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Student Performance in Business Class
Given that all students in a given business class are exposed to the same professor and the same course materials, one might expect them to perform similarly. However, there is a broad range in how students perform in business classes. The purpose of this research study is to determine which variables impact student performance in business class.
I have formulated several hypotheses about student performance in business class. In this section, I will list my hypothesis, as well as my supporting reasons for the hypothesis.
H1: Female students perform better than male students.
My reason for this hypothesis is that my casual observations have supported the idea that female students appear to care more about their classes and attend more lessons.
H2: Proficient English speakers perform better than ESL students.
My reason for this hypothesis is that the better a student's English skills, the greater…
Chemers, M, Hu, L, Garcia, B 2001, 'Academic self-efficacy and first year college student performance and adjustement', Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 93, no.1, pp.55-64.
Fuchs, T & Wobmann, L 2007, 'What accounts for international differences in student performance? A re-examination using PISA data', Empirical Economics, vol. 32, nos. 2-3, pp.466-464.
Picciano, A 2002, 'Beyond student perceptions: Issues of interaction, presence, and performance in an online course', Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 21-40.
IAQ and Education: How does Indoor Air Quality Impact Student Health and Performance?
Historically, student performance was thought to be the result of the direct factors the student encountered in the classroom environment. As long as the student was taught in an appropriate manner, the prevailing thought was that the student would be capable of learning. However, it became apparent that students could be exposed to the same curriculum under tremendously different circumstances with tremendously different results. Therefore, educators and the general public began to be aware of other factors that impacted student performance. These factors could be seemingly obvious, such as whether the student had literate parents at home to help with school work, or more subtle, such as childhood malnutrition and its deleterious impact on learning. One of the concerns that many modern educators and environmentalists are beginning to examine is the interrelationship between indoor air quality (IAQ)…
Mendell, M.J., and G.A. Heath. "Do Indoor Pollutants and Thermal Conditions in Schools
Influence Student Performance? A critical review of the literature." Indoor Air 15.1 (2005): 27-52. Web. 23 Mar. 2015.
Pittman, Joyce. "Creating and Maintaining High Quality, Sustainable Healthy Learning
Environments for Students, Teachers, and Staff in Global Schools." Journal of Tourism and Hospitality 3.2 (2014): 1-7. Web. 23 Mar. 2015.
The use of computers help the students make mistakes without directly facing the teachers and this reduces their tension. This also helps other students who vary in learning style, and the computers help the teacher present the material in different styles. (Improving Student Performance by educing Anxiety)
One of the simplest technologies that can be used is through Email, which supplies individual written answers to questions and replies from the teachers to the students. The replies received from the students can then be built into different files for the students, though this will require applying some high level Email software. Again the Email from the students can be made more sophisticated by asking the students to reply to questions finally forming a web page. This helps the students become more focused in their studies. The responses to the form sent out can be collected by the teacher in a file…
Carpi, Anthony. "Designing Effective Instructional Web Pages" Department of Sciences, John Jay College, the City University of New York. Retrieved from www.visionlearning.com/library/x_linker.php?moid=2447Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Chan, Elsie. "Improving Student Performance by Reducing Anxiety" Statistical Analysis in Sociology. Department of Sociology, University of Victoria. Retrieved at http://www.mcmaster.ca/cll/posped/pastissues/volume.1.no.3/reducing.anxiety.htm . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Chapter 6: Improving Assessment with Technology" (2 December, 1999) Retrieved at http://edtech.clas.pdx.edu/presentations/LLOTA-webbook/Chapter6.htm. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Coley, Richard. J. (September, 1997) "Technology's Impact" Retrieved at http://www.electronic-school.com/0997f3.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
he same attitude and emotional stance is displayed towards all students. Another important point is that students with disabilities are supported not as if they require extra support, but rather as a natural part of the support that all students can expect in the specific classroom. his is, as seen in the other literature, is an important component of curbing the mental and psychological disadvantages of the more traditional pull-out strategy.
he case study school was also focused on providing high-quality instruction for all students. In addition to high-quality instruction in general education classrooms, the same high quality of instruction is provided for students with disabilities in all the school settings. he school also identified a set of characteristics for high-quality instruction, providing teachers with achievable goals within their inclusive classrooms.
he issue of teacher attitudes towards students with disabilities is vital to the success of inclusive classrooms and indeed…
These teachers, for example, were highly concerned with meeting the needs of all the students in their classrooms. In addition, both teachers and administrators had high expectations for not only academic achievement, but also the behavior of all students. In terms of helping students to achieve these goals, the attitude of the school staff was that of "warm demanders," meaning that a warm and caring attitude is displayed, but not to the detriment of high expectations. The same attitude and emotional stance is displayed towards all students. Another important point is that students with disabilities are supported not as if they require extra support, but rather as a natural part of the support that all students can expect in the specific classroom. This is, as seen in the other literature, is an important component of curbing the mental and psychological disadvantages of the more traditional pull-out strategy.
The case study school was also focused on providing high-quality instruction for all students. In addition to high-quality instruction in general education classrooms, the same high quality of instruction is provided for students with disabilities in all the school settings. The school also identified a set of characteristics for high-quality instruction, providing teachers with achievable goals within their inclusive classrooms.
The issue of teacher attitudes towards students with disabilities is vital to the success of inclusive classrooms and indeed to its implementation in schools where this has not been attempted. It is human nature to be skeptical, at first, of new strategies or new ideas that threaten the status quo. In a profession such as teaching, especially, there are constraints in terms of time and work load when determining whether to accept a new strategy where training could be potentially time and labor intensive. Caskey, Santoli, and McClurg (2008, p.1), for example, conducted a survey of teachers where a predominantly
They computed a variety of measures to determine whether there was in fact a narrowing of a gap between teacher qualifications across wealthier and poorer schools and found that there was. This narrowing -- indicative of changes in hiring practices and policies as a result in NCL, was positively correlated with improved test scores in those districts with higher poverty populations.
The researcher felt there was some possibility, as indicated in the study by Milanowski, Kimball, and White above, that more experience was not necessarily better. This was presumably because educational qualifications become stagnant or outdated over time. In order to test a related question, whether there was some minimal level of qualifications that was necessary, above which additional qualification did not matter, the researcher reviewed the literature. Clotfelter, Ladd, and Vigdor (2006) studied a database of teacher qualifications and students assessment scores for all North Carolina schools and found…
Berliner, D. (2005). The near impossibility of testing for teacher quality. Journal of Teacher Education, 56(3) (May/June): 205-213.
This paper presents a descriptive analysis of different routes to teacher certification, including traditional and alternate routes as presented in a variety of states. The paper summarizes findings from research and suggests that no definitive conclusions can be reached relevant to the efficacy of either type of certification route.
Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Rockoff, J., and Wyckoff, J. (2008) The Narrowing Gap in New York City Teacher Qualifications and Its Implications for Student Achievement in High-Poverty Schools. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 27(4): 793 -- 818.
The paper considers the effect of teacher sorting across NYC schools in order to determine whether NCLB has achieved espoused goals of putting qualified teachers in every classroom. Focusing especially on schools in high poverty areas, the researcher utilizes a variety of teacher, students, and school data to compute correlational analysis and show that better teachers are in fact getting into poorer schools. They argue that this has resulted in higher student assessment performance, and support the claim with correlational analysis.
Improving Student Performance: Reading Skills
One of my tasks as ELA specialist is to ensure that all children are recognized in terms of their educational needs in the classroom. Since there is no time or resources to invest in extra materials for the curriculum, it appears sensible to focus my efforts on an attempt towards professional development. All the teachers appear to be committed to their students' achievement and well-being. Hence, it is anticipated that an attempt towards improving the classroom experience for all students, while also improving their overall performance, will most likely meet with approval from staff members.
Since professional development should already be part of the status quo for teachers at the school, it is assumed that simply enhancing this already existing paradigm will not take as much of an investment in terms of time and resources as attempting to bring in new curricular materials.
Cognitively Complex leadership teams influence School Culture and Student Performance?
Neuman (1989) in his study defined cognitive complexity as a psychological variable or characteristic which defines how simple or complex the perceptual and frame skill of the person is. An individual with a higher cognitive complexity perceives the tasks in different ways as compared to a person with lower cognitive complexity. It can also be defined as the amount of mental structures used by us, the level of abstract and how much is their interaction in shaping the perceptions (Neuman, 1989).
Granello and abalis (2004) in their study illustrate that cognitive complexity is also defined as an ability which allows the person to think in more than one abstract term. The term includes 2 structural elements which are integration and differentiation. Integration is the ability to recognize numerous relationships between the comprehended characteristics while differentiation is the ability…
Berninger, V.W. (2012). Past, Present, and Future Contributions of Cognitive Writing Research to Cognitive Psychology. Psychology Press: UK.
Cerseu, P., Janssen, S., & Raab, J. (2011). Connecting the dots: Social network structure, conflict, and group cognitive complexity. Netherlands: Department of Organization Studies.
Day, D., Gronn, P., & Salas, E. (2004). Leadership capacity in teams. The leadership Quarterly, 857-880.
Derek, A., Grace, M., & Dawn, D. (1996). Cognitive Complexity and Expertise. Ottawa: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.
School Safety Plans & Policies
Campus Safety Procedures
Activity Description and Summary
The design of safety measures at my school is fundamentally the responsibility of the district authorities, as schools are expected to respond uniformly to district policies and procedures. However, I did help to implement and monitor safety measures through my roles during the school safety drills. My primary responsibility in the campus safety initiative was to assist with in fire drills and shelter-in drills. Numerous studies provide support to the practice of school safety drills, citing benefits to students, their parents and families, and faculty (Brock, 2010; Borum, 2011; NASP, 2013b, 2013c).
Program Outcome ationale
The overarching theme of the emergency drills is to ensure that administrators and staff are familiar with the protocols intended to guide administrators and staff in maintaining calm and order during an emergency. The key rationale for this objective is that have plans…
Borum, R., Cornell, D.G., Modzeleski, W., & Jimerson, S.R. (2010). What can be done about school shootings? A review of the evidence. Educational Researcher, 39, 27 -- 37.
Brock, S. (2011). PREPaRE: Crisis Intervention & Recovery: The Roles of the School-Based Mental Health Professional (2nd ed.).
National Association of School Psychologists. (2013a). A Framework for Safe and Successful Schools. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/resources/handouts/Framework_for_Safe_and_Successful_School_Environments.pdf
National Association of School Psychologists. (2013b). Conducting Crisis Exercises and Drills: Guidelines for Schools. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/resources/crisis_safety/drills_guidance.pdf .
Butler College Prep 9th Grade Dean PositionABUTLER COLLEGE PREPButler College Prep is here to get you ready for the real world out there.The Lynx is the symbol of the spirit we cultivate: inside each and every one of our students grows the reflective and dominant soul of this fearsome animaleyes sharp like incisors, limbs strong and powerful. The Lynxlike every student at Butler College Prepsprints to the finish, growling with desire for the next challenge so it can prove itself again and again.The field is wide open. The hunt is on. The next generation is yours to lead. Butler College Prep will give you the tools, learning, example, and opportunity to become leaders in your communities and in the wider world.Welcome to the next step in the rest of your life.BAmong the 10th grade team, Ms. Rahiem is killing it: her students show tremendous growth in their scores, and…
Rogers, C. (1951). Client-Centered Therapy. MA: Riverside Press.
This work focuses on giving teachers concrete strategies for implementing the benchmarking and assessment techniques. It is important to develop lesson plans that include the major components of this program. Gunning gives a straightforward approach to implementing these concepts.
ithout getting into the individual strategies, let us suffice to say that these teaching methods may be the best developed over other similar experiments. Gunning's work was based on solid theory and best practices. The purpose of this research was to examine the connection between math and reading. In the first section of this study, we found that there is a high correlation between math and reading scores. Gunning's work on assessment-based teaching only discussed its use to improve reading skills. However, this same concept could also be applied to math. This is the key to improving both math and reading skills. Benchmarking will be a necessary component in the development…
AutoSkill Academy of MATH. The Reading and Math Connection. AutoSkill International
Inc. (2003). p. 9-18.
Borasi, R. And Siegel, M. Reading Counts: Expanding the Role of Reading in Mathematics
Classrooms. Raffaella Borasi & Marjorie Siegel, New York: Teachers College
This paper provides an overview of the need for the Butler School to reduce its annual budget by $1,000,000 in order to meet the mandate of the community that the school should “live within its means.” The recommended reductions are based on eliminating extraneous programs, staff positions, administrative services, and supply funds. Areas that are not reduced include programs that support the humanities, athletics, science and technology, as these areas are deemed too important to the formation and development of students’ characters and skills, which are needed to ensure success in their ensuing years. Letters to a state legislator and to the community are attached in the Appendix.
Keywords: school funding, budget reduction, administration reduction, school budgeting
As Butler Elementary School has been tasked with eliminating $1,000,000 from its annual budget, there are a number of cuts that the school will be required to make in order to…
This perception alludes to a certain inflexibility which might be fundamentally obscuring of real performance values and indicators.
The same may be said of 'testing,' if we are to leave this concept to stand on its own. hile many educators are rather comfortable with this terminology, it is a concept which is intimidating to many students. The desire to view learning as an opportunity is here, semantically overshadowed by the perception that one is being given a pass/fail consideration. Combining the punitive perception of testing with the implications of measurement to the bypassing of individual learning standards can be very damaging both to a student's desire to achieve and to the educator's ability to create standards and approaches which address individuals rates and styles of learning.
The scholastic consensus today seems to endorse the use of the term assessment and the flexibility there implied. Here, both punitive and rigid…
Galbraith, Alison & Joy Alexander. (2005). Literacy, self-esteem and locus of control. Support for Learning, Vol. 20.
Kizlik, B. (2009).
Measurement, Assessment, and Evaluation in Education. Adprima.
There are, for example, many ways for a student to present an understanding of the causes of the U.S. Civil War" (1999, p. 35).
The research showed high stakes standardized testing approaches are becoming increasingly commonplace in the nation's schools, and the outcome of these testing regimens has enormous implications for the students involved, as well as for their teachers and schools. The research also showed that by formulating standards to match these standardized tests, teachers run the risk of "teaching to the test" rather than providing their students with the type of education that is needed in the 21st century. While they are more complex and difficult to administer, the research also showed that portfolios and other assessment techniques such as capstone projects provide a more comprehensive and accurate way to determine how well students are learning and where they may need help.
Blasi, M. (2005). Standardized…
Blasi, M. (2005). Standardized tests: A teacher's perspective. Childhood Education, 81(4), 242-
Garcia, N. & Fleming, J. (1999). Are standardized tests fair to African-Americans? Journal of Higher Education, 69(5), 471-472.
Neill, D.M. (1999). Transforming student assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 78(1), 34-35.
Sacks, P. (2000). Standardized minds: The high price of America's testing culture and what we can do to change it. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
The components can be ranked by level of importance or relevance to the subject.
Sequential Graphic Organizers: Sequential organizers allow the educator to assess the ability of the student to logically link ideas and concepts together. Cause/effect and problem/solution are common types of sequential organizers.
Cyclical Graphic Organizers: According to Struble, cyclical graphic organizers help educators evaluate the ability of students to comprehend natural cycles.
In reviewing the application of graphic organizers to the science classroom, Struble (2007) further reports that these tools can provide a clear understanding of student learning at any given point in time. In addition, these tools can be used to assess student learning over the course of a lesson or unit. Because graphic organizers allow individual assessment of student learning, Struble also argues that these tools can be effective for "assessing student with limited English skills or with learning disabilities" (p. 71). Because these tools…
Craig, D.V. (2007). Alternative, dynamic assessment for second language learners. ERIC Database, (ED453691), 1-17.
Barlow, L., & Coombe, C. (2000). Alternative assessment Acquisition in the United Arab Emirates. ERIC Database, (ED448599), 1-8.
Bybee, R.W., & Van Scotter, P. (2007). Reinventing the science curriculum. Educational Leadership, 64(4), 43-47.
Fitch, G.K. (2007). A rubric for assessing a student's ability to use the light microscope. American Biology Teacher, 69(4), 211-214.
universities and graduate schools offer courses or whole major programs of study in ethnically or culturally specific areas. Examples include African-American studies and Asian studies. This research explores whether students who identify with the ethnic or racial group will perform better or worse than their counterparts in those courses. The research also explores general perceptions of taking ethnic course content.
The study blends information from both psychology and sociology, showing how race/ethnicity, identity, and performance all converge. As Hansen, Owen & Pan (2013) point out, the ethnic composition of a group or overall class diversity does not necessarily impact individual student performance in general. However, no known research has been conducted specifically on ethnically topical classes and the academic performance of students who identify with that group. This research could lend insight into some of the ways race, ethnicity, identity, performance anxiety, and achievement are interrelated.
There are several theoretical…
Hansen, Z., Owan, H. & Pan, J. (2013). The Impact of Group Diversity on Class Performance: Evidence from College Classrooms. Education Economics, 1-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09645292.2013.813908
Jackson, K. & Trochim, W. (2002). Concept mapping as an alternative approach for the analysis of open-ended survey responses. Organizational Research Methods 5 (4) 307-336.
Sussman, R.W. (2014). There is no such thing as race. Newsweek. Nov 8, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.newsweek.com/there-no-such-thing-race-283123
Tsai, J., Chentsova-Dutton, Y. & Wong, Y. (n.d.). Why and how researchers should study ethnic identity, acculturation, and cultural orientation. Retrieved online: http://www-psych.stanford.edu/~tsailab/PDF/Why%20and%20How%20Researchers%20Should%20Study%20Ethnic%20Identity.pdf
This helps them deal with administrative tasks such as applying for grants, reporting their progress, appeasing parents, etc. In addition, teacher-based methods of assessment have at least one positive implication for students. According to Flood et al., teacher-based assessments allow teachers to enter the process of scaffolding with significant foreknowledge. Flood et al. (2003). suggests that all good assessment includes a component in which a teacher plans and sets goals, and then collecting data and interpreting it. This can be done in the classroom or at the macro level -- applicable to either the school itself or the state. Teachers can use the data gleaned from teacher-centered assessment as a means by which to identify areas of weakness and address them (Kearns, 2009). Standardized testing and teacher-based testing in classrooms allows teachers to determine where most students are having problems and use scaffolding techniques to intervene on the student's behalf…
Chall, J.S. & Adams, M.J. (2002). The Academic Achievement Challenge: What Really
Works in the Classroom. New York: Guilford.
Flood, J. et al. (2003). The Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language
Arts 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lawrence Erlbaum.
S. have tried to govern themselves. You can use the Internet, but don't use the Internet exclusively. Also, try to research different nations, not just the U.S. I've given a brief overview of the Bill of ights, one of the most important and contested aspects of the Constitution, but look into the British system of government as well (which influenced the creation of our own) and France. And ask why have some constitutions and nations failed, while the U.S. system has remained intact. Bring your research to class with you.
Step 3: Come to an agreement about what rights to include
On Wednesday, we'll have our own Constitutional Congress. I will observe the unstructured debate, which will revolve around how Freedonia will govern itself and what rights will be included in the new constitution and government. Some things you may want to think about: what rights don't Americans have? What…
Linder, Douglas. (201). The right of privacy. Exploring constitutional conflicts. Retrieved July 8,
2010 at http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/rightofprivacy.html
Slater, Timothy. (2010). Performance assessment. Department of Physics. Montana State
University. Retrieved July 8, 2010 at http://www.flaguide.org/extra/download/cat/perfass/perfass.pdf
One complete performance task with an appropriate scoring tool
Children will create an 'honest' advertising campaign for a food-related product they select. Then they will explain why they chose the product and the advertising approach to the class. For example, they could select an orange, and advertise its value of vitamin C or they could select a whole grain children's breakfast cereal and advertise that it is "not really healthy, but not as unhealthy as some other cereals." The advertising campaign must be based on the nutritional information they research on their own.
After all of the students have made their presentations, the class will discuss what they have learned, in terms of how and why they make decisions about what they eat. They will discuss if the way they eat has changed as a result of the unit.
Rubric and analytic scoring matrix
The final presentation will be judged…
A survey will be developed as a part of implementation of the BSC system in this hospital to track customer satisfaction with the services that they receive here.
A positive image of the organization translates into repeat business and a more positive reputation in the neighborhood, Patient satisfaction translates into increased future revenues. It also has some positive impact on risk assessment as well. The more satisfied the customer is, the less likely they will file an adverse lawsuit against the hospital. Patient satisfaction has a direct impact on the profitability of the organization. The number of complains that the facility receives can also be an important measure of the overall customer satisfaction. However, this number alone may not tell the entire story. A customer survey is the best method for addressing overall satisfaction with the facility.
Patient involvement was another important indicator of BSC technologies. Patient involvement means providing…
National Health Foundation of California. 2004. Survey of Hospital Performance Measurement Activities in California. National Health Foundation of California. Available at http://www.nhfca.org/reports/PMSCAExecutiveSummary.pdf [Accessed 30 April 2008].
Walker, K. & Dunn, L. 2006. Improving hospital performance and productivity with the balanced scorecard. Academy of Health Care Management Journal. Annual. Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1TOQ/is_2/ai_n25009491 [Accessed 30 April 2008].
This is when the university arranges for: providing educational, healthcare, and counseling services to all the students. The aim is to support wellness practices for the long-term health of everyone.
The establishment of conversations with teaching faculty that has resulted in model community "service learning" projects consistent with the mission of the college or university.
The drug and alcohol program supports coordination among: the students, university administration, and faculty members in different areas. As students are assisted by the faculty members to deal with different learning issues they could face. Where, they are encouraged to discuss their problems with the teaching staff or counselors, in order to receive help on: strategies and skills required to achieve success in the real world. This is significant, because we are creating different student learning projects that are a collaborative effort between: staff members and the students. This is in line with the mission…
Effective Strategies to Reduce High Risk Drinking. (2006). Forum On Public Policy. Retrieved from: www.forumonpublicpolicy.com/archivesum07/brinkley.pdf
Learning Reconsidered: A Campus-Wide Focus on The Student Experience. (2004). Delsuggs. Retrieved from: http://www.delsuggs.com/articles/Learning%20Reconsidered.pdf
Student Affairs 8. (2011). Essaytree. Retrieved from: http://*****/education-theories/student-affairs-8/
DeJong, W.. (2005). A Typology for Campus-Based Alcohol Prevention: Moving toward Environmental Management Strategies. College Drinking Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/supportingresearch/journal/dejong.aspx
Such assistance allows him to focus more clearly on his school work and lessens his tendency to be distracted by others and by the classroom activity. The presence of the paraprofessional also seems to enable him to be more confident in his interactions with the other students in the classroom. Since the beginning of the school year, John has been participating in a contract (behavioral plan) that was drafted in an attempt to provide him with some structure. For the moment, John continues to have occasional problems but, overall, he has done well within the confines of the contract and a continuation of the contract terms would seem to be in his best interests. At the present time, there is no compelling need to adjust the contract.
As has been already mentioned, John functions best under the guidance of his paraprofessional. The presence of the paraprofessional appears to provide…
Students with ADHD
Education 518, Section B13
Dr. Carolyn McCreight
Qualitative article review: Students with ADHD
Homeschooling is one of the controversial approaches to educate children with 'special needs'. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are preferred to be taught at home by their parents. Instructors for homeschooling are also arranged for this purpose. However, there has been widespread criticism on this method of teaching attention-deficit students. The main purpose of this paper is to review a qualitative study conducted on the topic of providing homeschooling to attention-deficit students. Duvall, Delquadri and Ward (2004) conducted a study to investigate the appropriateness of homeschooling environment for instructing basic skills to children with special needs. The main purpose of this qualitative study was to ascertain whether or not parents of children having attention-deficit as well as hyperactivity disorder could provide their children with instructional environmental that was conducive for facilitating acquisition of…
Duvall, S.F., Delquadri, J.C., & Ward, D.L. (2004). A Preliminary Investigation of the Effectiveness of Home-school Instructional Environments for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 140-158.
Moreover, if a student asked to be transferred to a mainstream class he or she did not receive approval. Errors in the U.S. school system have made it possible for African-American students to be involved in bilingual classes. So far, nothing seems to be out of the ordinary, but the strange thing is that they've been put to learn alongside Chinese speaking students also involved in bilingual programs. The motive for this is that the only available places that the black students could fill had been in the Chinese bilingual classes. (Chavez & Lyons)
Parents are not willing to accept having their English-speaking children being sent to bilingual classes any more. Students that aren't literate in English or Spanish are being prevented from learning English and from fitting in the American society.
The people that are not fond of bilingual education programs claim that the theory that children have to…
Krashen, Stephen. "Why Bilingual Education?," Retrieved February 23, 2009, from Ericdigests Web site: http://www.ericdigests.org/1997-3/bilingual.html
Linda Chavez, and James J. Lyons, "Q: Is Bilingual Education Failing to Help America's Schoolchildren?," Insight on the News 3 June 1996, Questia, 23 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000358053 .
Mar'a Estela Brisk, Bilingual Education From Compensatory to Quality Schooling (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998) 1, Questia, 23 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14165477 .
Natalie Cerda & Christina M. Hernandez, "Bilingual Education,"Retrieved February 23, 2009, from Bilingual Education Web site: http://www.freewebs.com/cerdahdz/historyofbilingualed.htm
Students and Learning
The learner-based outcome that I've chosen for this paper involves all students being able to successfully complete a physical education curriculum designed to enhance overall physical strength, improve dexterity and increase stamina. For this learner-based outcome, it is important to create a rubric so that students understand the criteria involved for measuring success. Toward this endeavor, it is important to include concrete, attainable and measurable goals for all students.
Such a physical education curriculum involving learner based outcomes is justified given the importance of physical activity for children. Childhood obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled…
Golder, G. (2003). Inclusive education: Making the most of what's available. The British Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 34(2), 2327.
McCaughtry, N., & Rovegno, I. (2003). Development of pedagogical content knowledge: Moving from blaming students to predicting skilfulness, recognizing motor development, and understanding emotion. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 22(4), 355-368.
Rink, J.E. (2001). Investigating the assumptions of pedagogy. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 20(2), 112-128.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). The Role of Schools in Preventing Childhood Obesity. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/physicalactivity/pdf/roleofschools_obesity.pdf
They must also solve polynomial, exponential and logarithmic equations both analytically and graphically.
tandard 4: tudents must be able to understand and use matrices to perform basic operations. This includes addition, subtraction, multiplication and inversion of matrices. They must also be able to identify the appropriate methods and technology to accomplish this. In addition, students must demonstrate the ability to find the inverses of two-by-two matrices without only with the use of pencil and paper, without additional technology.
tandards for Grade Level 11
tandard 1: At the end of this grade level, students must be able to explore rational functions in terms of investigating and explaining the characteristics of rational functions. Elements such as domain, range, zeros, points of discontinuation, and intervals of increase and decrease must be included in this ability. They must also find the inverses of rational functions with discussions of domain and range, symmetry, and function…
Cox, K. (2006). Georgia Performance Standards: Mathematics 2. Georgia Dept of Education. Retrieved from https://www.georgiastandards.org/standards/Georgia%20Performance%20Standards/Math-II-Stds-rev-0409.pdf
Cox, K. (2006). Georgia Performance Standards: Mathematics 3. Georgia Dept of Education. Retrieved from https://www.georgiastandards.org/standards/Georgia%20Performance%20Standards/Math-III-Stds-rev-0409.pdf
Cox, K. (2006). Georgia Performance Standards: Mathematics 4. Georgia Dept of Education. Retrieved from https://www.georgiastandards.org/standards/Georgia%20Performance%20Standards/Math-IV-Stds.pdf
Dillon, S. (2010, Mar 10). Panel Proposes Single Standard for All Schools. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/11/education/11educ.html
Explaining the way structure organization works will help shape them in their adult lives. Through allowing student participation in major decision making, many students feel empowered. They gain a position of power in their own lives when they help make decisions concerning academic matters, which are essentially the most important in their young lives.
Another benefit of open discussion of the learning process is the trust which the student places in the hands administrators and parents. Authority figures are not daunting and do not act secretly, rather they are trusted figures which help guide the students decisions. This opens up opportunities to better suit the true needs of the student in question. With more student honesty comes better attention to that students actual needs within their current academic environment.
It is essential that students are involved with at least some part of the learning process they go through on a…
According to the Illinois Legal Aid Online (2018) Bullying can be understood as the aggressive and unwanted traits espoused by school going children. The traits entail some perceived or real power imbalance. Some of the students will use this power (such as their physical strength, popularity, access to privileged information) to harm, blackmail or harm other students. This behavior has to be repeated or have the potential of being repeated for it to qualify as bullying (Illinois Legal Aid Online, 2018). This paper explores a bullying scenario and maps out a strategy to alleviate bullying among students. In doing so the paper quotes three cases (i.e. Goss v. Lopez, Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, and New Jersey v. T.L.O). The rulings in these cases will be used to delineate the process of investigation, disciplining of bullies and bullying prevention measures. The paper also…
This research will fill in a gap that was discovered in the literature review. There have been many, even in an academic setting, that have made comments regarding the effects of email on the student environment. However, there have been no significant studies to substantiate these claims. This study will fill in the existing gap in research and will examine the actual importance of email to the academic setting.
Chapter 2: Literature eview
The importance of technology in the academic setting was an accepted fact from the inception of the internet. However, there have been few academic studies that have attempted to quantify its impact on student lives and success. In order to understand the importance of email and its impact on students lives, one must examine several areas of academic research on the topic. It has been implied that self-esteem and a feeling of satisfaction play an important role…
Beffa-Negrini, P., Miller, B., and Cohen, N. (2002). Factors related to success and satisfaction in online learning. Academic Exchange Quarterly. September 2002.
Borowitz S., & Wyatt J. (1998) the origin, content, and workload of e-mail consultations. JAMA 280: 1321-4.
CNN.com. (2003). Firm can e-mail at work. September 19, 2003. CNN.Com Retrieved October 29, 2007 at http://www.cnn.com/2003/TECH/internet/09/19/e-mail.ban/index.html
Ferguson T. (1996). A guided tour of self-help cyberspace. [monograph on the Internet]. Rockville (MD): Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of Public Health and Science, Office of the Secretary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1996 Retrieved November 3, 2007 at http://odphp.osophs.dhhs.gov/confrnce/partnr96/summary.htm
Student Affairs as Both A Field of Study and a Profession
What is Student Affairs?
Tyrell (2014) believes student affairs professionals have a continually expanding and evolving role in community colleges, with recognition of increasingly complex student experiences and with broadening of community colleges' role in the way students are engaged outside of and within formal, institutional settings.
The student affairs domain is an extensive and complex part of college campus operations, covering several departments and involving professionals hailing from a broad range of academic backgrounds. Student learning does not occur only in classrooms; rather, it is interwoven all through students' experiences in college, right from their freshmen days to the time they leave its doors after earning their college diploma. College students are molded by these experiences, conflict management lessons learnt from sharing dorms with fellow students, critical thinking skills perfected through challenging coursework, leadership skills attained through leadership…
Hoffman, J. L., & Bresciani, M. (2012). Identifying What Student Affairs Professionals Value: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Professional Competencies Listed in Job Descriptions. Research & Practice In Assessment, Vol 7, 26-40. Retrieved from http://www.rpajournal.com/
Long, D. (2012). The Foundations of Student Affairs: A Guide to the Profession. In L. J. Wong, Environments for student growth and development: Librarians and student affairs in collaboration (pp. 1-39). Chicago: Association of College & Research Libraries. Retrieved from http://ir.library.illinoisstate.edu
Long, D. (2012). Theories and Models of Student Development. In L. J. Wong, Environments for student growth and development: Librarians and student affairs in collaboration (pp. 41-55). Chicago: Association of College & Research Libraries. Retrieved from
The governance of a corporation is the role of the board of directors and the management has the duty of running the firm on a day to day basis. The board, therefore, oversees the management and ensures the interests of the various shareholders are upheld. The executive department is made up of the top level managers and they are required to work as a team so as to deliver on the company goals. According to Wash (2002), management can only be successful in their work if they have clearly defined work description. CEO or company president is a vital position towards the success of any firm as they must take up the leadership mantle, work closely with the top-management, and ensure clear organizational mission, vision, and operational goals.
As a result of clarity in work description and the responsibilities of members of the board, the Innovations Theater has…
The next three categories deal with the lack of information: 4) lack of information about the career decision-making process, itself; 5) lack of information about one's own capabilities, personal traits or interests; 6) lack of information about occupations and what work is involved and the type of work available; and 7) lack of information about ways of obtaining career information. The final three categories deal with the inconsistent information that students receive that make decision-making difficult: 8) inconsistent information due to unreliable sources;
9) inconsistent information due to internal conflicts, such personal identity and 10) insistent information due to external conflicts with significant others.
Once students have had a an opportunity to learn more about their personal traits in relationship to careers and the type of positions available, they want to actually have an opportunity to learn more right from the source. However, even at community schools, only two percent…
It is our belief that such integration will provide reciprocal benefits. Learners will more fully understand information technologies in the process of applying them across the curriculum and their understanding of other curriculum areas will be similarly enriched as they work to apply it skills in those contexts. Furthermore, there is a need to ensure that people understand the connections between information technologies and the other skills they attain in school, skills they use in work, and in everyday life.
Findings of the Initial Literature eview Phase of the esearch
There exists a lack of technological integration which is noted at all levels of the educational forum as being one that is detrimental to the future of the student if not adequately addressed. The smaller schools appear to be providing better instruction and 'care' of their students as well as better technological instruction and overall better outcomes in terms of…
Digital Transformation: A Framework for ICT Literacy: A Report of the International ICT Literacy Panel educational testing service. Online available at http://www.ets.org/research/ictliteracy/ictreport.pdf
Berkowitz, Bob (2001) Research Study: The Big6 ™ and Student Achievement - Report of an Action Research Study. Online available at http://www.big6.com/showarticle.php?id=11&page=2.
The Importance of Contemporary Literacy in the Digital Age: A Response to Digital Transformation: A Framework for Information Communication Technologies (ICT) Literacy http://www.big6.com/showarticle.php?id=157
Cotton, Kathleen (1996) School Size, School Climate and Student Performance
Pretraining: Before implementing the actual intervention method, the classroom teacher will conduct two 20 minute group instruction sessions designed how to teach the students to report their peers prosocial behaviors as well as general positive variables that have been observed on the part of their peers. Emphasis will be placed on the fact that all students of the class have to be involved. The teacher will allow the students to select their desired reward as long as this were feasible and practical and will ensure that unanimous approval and interest is evidenced in desired reward. A cumulative goal (e.g. 120 tootles) too will be unanimously decided on. The teacher will ascertain that all students understand the elements and conditions of 'tootling', that all agree to be involved, and that questions, if any, are satisfactorily addressed and answered. Students will be encouraged to provide examples of instances that can be mentioned…
Anderson, C.M., & Kincaid, D. (2005). Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: School wide positive behavior support. The Behavior Analyst, 28(1), 49 -- 63.
Cashwell, T.H., Skinner, C.H., & Smith, E.S. (2001). Increasing second-grade students' reports of peers prosocial behaviors via direct instruction, group reinforcement, and progress feedback: A replication and extension. Education and Treatment of Children, 24, 161 -- 175.
Cihak, D., Kirk, E., & Boon, R. (2009) Effects of Classwide Positive Peer "Tootling" to Reduce the Disruptive Classroom Behaviors of Elementary Students with and without Disabilities J. Behav Educ 18:267 -- 278
Fairbanks, S., Sugai, G., Guadino, D., & Lathrop, M. (2007). Response to intervention: Examining classroom behavior support in second grade. Exceptional Children, 73, 288 -- 310.
Clickers/esponses Phonics Lesson
Phonics Long Vowel - Silent e Lesson Plan for Special Education
Students will recognize and say words that follow the c-v-c-e and v-c-e rule where the first vowel is a long vowel and the final e is silent. By using the Clickers/esponses as a classroom game they will utilize them after hearing the correct sounds.
Students with the will be able to spell and write out some basic long vowel words that have c-v-c-e and v-c-e spelling patterns and will use the Clickers/esponses when they hear the right sound.
About the Concept:
There are several regular long vowel spelling patterns in the English language. The c-v-c-e pattern (consonant-vowel-consonant-final e) is a long vowel spelling pattern which occurs quite frequently in early reading and spelling. Essentially, the phonics rule for this design mentions that when a vowel and final e are separated by a single consonant, the…
Indiana Standards. (2010, March 3). Retrieved from Learniing Connection: https://learningconnection.doe.in.gov/Standards/About.aspx?art=11
Classroom Resources. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from ReadWritethink: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/
Elementary K-5 Writing Curriculum. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Melrose Public Schools: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:aLFi5i1eLl4J:www.melroseschools.com/lincoln/MPS_Writing_Curriculum_K_5.pdf+writing+curriculum+for+elementary&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShGXpwCDU3mdB2rQVO2e3Dav6AgQn-3Ng2vDjsDa_f50Pd5k8wDn4zmQH2cTwV3P7kAA2v9zu
Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests® Online. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Online reading test: http://www.riversidepublishing.com/products/gmrtOnline/index.html
hile some suggest that high-stakes testing is an inadequate way of measuring the academic achievement and learning of most students, many also agree that high-stakes testing has severe disadvantages for special education students. Kymes points out that high-stakes testing may be a discriminatory assessment method for special needs students, placing an "unfair burden" on these students. The scholar argues that testing plans cannot be created for each and every student, and even when they can, these testing plans are not always put into practice (Kymes). In addition, Ralabate notes the importance of finding alternate testing methods that allow students with disabilities to perform to their highest ability.
Determining that high-stakes testing is not a correct method of assessment for special needs students, however, is just half of the task at hand. In fact, significant information exists to argue that students with disabilities, in addition to schools, can be seriously harmed…
Fact Sheet: No Child Left Behind. 8 January 2002. The White House. 19 November 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020108.html
Kymes, Nancy. "The No Child Left Behind Act: A Look at Provisions, Philosophies, and Compromises." Journal of Industrial Teacher Education. 41.2 (2004) 19 November 2008. http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JITE/v41n2/kymes.html
Marlow, Ediger. Assessment and High Stakes Testing. Speech, 2001. Educational
Resource Information Center. ED449234.
Teaching ESL Students
At least 3.5 million children every year are identified as possessing limited English proficiency and require additional support before they are mainstreamed into the regular classroom environment (Miller & Endo 2004: 786). Approaches to ESL instruction run the gamut from total immersion to fostering a largely bilingual approach to education for this group of students. The two typical program approaches are that of a transitional bilingual education (TBE) versus a structured (sheltered) English immersion (SEI) program. In TBE, students are instructed in their native language and slowly transitioned to English, and are mainstreamed within 2-3 years to an English-only environment. In the SEI model, all instruction is provided in English immediately, with no accommodations (Tong 2009). A "major challenge that schools face under the pressure of the landmark No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 is to prepare ELLs with native-like English proficiency through various instructional models…
Miller, P. & Endo, H. (2004). Understanding and meeting the needs of ESL learners. Phi Delta
Owens, A. (2010). In the Aftermath of question 2: Students with Limited English Proficiency in Massachusetts. Massachusetts Office for Refugees and Immigrants: Special report.
(Thompson, Morse, Sharpe and Hall, 2005, p.40)
The work of Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and os (2002) entitled: "Reading Instruction for Students with LD and ED" published in the Journal of Special Education repots a synthesis of "previous observation studies conducted during reading with students with learning disabilities (LD) and emotional/behavioral disorders (ED)." (p.1) a systematic process of review of research conducted between 1975 and 2000 is stated to have "yielded a total of 16 studies 11 independent samples) that met all preestablished criteria." (Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and os, 2002, p. 1) Finding from the study include: (1) There was substantial time allocated for reading instruction, though the time varied based on whether students were in special education or general education or both; (2) students were provided more individual and group instruction in special education; (3) the quality of reading instruction was low, overall, with excessive time allocated to waiting and…
Fletcher, Jack M. (2002) Researchers support early intervention for all children
Drummond, Kathryn (2005) About Reading Disabilities, Learning Disabilities, and Reading Difficulties. Reading Rockets. 2005. Online available at http://www.readingrockets.org/article/639
Mastropieri, Margo and Graetz, Janet (2003) Implementing Research-Based Reading Interventions to Improve Access to the General Education Curriculum
Lazarus, Belinda Davis and Callahan, Thomas (2000) Attitudes Toward Reading Expressed by Elementary School Students Diagnosed with Learning Disabilities. Reading Psychology 21: 281-282. Copyright 2002 Taylor & Francis. Online available at http://www.usm.maine.edu/~amoroso/edu621/4050957.pdf
achievement of African-American students in civilian public schools vs. African-American students in the Depart of Defense (DOD) school system
The methods section of this dissertation provides the rationale for the proposed study based on my hypothesis comparing African-American students in the DOD school system with African-American students in civilian school systems.
It also highlights the key questions that were examined, how the study was conducted and the measuring criteria for analysis. The paper will provide detailed information that should be a sufficient foundation for anyone who wishes to conduct a parallel study.
This portion of the paper will provide an outline of the following:
Purpose - which will define my reason for doing this study
Background Information - will provide information on the level of measurement I have selected, i.e. The SAT scores and information on the Department of Defense (DOD) school system itself
Procedure - outlines the steps that…
Fact Sheet. The National Center for Fair and Open Testing. Cambridge, MA. August 2001.
George A. Clowes. "Defense Dept. Knows How to Operate Good Schools, Too." School Reform News. January 2002.
Defense Department Taps Distance Learning Tools. www.wtonline.com.Volume13, No.22. February
Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…
Only the direct supervisor may access the performance appraisal with request from District officials. Any other personnel requesting review of information must acquire permission from appropriate District representatives.
In the event of a negative performance review the evaluatee will have the ability to appeal the performance review. In the event the appeal is denied and the evaluation demonstrates that the teacher has deficiencies in one or more areas it will be necessary to recommend measures to resolve the negative performance issues.
If the matter is related to performance abilities or skills, appropriate training and mentoring may be recommended; with a follow up mid year evaluation recommended six months from the date of completion of the initial review.
If the performance evaluation is unsatisfactory due to issues of attendance or other personal matters, the evaluatee will be observed for the next three months and given the opportunity to resolve…
Teacher Feedback in the Learning Process
Teacher feedback has traditionally been a normal part of the teacher-students relationship in the learning process. This is primarily because feedback is widely acknowledged as a significant part of the learning cycle. Despite the significance of teacher feedback in the learning process, few studies have focused on examining whether university teachers and students value feedback differently. Actually, teachers and students have often expressed their frustrations and dissatisfaction on how the feedback process is carried out. The frustrations and disappointment has in turn acted as a sign of the differences in how university teachers and students value feedback in different ways. In light of this fact as well as findings on student-centered research, it is quite evident that university teachers and students value feedback in different ways.
Importance of Teacher Feedback
As previously mentioned, teacher feedback has long been an important and usual component of…
Christenson, S.L., Reschly, A.L. & Wylie, C. (2012). Handbook of research on student engagement. New York, NY: Springer.
Rowe, A. (2010, July). The Personal Dimension in Teaching: Why Students Value Feedback. International Journal of Educational Management, 25(4), 343-360.
Spiller, D. (2009, February). Assessment: Feedback to Promote Student Learning. Retrieved from The University of Waikato website: http://www.waikato.ac.nz/tdu/pdf/booklets/6_AssessmentFeedback.pdf
Stenger, M. (2014, August 6). 5 Research-Based Tips for Providing Students with Meaningful Feedback. Retrieved July 31, 2015, from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/tips-providing-students-meaningful-feedback-marianne-stenger
Teacher Performance Assessment
Lesson Title: Science
Central Focus of Lessons: What science is all about
State Standard(s) Addressed: 7th Grade on science, science methodology and famous scientists.
Lesson Objectives and Language Demands
• Content/Skill Objectives:
Students should state the definition of science
Students should discuss the various science methodologies
Students should name and discuss various prominent scientists
Students should be able to identify the application of science in day to day life
Language Demands: students are required to define and describe what science is. They should also be able to use this understanding of science to apply scientific knowledge.
Use scientific terms and language both in spoken and written presentations of scientific information.
• Key Vocabulary:
Science, scientists, famous scientists, scientific methods
esources and Materials
• esources: class text-books, handouts, charts etc.
• Materials: worksheets, games, projector, Smartboard, paper, pencils, art supplies, cards, post- its, etc.)
NOTE: Attach and/or embed…
Edelson Daniel (2001). Learning-for-use: A framework for the design of technology-supported inquiry activities. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Volume 38, Issue 3. Pages 355 -- 385.
Pappas Christoforos (2014). Instructional Design Models and Theories: Inquiry-based Learning Model. https://elearningindustry.com/inquiry-based-learning-model
The ease of use of email systems for example generally tend to relate to high satisfaction levels. According to the study, students find it extremely convenient to be able to contact instructors at any time according to their convenience and available time frame. This does away with the inconvenience of specific office hours or telephone availability. This satisfaction is however also related to the ability of the instructor to respond to email in a speedy fashion. In Enockson's study, for example, the instructor made an effort to consistently respond within 24 hours. Students also experienced the online system as particularly convenient, as physical barriers to communication were eliminated, and students were able to set their own hours for instruction and communication. The time and costs of commuting are also eliminated by the use of such a system. This is the basic advantage of a generally online system of instruction as…
Types of Parental Involvement and Support that Boost Young Children’s Academic Performance
That there is a link between parental support and involvement and students performance is almost incontrovertible. Many studies agree to this and statistical data reveals that most researchers have the same thoughts on the matter (Jeynes, 2015; Wilder, 2013). However, it is not clear as to which kinds of parental involvement and support are effective for which ages and the types of academic performance they affect. This research seeks to find out the kind of parental support and involvement that is efficacious for good student achievement for children who are in grades 3 and 7.
Background and Significance
Studies have persistently revealed that there’s an almost incontestable link between the involvement and support of parents and student achievement. In fact, meta-analyses suggest that parental participation and help affect children’s academic performance across different ages and ethnic groups…
Sometimes, an apparently poor performance on a standardized proficiency exam may be a remarkable performance for an individual student, although not when compared to the rest of the district's more privileged or capable children,
Linking pay to student performance provides a profound disincentive for teachers not to take the risk of teaching in historically disenfranchised and underperforming school districts. Why work twice as hard to deal with students who are more difficult to educate, for less pay? Finally, linking pay to performance assumes the validity of the test used to measure student performance. Teachers who teach 'to the test' may receive a bonus, while teachers who spend time devising creative assignments, or who cover material in a way that deals with all of the student's multiple intelligences, rather than just the verbal and mathematical capabilities tested on standardized proficiency tests, may not be rewarded adequately.
Figure 1. Pre-Test eading Scores
A second independent samples t-test was run to determine whether there were significant differences between the two groups on the post-test FCAT 2.0 reading scores. The results indicate that there was a significant difference between the two groups, such that the students in the intervention group had higher post-test scores than the students in the control group (t58 = -4.677, p < .001.). The group difference in post-test scores is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Post-Test eading Scores
Two paired t-test analyses were also run. The first paired t-test analysis examined individual improvement between pre and post-tests for the entire sample. The results showed a significant increase in test scores, with a mean increase of 13 points and a standard deviation of 6.2, t59 = -16.14, p < .001.
A second paired t-test analysis, with the data split by group, indicated that both groups…
Anderson, S. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement, 37(2), 61-86.
Callenbach, C. (1973). The effects of instruction and practice in content-independent test-taking techniques upon the standardized reading test scores of selected second-grade students. Journal of Educational Measurement, 10: 25 -- 29.
Halpern, R. (1999). After-school programs for low-income children: Promise and Challenges. The Future of Children, 9(2), 81-95.
Herman, J.L. And Golan, S. (1993). The Effects of Standardized Testing on Teaching and Schools. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 12: 20 -- 25.
ecently, Harvard professors ceased giving final exams as part of their overall assessment of student performance (Strauss, 2010). In a radical transformation of official college policy, the Faculty of Arts and Sciences voted to eliminate exams and require professors who wish to administer them to file an application form. The reverse used to be true: exams were the norm and professors wishing to opt-out would have to ask for permission.
What has caused this startling turn of events? Evidence, for one. In Test Problems: Seven easons Why Standardized Tests Are Not Working, Sadker & Zittleman (n.d.) outline empirical evidence supporting a shift away from examinations as the primary measure of student success. Examinations do measure a certain type of achievement, but they should not be used as the only method of gauging student progress and performance. One of the core reasons cited by Sadker & Zittleman (n.d.) include student…
"How Should We Measure Student Learning? The Many Forms of Assessment," (n.d.). Edutopia. Retrieved online: http://www.edutopia.org/comprehensive-assessment-introduction
Sadker, D. & Zittleman, K. (n.d.). Test Problems: Seven Reasons Why Standardized Tests Are Not Working " Excerpt from: Teachers, Schools, and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education p. 370-376."
Strauss, V. (2010). Harvard profs dropping final exams. The Washington Post. July 17, 2010. Retrieved online: http://voices.washingtonpost.com/answer-sheet/learning/harvard-profs-giving-up-final.html
attitudes and values of high school students. eforms to the high school system in the United States are also explained. Additionally, the reason why students need not be involved in the planning of reforms is elucidated.
High School Students: their Attitudes and Values
Of a crucial age, climbing a milestone, conscious to their fullest with no fear of prospects, high school students have interested researchers and policy makers for centuries. They have quite a few common traits -- they behave as individuals of their own age group in a rather full-fledged way. They are go-getting to achieve their independence, they are show-offs, impressionable persons desiring to be their best (something to be learned) and to suit the times they live in. Their self-esteem is fragile and they are pretty sensitive to criticism, attention, and dilemmas, for instance, within their families.
Students from different socioeconomic backgrounds behave differently as has been…
Barber, A. (1997. March). Rough language plagues schools, educators say. USA Today, pp 06D.
Committee for increasing high school students' engagement and motivation to learn. National Academies. Internet. http://www4.nas.edu/cp.nsf/Projects+_by+_PIN/BCYF-I-01-01-A?OpenDocument.Available on August 25, 2003.
Doyle, M. Failing to connect: Schools face increased pressure when students flunk classes. The Columbian, March 16, 2003, pp Front Page.
Educational reforms and students at risk: A review of the current state of the art. (1994. January). Internet. http://www.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/EdReforms/.Available on August 25, 2003.
Authentic Assessment, Grant Wiggins makes the case that authentic assessment is superior to traditional assessment in an educational setting. The article, published in the EIC Digest, describes some differences between authentic and traditional assessment. Further, Wiggins notes that authentic assessment is often seen as time-consuming and expensive, and there may be problems with the public's acceptance that authentic assessment can be objective and reliable. Overall, begins fails to effectively address these issues.
To Wiggins, authentic assessment occurs "when we directly examine student performance on worthy intellectual tasks." This can include measurement off problem-solving and problem posting skills in mathematics, or the ability to listen to speak or facilitate the discussion. Authentic assessment require students to access all of the information and challenges found within the instructional environment, and can include conducting research, revision, writing, discussion, oral analysis, or collaboration. In an authentic assessment environment, students are faced with what are…
Wiggins, Grant. 1990. The Case for Authentic Assessment. ERIC Digest, ERIC Identifier: ED328611. Publication Date: 1990-12-00. 18 October 2004. http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed328611.html
Learning Styles -- Academic Performance
There has been a great deal of scholarly research done on how students learn, and how certain learning styles impact the academic outcomes. This paper delves into four scholarly research papers that describe learning styles and the subsequent academic achievements that result from those learning styles.
Deep Learning is Preferable to Surface Learning
Several learning styles were used in a research project involving 273 Social Science students at a British university. The learning styles being rated and observed (part of Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles) included "deep learning," "self-regulated learning," "intrinsic motivation," and "constructivist conception of learning." In the research, these four styles of learning were seen as preferable to "surface learning," "teacher-centered learning," "extrinsic motivation," and "objectivist conception of learning" (Boyle, et al., 2003). The most acceptable learning style in terms of the student achieving positive academic gains was "deep learning," which requires the…
Boatman, K., Courtney, R., and Lee, W. (2008). "See How They Learn": The Impact of Faculty and Student Learning Styles on Student Performance in Introductory
Economics. The American Economist, 52(1), 39-52.
Boyle, E. A., Duffy, T., and Dunleavy, K. (2003). Learning styles and academic outcome:
The validity and utility of Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles in a British higher education setting. British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 73, 267-290.
Doherty et.al present the development and validation of the Standards Performance Continuum (SPC), a measure to assess the use of the Standards for Effective Pedagogy. A 5-point rubric, the SPC is based on the sociocultural approach to learning, and conceptualizes the dimensions underlying the five pedagogy standards of joint productive activity, language and literacy development, contextualization, challenging activities, and instructional conversation (IC) to define five levels of enactment. Testing of the SPC interrater reliability and concurrent validity with other instruments measuring the same constructs such as Teachers oles Observation Schedule (TOS) and Classroom Observation Measure (COM) proved to be positive. Lastly, the validity of the SPC as a measure of assessment of effective pedagogy was tested for criterion-related, or predictive validity using the hypothesis that higher SPC ratings would be associated with higher normal curve equivalent scores on end-of-year standardized tests of comprehension, language, reading, spelling, and vocabulary achievement. The…
Doherty, R.W., Hilberg, R.S., Epaloose, G., & Tharp, R.G. Standards Performance
Continuum: Development and Validation of a Measure of Effective Pedagogy.
Doherty, R.W. et.al. (Mar. 2002). Research Evidence Five Standards of Effective Pedagogy and Student Outcomes. Technical Report No. G1. Retrieved Feb. 5, 2004 from Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence: http://www.crede.ucsc.edu/research/pdd/5stand_evidence.html
dramatic change in the American public schools' demographics due to the country's immigration peak; the highest in the nation's history. This is happening at a time when American schools are charged with the highest accountability level for students' performance in academics. The country's cultural, ethnic and linguistic diversity is reflected by the families and students in K-12 classrooms. It is important that teachers prepare to satisfy the diverse linguistic, developmental, educational and cultural needs of such students for them to learn and develop optimally. Today, more than ever, teachers face the challenge of how they can best meet the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students. Therefore, every educator today is an ESL/ELL teacher. This paper looks into one of the needs of CLD students and how teachers can help them attain their needs. The paper Will look specifically into the needs of a CLD learner - Jack A.…
Alford, J. (2001). Learning language and critical literacy: Adolescent ESL students. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. 45(3). pp. 238-242.
Boyd-Batstone, P. (2004). Focused anecdotal records assessment: A tool for standards based authentic assessment. The Reading Teacher, 58 (3), pp. 230-239.
Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research and practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. National Center for Education Statistics. (2011) English language learners in public schools. Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved from: https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d12/tables/dt12_047.asp
National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers. (2010). Common Core State Standards for English language arts and literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. Washington, DC: Authors.
(HESI). This instrument will be chosen for this study because it was developed by nurse educators and clinicians using the model for writing critical-thinking test items which requires application of clinical nursing judgment to determine correct responses. The psychometric property of the HESI exit exam has an estimated reliability coefficient (KR-20) of 0.951. The HESI Predictability Model (HPM), a proprietary mathematical model, is used to calculate all HESI scores. The quality of the instrument that helped to evaluate the utility of the instrument is that the researchers in selecting the instrument, wanted to investigate the validity of a computerized exam because such an instrument could provide immediate feedback of students' scores, secondly it was important that the exam be similar to the NCLEX-RN test blueprint, and finally cumulative reports should provide information that might be useful in evaluating nursing curriculum.
2. Evaluate the measurement tool addressing the following:
classroom assessment, a teacher determines his or her current point within the instructional sequence of a unit of study and identifies the student academic learning goals to measure.
"Select one class, a content area, and a unit of study to work with as you complete this performance task. Respond to the prompts below about the unit of study and its assessment."
Content Area: Math:
Grade level: 5 Content area: Mathematics Subject matter: _Graphs, Functions and Equations
"List the state-adopted academic content standards or state-adopted framework you will cover in this unit."
Graphs, Function Probability and statistics, and Equation: Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability:
1.1: Arranges the raw data to plot graph and interprets the meaning of the data to produce information from the graph.
1.2: Understands the strategy to produce pair correctly .
Functions and Equations:
1.1: Uses the information collected from the equation or graph to answer…
Education - Theory
Addressing etention Issues in Community CollegesUsing Transition and Ecological/Environment Theory
Many community colleges face serious retention issues that affect student performance, persistence, and learning. The rationale employed in identifying alternative assessments involves overriding standardized test validities and predictive reliability issues. However, there are concerns regarding the derived holistic understanding among student outcomes. The goal of providing college educators through alternative supplemental approaches facilitate standardized testing of various evaluative measures as introduced. The issues of student self-assessment and social and value-added assessments, evaluations, and personal growth portfolios within community colleges had increased. The design suggests an institution of the writing and implementation of parallel outcomes in the studies are linked to different fundamental questions serving as subjects of confirm relevance to campus dynamics and student success.
The levels involved in making the students leave or stay are informative points on student engagement. This includes social and academic connection…
Braxton, J.M., & Doyle, W.R. (2013). Rethinking College Student Retention. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological Models of Human Development. International Encyclopedia of Education, vol. 3, 2nd ed., 131-214.
Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., & Guido-DiBrito, F. (2010). Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.
Forney, E., & DiBrito, G. (1998).Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. pp. 111-114.
populations, factors, or variables.
The objective of carrying out this statistical analysis is to learn more about the relations between variables that may influence student performance in the Lincoln County schools. The specific variables of interest in this analysis are the region of the county and the curriculum. One relationship of interest is whether a difference in student performance can be attributed to the region of the county in which the schools are located and the curriculum that is being used at the various schools. There is also interest in exploring if student performance seem to change based on the combination of curriculum used at the school the students attend and the region in which the school is located.
(a) Data Samples
A randomization generator accessible on the Web was used to select the sample. Twenty individual students were selected with each student identified only by the number indicating their…
Curriculum and Instruction
Compare and contrast the bottom-up curriculum and the top-down curriculum. Discuss instructional objectives, materials, learning environment, instructional strategies, and assessment.
The top-down belief system related to curriculum centers on reading for meaning. Teachers who hold this philosophy of reading instruction stress engaging language arts activities that students find relevant and interesting. Indeed, teacher with this top-down perspective of reading curriculum are likely to encourage students to select their own reading materials in order to optimize the students' enjoyment of reading. The shift in this approach is definitely away from a focus on individual words, letters, and phonetics. Although teachers who embrace the top-down belief system want students to be proficient readers with robust skills that enable them to enjoy their reading, these teachers tend to believe that what motivates students to work hard on their reading skills is a strong appetite for story. Accordingly, their instruction targets…
Vacca, J. Vacca, R. Gove, M. Burkey, L. Lenhart, L. McKeon, C. (2012). Reading and learning to read. (8th ed.) Pearson Education Inc. Upper Saddle River, N.J.
performance management that primarily involves investigating variances. Variances may take place because of several reasons such as climate changes that contribute to increase in electrical bills or slower of faster work by some employees. Nonetheless, only some of these factors or reasons are significant and may require management attention. Due to these unpredictable random factors or reasons, it's expected that nearly every category of cost will result in a variance of some kind. The investigation and calculation of variances is carried out to enable managers in the control of a business. However, managers need to make effective decisions on whether to conduct variance analysis for successful control.
As previously mentioned, variances are brought by several reasons that may require the attention of management. Therefore, the decision on when to investigate variances is based on consideration of several factors. These factors include the accuracy and reliability of the figures,…
Barry, J. (2010, June 16). Purchase Price Variance (PPV): the Only Believable Measure of Purchasing Performance. Retrieved September 7, 2013, from https://www.accentureacademy.com/~Blog/Purchase_Price_Variance_PPV_the_Only_Believable_Measure_of_Purchasing_Performance/view.aspx
Jay, S. (2006, October). Variance Investigation. Retrieved September 7, 2013, from http://www2.accaglobal.com/pubs/students/publications/student_accountant/archive/jay1006.pdf
Mohr, A. (n.d.). Reasons to Investigate a Budget Variance. Retrieved September 7, 2013, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/reasons-investigate-budget-variance-47924.html
student data is vital to the student's readiness, interest, learning profile and affect. As studies have shown, the more comprehensive the data about a student, the more capable a teacher becomes in tailoring lessons to use each student's strengths and address each student's challenges. By assessing X with even a simple tool like "Learning Style Inventory" and discussing the student's strengths, weaknesses, likes and dislikes, a clearer picture is obtained for accommodating her strengths and addressing her challenges with unique lessons.
The Importance and Value of Collecting Data
Rather than relying on happenstance to discover information about our students, teachers are now consciously collecting pertinent data about students, for "research and experience in increasingly global classrooms are revealing the complex interplay of factors that influence a student's learning" (Powell & Kusuma-Powell, 2011). The goal of such data collection is "personalized learning -- to use what we find out about our…
Anonymous. (nd). Learning style inventory. Retrieved on June 3, 2012 from www.personal.psu.edu Web site: http://www.personal.psu.edu/bxb11/LSI/LSI.htm
Popham, W.J. (2009, May). Assessing student affect. Retrieved on June 3, 2012 from www.ascd.org Web site: http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/may09/vol66/num08/Assessing-Student-Affect.aspx
Powell, W., & Kusuma-Powell, O. (2011). How to teach now: Chapter 1. knowing our students as learners. Retrieved on June 3, 2012 from www.ascd.org Web site: http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/111011/chapters/Knowing-Our-Students-as-Learners.aspx
It can occasionally become difficult to find projects that truly engage students and that reinforce didactic principles as well. Other challenges that are associated with performance based assessment include the pecuniary costs, as well as significant amounts of time, that are associated with coming up with alternative assessment measure. Creating and designing tests for students to complete are cost-effective, fairly quick ways of measuring a student's knowledge at a given moment in time regarding a particular subject. Consequently, many administrative officials and state level educational personnel whose jobs it is to measure the most effective usage of monetary resources for schools prefer such assessment methods, and claim that alternative methods are more costly and not necessarily even worth the time and money to create or implement.
It is difficult to say whether or not these criticisms of performance based assessment are valid or if they are simply excuses to continue…