching, service research, and practice. Sociologists are the ones that do not meaningfully act in ways that risk either their own or others' professional well-being.
What is Culture?
According to Giddens culture is measured by sociologists as something described as the following;…… [Read More]
Communication and Sociology
Sociology and Poverty
Poverty, in absolute terms, is defined as a lack of the things considered basic for human survival. There are many causes of poverty; sociologists, however, explain the existence of poverty using two major approaches -- the structural-functionalism approach and the conflict approach (Andersen & Taylor, 2007). The structural-functionalism theory postulates that poverty is inevitable and is in fact one of the human processes that are necessary for the stability and continuity of society (Andersen & Taylor, 2007). Just as is the case with inequality and stratification, poverty is beneficial to society because it creates a balance that ensures that the best people occupy the most important positions, and the less worthy remain at the bottom (Andersen & Taylor, 2007). The conflict approach agrees with the argument that poverty is inevitable, but disputes the idea that it is beneficial, arguing that poverty exists only because…… [Read More]
ape in Conflict
There are various situations in life that results in rape in conflict;
The feminist perspective on the various forms of violence perpetrated against women does suggest strongly that such acts are a reinforcement of patriarchy. This is portrayed in the unequal bargaining power that exists in the various sexual encounters in the societies that are increasingly patriarchal. The fact that the traditional male privilege has continuously faded away through time has resulted in the increasing use of violence in order to ensure that women are put women "in their place" as indicated by Sheffield (1987).The resulting fear of violence has therefore made women to modify their way of living since they are depraved of certain fundamental freedoms.
Slavery has been note to be a key factor in the occurrence of rape cases. The African-American women were exposed to institutionalized rape while the African-American men…… [Read More]
Parental Rights and Children's Welfare
Sociological Analysis on Parental Rights vs. Children's Welfare: Structural-Functionalist, Conflict, and Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives
Studying the structure and dynamics of society entails not only analyzing the elements that comprise it, but also the general or 'bigger picture' of what society is -- that is, analysis of social structure and dynamics must be at the macro and micro levels. Indeed, sociological phenomena are analyzed and studied by social scientists using various theoretical perspectives formulated in order to provide researchers, as well as their audience, a look into the various interpretations that people give to explain specific events or realities experienced by the society and the individual. In the field of sociology, among these theoretical perspectives are the structural-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist traditions.
A particular example illustrating the discussion above is the analysis of parental rights and children's welfare, considered as an essential sociological phenomenon affecting…… [Read More]
death: suicide, euthanasia and the death penalty. Looking at certain aspects of each and discussing the issues concerning society. Also providing a sociological out look and economic basis for the arguments.
Death: Three Chances
Suicide is not a new phenomenon it has been around as long as mankind. The causes of suicide have been discussed on many occasions, and different theories have merged regarding the reason for which someone would commit suicide. There have been many studies undertaken in order to understand the phenomena in greater detail. Certain social factors were identified as being causal or contributing to this phenomenon, and suicides was broken down into different types, with different causes.
Henslin just as Durkheim before has looked at suicide, which Durkheim defined as any action which, leads subsequently to the death of the individual, either through positive action, such as hanging oneself or shooting oneself, or by way of…… [Read More]
Organized crime underwrites the bulk of political, social, and economic history in America. What has often been mentioned in passing as legitimate business activities can and often should be reframed as organized crime, such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the colonial mercantilism that it supported (Woodiwiss, 2003). When organized crime is taken out of its Hollywood context, which portrays organized crime as an immigrant problem, some patterns emerge that clarify the function and structure of organized crime in America. Organized crime tends to flourish in "societies that experience rapid and intense social change," (Albini et al. 1995, p. 213). This is why the United States has been a hot spring of organized crime in various manifestations throughout the nation's history. In only a few hundred years, the United States has gone from colonial outpost to global superpower. apid change and cultural transformation foment organized crime, as do…… [Read More]
"a Little Commonwealth: Family Life in Plymouth Colony" by John Demos
John Demos' A Little Commonwealth: Family Life in Plymouth Colony takes place in the New Wold with the settlement of the Plymouth colony. Although quite a significant potion of the text is dedicated to the mateial aspects of the settlement, Demos outlines fom the beginning of the foewod, his intentions to take an intimate look at the family in an emotional, psychological, and socio-cultual way. Demos maintains that pio histoy of this time peiod focused moe on an oveview of the actual settlement vs. A day-to-day look at the life of the settles themselves. Demos uses the notion of a little commonwealth as a metapho fo analyzing and addessing the family in the 1600's, as both a foundational component of Pilgim society and of the lage society as well. As such, what will be outlined in the text…… [Read More]
The environment, has been a scientific argument since the Victorian Era. The nature vs. nurture and stability vs. change arguments remain quite controversial. In essence, it concerns the importance of an individual's innate qualities (their nature) versus the way they were raised, the interactions they have had, and their personal experiences (nurture). One asks, would we have had a Stalin had he remained in seminary, or not been part of a prison system that spurred ideas of communism, would Van Gogh or Tchaikovsky produced such masterpieces of art had they not had clinical depression and perhaps a host of psychological disorders - or, does history (a general term here for civilization and humanity), produce those individuals that are products of their time and environment, thus perpetuating the idea of change? (Ridley). Likely not, but the basis for their behavior is likely still part of their psyche. However, just because the…… [Read More]
Nursing Case Study
Jane lives a very difficult life when it comes to the everyday implications that she has to deal with. Taking care of one child at a young age is difficult enough; taking care of six by the age of 26, seems to be nearly impossible. It is not surprising to hear that having six children that range from eight months old to nine years old, can become something that not only takes a toll on the soul, but also takes a toll on the physique and health. No matter how someone may seem to someone else, as is the case with Jane and her husband, if Jane does not feel comfortable with herself, and she does not see herself as being productive in society, or even in her own life, it can turn into a downfall situation in something that needs to be resolved at its source.…… [Read More]
Schumacher, Gunter & Wasieleski, David M. (2013). Institutionalizing ethical innovation in organizations: An integrated causal model of moral innovation decision processes. Journal of Business ethics 113:15 -- 37
A business' financial survival and pursuing an ethical course of action are often seen as mutually incompatible. However, according to the article "Institutionalizing ethical innovation in organizations: An integrated causal model of moral innovation decision processes," by viewing ethics as part of the process of business innovation, ethics is likely to be viewed in a more positive light. Just as organizations must change with the marketplace, so must their ethical schemas. Ignoring ethics can put a business at profound risk, just like ignoring other aspects of organizational innovation.
thics has usually been seen as separate from the process of innovation in the past: "managers are expected to compromise standards in order to innovate and create short-term economic value to the…… [Read More]
Family elations esearch
The Sociology of Families and Households is a film that will be examined in this paper. The film is full of controversial topics as well as complex socioeconomic issues that will be discussed in detail. A textbook, Public and Private Families, written by Andrew Cherlina share a lot of concepts of the film will be brought in to the discussion as well.
The various relationships that exist between Marxist theory, sociological perspectives, structural functionalism, as well as the family and early feminist theory are examined throughout the program. It examines the rapid decline in marriage over the last few decades as well as the great increase in couples choosing cohabitation. Divorce is increasing and the fertility rate is on the decline in the U.K. All of these factors have combined to affect the traditional family in Britain and has created new challenges for them in how everyday…… [Read More]
scientific method in the doctoral research process.
The scientific method has long been the preferred means of conducting research in most fields, including both social sciences and hard sciences. Because the scientific methods "demands that the procedures be objective," as well as clearly stated in research papers, bias is minimized (Stangor, 2012). Moreover, the statement of procedures allows for replication of experiments, something that is integral to the peer review process. eplication is crucial for the validation of scientific research at the doctoral level and beyond.
Doctoral students might develop cogent hypotheses in their research, and those hypotheses when proven over time may evolve into widely accepted theories in their field. However, repeated testing is the only means by which to solidify theories (Harris, n.d.). The doctoral student must be relatively detached from the results of research, and the scientific method enables detachment by highlighting ways the theory can be…… [Read More]
Sociological theories have helped widen people's scope on social behaviors and societies. In fact, the study of sociological theories makes one develop a comprehensive understanding of sociology's past, present and future. There are a number of sociological theories namely: symbolic interaction theory, conflict theory, functionalist theory, feminist theory, critical theory, labeling theory, social learning theory, and structural strain theory among others (Giddens, 1997).
Government, religion, education, economics and family are some of the five major social institutions that have been there for quite some time. This term paper seeks to evaluate the impacts of functionalism, conflict, and interaction theories on the family institution. The paper will address how each of the theories apply to the family as a social institution; the similarities and differences that exist; how each theory affects the views of an individual who is a member of the family unit; how each of the theories affect approach…… [Read More]
Sociology -- Theoretical Paradigms
The Structural-Functionality of the Poor and Poverty
In the study of sociology, three classical paradigms dominate the process of sociological analysis: structural-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist theories. The structural-functionalist paradigm posits that individuals and groups in the society play specific roles in society that creates equilibrium to society's dysfunctions. The conflict theory, meanwhile, states that there exists, inevitably, oppression in the society, which results to a struggle by the oppressed group and social revolution that shall create reforms or changes in the society. Lastly, symbolic interactionism theorizes that symbols are the basis of life, and it is through interaction of these symbols that people reach an understanding of what s/he is and how society perceives him/her.
Given this set of paradigms in the study of sociology, this paper utilizes the structural-functionalist paradigm to discuss and analyze the role that the poor and poverty play in societies…… [Read More]
Structuralsim vs. Functionalism
The structuralist/functionalist debate in the field of psychology focuses on the framework that psychological approaches should take. In the pioneer days of psychology, scholars argued whether one should take a structuralist or a functionalist approach to interpreting how the mind works. The essence of structuralism was promoted by Wilhelm Wundt in Germany and his pupil, Edward Titchener, is the man who gave the approach its name when he brought its school to America. In competition with Titchener's "structuralism," however, was "functionalism," which grew out of the American response to the German ideas. Functionalism was rooted in the ideas of Darwin and William James, the American philosopher.
The debates between the two schools were heated in spite of calls for a reconciliation between the two, as some saw them as both dealing primarily with the same problem: the conscious self (Chalkins, 1906). The advocates of the two schools,…… [Read More]
Teachers will continue to lead the educational process, but they need to be very sensitive about the issues facing the society as a whole and the children as individuals in this society. Then, education becomes a means of identifying the issues in the life of the students and gaining knowledge and understanding about them. Education in this global society also has to acknowledge that cultural diversity is valued and preserved (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 190). Teachers have to ensure that their students are taught in ways that respond to cultural groups without bias (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 420). In education, there is a responsibility for students to gain a respect for other races, religions and gender that are different from their own. This is the only way that a diverse society can successfully survive.
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New…… [Read More]
The Turbine Factory and its use of industrial material on a very grand scale is able to evoke feelings of machinery and production and how it changed society, or rather, how it controlled society at that time. Behrens was able to transform architecture by creating designs that reflected the changing culture.
Frank Lloyd Wright and Peter Behrens were pioneers in the innovation of functionalism. While Wright used more organic elements into his design to give the feeling that architecture and nature should go hand-in-hand, Behrens was creating designs out of more industrial materials that reflect the era and the culture of an era. However, both of these architects considered function as the dominating principal of building structures even though they essentially came to their way of designing via different ways of thinking (nature and organics vs. industry and function).
Both Wright and Behrens were innovative designers and architects and their…… [Read More]
Charles Horton Cooley is a great sociologist who has contributed significantly to the field of sociology. He was born in Michigan State where he studied and work. He was a professor in the University of Michigan and lived near the university with his wife and three children. Looking glass self was one of his greatest works. The paper evaluates some of the sociologist major papers in the field of sociology and economics. The contributions to the conflicts theory and functionalism theory will also be evaluated in the paper. Charles Horton Cooley died in 1929 in the same state he was born of cancer.
Charles Horton Cooley born in 1864 was the forth born in a family of six siblings. His mother was Mary Elizabeth and his father was Thomas Cooley. The family lived in Ann Arbor in Michigan State. He attended the University of Michigan in 1887 where after graduating…… [Read More]
Controversies in Sociology
Social Theory Conflicts
Social theory is a fascinating body of work. At its heart is a conglomeration of respected intellectuals, all brilliant in their own right and yet embedded in philosophy that can completely contradict another philosophy. The concept of social theory as a way of understanding society then sometimes seems like a maze of information regarding the beliefs of several individuals, that one either agrees with or disagrees with depending on his/her own knowledge experience and personality. The three sets of social theory that will be examined with in this short work are: conflict theory vs. functionalism, psychological reductionist vs. non-reductionist and value-free vs. value-committed social structure.
Social Conflict theory is one of the earliest recognized forms of social theory. Social conflict theory regards society as a conglomeration of individuals, be they institutions or people all attempting to gain a finite amount of resources. In this…… [Read More]
In keeping with the functionality and mechanization of the time, Wright used simple materials such as brick, wood and plaster to create a sense of the natural in his work. M
This form is exemplified in the architect's Zimmerman house, which is a long, low house, with an interior space that is not immediately apparent from the outside. While performing the functional purpose of shelter and protection, the interior of the house also focuses on open, shared space; an idea inspired by the prairie fields of the United States. Hence, mechanization and functionality are integrated into the architect's design.
Like Wright, Mies van de ohe is also concerned with maintaining simplicity in the interest of material honesty and structural integrity (Matthews, 2011). The drive towards this simplicity is also inspired by mechanization, where industrialization has created a faster pace in life, work and art. Using simple materials provides for the…… [Read More]
Sociology, one of the biggest areas that are receiving continuous amounts of focus is the inequalities that exist. Recently, disparities in income levels have become much larger. This is because the top 1% (who controls the majority of the wealth) is earning more at the expense of the other 99%. These are individuals that have to work every day (often controlling little to no amounts of personal assets). Throughout history, this conflict has often been the focus of different labor disputes and social revolutions. (inship)
However, globalization is having a dramatic impact with these divisions becoming even larger. In the article that was written by iniship (2012), he is talking about how these disparities are evolving. Evidence of this can be seen with statistics that were uncovered from the Congressional Budget Office. They found that the income levels of the ultra-wealthy increased from 8% in 1979 to 18% in 2007.…… [Read More]
Nowadays, students have to choose between different academic disciplines: maybe one student prefers to be a psychologist rather than a physician. And then once the student has decided on psychology, he must choose, for example, to be a psychology major, as opposed to a physician major. Further more, there are even different categories within disciplines: social psychology, organizational psychology, clinical psychology, educational psychology etc., each with its own concepts, terminology and methods. As in many other areas of activity, the division of labor in modern academia was a necessary phenomenon in the modern society given the economic and social conditions of the modern world, when the aim of education is to prepare students for different specializations and then, through working, interdependence and collaboration is necessary in order to reach the goal and obtain the wanted results. Durkheim's theory division of labor depicts the fact that in a society based…… [Read More]
Individuals and Society
Action theories and structural theories are both endeavors to understand different aspects of society. They try to explain the behaviors of individuals as separate entities and also as a part of group. They further attempt to explain the effects or implications of people's actions on society and on making on rules, norms and customs that prevail in a society.
According to action theories, sociology is a science "is a science concerning itself with the interpretive understanding of social action and thereby with a causal explanation of its course and consequences" (Weber, p. 4) where actions can be objectively studied with the course and consequence can be explained.
It is different from other subjects such as history, where the emphasis on the individual events, rather than individuals who lead to a certain event. However, though the social action is to be studied with objectivity on the part of…… [Read More]
Furthermore, it is suggested that the roots of the problem lie deeper than the superficial debate about gun control. In sociological terms, this problem is to do with the lack of meaning and the breakdown of inherent normative structures. In this sense the debate about gun control should be seen against the underlying background of these sociological issues. Even if a compromise was be reached about whether or not to have gun control, there would still be underlying structural causative features that would need to be addressed and which are the source of this problem in the first place.
Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.
New York: Praeger Publishers.
Deviance and Social Control. etrieved November 21, 2004
Egger, Steven A., et al. 1990.Serial Murder: An Elusive Phenomenon. New York:
Praeger Publishers, 1990.
Lintelman, D. Gun Control. etrieved November 21, 2009…… [Read More]
In preparation for this paper, I reviewed all class notes and lectures. I also referred to Schriver's (2011) Human Behavior and the Social Environment and also Payne's (2005) Modern Social Work Theory. I also reviewed several websites in preparation for a thorough community analysis, while also evaluating my own notes and photographs from assessing the community. My analysis of a specific community is based on several interrelated theories of social work and sociology including conflict theory, systems theory, and functionalism.
In light of what I have read, and based on my observations and interviews with locals, Downtown Indianapolis has undergone major restoration, gentrification, and revival since the 1990s. Issues like empowerment, advocacy, cultural diversity, and conflict theory all come to mind as I evaluate the community by applying theories of social work. I would like to focus in particular on the positive changes that have taken place,…… [Read More]
Sociology Questions elating to Gender and Culture
The media has made significant efforts to demonstrate non-bias with regards to gender in advertising as part of efforts to promote gender equality. While the media may attempt to communicate non-bias messages relating to gender and advertising, there is a considerable amount of information that communicates the exact opposite. The need for communicating a message of non-bias when it comes to gender and advertising is not only attributed to efforts to promote gender equality but also efforts towards preventing gender discrimination. Notably, there are different sociological approaches in relation to gender and research. Some of these sociological approaches are applied in advertising and the media and continue to take place in the United States despite the various attempts by the media.
There are varying sociological approaches when it comes to gender and research since sociologists explain gender roles using different theoretical perspectives. Some…… [Read More]
individual is a product of society, rather than its cause.' Discuss.
The relationship between the individual and the society are recurrent themes and profoundly linked concepts in the fields of anthropology and sociology. While the individual is defined as a human being who is considered isolated from and separate from the broader community, the society is thought of as the aggregate of these individuals or a more holistic structure that extends beyond the individuals themselves. However, both concepts are problematic since their significance varies according to whether the approach is holistic, focusing on society, or individualistic, focusing on the individual. Therefore, the causal relationship between the individual and society is of the utmost importance in the related academic fields. Since this subject is evidently central to the study of humans, many social theorists have taken a focused interest in these relationships. A classical debate brings into conflict, advocates of society's…… [Read More]
He wanted to show how conversation analysis and ethnomethodology may elucidate two interrelated matters of continuing concern to the ethnographer: the role of culture in shaping an informants' behavior and the apparent capacity of an investigated culture to compel the fieldworker to follow local habits of thought.
For this research, Watson defined ethnomethodology as "the study of how people, in their everyday lives, constitute the world as a recognizable state of affairs." Similar to conversation analysis, it is concerned with explication of order in social interaction and attempts to replace the existing Parsonian motivational approach to the analysis of social action to one with procedure. It asks not why but how. stipulates four basic moves in conversation analysis of ethnomethodology: 1) Conversation analysis and ethnomethodology look at utterances as tools for the performance of activities, not just things that stand in for other things. Further, activities performed by utterances are…… [Read More]
This new political project would come to the forefront in the auhaus's conceptualization of functionalism, particularly under the second director Hannes Myer, who believed that architecture should be low cost and fulfill the living and working needs of the common working man. This idealistic belief, as detailed in such works as Karel Teige's the Minimum Dwelling, resulted in the construction of panel housing units in cities throughout Germany - and Central and Eastern Europe - throughout the course of the following century.
The auhaus School would operate until the year 1933, when the rise of fascism put an end to its activities (the Deutscher Werkbund attempted to conform to the ideals espoused by the Nazi regime, and was thus sharply criticized by Gropius.)
The changing concerns of the auhaus as a style and pedagogical approach during this period was rooted in the shifting directorship that the school underwent - not…… [Read More]
Germany's high culture of the late medieval period was followed by a slow decline. In the seventeenth century the Thirty Year's War wrecked her material and political potential for more than a century. In the late eighteenth century, during a period of political importance, classic German literature was produced in the small princely courts. In the early nineteenth century, a thin layer of highly cultivated individuals began to produce omantic poetry and music, at a time when Germany as a whole was pervaded by a depressing political reaction, which expressed itself in bitter opposition to economic freedom in the development of commerce and industry.
In contrast to the rest of Europe, in Germany the period between 1816 and 1843, which saw the flowering of its omantic music and literature also witnessed an ever-increasing proportion of the population engaged in handicrafts. Not only this, but the number of employees…… [Read More]
But theorists (and clinicians) who use a power-and-conflict model recognize that systems are almost inherently (and indeed may universally) be unequal with some people (or subgroups) holding more power than others. And this inequality in the system is not due to a dysfunctionality that can be remedied through interventions such as improving communications or even empowering those without power. hile the latter would seem to be a strategy that would make an unequal system into an equal one, a power-and-conflict theorists would argue that systems are necessarily unequal. Thus even if one part of a system is given more power this will not lead to an equal system since power will never stay in balance. It will simply shift from one person or group to another -- either permanently or temporarily.
There is some possibility for hope in such a model. Power-and-conflict theorists believe that individual communities cannot become entirely…… [Read More]
Durkheim and the Study of Suicide
Emile Durkheim was primarily interested in how societies could remain coherent and integrated in present times when shared religious and ethnic background can no longer be relied on (Wikipedia 2005). Along with Herbert Spencer, he set the first scientific approaches to social phenomena that focused on social facts, instead of individual motivation. Durkheim suggested that social phenomena existed apart, independently and more objectively of individual actions and that these phenomena could be explained by other social facts other than society's, for example, climatic or ecological adaptation. This belief later came to be known as functionalism (Wikipedi).
His work, "The Division of Labor in Society," published in 1893, examined the different types of society, particularly the division of labor and how this division different between traditional and modern societies (Wikipedia 2005). He suggested a view that reversed the order of evolution among societies from a…… [Read More]
Fundamentally, the insurgents are fighting an enemy with superior weaponry, technology, and resources, so therefore, must seek avenues to mitigate these disadvantages. In other words, insurgent forces out vastly outdone in the traditional aspects of warfare, so they are forced to resort to unconventional modes of attack.
Early in his book, the Army and Vietnam, Krepinevich provides the broad game plan an insurgent force must follow to achieve final victory:
As developed by Mao in China and adapted by Giap in Vietnam, contemporary insurgency is a third world phenomenon comprising three phases: first, insurgent agitation and proselytization among the masses -- the phase of contention; second, overt violence, guerrilla operations, and the establishment of bases -- the equilibrium phase; and third, open warfare between insurgent and government forces designed to topple the existing regime -- the counteroffensive phase."
Primarily, this form of warfare consists of the formation of a political…… [Read More]
Industrial Revolution and Beyond
It is difficult for anyone now alive to appreciate the radical changes that the Industrial Revolution brought to humanity. e imagine that we know what it was like before this shift in economics, in culture, in society: e think of farmers tilling fields and of their children piling hay into stacks for winter forage, or of trappers setting their snares for the soft-pelted animals of the forests, or of fishers casting their hand-woven and hand-knotted nets into the seas from the hand-sewn decks of ships. e imagine the hard physical work that nearly every person in society once had to do in the era before machines substituted their labor for ours -- and this exchange of human (and animal) labor for machine-driven labor is indeed one of the key elements of the Industrial Revolution. But it is only one of the key elements. For with the…… [Read More]
Interpretive sociology does not agree with the thought that behavior is related to society as effect is related to cause since this entire idea is dysfunctional with that which composes social life in reality. Interpretive sociology holds that understanding of our fellow man should be the pursuit of each day as sense is made of their individual societal existence. Seeking to understand is the concept held in interpretive sociology instead of the seeking of an explanation. Therefore it is understood that "structural" or that of Marxism and Functionalism (i.e. The interpretive/interactionist/social action sociologies) as well as Weber's interactionism, ethnomethodology and the Structural arguments in sociology that a "science of society" is likely. Therefore, there exists an agreement even among the interpretive sociologies. The natural science argument is based on "cause and effect" principles. That claim that the behavior of humans is the effect of some cause in society or class…… [Read More]
Sociological Theory: hat Makes Democracy ork?
hen it comes to "Classical Sociological Theory" and "Contemporary Sociological Theory" there are numerous sociological theories that try to inspect and interpret why and how society purposes; looking at the influences such as mass media, education, the family and the church. All of these theories have their own ideas as to how these numerous establishments distress how should be and is -- some facets of these theories intersect with each other and other facets are totally different. Theories for instance Functionalism and Marxism attempt to describe civilization as an 'absolute truth' (they each look at culture on a macro scale) they trust that set development of society is unavoidable; there is a construction to life and civilization that seldom permits for change.
According to Tocqueville (pp.104) concerning Classical Sociological Theory, his argument is that throughout time our world has seen a lot of different…… [Read More]
The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.
Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…… [Read More]
Integrating Total Quality Environmental Management Systems - a Critical Study of TQEM
Relevance of TQM to Environmental Management
Scope of Dissertation
Moving from Reactive to Proactive Management
Understanding TQM in Relation to TQEM
History of TQM
Operation of TQM
Quality and Environmental Management Standards
Environmental Management Systems
Weaknesses of EMS Standards
Total Quality Environmental Management
Comparing ISO 9000 and ISO 14000
Integrating the ISO 14000 Environmental Management System
Impact of certification on economic and ecological performances
Research Design and Nature
Integrating a Sustainable EMS with TQM
Steps to Implementing an Effective TQEM Strategy
INTEGRATING QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ManagementS SYSTEMS - A CRITICAL STUDY
ackground and Overview of Study
For decades economic growth has been considered the main indicator of a healthy society (Oliver, 1996). However, only recently has society begun to recognize the environmental cost of this growth. As a result, there is now an…… [Read More]
African-American Children in Special Education Programs
The large amount of minority children, specifically African-American children, who have ended up in special education programs for students who have learning disabilities, behavioral disabilities, emotional disabilities, or mental disabilities, has remained a very strong reality even though it has been recognized for more than 20 years (Townsend, Thomas, itty, & Lee, 1996). After looking at many of these patterns and how often they recur, it is important to look at the assumptions, beliefs, worldviews, and epistemologies that are often used by many who work in special education in order to determine what is causing the disproportionate amount of these individuals in special education programs throughout the country (Townsend, Thomas, itty, & Lee, 1996).
This problem, being extremely persistent, is affecting large groups of African-American individuals and their families in a negative way (Townsend, Thomas, itty, & Lee, 1996). It also affects society in…… [Read More]