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Cohn's growing obsession over Brett is his fault, not hers. No one can force a person to pick fights, to engage in clandestine meetings, and to play the fool. Cohn's foolishness is a direct consequence of his own lack of self-esteem and his decision to live as a literal outsider in Europe.
Even Mike Campbell, who Brett pledged to love and marry, must take responsibility for his own pain. Knowing Brett's past and her attitude toward interpersonal relationships, Mike should not expect Brett to suddenly transform her personality and lifestyle for him and in many ways Mike, like Romero and Jake, accept Brett for who she is.
Brett Ashley was, in her time, an extraordinary woman willing to break the mould and pave the way for women to become more independent in the future. Although never achieving true satisfaction or happiness for herself, Brett acts on her own convictions and…… [Read More]
Lady Brett's life is ultimately empty and unfulfilling no matter how many men she finds herself with, but she "can't go anywhere alone" as Jake points out. Her lack of commitment to any one man can be seen as a representation of how the ar destroyed traditional ideas of love and romance. In the final lines of the novel, she muses on what a relationship between her and Jake could have been, but she is stopped by a policeman signaling the cab they are riding in to stop. This moment sums up the sad state that Hemingway found the world when Jake says, "Isn't it pretty to think so?"
Robert Cohn can be seen as the old values in a new post-ar world. He is the only non-veteran among the characters presented in the book, and therefore he has retained his sense of dignity, romance, and morality. The problem is…… [Read More]
Jake Barnes is a tragic figure, one that is struggling to come to terms with himself and the society in which he lives.
Jake is like the other characters in 'The Sun Also Rises' in that he is in a society that has changed and he is struggling to find his place in it. Like the other characters, he attempts to distract himself from his problems, by leading an outwardly fun lifestyle, fueled by alcohol.
Unlike the other characters he has a sign of the changes that cannot be ignored. A war injury means that he cannot have sexual relations. While he loves Brett and she loves him, they are unable to stay together because of his inability and so he must watch her have affairs with his friends. The struggle of this adds to his problems, with his injury a constant reminder that his place as a man is…… [Read More]
" That is his hope for the future: to be able to make better sense of his suffering, and to manage to get what enjoyment he can from life
Jake's present philosophy, as these paragraphs imply, has to do with both "paying for everything" and "getting something in exchange," depending on what, how and why one pays
Jake's philosophy of "paying" and "being paid" is a sexual metaphor that works for others, but not for him.
In terms of his relationship with Brett, Jake still "pays," as other men do, but can receive nothing, sexually, in return. Thus, Jake can neither "pay" nor "be paid" sexually, as other men (and women) can
Jake, however, still wants to learn "to live in" the world as he now finds it, including learning to live with his uncomfortable condition.
Jake hopes that his own personal endurance and determination will help him "learn... what…… [Read More]
Its readability does not overcome this article's scholarly flaws.
Gay Wilentz. "(Re)eaching Hemingway: Anti-Semitism as a hematic Device in the Sun Also Rises." College English, Vol. 52, No. 2 (Feb., 1990), pp. 186-193.
Wilentz admittedly and explicitly applies a quasi-feminist reading to the novel by examining religion -- specifically, Judaism as represented by the villainous Robert Cohn. his also ties in to how the novel was received in its era, according to Wilentz's argument. She asserts that Hemingway meant to indict the Jewish race through this character, and that it is impossible to come way from the novel disliking Cohn without being slightly anti-Semitic. Much of this wrok, especially the rationale for such a reading, seems unnecessarily paranoid and unwarranted, though the biographical details Wilentz provides about Hemingway do make such a reading more plausible. All in all, however, this source seems rather too far -- fetched.
William Adair. "Cafes…… [Read More]
Sun Also Rises, by Ernest Hemingway. Specifically, it will offer a history of the critical reception of "The Sun Also Rises." This will show how the text was interpreted since the time of its publication, highlighting those critics who made a major contribution to new ways of interpreting it. Critics have looked at this book for decades, and many have come up with some interesting interpretations that challenge the reader to think more deeply about what they read.
THE SUN ALSO RISES
Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun Also Rises" is an enduring classic, which has raised numerous criticisms since its release in 1926. From the day it was released to present times, critics continue to read and review the book, and so, the book is continually being reevaluated, with new interpretations corresponding to changes in society and culture. One critic noted its immediate success and influence on the reading public.
It…… [Read More]
Although he does not talk about himself in a direct manner, in describing others, Jake reveals much about his own feelings and thoughts while struggling with his love for Lady Brett Ashley, impotence and the moral aftermath of the war. Bill Gorton is an American war veteran and close friend of Jake. hey share a strong bond although they have different ways of coping with the cruelties of war which Bill deals with using humor. Jake's love interest, Lady Brett Ashley is a beautiful British socialite who takes refuge in alcohol. Despite being in love with Jake, she does not want to embark on a committed relationship with him. In fact, she does not commit to any of the men she becomes involved with although her independence does not bring her happiness either. In many ways her life, similarly to those of many other members of the Lost Generation, lacks…… [Read More]
Great Expectations" & "The Sun also ises," one may concur that both narrators are on opposites ends of the spectrum when comparing their reliability. In Great Expectations the main, character Pip is the narrator. Pip is considered a reliable source in the novel, on the other hand in " the Sun Also ises" the narrator Jake Barnes is not viewed as a reliable source, there are scenes in the reading where it appears that one is not given all necessary information, as if to put the narrator in a better light in the reading overall. One main difference in the story detail is in the form of speech. Another correlation between the two books is the dramatic depictions of scenes and emotions throughout the readings.
The two novels compared here contrast in more ways then they compare. The setting of the book Great Expectations is in England during the mid-nineteenth…… [Read More]
Great Gatsby And Sun Also Rises
Both F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby and Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises depict the American psyche in the aftermath of the First World War. Although The Sun Also Rises is set in Europe, many of its main characters are American expatriates who seek fulfillment unsuccessfully through partying and sexual affairs. Similarly, the characters in The Great Gatsby seek stimulation through romantic relationships but also through the accumulation and display of great amounts of wealth. In both novels, the pursuit of pleasure is mitigated by a haunting emptiness. The marriages and romantic relationships in both The Great Gatsby and the Sun Also Rises fail to offer true intimacy, while infidelity underscores the illusions of love. Although most of the characters in these 20th century novels sincerely seek for wholeness and fulfillment through romance, excitement, or wealth, none emerges satisfied. Therefore, The Great Gatsby…… [Read More]
Appoximately one in six students enolled in a college o univesity, o ove 3 million individuals, paticipated in one o moe online couse in 2004. This was despite the fact that a leveling off was expected.
Anothe epot fo 2005 by Sloan showed that 850,000 moe students took distance couses in the fall this yea than 2004, an incease of nealy 40%. Once again the slowing o leveling did not come. Many seconday schools ae putting consideable esouces towad online leaning, in expectation that this appoach will be moe economical than taditional classes and also expanding thei each.
In addition, a suvey by the consulting and eseach fim Eduventues found 50% of the consumes who planned to enoll in a highe education pogam stated they would instead like to take some of thei couses online. About 80% of online students ae undegaduates, but ae nomally olde and moe apt to…… [Read More]
Rise of the Planet of the Apes
The interaction of human beings and the natural world has always been one of conflict because of the inhumane way that people can behave. Animal have been used by human beings as pets, as entertainment, and in the course of scientific research. Fictional depictions of this interaction have reflected the nature of this relationship between man and animal. Some people value animal research as a means of curing human ailments and others decry it as animal cruelty. This is not a clear cut issue, but rather one of many different viewpoints. This document will show various attitudes toward these interactions; the positive aspects of animal testing, the negative attitudes towards testing, and finally how both these attitudes are fitted into the context of the film Rise of the Planet of the Apes, a film which shows exactly how society feels about this complicated…… [Read More]
Rise of China
THE POWER OF NUMERS - AND OF ARMS
China, a Growing Threat in Southeast Asia?
The appearance or reality of peace, stability and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region in the 1990s may be drawn from the popular compliance of the countries to the provisions of an agreement (Shuja 1999). This was the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, signed in 1968 and becoming effective in 1970, by the countries or States. Their number increased to 176. They agreed to give up the use of nuclear power for military purposes. Africa, Argentina, razil, Romania and Algeria were examples of such countries. ut this image of peace and unity in the region was shattered and vanished when India and Pakistan conducted nuclear tests in May 1998. India and Pakistan had a long-time feud and the tests sent the message to the rest in the region that the protagonists could be preparing…… [Read More]
Earth evolves Around the Sun
Is this idea/theory/episode/question an example of scientific activity? Why or why not?
It's important to bear in mind that the philosophers of hundreds of years ago didn't always believe that the Earth revolved around the sun. Many of these thinkers believed that the sun revolved around the Earth and that the Earth was the center of the universe -- with the sun and all the stars and planets revolving around it. However, the complicated movement of the sun made this a very difficult theory to support. "The Sun, however, does not merely rise in the east and set in the west. You can see for yourself that the Sun only rises directly in the east on the equinoxes: at all other times of the year, it rises in the northeast (summer) or southeast (winter). Also, the Sun moves with respect to the stars: the Sun…… [Read More]
A slave was similar to a paid servant. The children of the poor people could be sold as slaves, but it was usually for a determined period of time. The slaves had the right to buy their freedom.
War was a very important activity, because of their conquering ambition and also for religious reasons. Mexicas believed that the gods had sacrificed themselves for the people and their blood had given them life. They thought that the sun lived on blood from human hearts so the purpose of human blood was to feed the sun gods and ensure their continuity and the preserving of life. The sacrifice of animals and humans was part of Aztec religion. To warriors it was the maximum honor to be killed in battle or volunteer for a sacrifice. One main reason to make war on other tribes was to capture prisoners for sacrifice.
In Aztec religion…… [Read More]
He cannot tell Angela the truth about Alice, or Alice the truth about Angela, so he is caught up in lies and deceit. He is not lonely anymore, and it seems like he will be a success at the plant, but his personal life is a mess, because he is so determined to get ahead that he cannot do the right thing. He tells Angela, "It's wonderful when you're here. I can hold you. I can, I can see you. I can hold you next to me. But what's it gonna be like next week? All summer long? I'll still be just as much in love with you. You'll be gone" (A Place in the Sun). All he can see is his own loneliness and lack of success. He is selfish and self-centered, and his obsession with success and the wealthy show his own lack of self-esteem and self-worth. George…… [Read More]
Anasazi civilization developed and prospered in the Four Corners region between 1 AD and 1300 AD and left precious traces of a swelling and prosperous civilization. Pottery, baskets, ornaments, tolls and especially architectural achievements (including "apartment-house style villages")- all were elements characterizing this civilization.
Anasazi in Navajo means "the ancient ones" or "the ancient enemies" and the Anasazis were the ancestors of the modern Pueblo Indians that live nowadays in New Mexico and Arizona. The several centers of Anasazi civilization included Northern San Juan, Chaco, Kayenta, Virgin, and Rio Grande, directions in which the Anasazi population and civilization spread and created a local community.
The archeological evidence discovered in the area proves that the Anasazi first moved into the area and into the southern Colorado Plateau some time at the beginning of the 1st millennium, that is, around 1 AD. The local population of the time became a…… [Read More]
It was their right and duty as loyal followers, a way they could prove their faith and their commitment to God. This mindset is one reason the Muslims under Mohammed's leadership during his conquests were so successful, as described below.
Reasons for Success
Mohammed and his followers defeated migrants and other raiding parties in part because they decided to attack and defend their holy place during the holy month of Ramadan, something that was unexpected. Among those the Muslims following Mohammed opposed included a group named the Quraysh. During the infamous battle at adr Walls, Mohammed said to his followers about to engage in battle, that "no man will be slain this day fighting against them with steadfast courage, advancing and not retreating, but God will cause him to enter Paradise." Many Muslims following the messenger Mohammed believed that God sent to them 3,000 angels the day of the conquest…… [Read More]
" In fact that showdown with labor "produced a cultural shift, a new sense of what can be appropriate in business management." The entire Reagan era, according to ill, a well-known conservative commentator - who wrote this piece at the time of Reagan's passing - is remembered "more for the tax-cutting and deregulating that helped, with the information technologies, to shift the economy into a hitherto unknown overdrive."
Another event that made Reagan a hero at a time when America needed heroes occurred in the spring of 1981, when Reagan was shot in an attempted assassination. The New York Times (Silk, 1981) reported that Reagan's "unruffled demeanor" immediately after being seriously wounded, along with his "jokes to his wife and the medics" all helped to "turn fear into rising respect for Mr. Reagan himself," journalist Leonard Silk reports. A "growing number of Americans decided that they had elected themselves a…… [Read More]
Global warming occurs due to the rise in temperature. The trapping of light and heat from the sun causes this rising of temperature. Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor are the green house gases, these gases trap the light and heat from the sun, and as a result, the temperature rises. This global warming hurts a large number of people, plants and animals living in the earth. There are many reasons due to which global arming is increasing day by day. Human beings also cause global warming but many other things are also responsible for it (Maslin, 2006).
The main activity that human beings perform due to which global warming occurs is to flaming the fossil fuels. Whiled riving a car, carbon dioxide is released in the atmosphere. This increases the greenhouse effect. In addition to this, jet fuel in the airplane also contributes in releasing the carbon…… [Read More]
The development of the character of his sister is in direct defiance of his personality. It is interesting to note that it is the sister who wants to have the family return to their African roots and Walter who seems to want to join the white capitalist society. In the era that the play is set it was usually the men who wanted to hold fast to their heritage while the women were content to stay home, raise children clean house and have the men make the political and societal decisions for the family.
The audience gets to know the character of mama through her discussions with her children and her daughter in law. Mama makes it clear that her deceased husband's wishes should be an important consideration in the decision about what to do with the money. The audience sees mama, initially as a weak woman who is going…… [Read More]
Masaccio, Fra Angelico, and Filippino Lippi
The Renaissance was a dynamic time in which religion, artwork, and new styles, thoughts and concepts regarding perspective and expression intertwined and impacted one another. The effect was an explosion of new talent, new advancements in painting, and new horizons achieved. This paper will show how this was achieved by examining three works from three influential Renaissance painters -- Masaccio, Fra Angelico and Filippino Lippi.
Masaccio's The Tribute Money (ca. 1420) is a perfect illustration of the complex formula of Renaissance religious symbolism and naturalistic beauty that characterized the works of art at this time. It tells the narrative story found in Matthew 17:24-27 in which Jesus and His disciples come to Capernaum and are told that they must pay the tribute. Jesus asks Simon Peter whether the children of the king or strangers pay the tribute. Peter answers that strangers pay it.…… [Read More]
apan finds itself at a critical point in its historical development. The world's third largest economy, it also has the world's second-highest debt burden in proportional terms and the current triple disaster is going to have dire consequences on the nation's recovery from the current worldwide recession. Economic uncertainty, loss of faith in current political structures and leaders, loss of status in the world, betrayal by corporations that have also been a key stabilizing structure in the nation: This is a potent mixture for resistance against the state and its representatives. This resistance may be peaceful and democratic. Or it may be violent, arising from dark, dank pools of ultranationalism that may well be already feasting on the bodies of the uncollected dead.
It is entirely possible that various ultranationalist right wing groups in apan may produce or support recruitment of terrorists in the coming months. There are currently hundreds…… [Read More]
Fitzgerald and Hemingway
The writings of F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway have quite a lot to do with one another. Besides the fact that both men were writing during the same historical period in time, both men were interested in some of the same themes and expressed their feelings through their writings. Two novels, F. Scott Fitzgerald's Tender is the Night and Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises, deal with American male protagonists who find themselves in foreign lands following the First orld ar. Each turns his back on his American nationality and becomes an expatriate, wallowing in the grandeur of foreign pleasures while at the same time serving no real function in the world outside of their indulgences. The men are part of what would come to be known as "The Lost Generation." This was a group of people who were so impacted by the blood, gore, and…… [Read More]
Sun Also Rises" by Ernest Hemingway, and a passage in "A Perfect Day for Bananafish," by J.D. Salinger.
IMITATE SHORT PASSAGES BY HEMINGWAY AND SALINGER
Hemingway's short, staccato style and "macho" man image has often been parodied, reviewed, and dissected. "The Sun Also Rises" has been called one of his best books. This passage parodies Hemingway's macho style, and outlook on women as the weaker sex.
Paris again, and another broad in another taxi. How do I get myself into these things? Last thing I knew, I was in Pamplona, running with the big dogs. Now, I'm in a taxi with Brett, who's married to somebody else, and flirting with me. She's not half bad looking for a dame. Maybe I should just kiss her. Let her know I'm interested. What the hell. "Don't touch me, please don't touch me," she says to me, and I'm a pretty damned good…… [Read More]
As a result of his impotence, Jake sees Lady Brett's sexuality as threatening, rather than an expression of a feminist sensibility. Brett's independence is shown as futile, a kind of a symptom of the 'world upside down' of gender relations created by the war, but the implication by Jake (and by Hemingway) is that her strength is not fulfilling for her as a woman, and she is really looking for a male to subdue her, such as the bullfighter Romero.
Jake's cool and distanced character makes him a superior, if not a less disinterested narrator than Cohn. Cohn is emotional and romantic, and lashes out with his fists or tears. He lacks the ability to engage in cool, self-searching analysis to understand his own psyche or the psyche of others, although he has enjoyed some success as a writer. Because of the anti-Semitism he has experienced, like Jake he has…… [Read More]
David Hume, in the fifth section of his work entitled, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, dismisses the concept that reasoning is the foundation upon which conclusions are necessarily drawn. As an empiricist, Hume believed that it was essential that individuals obtain knowledge based upon their own experience and observations. He classified knowledge into two types: the relations between ideas and matters of fact. In Hume's mind, mathematics is the classic example of a relations of ideas type knowledge. This is the only form of reasoning that has complete certainty. He considered such knowledge as being a priori while the other style of knowledge, matter of facts, was a posteriori. Relations of ideas are true by definition or logic while matters of fact must be learned and tested by one's senses.
The essence of matter of fact knowledge is the process of observation and employing induction and probability. Acquiring this knowledge…… [Read More]
Many of Hemingway's men turn to the drink. The men in "Out of Season" and "The Doctor and the Doctor's Wife" exhibit thinly-veiled aggression.
Masculinity is an especially problematic subject for Hemingway. On the one hand, masculinity is a sign of health and success. Pedro Romero in the Sun Also Rises would represent the healthy type of masculinity. Interestingly, however, Hemingway implies that women sap the natural and positive masculinity from men. Brett claims leaving Romero specifically so that she would not hinder his potency, which he should channel into his bullfighting. The idea that women sap the potency of men is common in of Hemingway's stories. For instance, Mr. Elliot built up his male potency through years of celibacy, only to lose his manliness to marriage and the bottle. Marriage seems especially poisonous for male-female relationships largely because marriage enforces traditional gender roles that place the male in a…… [Read More]
Unable to serve in the army, he too, like Jake is haunted by a feeling of vulnerability. His mother financially supports his career as a novelist, and he is highly dependant upon Frances, the woman with whom he is involved, even while he is lusting after Lady Brett. Likewise, Jake's feelings for Brett are characterized by male vulnerability: "I was thinking about Brett and my mind stopped jumping around and started to go in sort of smooth waves. Then all of a sudden I started to cry. Then after a while it was better and I lay in bed and listened to the heavy trams go by and way down the street, and then I went to sleep" (39).
In love, Jake is frustrated. However, Jake is far from impotent in other manly pursuits. Especially when he is away from Paris, the city of romance and love, he finds a…… [Read More]
Isolation is a central theme in 'The Sun Also Rises' and appears in two ways. The first is in the form of isolation from society and the second as isolation from each other.
The war has changed society and the characters are struggling to find their place in the new society. We see the characters in the book with empty lives, desperately trying to fill it with activities like drinking. This comes across especially when we compare their outer lives to their inner thoughts. While their outer activities appear to be happy activities, we see that none of the characters are happy. Their actions can be seen as an attempt to distract them from the emptiness of their lives. One of the major things the war has changed is the idea of what it means to be male, this is another factor that has the characters searching. This idea comes…… [Read More]
Definition of Modernism and Three Examples
Indeed, creating a true and solid definition of modernism is exceptionally difficult, and even most of the more scholarly critical accounts of the so-called modernist movement tend to divide the category into more or less two different movements, being what is known as "high modernism," which reflected the erudition and scholarly experimentalism of Eliot, Joyce, and Pound, and the so-called "low modernism" of later American practitioners, such as William Carlos Williams. Nonetheless, despite the problems of reification involved with such a task, I will attempt to invoke a definitions of at least some traits of modernism, as culled from the Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics:
First, [in modernism] "realization" had to replace description, so that instead of copying the external world the work could render it in an image insisting on its own forms of reality... [and] Second, the poets develop…… [Read More]
Hume's Problem Of Induction
David Hume is known as one of the foremost skeptics and humanists of his time, who exalted in mankind's ability to transform the world through science. Somewhat ironically, then, one of his most far-reaching philosophical contributions was to phrase the problem of induction which today is often thought to deny scientific knowledge. Just a couple chapters of a single book, Hume posed a question which has yet to be satisfactorily answered, despite the great intervening time. In its most simple form, Hume's problem merely asked what evidence there was to support the instinctive understanding that the future would resemble the past, and then pointed out that since he could see no logical reason why this should be the case, then he could not with reasonably say that it must be so. And despite attempts to dismiss his challenge, it seems no one has yet come up…… [Read More]
Either way, what they shared is gone. The interesting thing about this story is the boyfriend's inability to see things from Jig's point-of-view. He does not have to deal with the emotional aspect of abortion, so he can say things like, "It's not really an operation at all" (Hills Like hite Elephants 1391). The nameless man is selfish and a liar because he tries to convince Jig "It's really not anything. It's just to let the air in" (1391) and "it's all perfectly natural" (1391). Hemingway purposefully leaves him nameless in an attempt to reveal how very little there is to his character. hat is worse, he probably is not concerned with what Jig is experiencing. He fails her and he fails to see her struggle, alienating her with just a few words. In addition, while he is alienating her, he is separating himself from her by demonstrating how selfish…… [Read More]
aiting is a critical aspect in this story and there are several images that point to this notion. alls, doors and clocks are powerful images. Arthur aldhorn believes that the walls are significant symbols in "The Killers." They represent an "irresistible obstacle" (aldhorn 37) which "adds to the total image of terror without becoming an effect for its own sake" (37). They are symbols of the prison in which Ole lives. He has no choice in this world and, as a result, nowhere to go. On the other hand, the door proves to be a symbol of hope and the future for Nick. Hal Blythe believes the doors are a "passages through what appear to be barriers" (Blythe). Blythe states that Hemingway "laced his narrative with the door motif to suggest that Nick is free to make choices" (Blythe). The images in this story are powerful because they seem to…… [Read More]
Formerly married to actresses Sharon Hugueny, Camilla Sparv, MacGraw and TV sports commentator Phyllis George, Evans has one son (by MacGraw), actor Josh Evans."
Ali MacGraw, according to Evans, was driven way with his obsession with the Godfather which "ruined my whole life, personally" he said -- but ultimately, was all worth it in the end.
For all of his faults and foibles, Evans says, he regrets nothing.
Higgins, Bill. "An evening with Robert Evans." Variety. May 26, 2008. Accessed October 24,
2009 at http://www.variety.com/vstory/VR1117986441.html?categoryid=38&cs=1
"Robert Evans." Fandango. Accessed October 24, 2009 at http://www.fandango.com/robertevans/biographies/p89202
"Robert Evans." Hollywood.com. Accessed October 24, 2009 at http://www.hollywood.com/celebrity/198019/Robert_Evans
Seal, Mark. "The Godfather ars." Vanity Fair. March 2009. Accessed October 24, 2009 at http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2009/03/godfather200903?currentPage=1
"Trivia." The Sun Also Rises. Internet Movie Database. Accessed October 24, 2009 at http://www.hollywood.com/celebrity/198019/Robert_Evans
Bill Higgins, "An evening with Robert Evans," Variety, May 26, 2008, http://www.variety.com/vstory/VR1117986441.html?categoryid=38&cs=1
"Robert Evans," Hollywood.com, http://www.hollywood.com/celebrity/198019/Robert_Evans…… [Read More]
Hemingway is classified as a modernist in fiction. Modernism rejected traditions that existed in the nineteenth century and sought to stretch the boundaries, striking out in new directions and with new techniques. More was demanded of the reader of literature or the viewer of art. Answers were not presented directly to issues raised, but instead the artist demanded the participation of the audience more directly in finding meaning and in seeing the relationship between technique and meaning. In literature, writers developed new structures as a way of casting a new light on such accepted elements as character, setting, and plot. Much of modernist fiction shows this increased demand on the reader. Ernest Hemingway gives the illusion of moving in the other direction by simplifying language to the point where it seems ascetic, but in truth his language is complex in its way, building meaning into every word and the placement…… [Read More]
However saying that'd knows P. But doesn't believe it to be true under all conditions and in all time periods would be a more appropriate and rational way of putting it. We must mention here the principle of Induction which states that: "Unobserved cases and merely possible cases are likely to resemble observed cases" (Bonjour: 57). However when a person refuses to accept this, he is refuting inductive claims. For example, a person might say that all observed cases of grass indicate that it was green in color but there is a chance it might not be so in unobserved cases. Such a person knows something but chooses not to believe it. In such cases, the person would be separately a from B. i.e. cause from result. For example if every time a person touches a hot object, he would feel pain. This means that he knows that touching something…… [Read More]
Now that he is dying, Harry thinks that he has waited too long to write the things he really wants to write, and that he will never be able, now, to write all that he has left for a later time. As the article "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" (ikipedia, August 31, 2006) suggests "This loss of physical capability causes him to look inside himself - at his memories of the past years, and how little he has actually accomplished in his writing." He realizes that although he has seen and experienced many wonderful and astonishing things during his life, he had never made a record of the events; his status as a writer is contradicted by his reluctance to actually write.
As the now pain-ridden and dying Harry thinks to himself bitterly, for example:
So now it [his writing career] was all over... So now he would never have a…… [Read More]
Bertrand ussell on Truth
Can We Be Sure of the Truth of Any General Principle?
In Problems of Philosophy, Bertrand ussell addresses the subject of induction. It forms the basis of his assertions related to knowledge and truth beyond experience or acquaintance. In general, he posits that we draw inferences based upon general principles and expectations to make meaning of our world beyond the range of our immediate experience and formulate truth. In order to draw an inference, it must be known that "some sort of thing, A, is a sign of the existence of some other sort of thing, B" (ussell 35). The existence of night usually signifies that it was preceded by day. ussell offers that we make these inferential judgments on a constant basis, even in situations where they are improbable.
ussell uses the general expectation that the sun will rise as the basis of his arguments…… [Read More]
David Hume and Immanuel Kant have both had tremendous impact on the field of philosophy. Their contributions, especially "A treatise of human nature" by Hume and the "Critique of pure reason" by Kant are masterpieces in philosophical literature. oth of them have left their own novel ideas and concepts, which deeply influenced and gave a new understanding to domains as diverse as philosophy, politics and religion. Let us study the ideas of Hume and Kant in a little detail and try to have a comparative study of their philosophies.
Hume's Matters of Fact and Relations of ideas
Hume's analyses of human mentality is based on two different components namely impressions and ideas. Impressions are vivid and strong creations of our experiences while ideas are feeble reflections of the impressions. According to Hume all ideas have a preceding impression. All human belief systems are a result of the linking or…… [Read More]
"Hawk oosting" by Ted Hughes and "Grass" by Carl Sandburg
Both "Hawk oosting" by Ted Hughes and "Grass" by Carl Sandburg are narrated in the voices of silent, living objects in the natural world. Hughes' poem is told in the first person of a hawk while Sandburg's poem is narrated by the grass. Through personification both poets examine the place of humanity in a larger context, highlighting the extent to which what people think is important seems small when seen in relation to the big picture of nature. Hughes' poem achieves this by showing how in the eyes of an ordinary hawk, the bird is all-powerful because of his predatory capacity. The grass of Sandburg's poem is similarly powerful as it blankets the dead, without any apparent concern for the heroism the soldiers might have shown in battle or in any other facet of their lives.
The hawk's…… [Read More]
This is the problem of induction in a nutshell, and it is something that has alternatively been seen as one of the most severe limitations on true knowledge about the world or as a non-issue in any practical terms. If inductive reasoning cannot be trusted, then all past experience and even experimental data is essentially meaningless in predicting the future and there is no logical reason to assume things should occur one way simply because they have occurred that way before. Many have pointed out how silly it would be to go through the world without inductive reasoning -- not being sure if the door would open when the handle is turned, etc. -- but this does not actually address the logical problem of induction.
Edwards Attempted Answer
There have been attempts to address the problem of induction at the fundamental logical level, some of them seeming to come closer…… [Read More]
The theme of unrequited love in The Great Gatsby
Discuss the fallibility of youth in The Great Gatsby
Discuss the primacy of socioeconomic status as it manifests in The Great Gatsby: which characters confront it with the most grace? Which with the least?
If Daisy and Jay had been members of the same socioeconomic class would they have ended up together? Why or why not? Provide textual evidence.
Nick Carraway goes to great lengths to show and tell the reader that he is a reliable narrator: discuss three concretes way he does this and how successful they are.
How does the period and place of the novel add to the sense of youth, love, promise or despair?
How does the death of Myrtle Wilson highlight a sense of something rotten underscoring the 1920s? Discuss using the novel and the historical period.
What role does Jordan Baker serve in the…… [Read More]
In the letter, those were rooms 112 and 113 (in the play, 108-109); "It seemed eminently more sensible to live in a part of a hotel which you knew would not be struck by shell fire" the author wrote in the letter (ashington, 2009, p. 1). The point ashington makes vis-a-vis Column is that room 109 wasn't just a "safe" place, it was a place with "good things" like sex, perfume, alcohol, hot water, and yes, food.
The brilliance of Hemingway's narrative -- not just in war themes but also throughout his work -- cannot be over-emphasized. In A Farewell to Arms Hemingway uses the character Frederic as narrator, and Frederic's narration is mainly descriptive, but in its simplicity, it packs a punch. Critic Katie Owens-Murphy explains that when Frederick -- an ambulance driver, not a soldier -- is asked about the war by a bartender, he first replies, "Don't…… [Read More]
That the post modernists rejected the psychotherapy of the modernist era is by no means suggestive that the artists of the era have escaped psychological analysis. Because of the extreme nature of the pop culture, it has presented a psychological windfall for study in excessiveness. It is represented by an excess of economic affluence, drugs, sex, and expressions of behavior. The excessiveness is found not just in the music industry, but also in literature, film, and paintings and photography. It is all encompassing of all art expressions.
One important definition of the post-modern, as a radically sceptical and questioning attitude of mind, is that provided by the philosopher Jean-Francois Lyotard (1984), who wrote of it in terms of 'the death of grand narratives', with Marxism and Freudianism particularly in mind. Lyotard would see as futile attempts to consider the modern and post-modern in terms of historical periodisation. For him,…… [Read More]
Nietzsche often identified life itself with "will to power," that is, with an instinct for growth and durability. This concept provides yet another way of interpreting the ascetic ideal, since it is Nietzsche's contention "that all the supreme values of mankind lack this will -- that values which are symptomatic of decline, nihilistic values, are lording it under the holiest names" (Kaufmann 1959). Thus, traditional philosophy, religion, and morality have been so many masks a deficient will to power wears. The sustaining values of estern civilization have been sublimated products of decadence in that the ascetic ideal endorses existence as pain and suffering. Some commentators have attempted to extend Nietzsche's concept of the will to power from human life to the organic and inorganic realms, ascribing a metaphysics of will to power to him (Kaufmann 1959).
The insidious process by which we ascribe attributes to our fictitious consciousness has…… [Read More]
Further, the modern novel also focuses on issues of social and historical change and the use of such points-of-view as stream of consciousness. Other typical characteristics of modernism are open form, free verse, discontinuous narrative, juxtaposition, classical allusions, unconventional metaphors and the bringing in of other cultures and languages.
Clearly, the experiences of the Great War had a lasting effect on its generation of writers. Many of them served in the military during the war, such as Ernest Hemingway, and witnessed the atrocities personally. The disillusionment felt by this generation at the notion of so many deaths for no real reason created a mentality of pessisims and questioning of society as it has been. This sense of disillusionment was expressed in their writing, where the great writers shunned the traditions of the Romantic and Victorian eras and instead created works that focused on human misery, suffering and cruelty. They incorporated…… [Read More]
Sentiments of the "Lost Generation"
Sentiments of "Lost Generation"
Before the beginning of the Great ar Era an optimistic attitude championing technological and educational progress was pervasive on a global scale. However, with the commencement of orld ar I, destruction was visited upon the world on a scale never before seen. In its wake, came a cultural realization that the progress made was not entirely for the good. This new sentiment is reflected in the poetry and literature of the time, a barometer for the true feelings of the "Lost Generation."
Many youths were drawn to the new war by a sense of adventure. Among them were many well-known poets and writers such as Ernest Hemingway and John Dos Passos. arfare (prior to and during the early stages of orld ar I) was viewed by many as "romantic and noble…a struggle for honor and glory." (Nash p. 750) A prime…… [Read More]
Ernest Hemingway may not have been a deliberate or conscious chauvinist but the manner in which he presented his characters suggests that the "Hemmingway hero" is the focus of all his stories and the 'heroine' is somewhat lost in the aura of the man. Though the women in his books re represented as having strong characters there is an inherent division between the two genders that identifies the hero as struggling for survival in hard world while the woman is merely a shadow in the background.
In a rapidly changing world it has been seen that Hemingway is treated as a misogynist as his woman are presented as a mere reflection of the men. Their characteristics come out when the men need the support and they develop through the experiences of the men. This suggests that Hemmingway did not support feminism. Yet, this statement could be wrong as…… [Read More]
With him, this vital energy goes its own way, independent of the pessimism and the disillusionment so typical of the age.' Hemingway did not go to the awards ceremony due to illness, some time before that same year his plane crashed and he lived to read his own obituaries. y then he was already experiencing the results of his fast paced lifestyle and at the end of his life he dealt with sicknesses such as mental depression, and eventually a form of paranoia. This was written of his last days 'After Hemingway began talking of suicide his Ketchum doctor agreed with Mary that they should seek expert help. He registered under the name of his personal doctor George Saviers and they began a medical program to try and repair his mental state. The Mayo Clinic's treatment would ultimately lead to electro shock therapy. According to Jefferey Meyers Hemingway received "between…… [Read More]
There are a number of websites, books and articles on the life, experiences, and writings of Ernest Hemingway that depict the man as a womanizer, sometimes heavy drinker, and ultimately the tragic victim of a self-inflicted gunshot to the head. Though many of these sources attempt to shine different lights on Hemingway's life, most all agree that he was a prolific and profound writer of the written word.
Hemingway wrote in a myriad of ways including; short stories, novels, poetry and articles. He began his writing career as a journalist at the young age of 18. His first foray into the writing community was as a cub reporter for the Kansas City newspaper The Kansas City Star. Similar to the remainder of his life, he quickly became bored with covering local events, he yearned for much more. During his brief stint with the Star he covered the 15th…… [Read More]
WWI and Literature
World War I was certainly one of the most productive periods in literature with millions of poets and authors emerging on the scene and each one contributing tremendously to the growth and progress of literature. It is quite strange that while WWI was a deeply disturbing and a largely horrifying experience for most countries, it inspired writers and poets around the globe and this resulted in significant growth of world literature.
In England alone, more than 2000 poets emerged during this period as Harvey (1993) elaborates: "From the very first week, the 1914-18 war inspired enormous quantities of poetry and fiction. The claim that three million war poems were written in Germany in the first six months of hostilities is difficult to substantiate, but Catherine W. eilly has counted 2,225 English poets of the First World War, of whom 1,808 were civilians. For example, William Watson (then…… [Read More]
City of Lights -- Paris, France
Paris, the capital of France, is one of the most visited places in the world when it comes to travel and tourism. The historic and marvelous places of the city make Paris one of the nicest places to visit in Europe. The wonders of Paris includes the Eiffel Tower, Musee du Louvre, Arc de Triomphe, Avenue des Champs Elysees, Notre Dame Cathedral, and many other historic breathtaking grandeurs of Paris.
Known as the City of Lights, Paris is located in France, at the heart of Europe's tourist destinations. Exploring Paris is almost similar to taking your self back in time in an inspiring, exquisite, magical, and romantic city one could ever imagine. The city boasts of its many tourist attractions. The most famous of which is the Eiffel Tower -- the landmark of Paris. uilt in 1889, and considered as the city's symbol of…… [Read More]
The movie is creatively directed by Robert Zemeckis. It is based on a play produced by William oyles Jnr. Tom hunks plays Chuck Noland, and effectively so. He is the unstoppable assertive seeker. He acts in all possible ways to stay at grips with his life. The Island is incomplete, if there are no western culture accoutrements. In his view, the location isn't really a South Seas Paradise; it is a prison. Therefore, he works to reshape the life and seems to succeed. However, his solitary life worries him. He finds it precarious. He is pushed to become foolhardy. He risks his life by trying to escape on a raft. The only motivation for him is hope (russat and russat). The film is structured as a double escape plot that is split into three; Chuck, when he was a FedEx-employee, his struggles for survival on the island and…… [Read More]
If someone asked me why I want to be a nurse, the answer is simple: service. I believe wholeheartedly in the act of service and in the grace of extending one’s life to others in order for them to benefit. Of course, there are numerous ways to provide service to others and to the planet, such as working in a soup kitchen, or helping to rescue animals or giving companionship to the elderly. All of these things are worthwhile, deeply meaningful ways to provide benefit to others. To me, becoming a nurse is at the pinnacle of meaning because one is able to provide comfort and help to those in some of the scariest most uncertain moments of one’s life. Physical health is ground zero for happiness and stability of the individual. Without it, people are in limbo. The nursing profession has the privilege of being able to offer…… [Read More]
Intelligence operation in cities will reveal, in addition to other things, the exact locations of the enemy. Once the locations have been pinpointed, the interagency task force can then besiege him with a combination of forces, surveillance, robotics, and media and combatants gas aimed at making the enemy's position untenable. With this in effect, the enemy is bound to be drawn out of their hideout and appropriate military action such as arrest or open fire taken.
In view of the suggestions presented, it is indeed a momentous time that military training be taken a notch higher. The reality of the 21st century leaves the defense forces with little choices, if any, as far as engaging terror groups in urban areas is concerned. The events in Mogadishu, where the U.S. military underperformed expectation, should serve as a revelation that the mighty of the forces does not necessarily guarantee success. Instead, intelligent…… [Read More]
( Achterberg 21) The man then proceeds to chop up the rest of his shaman's body, which he then boils in a pot for three years. After three years the body is reassembled by the spirits and covered with flesh. This means that in effect the ordinary man is now, through the process of initiation and dismemberment, resurrected as a shaman who has the capability to communicate with the spiritual world and who can acquire the knowledge to help and heal numerous illnesses. As the research by Achterberg notes, he now has the ability to, "…read inside his head…" (Achterberg 22) In other words, he now has the ability to see in a mystical sense without the use of his ordinary vision. (Achterberg 22) The initiation process also refers to the view that the shaman acts and perceives in a way that is different to ordinary human beings.
The world…… [Read More]
The end of the play is not entirely happy. Beneatha cannot going to go to medical school because of her brother's mistakes. The Youngers will likely face racist in their new neighborhood. They will have to struggle to meet their mortgage payments. (Corley, 1998) Yet alter has become a man, Travis, the new plant under Mama's care will have a better home than his older brother or sister, and even the old plant will have more light and space to grow. Mama's dream, like the life of her plant and children, has not been perfect -- nor are her children perfect. But Mama, like her plant and her entire family that she has cared for, at least as a new home by the end of the play. Thus, the play ends with Mama symbolically taking the plant to the new house in the suburbs, into a better but uncertain future.…… [Read More]
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…… [Read More]
If you had done this significantly too early or too late, what kind of error would there have been your shadow length?
The shadow length would have a bigger value as sun's angle would have been smaller.
If you had done this significantly too early or too late, what kind of error would there have been your circumference value?
Such measurement would have given smaller sun angle value for the location, which would have been resulted in greater value of angle ?. In calculations greater value of ? wouls result in smaller value of estimated radius since its inversely proportional to angle ?.
4) Could astronauts on the Moon or Mars use this technique to determine the circumference of those objects?
Yes., such technique can be used to any astronomic…… [Read More]
20. China must consult Japan whenever foreign capital is needed in improving the infrastructure of Fukien Province.
21. China must give Japanese the right to preach in China.
On May Fourth, some 3,000 students from Peking University and other schools gathered together in front of Tiananmen, the Gate of Heavenly Peace that fronts the Forbidden City complex in the center of eijing, and held a demonstration. They were furious at the news that had just come from the Paris Peace Conference. They shouted out such slogans as "Struggle for the sovereignty externally, get rid of the national traitors at home," "Do away with the 'Twenty-One Demands'," "Don't sign the Versailles Treaty." They demanded punishment of such figures as Cao Rulin, Zhang Zongxiang, and Lu Zongyu, who held important posts as diplomats. Despite the fact that China had sent nearly 100,000 soldiers to the Western front to assist the Allies, the…… [Read More]