Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Also, employees should be mindful of what they post on social networking sites, even if done from their home computer.
Employers should always be aware of what is considered a reasonable expectation of privacy. In certain industries, workplace monitoring may be necessary so that the company can protect itself. In the case of an organization that deals with the well being of children, even with thorough background checks performed it may still be necessary to monitor the employee's website usage or set up surveillance cameras in designated areas. Hillside, Inc. is a company that assists abused and neglected children and has a policy that any Web site an employee visits could be monitored. The company found that pornographic websites were access on its computers during off hours and set up surveillance cameras in a shared office in hopes of catching the perpetrator. The employees sharing the monitored office filed a…
Dillenberger, Cassandra, "Workplace Privacy: A Changing Landscape," Contractor's
Business Management Report 10, (October 2009): 1, 10-12.
Friedman, Barry A. And Lisa J. Reed, "Workplace Privacy: Employee Relations and Legal Implications of Monitoring Employee E-mail Use," Employee
Responsibilities and Rights Journal 19, no. 2, (2007): 75-83.
Surveillance - Types, Methods, When to Conduct on Terrorist
Surveillance can simply be defined as the observations undertaken to obtain information. This simple description contains a wealth of methods and techniques that can be seen as forms of surveillance. Law enforcement officials can use a "roving" monitor to "follow" an individual and legally intercept that individual's communications with one court instruction. All UAV's function as midair surveillance podiums and have potent video cameras armed with thermal and night-vision. UAV's can be best utilized when carrying out operations in an enemy territory. Intelligence agencies use satellites for a range of purposes, comprising of communications, navigation, etc. The application of distinctive personal physiological traits, for example iris scanning, facial recognition, fingerprints, walk and posture, voice recognition, full body imaging, etc. and lastly, employing of digital cameras and 35mm camera remains a vital instrument in surveillance. It is particularly suitable for identifying and…
Bjelopera, J.P. (2013). The Federal Bureau of Investigation and Terrorism Investigations, Congressional Research Service.
Davis, F., Mcgarrity, N., & Williams, G. (2014). Surveillance, counter-terrorism and comparative constitutionalism. Routledge.
Gardeazabal, J., & Sandler, T. (2015). INTERPOL's surveillance network in curbing transnational terrorism. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management,34(4), 761-780.
SPENCER, S. B. (2015). When targeting becomes secondary: a framework for regulating predictive surveillance in antiterrorism investigations. Denver University Law Review, 92(3), 493-537.
Then, the patient can receive free care or referrals to specialists from the doctor. GPs thus can provide comprehensive data regarding patients with a variety of conditions, from a wide range of demographic groups. Currently, 3,500 GP practices, encompassing a population of 23 million patients, contribute to the national QSurveillance database. The system is the largest and most regularly updated health tracking system in the world (National disease surveillance, 2009, BJCIM).
The system can respond effectively to health alerts. For example, given concerns over the swine flu epidemic upon the horizon, "the QSurveillance primary care tracking database has increased the level of detail" in its regular weekly and daily reports to government and health authorities. Daily reporting now includes: "patients reporting flu-like symptoms in the last day, patients with flu who have been prescribed antivirals, patients prescribed antivirals without a confirmed flu diagnosis, hospital admissions related to flu, the uptake…
National disease surveillance system launches more detailed swine flu reports (2009 17 July).
BJCIM News. Retrieved October 6, 2009 at http://www.bjhcim.co.uk/news/2009/n907042.htm
This has the advantage of showing the suspect in different profiles. But there have also been accusations that in-person lineups may be biased, if they present the suspect with persons who are not sufficiently 'like' the accused. Also, the use of double-blind presentations, where the officers conducting the lineup do no know who the suspect is, might be advisable to dilute the potential for biased or swayed eyewitness identification. Although in-person lineups are likely to be more accurate because they will not contain the possibility of 'bad' photographs swaying the witness, which is especially problematic if the photo line-up is of 'mug shots,' 'live' lineups also have more of a potential for bias by the body language of the officer conducting the investigation, thus this must be guarded against.
Discuss the protections afforded by the Fourth Amendment and give an example of how investigators may constitutionally gather evidence and…
Gelbspan, Ross. (26 Nov 1988). "Undercover Work: A Necessary Evil?" Boston Globe. Retrieved 15 May 2007 at http://web.mit.edu/gtmarx/www/reviews.html
Valid Searches and Seizures without Warrants." Annotations p. 3. (2007).
Findlaw.com. Retrieved 15 May 2007 at http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment04/03.html
1984 to Now: Fiction Becoming Reality?
In the 2016 film Snowden by Oliver Stone, illegal governmental surveillance of the lives of private citizens via digital means (such as ordinary computer webcams) disturbs the film's hero, a dramatized representation of real-life whistleblower Edward Snowden. Snowden ultimately rebels against the government agency that employs him as he rejects the totalitarian principles that govern the agency. Indeed, the film touches upon a reality that has troubled not just Snowden but many people. The reality has been described by Paul Rae as the combination of "massive infrastructure, lightly regulated intelligence behemoths, and large corporations seeking to realize value by consolidating mind-boggling amounts of information to identify patterns of behavior" (335). Collecting "big data" is the goal of these entities -- and Orwell foresaw it all more than half a century ago when he wrote 1984: he even put a face and a name to…
Brown, Ian. "Social Media Surveillance." The International Encyclopedia of Digital
Communication and Society, 2014. Web. 11 Nov 2016.
Cassidy, John. "Measuring America's Decline in Three Charts." The New Yorker, 23 Oct
2013. Web. 11 Nov 2016.
Currently, the limitations of the current system include the fact that "they do not capture all cases in most countries. Cases may be missed by & #8230;systems because people…are diagnosed by public and private providers that do not report cases to local or national authorities" (WHO, 2012, p. 29)
Therefore, the key to assisting the surveillance system in India is to encourage more widespread participation from non-NTPs. One of the key ways in which this surveillance system could truly become national is to subsidize organizations that do report their cases to the national system. By providing incentives to these providers (WHO, 2012, p. 33), the system could be used more and more accurately reflect the rate of incidence. The other special feature that should be added to the national surveillance system in India is that is should reflect an equal prioritization of facilities in which diagnosis occurs -- which does…
No author. (2012). "New Heroes Ep4 01 Inderjit Khurana Train Platform Schools India." Youtube. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gIwIJ0GkBoI
World Health Organization. (2012). "Global tuberculosis report 2012." World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/gtbr12_main.pdf
World Health Organization. (2006). "Communicable disease surveillance and response systems: guide to monitoring and evaluating." World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/surveillance/WHO_CDS_EPR_LYO_2006_2.pdf
Studies suggest that even "moe "omniscient" technology is likely to be developed" in the nea futue (Lyon, 2002). Cookies wee pehaps the fist fom of intenet suveillance, developed in 1994 as a means fo websites to tack visitos logging in so they could povide moe optimal sevice (Lyon, 2002). Now cookies have tansfomed the shape of communication and have futhe advanced the ability of ciminals to suvey individual use functions on the web.
The web is many things, an envionment fo "leaning, convesing, coodinating and tading" but also "a means of tapping the unway, of constaining the choices of the unsuspecting" (Lyon, 2002). Fom cookies web bugs developed, and inceasingly othe suveillance methods pop up daily. Accoding to Lyons (2002) the web might be consideed the "Wold Wide Web of Suveillance" (p. 345).
Lyons (2002) futhe defines suveillance as "pocessing pesonal data fo the puposes of management and influence" and…
references and deter computer crime." Yale Law Journal, Vol. 112, Issue 6, p. 1577
These changes were accompanied by publicity in the treatment areas. No significant changes in robberies were found. The National Association of Convenience Stores (1991) reported on two other interventions evaluated by obert Figlio. The use of interactive CCTV (allowing communication between the clerk and the personnel in a remote location) reduced robberies in 189 stores by a statistically significant 31% in the first year following the installations. By the second year, the reduction had shrunk to 15%, which was not statistically significant. No control stores were used in the analysis. One chain of 81 stores installed color video monitors that were visible to patrons and staff. obbery rates were reported to have declined by 53% a year after installation. Again, no control stores were used. (Eck, 2002, p. 256)
The statistics of this review show clearly that robbery reduction only occurred in certain conditions and that the reduction of such…
Armitage, R. (May 2002) to CCTV or not to CCTV -- a review of current research into the effectiveness of CCTV systems in reducing crime. NACRO Community Safety Practice Briefing.
Brennan-Galvin, E. (2002). Crime and Violence in an Urbanizing World. Journal of International Affairs, 56(1), 123.
Brown, B (1995) CCTV in Town Centers: Three Case Studies. Police Research Group Crime Detection and Prevention Series Paper 68.
Coles, C. (2005, May/June). Fighting Crime with Closed-Circuit Cameras. The Futurist, 39, 10.
To help limit the potential bias in a study as this, and to help support the validity of the results, the researcher will cross compare the results of the study with information gathered from other recent studies monitoring surveillance programs within the primary regions and throughout other areas of the country.
It is important to note that to further validate this study, additional research in the future involving a much wider population base would help prove or disprove the theories and results presented in this study.
The results of this study will contribute to the body of literature available and provided by the MMWR (2000; 1998) on disease prevention and surveillance of disease in various regions of the world. The researcher will provide additional guidelines for professionals working in the surveillance field that will enable them to centralize surveillance systems and provide faster response times. Additionally the research provided…
Surveillance of communicable diseases a training manual. Alexandria: 1998
Wuhib, T., Chorba, TL, Davidiants, V, Kenzie, WR, McNabb, S. Assessment of the infectious diseases surveillance system of the Republic of Armenia: An example of surveillance in the Republics of the former Soviet Union. BMC. Public Health; vol. 2:2002
1). The blimp, known as "Integrated Sensor Is the Structure" or ISIS has a demonstration ship scheduled for launch by 2014 (Wheeland). This latest addition to the electronic surveillance repertoire of the U.S. government should alarm everyone in the country because of its potential for abuse (remember Nixon?).
The research showed that electronic surveillance and wiretapping are legitimately used by law enforcement officials in the United States when they have secured the permission from the proper authorities. The research also showed that these technologies have been used as counterintelligence weapons during the Cold War and thereafter, and there use has expanded to unprecedented levels today in the wake of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the passage of the U.S. PATIOT Act. The research also showed that there are some unexpected ways that electronic surveillance can help unauthorized users gain access to digital information by simply captured…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Gibbs, W.W. (2009, May). How to steal secrets without a network. Scientific American, 300(5),
Henderson, N.C. (2002). The Patriot Act's impact on the government's ability to conduct electronic surveillance of ongoing domestic communications. Duke Law Journal, 52(1),
This leads to the downsides of syndromic surveillance. First, it can give indications of problems but it cannot replace the one-on-one doctor to patient examination process and its associated discourse which is the only way to verify whether conclusions drawn during syndromic surveillance are even accurate in the first place. Second, and as noted above, privacy concerns and consent to be monitored in such a way is rarely given and the clarion calls for the greater good are not always enough to satiate people that are concerned about privacy invasion (Chang, Zeng & Yan, 2008).
Lastly, syndromic surveillance is really only something that can or should be used in extreme situations such as epidemic/pandemic warnings or actual outbreaks or when biological weaponry or other agents are used to hurt or harm the public. Just about any other method other than government proactivity (and even that can go too far) is…
Chen, H., Zeng, D., & Yan, P. (2008). Infectious disease informatics syndromic surveillance for public health and biodefense. New York: Springer.
Critical overview of the reading
Just as national governments possess information-gathering capacities, so do terrorists and members of other types of criminal organizations. The United States has the CIA and similarly every terrorist organization has a branch of its operations solely devoted to gathering information (Nance 2008:188). However, unlike governments, any member of the terrorist or criminal organization can be a potential observer, even children. This is why it is especially vital that suspicious actions of potential terrorists are monitored because it may not be immediately obvious who is amassing intelligence that could be used in a potential attack against the U.S. The fact that surveillance of renegade groups is so potentially far-reaching in its implications and character, yet so amorphous in nature, means that detecting it is both necessary and extremely difficult.
Intelligence operatives in the U.S. must be mindful of the risk that they may be…
Nance. M. (2008). Terrorist recognition handbook. 2nd Ed. CRC Press.
Drug tests can also be inaccurate, and show false positives, and are ineffective for more dangerous 'hard' drugs that have a shorter half-life in the body than 'soft' drugs like marijuana.
Many extremely successful companies do not use employee workplace surveillance such as Google. Google's corporate philosophy is to keep employees happy at work. So what if a productive employee updates his or her Facebook page at 3pm, but stays late, and is productive, while emailing his or her coworkers in ways that blend social life and corporate chat? For the new generation, barriers between personal and work life are more permeable. Also, when more employers expect workers to do work at home, it is frustrating to be barred from doing even the most minor personal business at work, and being taken to task for 'time theft.'
Better not to hire employees you do not trust, than use top-of-the-line workplace…
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) 1978, Antiterrorism Effective Death Penalty
Acts of Terror
There are a number of similarities and points of interest between the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 FISA, the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, and the U.S.A. PATIOT Act of 2001. Collectively, these acts make it exceedingly difficult for those involved in acts of terrorism to operate and, when caught, to get any sort of leniency to assist in their getting out of jail. As such, these acts can have a formidable presence and make a significant impact on the war on terrorism.
One of the points of commonality for all of these acts is the fact that they are primarily focused on domestic offenders. This is particularly true of FISA, which details specific procedures for engaging in covert activities to find criminals (DHZ/Office for Civil ights and Civil Liberties). FISA advocates the…
DHS/Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties. (2012). "Federal statutes relevant in the information sharing environment." Justice Information Sharing. Retrieved from http://www.it.ojp.gov/default.aspx?area=privacy&page=1286
Holland, J. (2009). "A tale of two justice systems." AlterNet. Retrieved from https://www.prisonlegalnews.org/ (S (0cpgj055wpob3yqvjos2ua55))/displayArticle.aspx?articleid=21054&AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1
Lundin, Leigh (2011-10-02). "The crime of capital punishment." Death Penalty. Retrieved from http://www.sleuthsayers.org/2011/10/crime-of-capital-punishment.html
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978 and Other Laws
The terrorist activities of Sept 11, 2001 serve as the source of the U. S fight against terrorism as made popular by the Bush regime. Previously, United States strategies to combat terrorism targeted on attacks against its interests overseas, and support for other governments' initiatives to control terrorism functions within their borders. However, Sept 11 exposed weaknesses to terrorism by non-state players within U.S. boundaries. In reaction, the U. S reformed its anti-terrorist techniques to prevent future attacks by focusing on terrorists, foreign and local, known and potential. In order to facilitate terrorist prosecution, the congress offers Appropriate Tools Required to Identify and Prevent Terrorism Acts. They include FISA, Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act, and the PATRIOT Act.
At the most basic level, FISA describes the techniques needed to perform digital surveillance to obtain global intelligence. Considerably, these methods…
Definition and How Technology Has Aided Development of Surveillance
Positives and Negatives
Underlying Ethical Dilemma
Legal ecourse Available in Australia
Definition and How Technology Has Aided Development of Surveillance
We are presently living in the information age, which can be deemed as an epoch, where numerous aspects in the society are information based. This is owing to the fact that in recent years, there has been extensive advancement in technology. One of the areas that has advanced and developed as a result of technology is surveillance. The aspect of surveillance takes into account the monitoring and observing behavior, and the different states of movement, particularly involving people. This is with the main intent of impelling, supervising, directing, or safeguarding (Mack, 2014). Despite the fact that it is more often than not employed in the prevention of criminal and terrorist activities, surveillance is also employed in important…
Bharucha, A. J., London, A. J., Barnard, D., Wactlar, H., Dew, M. A., & Reynolds, C. F. (2006). Ethical considerations in the conduct of electronic surveillance research. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 34(3), 611-619.
Bilton, N. (2013). The Pros and Cons of a Surveillance Society. The New York Tines. Retrieved 22 October 2015 from: http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/07/16/the-pros-and-cons-of-a-surveillance-society/?_r=0
Bullock, M. L. (2009). The evolution of surveillance technology beyond the panopticon (Doctoral dissertation, The University of California Santa Cruz).
Donahue, J., Whittemore, N., & Heerman, A (n.d.). Ethical Issues of Data Surveillance. Ethica Publishing http://www.ethicapublishing.com/ethical/3CH20.pdf .
Studies done by the United States Defense Department have discovered the technology to be correct only fifty-four percent of the time. Furthermore, the study found that the systems could easily be compromised by alterations in weight, hair color, sunglasses, and even weather and lighting alterations (McCullagh & Zarate, 2002). Additionally, behavioral recognition software can often incorrectly identify movements, such as tree branches, and follow those objects instead of actual suspicious movement occurring at the same time (Surveillance-Source, 2005).
Even in spite of these weaknesses, there are numerous opportunities for growth in this particular industry. As companies such as "Spying Eye Surveillance" has noted, the highest area of growth is that of digital video surveillance. According to estimates, this particular area of the industry is set to grow at a 55% compound annual growth rate between 2003 and 2007. In terms on monetary growth opportunity, this field is estimated to grow…
Davies, S. (1996). Big brother: Britain's web of surveillance and the new technological order. London, England: Pan Books.
Hatcher, C. (2001). Silent video surveillance in the absence of probable cause - A brief legal checklist. Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal, 29, 9-25.
Marx, G. (1995). Electric eye in the sky: Some reflections of the new surveillance and popular culture. In J. Ferrell and R. Sanders (Ed.), Cultural criminology. Boston, MA: North Eastern University Press.
McCullagh, D. & Zarate, R. (2002, Feb. 16). Scanning tech a blurry picture. Wired News. Retrieved October 26, 2005 from Wired. Web site: http://www.wired.com/news/print/0,1294,50470,00.html .
Big Brother atches America
hen Orson ells wrote his famous novel about government surveillance taken to the extreme, the world he described seemed very unrealistic. However, at the turn of the new millenium, the world that he describes is not so different and it seems as if we are just one step away from the "thought police" knocking on the door. For some this gives them an extra-added element of security, but others see it as a serious infringement on their freedom.
Today, we are watched in a variety of ways. Every where you look, you see video cameras recording our every move. iretaps are frequent and devices that transmit over the air such as cell phones are easy targets for those trying to hone in on our private affairs. The government monitors our email and web surfing activities, our bank accounts, credit card accounts and almost anything else you…
Ctrlspace.com. Rhetorics of Surveillance: from Bentham to Big Brother. Updated::October 2, 2001. http://hosting.zkm.de/ctrlspace/e/intro. Accessed 2002.
Kjos, Berit. Who is Reading Your E-Mail? Legalizing Illegal Government Snooping. http://www.crossroad.to/text/articles/surveillance.html . Accessed June, 2002.
Morrison & Foerster L.L.P. Constitution Project's National Review of State Surveillance.
StateStatutes. Authorizing the Interception of Oral, Wire or Electronic Communications
Workplace surveillance typically involves any of a number of different methods of monitoring or tracking employees, including email monitoring, location tracking, biometrics and covert surveillance (Ball, 2010). Organizations arguing in favor of workplace surveillance typically do so for the purpose of safeguarding assets, but this surveillance has consequences for both employees and employers. Certainly, employee perceptions of their employer will be affected by the degree of and types of surveillance. There are privacy issues at play as well. Creativity and motivation are among the task elements that affected negatively by high levels of surveillance (Ball, 2010). Yet, as the level of workplace surveillance increases, there are unresolved legal issues surrounding the practice, which combined with the high level of controversy will mediate the future directions of such surveillance.
The legal framework for workplace surveillance is patchwork, leading to confusion on certain issues. At the federal level, the Electronic Communications Privacy…
Ball, K. (2010). Workplace surveillance: An overview. Labor History. Vol. 51 (1) 87-106
Worktime (2015). USA employee monitoring laws: What can and can't employers do in the workplace? Worktime.com. Retrieved November 28, 2015 from http://www.worktime.com/usa-employee-monitoring-laws-what-can-and-cant-employers-do-in-the-workplace/
SHRM.org (2015). Workplace monitoring laws. SHRM.org. Retrieved November 28, 2015 from https://www.shrm.org/legalissues/stateandlocalresources/stateandlocalstatutesandregulations/documents/state%20surveillance%20and%20monitoring%20laws.pdf
Introna, L. (2003). Opinion: Workplace surveillance is unethical and unfair. Surveillance & Society. Vol. 1 (2) 210-216.
Bigger Monster, Weaker Chains: he Growth of an American Surveillance Society
Issued by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) in January 2003, this report is a dim view of the pervasive influence technology has on the private lives of Americans. Written by Jay Stanley and Barry Steinhardt, the paper examines the various uses of technology by both private industry and the government to collect both visual and written data as well as monitor the movements and habits of private citizens without their consent or knowledge.
he report begins with a warning that our privacy and liberty are at risk. he recent advent of computers, cameras, sensors, wireless communication, GPS, biometrics, cell phone location abilities, and other technologies is "feeding a surveillance monster that is growing in our midst." Furthermore, new technologies such as face recognition programs, implantable GPS and RFID chips, data-mining, DNA chips and "brain wave fingerprinting" are debuting…
The commodification of personal information by corporations has become a multi-billion -- dollar industry. Companies called data aggregators are in the business of compiling detailed databases on individuals and then selling that information to others. The authors report the Justice Department has an $8 million contract with data aggregator ChoicePoint that allows government agents to tap into the company's vast database of personal information on individuals. Although the Privacy Act of 1974 banned the government from maintaining information on citizens who are not the targets of investigations, the FBI can now evade that requirement by simply purchasing information that has been collected by the private sector.
The report also notes threats to personal financial information as well as medical and genetic information that potentially may be used to discriminate against individuals seeking employment or insurance. Furthermore in 2002 new guidelines on domestic spying were issued that significantly increased the freedom of federal agents to American individuals and organizations.
The reports notes that though a vast amount of information has been collected about U.S. citizens, privacy has been protected by the fact that all this information still remains scattered across many different databases. However, should this information be pulled together in one enormous database, the assembled information could add up to an extremely detailed and intrusive picture of an individual's life and habits. The report calls for legislation to keep this from happening otherwise, it will occur by default, and we may never know. The truly disturbing part is that this paper was published eight years ago.
For the former, the cellular provider (as mandated by a court order) forwards information from the site of the phone to law enforcement authorities, allowing these authorities to fixate the location of a subject and to proceed accordingly. For the latter, an audio device consisting of a transmitter, antennae and power source is attached to a person to relay interactive surveillance in a manner which is highly covert. No warrant or court order is required. Regardless of which of these myriad manners of tracking is employed, the primary objective of surveillance is to provide information which can be used as evidence to assist in the prevention of or the bringing of justice of those who have previously committed a crime. Consequently, tracking and surveillance have become integral elements in today's enforcement of law.
1. Foster, R.E. (2004). Police Technology. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
2. Manning, Allison.…
1. Foster, R.E. (2004). Police Technology. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
2. Manning, Allison. (2010). New Police Technology is Helpful but Costly. Retrieved from http://www.dispatch.com/live/content/local_news/stories/2010/11/14/new-police-technology-is-helpful-but-costly.html?sid=101
3. Pittman, E. (2010). Real-Life Police Technology Catches Up With Science Fiction. Retrieved from http://www.govtech.com/public-safety/Real-Life-Police-Technology-Catches-up-With.html
4. Schultz, P.D. (2004). The Future Is Here: Technology in Police Departments. Retrieved from http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display&article_id=1527&issue_id=62008
Blanton, Thomas. (2006, February 4). iretap debate deja vu. National Security Archive.
Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB178/index.htm
Congresswoman calls alleged wiretap 'abuse of power' (2009, April 2009). CNN.com
Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/04/21/harman.wiretap/
Lewis, Neil A. & Mark Mazzetti. (2009, April 20). Lawmaker is said to have aided lobbyists.
The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/21/us/politics/21harman.html?_r=1&em
Maclin, Tracey. (2009). iretapping and electronic surveillance. Law Library.
Crime and Justice: Volume 4. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://law.jrank.org/pages/2323/iretapping-Eavesdropping.html
iretapping and Eavesdropping -- contemporary legal status. (2009). Law Library.
Crime and Justice: Volume 4. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://law.jrank.org/pages/2319/iretapping-Eavesdropping-contemporary-legal-status-wiretapping-eavesdropping.html
iretapping and Eavesdropping - early restrictions on electronic surveillance. Law Library.
Crime and Justice: Volume 4. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://law.jrank.org/pages/2318/iretapping-Eavesdropping-Early-restrictions-on-electronic-surveillance.html
iretapping and eavesdropping - The impact of electronic surveillance on personal privacy.
Law Library. Crime and Justice: Volume 4. Retrieved April 22, 2009
Blanton, Thomas. (2006, February 4). Wiretap debate deja vu. National Security Archive.
Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB178/index.htm
Congresswoman calls alleged wiretap 'abuse of power' (2009, April 2009). CNN.com
Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/04/21/harman.wiretap/
.....motif of surveillance features prominently in Captain America: Civil War. More importantly, the film features the ability of a powerful state entity to control the behavior of its citizens. The types of surveillance and brainwashing depicted in Captain America: Civil War are completely different from those used by the American government. However, the methods of surveillance used by the American government to spy on its own people may be no less sinister. The methods of surveillance used by the government cannot directly control peoples' minds and behavior of individuals, but can control other dimensions of the daily lives of citizens. Captain America: Civil War can be viewed as a metaphor and warning to Americans about the extent, purpose, and meaning of government surveillance in daily life. The film can also be instructional, showing that Americans can empower themselves against encroaching infringements on their rights.
Because Captain America: Civil War is…
1984" is a caution that was given to humankind. It is a political oriented statement with no farsighted declaration. 35 years after his book was published; Orwell could not believe that Big Brother would rule the world. He, however, frequently warned of 1984 unless people acknowledged that their personal rights had been violated and defended them, especially their freedom of opinion (BOSSCHE, 1984).
Surveillance with Technology
Are we back to "Nineteen Eighty-Four"? The technological advancements of data collection, surveillance and storage certainly are beyond what Orwell had in mind. Due to the elimination of deceit, Oceania's observation state has to operate openly. The narrator says that use of mails to communicate was prohibited. All letters were openly read while they were being transported. It looks like an analogue type of Snowden's description: The N.S.A., particularly, has its eye on all communications and definitely embraces them. The use of phone calls,…
BOSSCHE, E. v. (1984, January 1). THE MESSAGE FOR TODAY IN ORWELL'S '1984'. Retrieved from NewYork Times: http://www.nytimes.com/
Crouch, I. (2013, June 11). SO ARE WE LIVING IN 1984? Retrieved from The New Yorker: http://www.newyorker.com/
Funnell, A. (2014, July 29). 1984 and our modern surveillance society. Retrieved from ABC: http://www.abc.net.au/
Wheatcroft, G. (2012, August 24). Why George Orwell is as relevant today as ever. Retrieved from The Guardian: http://www.theguardian.com/
Technology in Medicine: Distant Medical Surveillance Technology for Diabetics in the Less Developed Area of Texas
An estimated 26 million Americans live with diabetes. When not properly treated, diabetes could be fatal as it occupies the seventh position on the list of major mortality causes and it is also a strong causative factor of renal failures, sight damage and clinical limb removals among Americans. Diabetes occurrences are approximately 17% higher in less developed areas. Ethnicity and race are also major factors in determining the risk of suffering from the disease as it affects the smaller factions more. Distant medical surveillance can be very helpful in acquiring daily data about a diabetic's sugar levels, dangerous signs, feeding habits and therapy devotion. This method could help patients take their medications appropriately. Even though certain patients could decide not to adhere to their treatments and thus render this technology useless, the group who…
Balamurugan, A., Hall-Barrow, J., Blevins, M. A., et al. (2009). A pilot study of diabetes education via telemedicine in a rural underserved community -- opportunities and challenges: A continuous quality improvement process. The Diabetes Educator, 35(1), 147 -- 154.
Greenwood, D. A., Young, H. M., & Quinn, C. C. (2014). Telehealth Remote Monitoring Systematic Review: Structured Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose and Impact on A1C. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 8(2), 378 -- 389.
Hale, N. L., Bennett, K. J., &Probst, J. C. (2010). Diabetes care and outcomes: disparities across rural America. Journal of community health, 35(4), 365-374.
Helseth, C. (2014). Diabetes Management in Rural Areas Takes Holistic, Community Approaches, Rural Health Information Hub. Retrieved from https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/rural-monitor/rural-diabetes-management/ on February 18, 2017
UN Human ights Committee Calls for U.S. Surveillance eform
In order to preserve and safeguard civil and political rights, the United Nations monitors the protection of these rights by member states who have become part of the International Covenant on Civil and Political ights (ICCP). As part of this legally binding treaty, the U.N. periodically assigns a body of independent experts to conduct an examination of how nations are implementing the protections guaranteed under ICCP. This body, called the Human ights Committee, then submits a report which "addresses its concerns and recommendations…in the form of 'concluding observations'." ("Human ights Committee") ecently the Committee submitted a report on the United States and its current policy of surveillance of the internet and wireless communications. In response to this report a digital freedom foundation called ACCESS wrote an article titled "UN Human ights Committee calls for U.S. surveillance reform" which supports the Committee's…
"Human Rights Committee." United Nations Human Rights: Office of the High
Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/en/hrbodies/ccpr/pages/ccprindex.aspx
Mitnick, Drew and Deborah Brown. (1 April, 2014). "UN Human Rights Committee calls for U.S. surveillance reform." ACCESSNOW.org. Retrieved from https://www.accessnow.org/blog/2014/04/01/un-human-rights-committee-calls-
Surveillance System for an Environmental Health Concern
Environmental health is an important concern for health care providers because it comprises the areas of human health that are impacted by external factors, such as chemical agents, biological agents, physical environment and so on. Issues that fall under environmental health are air pollution, water pollution, pesticides, chemical spills, and other areas (Laroque, 2009). Because of the risk of these areas negatively impacting human health, there is a need to monitor environmental health areas. One major area of environmental health that desperately needs surveillance is the quality of the air in urban areas near major airports. As Schlenker and Walker (2015) point out, airports are responsible for some of the highest concentrations of air pollution in the nation. An as West et al. (2016) show, air pollution is the cause of millions of premature deaths all over the earth. Thus, there is…
Bennett, Jessica. "Should Facebook Ban Sexist Pages?"
Misogyny is alive and well online; the nternet provides just another forum in which bigots can express their views. n "Should Facebook Ban Sexist Pages," Jessica Bennett (http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/11/05/should-facebook-ban-sexist-pages-the-reality-of-misogyny-online.html) suggests that female bloggers can control the discourse by raising awareness about the presence of misogyny and working to correct the underlying social problems that spawn it in the first place. n many online forums, misogynists can hide behind the cloak of anonymity that the nternet provides. Even when identities are exposed, as on Facebook, sexism remains rampant. As Bennett puts it, "Facebook is just a newer version of the same old problem," (p. 2).
While Bennett fails to effectively address the central question she poses in the title of her blog post, other authors tackle the subject well. For instance, Brendan O'Neill of The Telegraph (http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/brendanoneill2/100115868/the-campaign-to-stamp-out-misogyny-online-echoes-victorian-efforts-to-protect-women-from-coarse-language/) accuses all those who would view censorship…
In the peer-reviewed online journal First Monday ( http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/3086/2589 ), Eszter Hargittai notes that young users of Facebook are savvier about protecting their privacy than is commonly feared. However, Facebook has been under a lot of scrutiny lately, related to the site's privacy options and default settings. According to an article appearing in the online Wall Street Journal, ( http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204224604577030383745515166.html ) "Facebook Inc. is close to a settlement with the U.S. government over charges that it misled users about its use of their personal information, the latest sign of widening public concern over privacy in the digital age." Hargittai champions personal responsibility and empowerment: which is far more useful in preventing privacy breaches than government intervention.
With a new Facebook phone ( http://www.itworld.com/it-managementstrategy/227281/facebook-phone-buffy-privacy-slayer ), set to reach markets, consumers are understandably suspicious about the pervasiveness of the social networking tool. Just how far are we willing to allow social networking to monitor our interests, beliefs, and ways of life? Facebook presents an interesting conundrum: we get more out of our Facebook interactions and friendships if we share more about ourselves; yet the more we share, the more of our lives becomes free fodder for marketing companies.
Savvy users of Facebook, like the young men and women participating in Hargittai's study, know how to restrict who sees what on their Facebook profile. It is up to the individual to make the privacy setting changes that are most appropriate to the user. Instead of crying about how a company wants to make money, Facebook members should learn about the Web tools they use on a daily basis.
FISA's recent rise to fame has been due to attempts by the Bush Administration to apply the law as justification for warrant-less wiretaps of U.S. citizens in apparent disregard of their Fourth Amendment protections. This issue will be examined in more detail below, however, it is important to first discuss some of the key court cases that help establish the Constitutionality of FISA. Specifically, this report will address three cases that directly feed into the Constitutional requirements of FISA: Olmstead v. U.S. (1928), Katz v. U.S. (1967), and U.S. v. U.S. (1972).
Olmstead v. U.S. (1928)
For the civil libertarian, the case of Olmstead v. U.S. (1928) is a nightmare violation of constitutionally guaranteed Fourth and Fifth Amendment rights. In the case, oy Olmstead was convicted of bootlegging during the Prohibition years of U.S. history. Without obtaining any kind of judicial approval, federal agents placed wiretaps in the building Olmstead…
Fein, B. (2007, March). Presidential authority to gather foreign intelligence. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37(1), pp. 23-36.
Katz v. United States. (1967). FindLaw for Legal Professionals. Retrieved March 25, 2008, at http://laws.findlaw.com/us/389/347.html
Malooly, D.J. (1998, Winter). Physical searches under FISA: a constitutional analysis. American Criminal Law Review, 35(2), pp. 411-424.
Olmstead v. United States (1928). The Oyez Project. Retrieved March 25, 2008, at http://www.oyez.org/cases/1901-1939/1927/1927_493/
In answer to questions 1 and 2, therefore, detectives Underwood and Freeman may be allowed to commit necessary misdemeanors or felonies in order to keep their undercover status from being revealed and compromised by invoking authorized criminality.
Undercover police or detectives must engage in authorized crimes for two major reasons: to provide the suspects the change to engage in the target crime and to maintain a false identity or enhance access to the suspect (Joh, 2009). They may engage in the crime as long as their conduct fulfills or enhances the operations' objectives. The opportunities they provide are often crimes themselves if the authorization to commit them has not been previously given. The detectives provide opportunities by pretending to be drug users or illegal gun buyers in search of a willing seller. They participate in the organization's crime in order to maintain their status by convincing the criminals of…
Banks, C. (2004). "The Interaction between Ethics and the Criminal Justice System."
Ethics and criminal justice. Part I. Sage Publications. Retrieved on March 30, 2013
Gunter W.D. And Hertig, C.A. (2005). An introduction to theory, practice and career development for public and private investigators. IFPO: International Foundation for protection Officers. Retrieved on March 30, 2013 from http://www.ifpo.org/articlebank.intro.pdf
Tele-health is an important tool in assisting them to diagnose and treat asthma. This is taking place by providing health care professionals with the ability to quickly identify and treat the condition early. At the same time, it is offering them with tools to improve monitoring, enhance treatment options and educate patients about critical symptoms. (McLean, 2011) (Wooten, 2009)
According to McLean (2011), these tools have helped to boost their ability to effectively deal with the condition and its root causes. This reduces the total number of cases by providing everyone with access to the latest information. These changes are illustrating the positive effects on the way patients are treated through: increased coordination, communication and education. (McLean, 2011)
Analyze the benefits and challenges of incorporating the tele-health system into your disease surveillance system.
The benefits of implementing these solutions in the disease surveillance system include: it is improving collaboration, enhancing…
Cusack, C. (2007). The Value of Provider to Provider Tele-health Technologies. Charlestown, MA:
Center for Information Technology Leadership.
McLean, S. (2011). Tele-healthcare for Long-Term Conditions. BMJ, 42 (3), pp. 359 -- 367.
Wooten, R. (2009). Tele-health in the Developing World. London: Royal Society of Medicine.
Liberation vs. Control in Cyberspace
Deibertt, Ronald & Rafal Rohozinski. "Liberation vs. control: The future of cyberspace."
Journal of Democracy, 21.4 (2010): 43-56
The Internet is a paradox. On one hand, You Tube and Twitter have been widely credited with creating a more open and liberated world, and giving rise to the Arab Spring and other global pro-democracy movements. Yet while the Internet facilitates communication, it also allows for a greater degree of control of ideas through surveillance. "Even in democratic countries, surveillance systems penetrate every aspect of life, as people implicitly (and perhaps unwittingly) consent to the greatest invasion of personal privacy in history" (Deibertt & Rohozinski 2010: 44). What is unique about the Internet is the degree to which people are complicit in sharing information, enabling themselves to be observed, not its 'liberated' aspects: users are completely unaware of the degree to which they are laying their lives…
Groups that have good intentions are often unaware of that websites can be used to propagate social malware attacks, and have few controls to prevent such abuses. "The advocacy group Reporters Without Borders unknowingly propagated a link to a malicious website posing as a Facebook petition to release the Tibetan activist Dhondup Wangchen" (Deibert & Rohozinski 2010: 54). Using the screen of a reputable group or even a government website can be a convenient screen for a hacker.
A nuanced understanding
The Internet is not inherently good or bad nor is it essentially 'free' by its very nature. Those who would behave in a coercive manner, whether criminals, governments, or corporations, can use the Internet just as easily to engage in surveillance and stifle freedom as it is for advocates of democracy to use it as a vehicle for liberation. The Internet is much more highly regulated than would appear on the surface, and one of its great dangers, in contrast to other forms of speech, is that users are not always aware of how and if they are being controlled, and by whom (Deibert & Rohozinski 2010: 56).
journal New Technology, ork, and Employment, discusses the ethical, legal, and cultural issues when it comes to a company using electronic surveillance (ES) in various ways in the workplace. The authors review some cases where companies used very intrusive ES into worker's emails; for example, Dow Chemical fired 60 employees and issued reprimands to "hundreds of others" because workers reportedly used "sexually explicit pictures and violent images"(Kidwell, 2009). The authors explain that using electronic monitoring -- from the standpoint of " ... productivity, efficiency, and liability," but the authors assert that using ES on a global level raises certain legal, ethical and regulatory issues (Kidwell, 195). The article goes on to present the many forms that ES takes, and describes ES as a "multilevel phenomenon" that has sociological and practical applications, but can also help an organization guard against "abuse of resources" and at the same time can incur "potential…
Kidwell, R.E., and Sprague, R. (2009). Electronic surveillance in the global workplace: laws, ethics, research and practice. New Technology, Work and Employment, 24(2), 194-205.
S. mainland. The court can reject the procedures only if it finds the plan for complying with the law as "clearly erroneous." The program may also continue for a year although the law is scheduled for renewal in six months. Warrant-less eavesdropping may begin immediately and ahead of the security court approval of the procedures (Savage).
Spur of the Moment and Secret Order
Weeks after the 9/11 attacks, President ush signed a secret order, which authorized NSA to wiretap international phone calls and emails without a court order (Savage 2007).
It was expressly prohibited by the 1978 warrant law. President ush claimed that war-time powers authorized him to bypass that law. In January this year, the Attorney General said that the program was brought under the supervision of the national security court. A judge allowed some form of surveillance to continue. Several months ago, however, another judge ruled that the…
Bush, George W. The Protect America Act of 2007. National Security Agency, September 19, 2007. Retrieved on October 23, 2007 at http://www.lifeandliberty.gov/docs/bush-disc-paa07.pdf
Fact Sheet: the Protect America Act of 2007. The White House News: the White House, August 5, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2007/08/20070806-5.html
Cable News Network. Bill Would Require Details of All Eavesdropping Since 2001. CNN Politics. CNN: Time Warner Company, October 9, 2007
Bush: Surveillance Bill Must Not Hamper Fight Against Terrorism. CNN Politics. CNN: Time Warner Company, October 10, 2007
Management Project in the Health Care Organization Setting
This study describes the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system. The syndromic surveillance system collects and analyzes prediagnostic and nonclinical disease indicators, drawing on preexisting electronic data that can be found in systems such as electronic health records, school absenteeism records and pharmacy systems. The systems are utilized to identify specific symptoms within a population that may indicate a public health event or emergency such as signaling an outbreak of an infectious disease. school absenteeism records and pharmacy systems. The systems are utilized to identify specific symptoms within a population that may indicate a public health event or emergency such as signaling an outbreak of an infectious disease.
Informatics Management Project In The Health Care Organization Setting
Part One - Introduction
The objective of this study is to describe the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system. Syndromic surveillance systems collect and analyze…
Buckeridge, DL, et al. (2005) An Evaluation Model for Syndromic Surveillance: Assessing the Performance of Temporal Algorithm. Vol. 54 MMWR Supplement.
Chen, H, Zeng, D, Ping, Y and Ping Y (2010) Infectious Disease Informatics; Syndromic Surveillance for Public Health and Biodefense. Springer Medical 2010. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=5BdCfSxtNJMC&dq=syndromic+surveillance+system:+state+of+the+art&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Hurt-Mullen, K and Coberly, J. (2005) Syndromic Surveillance on the Epidemiologist's Desktop: Making Sense of Much Data. MMWR Supplement 26 Aug 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/MMWR/preview/mmwrhtml/su5401a22.htm
Public Meaningful Use (2013) Arkansas Department of Public Health. Retrieved from: http://www.healthy.arkansas.gov/programsServices/MeaningfulUse/Pages/default.aspx
S. law. Legislation such as many elements of the U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT are problematic because they do not provide adequate controls to ensure that investigative methods and procedures appropriate under some circumstances cannot be used in circumstances where they are inappropriate under U.S. law.
4. What is the FISA Court? Explain how it works. What authorities can it grant law enforcement? How is it different from traditional courts? What concerns exist about expanding the use of FISA?
The Foreign Intelligence and Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) was established to regulate the use of surveillance by the executive branch of government in the wake of various unconstitutional investigations conducted by the Nixon administration in connection with monitoring political rivals and government opposition groups. The FISA Act authorized the covert monitoring of information and communication exchanges of entities of foreign governments engaged in espionage and intelligence collection activities in the U.S. pursuant…
Electronic Surveillance on-The-Job: The Pros and Cons of Employee Monitoring
Modern technology has allowed employers many new capacities, including the capacity to electronically oversee employees every action while on-the-job. In recent years many employees have argued that surveillance while on-the-job is a violation of their right to privacy. Employers argue however that employees should not have a right to privacy in the workplace, especially as the employer pays them to perform a duty for the employer. Despite this almost 100% of employees likely report at one time or another engaging in some personal business while at work.
Unfortunately, there are few laws that side with the employee at this time. Most laws argue in favor of the employer, as long as the employer tells the employee of their plans about employee surveillance at the workplace. Below we'll discuss what types of surveillance corporations are now using to protect themselves, and…
Alderman, L. (1994, December). Safeguard your secrets from your boss. Money, 31-32.
American Management Association AMA. (2005). 2005 Electronic Monitoring &
Surveillance Survey: Many Companies Monitoring, Recording, Videotaping and Firing employees. American Management Association, May 2005. Retrieved June 11, 2005: http://www.amanet.org/press/amanews/ems05.htm
Crampton, S.M, & Mishra, J.M. (1998). "Employee monitoring: Privacy in the workplace?" SAM Advanced Management Journal, 63(3):4.
Terrorist Surveillance Techniques: An Overview
The United States and most other major powers routinely engage in surveillance of terrorist groups and individuals likely to perpetuate terrorist activities. This was one of the rationales for founding the Department of Homeland Security: so the U.S. government could become more mindful of terroristic threats arising within the nation's borders as well as abroad. Yet terrorist organizations themselves also engage in surveillance before launching an attack for logistical reasons and to "assess the psychological impact of a successful attack" (Nance 2008:187). Locations are not simply selected for strategic reasons but also because of the emotional resonance they have for the public. Law enforcement agencies must therefore be mindful of how to spot likely terrorist surveillance techniques as well as how to be well-versed in surveillance for their own purposes.
Most major law enforcement agencies deploy two primary forms of surveillance: overt surveillance (such as…
Characteristics of terrorist surveillance. (2014). LAPD. Retrieved from:
Nance. M. (2008). Terrorist recognition handbook. 2nd Ed. CRC Press.
Razzaq, A. (2012). The detection and prevention of preparatory terrorist attacks. Police Link.
Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom vs. Security
The United States prides itself to being the most democratic nation of the world, with the highest respect for the human being, for its values, norms, and dreams. At the same time, before 9/11, it was also considered to be one of the safest nations of the world. The attacks on the World Trade Center towers, in particular pointed out that there are gaps in security and that even the United States represent a vulnerable target. Since then, the security measures have been seriously increased, in certain areas of expertise; security rules have been created if they did not exist. All these measures fueled a constant debate on whether the security that has been increased affects or not the liberties and freedoms of the American population.
On May 1st 2011, Osama bin Laden has been announced dead by the U.S. President, arack Obama…
CNN Wire Staff. (2011) "Bin Laden killing caps decade-long manhunt." CNN Asia. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/05/02/bin.laden.dead/index.html?hpt=T2
Cook, Martin L. (2001) Ethical Issues in Counterterrorism Warfare. Department of Command, Leadership, and Management. U.S. Army War College. May 3, 2011 http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Resources/PhilForum/Terrorism/Cook.html
Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Michigan Dept. Of State Police v. Sitz. 1990. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0496_0444_ZS.html
Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Terry v. Ohio. 1967. May 3, 2011 http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0392_0001_ZS.html
Evidence-Based Solution to educing Incidence
The goal of this assignment is to increase my ability to appraise and synthesize evidence to provide experience a logical argument in support of a proposal for practice change, and to provide experience in designing a detailed implementation and evaluation plan for my project. I need to discuss my project plan with you.
An evidence-based solution to reducing incidence of hospital acquired infections through indwelling medical devices
Hospital-acquired or nosocomial infections are the fourth leading cause of disease in developed countries. The increased insertion and implanting of prosthetic or indwelling medical devices is a leading cause of these infections since the introduction of a foreign body significantly reduces the body's immunity and decreases the number of bacteria needed to produce an infection. Prosthetic or indwelling medical devices such as urethral catheters, suprapublic catheter, nasogastric tubes, hemodialysis catheters, central venous catheters, and tracheostomy tubes are associated…
Chambless, J.D., Hunt, S.M., & Stewart, P.S. (2006). A three-dimensional computer model of four hypothetical mechanisms protecting biofilms from antimicrobials. Appl Environ Microbiol, 72(3), 2005-2013. doi: 10.1128/aem.72.3.2005-2013.2006
Chu, V.H., Crosslin, D.R., Friedman, J.Y., Reed, S.D., Cabell, C.H., Griffiths, R.I., . . . Fowler, V.G., Jr. (2005). Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in patients with prosthetic devices: costs and outcomes. Am J. Med, 118(12), 1416. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.06.011
Cookson, S.T., Ihrig, M., O'Mara, E.M., Denny, M., Volk, H., Banerjee, S.N., . . . Jarvis, W.R. (1998). Increased bloodstream infection rates in surgical patients associated with variation from recommended use and care following implementation of a needleless device. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 19(1), 23-27.
Digiovine, B., Chenoweth, C., Watts, C., & Higgins, M. (1999). The attributable mortality and costs of primary nosocomial bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Am J. Respir Crit Care Med, 160(3), 976-981. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.160.3.9808145
Privacy" Does Not Love an explores darkness lurking beneath dom
James Adcox's novel Love Does Not is many things; a dystopian fantasy, a biting satire, a tale about the perversity of love. Yet it is also a scathing social commentary about the state of privacy in the world today -- and in America in particular -- in the wake of the burgeoning ar on Terror. Beneath the undercurrent of sex, intrigue, and murder, lies a pervasive sense of espionage and an abandonment of the right of individuals to enjoy basic civil liberties such as privacy. hen interpreted with this perspective, the novel is one in which characters and scenes are carefully constructed to illustrate the gradual eroding of the very laws that were initially formed to guarantee autonomy and an egalitarian, republican state as envisioned by the Founding Fathers. There are a number of salient similarities between these characters and…
Adcox, James. Does Not Love. Chicago: Curbside Splendor Publishing. 2014. Print.
Jaeger, Paul T., McClure, Charles, R., Bertot, John Carlo, Snead, John T. The U.S.A. Patriot Act, The Foreign Intelligence Patriot Act, And Information Policy Research in Libraries: Issues, Impacts and Questions for Libraries and Researchers. The Library Quarterly. 74(2), 99-121.
Matz, Chris. Libraries and the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act: Values in Conflict. Journal of Library Administration. 47(3-4), 69-87. 2008. Print.
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 there has been a significant effort to protect America from any further terrorist attacks. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the U.S. National Security Agency's ability to identify and monitor the communications of terrorists and prevent terrorism from occuring. The research will also investigate how the implications of employing these techniques for foreign intelligence surveillance suggests that the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act ("FISA") is inadequate in addressing recent technological developments. These developments include the transition from circuit-based to packet-based communications; the globalization of communications infrastructure; and the development of automated monitoring techniques, including data mining and traffic analysis. The research will also focus on how FISA is challenged by technological developments.
The Monitoring of Communications
The National Security agency was created to "protect U.S. national security systems and to produce foreign signals intelligence information." The strategic plan of the…
Bill to Amend FISA. (2007) The United States Select Committee on Intelligence. Retrieved March 4, 2009 from; http://intelligence.senate.gov/071019/fisa.pdf
Feingold, R. (2008) Remarks of U.S. Senator Russ Feingold
Opposing H.R. 6304, FISA Amendments Act of 2008. Retrieved March 4, 2009 from;
Physical Security Controls
To document the importance of physical security controls as it relates to the massive pervasiveness of online theft and cyber crime
Background information on the identification and authentication of people.
With the advent of the internet it is often very difficult to properly identify the individual in which business is conducted with. With the extreme ease of the internet comes the secrecy of potential criminal lurking through the shadows. Identification and authentication therefore have profound impacts on how to better protect assets from criminals.
The importance of information systems security and how it relates to globalization
Information systems, particularly those that store personal information, often are very senstivie to criminal activity. Therefore physical store techniques mandate that sensitivity information be locked away and under intense surveillance. Aspects such as disposable drives, printers and workstations should also be considered.
C. Brief overview of the paper.
i. The remainder…
1. Backhouse, J., Hsu, C., & McDonnell, A. (2003). Toward public-key infrastructure interoperability. Communications of the ACM, 46(6), 98-100. Retrieved April 25, 2009, from ACM.
2. Bala, D. (2008). Biometrics and information security. Proceedings of the 5th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, 64-66. Retrieved March 31, 2009, from ACM.
3. Boatwright, M. & Lou, X. (2007). What do we know about biometrics authentication? Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, 31, Retrieved March 31, 2009, from ACM.
4. Chan, A.T. (2003). Integrating smart card access to web-based medical information systems. Proceedings of the 2003 ACM symposium on Applied computing, 246-250.Retrieved February 13, 2009, from ACM.
Physical Security Controls
Using attached Annotated outline provide a 5-page paper Physical Security Controls. I attached Annotated Outline Physical Security Controls. You references I Annotated Outline.
The advancement in technology has given rise to numerous computer security threats. It has become quite difficult to identify people online because many people use the internet with fake identities. This has made it easy for people to conduct criminal activities online. Online security of computer systems should be combined with physical security to ensure that no unauthorized person gain access to the systems. A physical security control can be termed as any obstacle used to delay serious attackers, and frustrate trivial attackers. This way a company or organization can be assured of the security if its information and computer systems. Majority of organizations use computer systems to store sensitive company information and employee data. This data needs to be properly secured to ensure…
Backhouse, J., Hsu, C., & McDonnell, A. (2003). Toward public-key infrastructure interoperability. Communications of the ACM, 46(6), 98-100.
Boatwright, M., & Luo, X. (2007). What do we know about biometrics authentication? Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, Kennesaw, Georgia.
Shelfer, K.M., & Procaccino, J.D. (2002). Smart card evolution. Communications of the ACM, 45(7), 83-88.
these little slivers of plastic provide commerce at the swipe of a wrist, but every time that card is swiped, the time, date, location, value, and often the items of a purchase are recorded several times over, by banks, credit card companies, superstores, fashion chains, transport industries, and many other points on the economic tree (Trango, n.d.). These details, over time, can and are used to create a 'picture' of you and your buying habits; Can you be trusted to pay back a loan? What times do you usually come into a store? Do you take public transport because you can or because its cheaper? What bra size are you? All of these details can be correlated over time, and can often then be sold onto third parties for marketing purposes, and, depending on where you are, that information can all be sold including your name and address. (The EU…
1. Schenkel, G. (2009, September 17). Livewave cctv system. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/privacy/privacy_pia_ice_livewave.pdf
2. Trango, . (n.d.). Wireless surveillance systems & homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.trangobroadband.com/solutions/security-surveillance-cctv-systems.aspx
3. Ng, K. (2010, April 20). Why Cctv is a priority for asian homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.futuregov.asia/articles/2010/apr/20/cctv-priority-asian-govts/
4. Post, . (2002). Cctv. POSTNOTE, (175), Retrieved from http://www.parliament.uk/documents/post/pn175.pdf http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23412867-tens-of-thousands-of-cctv-cameras-yet-80-of-crime-unsolved.do
Laurie Long, a contemporary American artist, has a style most uniquely her very own. What she does is to fuse together disparate elements of pop culture, humor, and more predominantly, feminism and feminist culture. This combination is often seen in all her works of art, and today, one of her more fascinating pieces is that of 'The Secret History of Goddess Sites' wherein Laurie Long documents the several places in Europe where female deities are being worshipped, even today. The artist states that some of the sites may have been real, some of them dubiously reconstructed, and some more of them replaced by churches and other significantly archaeological treasures, and these were reconstructed by the artist with the help of several photographs and prints and so on. She has managed to re-contextualize each site, and also address important issues such as feminism and other gender issues within the artwork, and…
A Provocative Look at the Construction of Female Identity. San Jose Museum of Art. January 21, 2005. Retrieved From http://www.sanjosemuseumofart.org/content/aboutUs/press/press_info.phtml?itemID=57 Accessed on 11 March, 2005
DeVaney, Scott. Panty Rave: Laurie Long's Girl Power! exhibit probes the dimensions of female power. Retrieved From http://www.thewavemag.com/pagegen.php?pagename=article& articleid=25193 Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Download Postcards Home Contemporary Art and New Technology in the Primary School. Retrieved From http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bpl/jade/2005/00000024/00000001/art00002 Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Gant, Michael S. Drew Stories: In 'Girl Power!' exhibit at SJ Museum of Art, Laurie Long spies on her own life. Retrieved From http://www.metroactive.com/papers/metro/02.16.05/girlpower-0507.html Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Protective service operations are of the utmost importance when considering the impact that leadership and those who are being protected have upon the environment. The sacrifices made by secret service agents demonstrate the essence of teamwork, faith and dedication to the American way. Protective operations are complex however, and require some in-depth study to truly appreciate these practices that contribute to the general good.
The purpose of this essay is to explain the conducting of a protective service operation for an employee who is at high risk for targeting. This essay will describe in detail the specific 3 phases that are necessary to be successful in this procedure. The essay will first discuss phase I which includes the research, reconnaissance and counter surveillance operations contained in protective operations. Phase II will then be discussed which focuses on the planning aspect of the operation. Execution is the third phase of these…
Department of Homeland Security. (2008, October). Active shooter: How to respond. Retrieved from http://www.alerts.si.edu/docs/DHS_ActiveShooterBook.pdf
Fein, R.A. & Vossekuil, B. (1998). Protective intelligence and threat assessment Investigations: A guide for State and local law enforcement officials. U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.secretservice.gov/ntac/PI_Guide.pdf
The Free Dictionary. "Surveillance." Viewed 5 May 2014. Retrieved from http://www.secretservice.gov/usss_strategic_plan_2008_2013.pdf
Hayes, B. (2010). Protecting people at risk. Security, 47(12), 40-40. Retrieved from H-PU library Proquest criminal justice http://search.proquest.com/docview/846781971?accountid=136858
right of employers to engage in electronic surveillance of their employees remains an area of intense legal dispute. However, overall the courts have been expanding, rather than limiting the rights of employers to use new technology to monitor worker behavior. Workers cannot assume that they have an expectation of privacy in the public environment of the workplace. "New technologies make it possible for employers to monitor many aspects of their employees' jobs, especially on telephones, computer terminals, through electronic and voice mail, and when employees are using the Internet. Such monitoring is virtually unregulated" (Fact sheet, 2011, Privacy ights).
Because employers own workplace computers and phones, they have a right to monitor employee's use of these devices. The one exception to this rule was in a New Jersey Supreme Court case where attorney-client privilege prevented an employer from reading the communications sent by an employee to her counsel on a…
Fact sheet 7: Workplace privacy and employee monitoring. (2011, April). Privacy Rights.
Retrieved April 29, 2011 at http://www.privacyrights.org /fs/fs7-work.htm#computermonitoring
Introduction: Privacy in the workplace. (2011). Cyberlaw. Harvard University.
Retrieved April 29, 2011 at http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/privacy/Module3_Intronew.html
Johnny was challenged on several expenses, but no formal complaint or discipline occurred. After the incident with IA, Johnny began openly challenging everything management said or wrote, including openly challenging the termination of another employee.
Ethical Dilemmas -- There are several ethical issues present in this scenario. Most involve honesty, attention to policy, and professionalism. We can chart them out thus:
Use of official funds for non-official business.
Theft of public funds.
Reprimand, dismissal or prosecution.
Knowingly contributing to dishonesty on the job.
Theft of funds, non-adherence to oath or code.
Reprimand, dismissal or prosecution.
Unprofessional conduct -- demeaning management.
Not supportive of supervisor, not team player.
Reprimand, dismissal or demotion.
Potential conflict of interest being alone, late at night, in bars with another woman.
Inappropriate use of funds, time and unprofessional relationship issues.
Reprimand, dismissal or prosecution.
Using a police vehicle after hours for…
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Such equipment should be adequate to ensure personnel are protected from chemical exposure to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. PPE may be upgraded or downgraded by the site industrial hygienist, HSM, or qualified Site Safety Officer based upon site conditions and air monitoring results (Levin, et al., 2002)
Work practice and administrative controls
Administrative controls or work practice controls are changes in work procedures such as written safety policies, rules, supervision, schedules, and training with the aim of reducing the interval, frequency, and sternness of exposure to hazardous chemicals or situations. Workers who handle hazardous chemicals in the workplace should be familiar with the administrative controls required fewer than 29 CF 1910.1200, and the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. This controls are perhaps most important, because they impact your people directly. On the one hand, they are the simplest, since all it takes is education. On the other hand, education…
Annual report on 9/11 health (September, 2009). Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from http://www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/pdf/2009_wtc_medical_working_group_annual_report.pdf
Burright, D. et al., (1999). Evaluation guidelines for air sampling methods utilizing chromatographic analysis. OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center, U.S. Department of Labor: Salt Lake City, UT.
Harris, J.S., (ed.) (1997). Occupational medicine practice guidelines: Evaluation and management of common health problems and functional recovery in workers. The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Beverly, Mass.: OEM Press.
Levin, S. et al.,. (2002). Health effects of World Trade Center site workers. America Journal of Industrial Medicine 42:545 -- 547.
As an alternative, on the foundation of information obtained from confidential informants, the government petitioned the district court to give permission for the placement of an electronic surveillance wire tap on Jesus Zambrana's private telephone. Information obtained over this wire tap led law enforcement officers to think that Ernest Lonzo and another unidentified person were carrying narcotics from Miami, Florida, to Jesus Zambrana's house in Gary, Indiana.
On the foundation of this wire tap information, DEA agents, with the help of police officers from Lake County, Indiana, and East Chicago, Indiana, began the surveillance of Interstate Highway I-65 in the area of Crown Point, Indian. Prior to starting the surveillance, a DEA agent met with Lake County, Indiana, police officers and gave them a list of five people suspected as being involved in the carrying of narcotics between Florida and Indiana, as well as a list of four vehicles thought…
Informants, Surveillance, and Undercover Operations. (2010). Retreived from http://www.drtomoconnor.com/3220/3220lect02c.htm
United States of America, Plaintiff-Appellee v. Jesus Zambrana, Sr., Charles Cole and Jay
Zambrana, 841 F.2d 1320. (1988). Retreived from http://ftp.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/841/841.F2d.1320.86-1501.86-1402.86-1115.html
Safety and Heath in it Environments
Applied Business esearch: The need for Safety and Health Standards in Hazardous Working Environments in the Information Technology
Businesses including IT firms are flooded with IT tools like microcomputers, photocopiers, digital surveillance tools, internet, among others. There is mounting evidence from a review of literature that in the IT work environment, especially the IT industry, present hazardous working environments to workers. Workers in these environments also undergo stress from the lack of knowledge of the tools, the lack of, or reduced human contact. Information technology tools also create electrical and fire hazards, which threaten the safety of employees. Employees also suffer from health issues like bleary-eyes from bright screens and monitors of IT tools. The research proves the need for increased safety and health measures in these environments. In the end, the research creates knowledge in the business community of the importance of increased…
Fraihat, H.M. (2003). Taxonomy and remedy of work hazards associated with office information systems. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 3(1), 127-127.
Information Resources Management Association (1994). Managing Social and Economic Change with Information Technology. Proceedings of the Information Resources Management Association International Conference, May 1994. IDEA Group Publishing.
Jones, L.K. (1996). A harsh and challenging world of work: Implications for counselors. Journal of Counseling and Development: JCD, 74(5), 453-453.
Koreneff, I. And Sims-McLean, K. (2005). Excel. Glebe, NSW: Pascal Press.
For example a
monitoring surveillance strategy could tell a nation that they need more
heart specialists and possibly an entire medical clinic dedicated to heart
disease to treat both their aging population and the emergencies more
elderly visitors to their nation experience.
Conversely an evaluation strategy of surveillance would look at the
processes in use throughout the emergency room and see which are performing
well, which aren't and what can be done to make the processes physicians
and nurses use to treat patients more efficient. The underlying difference
then of an evaluation versus a monitoring strategy is the focus on
improvement to a specific goal or objective. Evaluation strategies of
surveillance focus on progress to a specific goal or objective first, while
monitoring strategies seek often to quantify the behavior of any process,
procedure or approach to treatment from a healthcare perspective.
Question 3 Response
In the nation you serve…
Criminal Identification Procedures
The dawn of the twenty-first century has become the era of George Orwell's "1984." Technology that was found only in science fiction a few decades ago, is part of today's standards and procedures.
The world today is filled with cameras that can film an individual wherever he goes, his cell phone signal can pinpoint his location, and even one glance can reveal his true identity (Shenk 2003). Iris-recognition technology, soon to be common in places such as airports, offices, and banks, will simply scan an individual's eyes to reveal his idenity (Shenk 2003). Many feel that in this post-9/11 landscape, there is a serious need for these high-tech tools to help detect money laundering, encrypted e-mails, bio-weapons, and suitcase nukes (Shenk 2003).
Poseidon, a new electronic surveillance system, is a network of cameras that feeds a computer programmed to use a set of complex mathematical algorithms to…
Shenk, David. "Watching you the world of high-tech surveillance."
National Geographic. 11/1/2003.
Udall, Morris K. "Criminal Justice New Technologies and the Constitution:
Chapter 2 Investigation, Identification, Apprehension." U.S. History. 9/1/1990.
Arguments for and against the Patriot Act
The unusual events surrounding the creation and passing of the Patriot Act make it a suspect bill in many eyes. However, major media reports like this one: "Fifty-nine percent in an ABC News/ashington Post poll favor continuing the additional investigative authority in terrorism investigations that was granted to the FBI starting in 2001. President Bush urged such an extension of the Patriot Act today" (Langer) insist that there are others who support it and promote it as a protection against the kind of terrorism that was seen on 9/11. For supporters the idea of sacrificing civil liberties for security measures such as the TSA is, while unfortunate, a necessary evil. Those who oppose it, like alternative media journalist Ryan Dawson and Sen. Ron Paul, decry it as government intrusion. This paper will give arguments for and against the Patriot Act and…
Brand, Rachel. "Reauthorization of the U.S.A. Patriot Act." 20 Jan 2010. The Federalist
Society. Web. 24 Sep 2011. < http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/detail/reauthorization-of-the-usa-patriot-act >
Celente, Gerald. "Gerald Celente Predicts Ron Paul Can Win in 2012." 3 May 2010.
YouTube. 24 Sep 2011.
Terrorist is Created:
Terrorist acts are usually motivated by two major reasons i.e. The belief that violence or its threat will be suitable in contributing to change and social and political injustice. Throughout history, many terrorists have stated that they chose violence because they felt they had no alternative after long deliberations. In this case, these terrorists have considered violent acts justify the ends following long deliberations. Notably, there are various factors that contribute to the development and recruitment of terrorists, especially political, religious, economic, and cultural conditions. In most cases, the political and social conditions have been considered as the major factors that result in the creation of a terrorist. Through these conditions, people choose terrorism in attempts to right perceived wrongs in their social or political lives. These individuals resort to violence or its threats when they feel that they have been stripped of their land or denied…
"The NSA Program to Detect and Prevent Terrorist Attacks -- Myth v. Reality." (2006, January
27). Office of Public Affairs. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice website: http://www.justice.gov/opa/documents/nsa_myth_v_reality.pdf
Zalman, A. (n.d.). The Causes of Terrorism. Retrieved November 13, 2012, from http://terrorism.about.com/od/causes/a/causes_terror.htm
NEDSS: What do you think would be three hurdles to successful implementation (at CDC and in the state of Mississippi)?
"The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) is a secure online framework that allows healthcare professionals and government agencies to communicate about disease patterns and coordinate national response to outbreaks…. The CDC mandates that hospitals, clinics and state health agencies all adopt NEDSS standards so that the speed, accuracy, standardization and viability of data about diseases are improved" (National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS, 2012, Tech Target). The goal of NEDSS is seamless integration and coordination between state and federal authorities when combatting sudden epidemics (such as H1N1) or long-standing chronic diseases that must be addressed over time, such as obesity.
One problem with implementing such a system "is the delay experienced from incident awareness, through laboratory testing and ultimately to public health investigation" (Tracking silent killers, 2012, Center for…
Centers for Disease Control (2011). National electronic disease surveillance system: NEDSS
overview. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/phin/tools/NEDSS/
Mississippi State Department of Health. (2004). State Health Plan FY- 2004: Priority Needs.
Retrieved from: http://msdh.ms.gov/msdhsite/index.cfm/19,835,184,210,pdf/SectionA-Chapter4-PriorityNeeds.pdf
One of the tope 10 global health issues identified by Intra-Health International in 2013 is: Helping even more children to live longer. According to the 2012 UNICEF report,
Committing to Child Survival: A Promise enewed, the number of child deaths has decreased in many countries across the globe ("Intra-Health," 2013). Indeed, child mortality rates have decreased nearly 50% from a 1990 figure of 12 million under-five deaths to a 2011 figure of 6.9 million. In absolute terms, if the child mortality rate could be reduced to just 20 child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035, a minimum of 45 million children saved ("Intra-Health," 2013). ecommendations from the Child Survival Call to Action hosted by USAID point to the need for better and more systematic collection of health sector data, as well as better implementation of high-impact interventions to tackle the major causes of newborn…
Mitku, K., Bedada, T., Masresha, B., Wenemagegn, K., Nafo-Traore, F., Tesfaye, N., and Beyene, B. (2011). The epidemiology of rubella disease in Ethiopia: Data from the measles case-based surveillance system. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 204(1), S239-S242. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir120. Retreived from http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/204/suppl_1/S239.full.pdf+html
____. (2013, January 15). The top 10 global health issues to watch in 2013. Intra-Health International. Retrieved from http://www.intrahealth.org/page/the-top-10-global-health-issues-to-watch-in-2013
Evidence, Truth, and Order
Tagg, John. "Evidence, Truth and Order: A Means of Surveillance" From Visual Culture: The Reader. Edited by Jessica Evans and Stuart Hall. New York: Sage, 1999, pp. 244-273. Originally published as Tagg, John. "A Means of Surveillance: Photograph as Evidence in Law," in John Tagg, The Burden of Representation: Evidence, Truth, and Order. London: Macmillan, 1988, pp. 66-102.
hen confronted with an article entitled "Evidence, Truth, and Order: A Means of Surveillance," a reader unacquainted with the rest of the photographer and critics John Tagg's work or the authors' other writings on the subject of his art might assume that his written work to follow the title would center purely upon notions of the criminal justice system pertaining to evidence and the establishment of truth, viewed with the electronic eye of mechanized surveillance. However, Tagg, a photographer, is mainly concerned with the photographic art specifically of…
Tagg, John. The Burden of Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1988.