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How to Achieve Environmental Health
Words: 2544 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70741515
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Surveillance System for an Environmental Health Concern
Environmental health is an important concern for health care providers because it comprises the areas of human health that are impacted by external factors, such as chemical agents, biological agents, physical environment and so on. Issues that fall under environmental health are air pollution, water pollution, pesticides, chemical spills, and other areas (Laroque, 2009). Because of the risk of these areas negatively impacting human health, there is a need to monitor environmental health areas. One major area of environmental health that desperately needs surveillance is the quality of the air in urban areas near major airports. As Schlenker and Walker (2015) point out, airports are responsible for some of the highest concentrations of air pollution in the nation. An as West et al. (2016) show, air pollution is the cause of millions of premature deaths all over the earth. Thus, there is…

FISA Improving Counterterrorism Through Modernization
Words: 4187 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85446657
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FISA's recent rise to fame has been due to attempts by the Bush Administration to apply the law as justification for warrant-less wiretaps of U.S. citizens in apparent disregard of their Fourth Amendment protections. This issue will be examined in more detail below, however, it is important to first discuss some of the key court cases that help establish the Constitutionality of FISA. Specifically, this report will address three cases that directly feed into the Constitutional requirements of FISA: Olmstead v. U.S. (1928), Katz v. U.S. (1967), and U.S. v. U.S. (1972).

Olmstead v. U.S. (1928)

For the civil libertarian, the case of Olmstead v. U.S. (1928) is a nightmare violation of constitutionally guaranteed Fourth and Fifth Amendment rights. In the case, oy Olmstead was convicted of bootlegging during the Prohibition years of U.S. history. Without obtaining any kind of judicial approval, federal agents placed wiretaps in the building Olmstead…


Fein, B. (2007, March). Presidential authority to gather foreign intelligence. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37(1), pp. 23-36.

Katz v. United States. (1967). FindLaw for Legal Professionals. Retrieved March 25, 2008, at 

Malooly, D.J. (1998, Winter). Physical searches under FISA: a constitutional analysis. American Criminal Law Review, 35(2), pp. 411-424.

Olmstead v. United States (1928). The Oyez Project. Retrieved March 25, 2008, at

Dnrc Scenario Conflicting Loyalties Ethics
Words: 1164 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16041145
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In answer to questions 1 and 2, therefore, detectives Underwood and Freeman may be allowed to commit necessary misdemeanors or felonies in order to keep their undercover status from being revealed and compromised by invoking authorized criminality.

Undercover police or detectives must engage in authorized crimes for two major reasons: to provide the suspects the change to engage in the target crime and to maintain a false identity or enhance access to the suspect (Joh, 2009). They may engage in the crime as long as their conduct fulfills or enhances the operations' objectives. The opportunities they provide are often crimes themselves if the authorization to commit them has not been previously given. The detectives provide opportunities by pretending to be drug users or illegal gun buyers in search of a willing seller. They participate in the organization's crime in order to maintain their status by convincing the criminals of…


Banks, C. (2004). "The Interaction between Ethics and the Criminal Justice System."

Ethics and criminal justice. Part I. Sage Publications. Retrieved on March 30, 2013


Gunter W.D. And Hertig, C.A. (2005). An introduction to theory, practice and career development for public and private investigators. IFPO: International Foundation for protection Officers. Retrieved on March 30, 2013 from

Tele Health Over the Last
Words: 532 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 74955312
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Tele-health is an important tool in assisting them to diagnose and treat asthma. This is taking place by providing health care professionals with the ability to quickly identify and treat the condition early. At the same time, it is offering them with tools to improve monitoring, enhance treatment options and educate patients about critical symptoms. (McLean, 2011) (Wooten, 2009)

According to McLean (2011), these tools have helped to boost their ability to effectively deal with the condition and its root causes. This reduces the total number of cases by providing everyone with access to the latest information. These changes are illustrating the positive effects on the way patients are treated through: increased coordination, communication and education. (McLean, 2011)

Analyze the benefits and challenges of incorporating the tele-health system into your disease surveillance system.

The benefits of implementing these solutions in the disease surveillance system include: it is improving collaboration, enhancing…


Cusack, C. (2007). The Value of Provider to Provider Tele-health Technologies. Charlestown, MA:

Center for Information Technology Leadership.

McLean, S. (2011). Tele-healthcare for Long-Term Conditions. BMJ, 42 (3), pp. 359 -- 367.

Wooten, R. (2009). Tele-health in the Developing World. London: Royal Society of Medicine.

Liberation vs Control in Cyberspace
Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68574002
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Liberation vs. Control in Cyberspace

Deibertt, Ronald & Rafal Rohozinski. "Liberation vs. control: The future of cyberspace."

Journal of Democracy, 21.4 (2010): 43-56

The Internet is a paradox. On one hand, You Tube and Twitter have been widely credited with creating a more open and liberated world, and giving rise to the Arab Spring and other global pro-democracy movements. Yet while the Internet facilitates communication, it also allows for a greater degree of control of ideas through surveillance. "Even in democratic countries, surveillance systems penetrate every aspect of life, as people implicitly (and perhaps unwittingly) consent to the greatest invasion of personal privacy in history" (Deibertt & Rohozinski 2010: 44). What is unique about the Internet is the degree to which people are complicit in sharing information, enabling themselves to be observed, not its 'liberated' aspects: users are completely unaware of the degree to which they are laying their lives…

Groups that have good intentions are often unaware of that websites can be used to propagate social malware attacks, and have few controls to prevent such abuses. "The advocacy group Reporters Without Borders unknowingly propagated a link to a malicious website posing as a Facebook petition to release the Tibetan activist Dhondup Wangchen" (Deibert & Rohozinski 2010: 54). Using the screen of a reputable group or even a government website can be a convenient screen for a hacker.

A nuanced understanding

The Internet is not inherently good or bad nor is it essentially 'free' by its very nature. Those who would behave in a coercive manner, whether criminals, governments, or corporations, can use the Internet just as easily to engage in surveillance and stifle freedom as it is for advocates of democracy to use it as a vehicle for liberation. The Internet is much more highly regulated than would appear on the surface, and one of its great dangers, in contrast to other forms of speech, is that users are not always aware of how and if they are being controlled, and by whom (Deibert & Rohozinski 2010: 56).

How Ethical Is it to Monitor Every Employee S Activities
Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 32562094
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journal New Technology, ork, and Employment, discusses the ethical, legal, and cultural issues when it comes to a company using electronic surveillance (ES) in various ways in the workplace. The authors review some cases where companies used very intrusive ES into worker's emails; for example, Dow Chemical fired 60 employees and issued reprimands to "hundreds of others" because workers reportedly used "sexually explicit pictures and violent images"(Kidwell, 2009). The authors explain that using electronic monitoring -- from the standpoint of " ... productivity, efficiency, and liability," but the authors assert that using ES on a global level raises certain legal, ethical and regulatory issues (Kidwell, 195). The article goes on to present the many forms that ES takes, and describes ES as a "multilevel phenomenon" that has sociological and practical applications, but can also help an organization guard against "abuse of resources" and at the same time can incur "potential…

Works Cited

Kidwell, R.E., and Sprague, R. (2009). Electronic surveillance in the global workplace: laws, ethics, research and practice. New Technology, Work and Employment, 24(2), 194-205.

Protect America Act of 2007
Words: 4307 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35287031
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S. mainland. The court can reject the procedures only if it finds the plan for complying with the law as "clearly erroneous." The program may also continue for a year although the law is scheduled for renewal in six months. Warrant-less eavesdropping may begin immediately and ahead of the security court approval of the procedures (Savage).

Spur of the Moment and Secret Order

Weeks after the 9/11 attacks, President ush signed a secret order, which authorized NSA to wiretap international phone calls and emails without a court order (Savage 2007).

It was expressly prohibited by the 1978 warrant law. President ush claimed that war-time powers authorized him to bypass that law. In January this year, the Attorney General said that the program was brought under the supervision of the national security court. A judge allowed some form of surveillance to continue. Several months ago, however, another judge ruled that the…


Bush, George W. The Protect America Act of 2007. National Security Agency, September 19, 2007. Retrieved on October 23, 2007 at

Fact Sheet: the Protect America Act of 2007. The White House News: the White House, August 5, 2007. 

Cable News Network. Bill Would Require Details of All Eavesdropping Since 2001. CNN Politics. CNN: Time Warner Company, October 9, 2007

Bush: Surveillance Bill Must Not Hamper Fight Against Terrorism. CNN Politics. CNN: Time Warner Company, October 10, 2007

Management Project in the Health Care Organization
Words: 2486 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 81735449
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Management Project in the Health Care Organization Setting

This study describes the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system. The syndromic surveillance system collects and analyzes prediagnostic and nonclinical disease indicators, drawing on preexisting electronic data that can be found in systems such as electronic health records, school absenteeism records and pharmacy systems. The systems are utilized to identify specific symptoms within a population that may indicate a public health event or emergency such as signaling an outbreak of an infectious disease. school absenteeism records and pharmacy systems. The systems are utilized to identify specific symptoms within a population that may indicate a public health event or emergency such as signaling an outbreak of an infectious disease.

Informatics Management Project In The Health Care Organization Setting

Part One - Introduction

The objective of this study is to describe the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system. Syndromic surveillance systems collect and analyze…


Buckeridge, DL, et al. (2005) An Evaluation Model for Syndromic Surveillance: Assessing the Performance of Temporal Algorithm. Vol. 54 MMWR Supplement.

Chen, H, Zeng, D, Ping, Y and Ping Y (2010) Infectious Disease Informatics; Syndromic Surveillance for Public Health and Biodefense. Springer Medical 2010. Retrieved from: 

Hurt-Mullen, K and Coberly, J. (2005) Syndromic Surveillance on the Epidemiologist's Desktop: Making Sense of Much Data. MMWR Supplement 26 Aug 2005. Retrieved from: 

Public Meaningful Use (2013) Arkansas Department of Public Health. Retrieved from:

Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism Counterterrorism
Words: 1353 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51099893
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S. law. Legislation such as many elements of the U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT are problematic because they do not provide adequate controls to ensure that investigative methods and procedures appropriate under some circumstances cannot be used in circumstances where they are inappropriate under U.S. law.

4. What is the FISA Court? Explain how it works. What authorities can it grant law enforcement? How is it different from traditional courts? What concerns exist about expanding the use of FISA?

The Foreign Intelligence and Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) was established to regulate the use of surveillance by the executive branch of government in the wake of various unconstitutional investigations conducted by the Nixon administration in connection with monitoring political rivals and government opposition groups. The FISA Act authorized the covert monitoring of information and communication exchanges of entities of foreign governments engaged in espionage and intelligence collection activities in the U.S. pursuant…

Monitoring How Employees Use Information Systems
Words: 2493 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82913511
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Electronic Surveillance on-The-Job: The Pros and Cons of Employee Monitoring

Modern technology has allowed employers many new capacities, including the capacity to electronically oversee employees every action while on-the-job. In recent years many employees have argued that surveillance while on-the-job is a violation of their right to privacy. Employers argue however that employees should not have a right to privacy in the workplace, especially as the employer pays them to perform a duty for the employer. Despite this almost 100% of employees likely report at one time or another engaging in some personal business while at work.

Unfortunately, there are few laws that side with the employee at this time. Most laws argue in favor of the employer, as long as the employer tells the employee of their plans about employee surveillance at the workplace. Below we'll discuss what types of surveillance corporations are now using to protect themselves, and…


Alderman, L. (1994, December). Safeguard your secrets from your boss. Money, 31-32.

American Management Association AMA. (2005). 2005 Electronic Monitoring &

Surveillance Survey: Many Companies Monitoring, Recording, Videotaping and Firing employees. American Management Association, May 2005. Retrieved June 11, 2005: 

Crampton, S.M, & Mishra, J.M. (1998). "Employee monitoring: Privacy in the workplace?" SAM Advanced Management Journal, 63(3):4.

Deterring Terrorism
Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41618609
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Terrorist Surveillance Techniques: An Overview

The United States and most other major powers routinely engage in surveillance of terrorist groups and individuals likely to perpetuate terrorist activities. This was one of the rationales for founding the Department of Homeland Security: so the U.S. government could become more mindful of terroristic threats arising within the nation's borders as well as abroad. Yet terrorist organizations themselves also engage in surveillance before launching an attack for logistical reasons and to "assess the psychological impact of a successful attack" (Nance 2008:187). Locations are not simply selected for strategic reasons but also because of the emotional resonance they have for the public. Law enforcement agencies must therefore be mindful of how to spot likely terrorist surveillance techniques as well as how to be well-versed in surveillance for their own purposes.

Most major law enforcement agencies deploy two primary forms of surveillance: overt surveillance (such as…


Characteristics of terrorist surveillance. (2014). LAPD. Retrieved from: 

Nance. M. (2008). Terrorist recognition handbook. 2nd Ed. CRC Press.

Razzaq, A. (2012). The detection and prevention of preparatory terrorist attacks. Police Link.

Counter-Terrorism and Social Media Freedom vs Security
Words: 5692 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49775496
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Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom vs. Security

The United States prides itself to being the most democratic nation of the world, with the highest respect for the human being, for its values, norms, and dreams. At the same time, before 9/11, it was also considered to be one of the safest nations of the world. The attacks on the World Trade Center towers, in particular pointed out that there are gaps in security and that even the United States represent a vulnerable target. Since then, the security measures have been seriously increased, in certain areas of expertise; security rules have been created if they did not exist. All these measures fueled a constant debate on whether the security that has been increased affects or not the liberties and freedoms of the American population.

On May 1st 2011, Osama bin Laden has been announced dead by the U.S. President, arack Obama…


CNN Wire Staff. (2011) "Bin Laden killing caps decade-long manhunt." CNN Asia. 

Cook, Martin L. (2001) Ethical Issues in Counterterrorism Warfare. Department of Command, Leadership, and Management. U.S. Army War College. May 3, 2011

Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Michigan Dept. Of State Police v. Sitz. 1990. 

Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Terry v. Ohio. 1967. May 3, 2011

Evidence-Based Solution to Reducing Incidence the Goal
Words: 2666 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 63294087
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Evidence-Based Solution to educing Incidence

The goal of this assignment is to increase my ability to appraise and synthesize evidence to provide experience a logical argument in support of a proposal for practice change, and to provide experience in designing a detailed implementation and evaluation plan for my project. I need to discuss my project plan with you.

An evidence-based solution to reducing incidence of hospital acquired infections through indwelling medical devices

Hospital-acquired or nosocomial infections are the fourth leading cause of disease in developed countries. The increased insertion and implanting of prosthetic or indwelling medical devices is a leading cause of these infections since the introduction of a foreign body significantly reduces the body's immunity and decreases the number of bacteria needed to produce an infection. Prosthetic or indwelling medical devices such as urethral catheters, suprapublic catheter, nasogastric tubes, hemodialysis catheters, central venous catheters, and tracheostomy tubes are associated…


Chambless, J.D., Hunt, S.M., & Stewart, P.S. (2006). A three-dimensional computer model of four hypothetical mechanisms protecting biofilms from antimicrobials. Appl Environ Microbiol, 72(3), 2005-2013. doi: 10.1128/aem.72.3.2005-2013.2006

Chu, V.H., Crosslin, D.R., Friedman, J.Y., Reed, S.D., Cabell, C.H., Griffiths, R.I., . . . Fowler, V.G., Jr. (2005). Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in patients with prosthetic devices: costs and outcomes. Am J. Med, 118(12), 1416. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.06.011

Cookson, S.T., Ihrig, M., O'Mara, E.M., Denny, M., Volk, H., Banerjee, S.N., . . . Jarvis, W.R. (1998). Increased bloodstream infection rates in surgical patients associated with variation from recommended use and care following implementation of a needleless device. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 19(1), 23-27.

Digiovine, B., Chenoweth, C., Watts, C., & Higgins, M. (1999). The attributable mortality and costs of primary nosocomial bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Am J. Respir Crit Care Med, 160(3), 976-981. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.160.3.9808145

Privacy Does Not Love an Explores Darkness
Words: 2220 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94779964
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Privacy" Does Not Love an explores darkness lurking beneath dom

James Adcox's novel Love Does Not is many things; a dystopian fantasy, a biting satire, a tale about the perversity of love. Yet it is also a scathing social commentary about the state of privacy in the world today -- and in America in particular -- in the wake of the burgeoning ar on Terror. Beneath the undercurrent of sex, intrigue, and murder, lies a pervasive sense of espionage and an abandonment of the right of individuals to enjoy basic civil liberties such as privacy. hen interpreted with this perspective, the novel is one in which characters and scenes are carefully constructed to illustrate the gradual eroding of the very laws that were initially formed to guarantee autonomy and an egalitarian, republican state as envisioned by the Founding Fathers. There are a number of salient similarities between these characters and…

Works Cited

Adcox, James. Does Not Love. Chicago: Curbside Splendor Publishing. 2014. Print.

Jaeger, Paul T., McClure, Charles, R., Bertot, John Carlo, Snead, John T. The U.S.A. Patriot Act, The Foreign Intelligence Patriot Act, And Information Policy Research in Libraries: Issues, Impacts and Questions for Libraries and Researchers. The Library Quarterly. 74(2), 99-121.

Matz, Chris. Libraries and the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act: Values in Conflict. Journal of Library Administration. 47(3-4), 69-87. 2008. Print.

Homeland Security and FISA
Words: 1457 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55197614
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Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 there has been a significant effort to protect America from any further terrorist attacks. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the U.S. National Security Agency's ability to identify and monitor the communications of terrorists and prevent terrorism from occuring. The research will also investigate how the implications of employing these techniques for foreign intelligence surveillance suggests that the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act ("FISA") is inadequate in addressing recent technological developments. These developments include the transition from circuit-based to packet-based communications; the globalization of communications infrastructure; and the development of automated monitoring techniques, including data mining and traffic analysis. The research will also focus on how FISA is challenged by technological developments.

The Monitoring of Communications

The National Security agency was created to "protect U.S. national security systems and to produce foreign signals intelligence information." The strategic plan of the…

Works Cited

Bill to Amend FISA. (2007) The United States Select Committee on Intelligence. Retrieved March 4, 2009 from; 

Feingold, R. (2008) Remarks of U.S. Senator Russ Feingold

Opposing H.R. 6304, FISA Amendments Act of 2008. Retrieved March 4, 2009 from;

Physical Security Controls to Document the Importance
Words: 1746 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64070953
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Physical Security Controls

To document the importance of physical security controls as it relates to the massive pervasiveness of online theft and cyber crime

Background information on the identification and authentication of people.

With the advent of the internet it is often very difficult to properly identify the individual in which business is conducted with. With the extreme ease of the internet comes the secrecy of potential criminal lurking through the shadows. Identification and authentication therefore have profound impacts on how to better protect assets from criminals.

The importance of information systems security and how it relates to globalization

Information systems, particularly those that store personal information, often are very senstivie to criminal activity. Therefore physical store techniques mandate that sensitivity information be locked away and under intense surveillance. Aspects such as disposable drives, printers and workstations should also be considered.

C. Brief overview of the paper.

i. The remainder…


1. Backhouse, J., Hsu, C., & McDonnell, A. (2003). Toward public-key infrastructure interoperability. Communications of the ACM, 46(6), 98-100. Retrieved April 25, 2009, from ACM.

2. Bala, D. (2008). Biometrics and information security. Proceedings of the 5th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, 64-66. Retrieved March 31, 2009, from ACM.

3. Boatwright, M. & Lou, X. (2007). What do we know about biometrics authentication? Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, 31, Retrieved March 31, 2009, from ACM.

4. Chan, A.T. (2003). Integrating smart card access to web-based medical information systems. Proceedings of the 2003 ACM symposium on Applied computing, 246-250.Retrieved February 13, 2009, from ACM.

Physical Security Controls Using Attached Annotated Outline
Words: 1671 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23250260
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Physical Security Controls

Using attached Annotated outline provide a 5-page paper Physical Security Controls. I attached Annotated Outline Physical Security Controls. You references I Annotated Outline.

The advancement in technology has given rise to numerous computer security threats. It has become quite difficult to identify people online because many people use the internet with fake identities. This has made it easy for people to conduct criminal activities online. Online security of computer systems should be combined with physical security to ensure that no unauthorized person gain access to the systems. A physical security control can be termed as any obstacle used to delay serious attackers, and frustrate trivial attackers. This way a company or organization can be assured of the security if its information and computer systems. Majority of organizations use computer systems to store sensitive company information and employee data. This data needs to be properly secured to ensure…


Backhouse, J., Hsu, C., & McDonnell, A. (2003). Toward public-key infrastructure interoperability. Communications of the ACM, 46(6), 98-100.

Boatwright, M., & Luo, X. (2007). What do we know about biometrics authentication? Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, Kennesaw, Georgia.

Shelfer, K.M., & Procaccino, J.D. (2002). Smart card evolution. Communications of the ACM, 45(7), 83-88.

CCTV the Incursion of Technology
Words: 4289 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 79735708
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these little slivers of plastic provide commerce at the swipe of a wrist, but every time that card is swiped, the time, date, location, value, and often the items of a purchase are recorded several times over, by banks, credit card companies, superstores, fashion chains, transport industries, and many other points on the economic tree (Trango, n.d.). These details, over time, can and are used to create a 'picture' of you and your buying habits; Can you be trusted to pay back a loan? What times do you usually come into a store? Do you take public transport because you can or because its cheaper? What bra size are you? All of these details can be correlated over time, and can often then be sold onto third parties for marketing purposes, and, depending on where you are, that information can all be sold including your name and address. (The EU…


1. Schenkel, G. (2009, September 17). Livewave cctv system. Retrieved from

2. Trango, . (n.d.). Wireless surveillance systems & homeland security. Retrieved from

3. Ng, K. (2010, April 20). Why Cctv is a priority for asian homeland security. Retrieved from

4. Post, . (2002). Cctv. POSTNOTE, (175), Retrieved from

Laurie Long
Words: 1785 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29399157
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Laurie Long, a contemporary American artist, has a style most uniquely her very own. What she does is to fuse together disparate elements of pop culture, humor, and more predominantly, feminism and feminist culture. This combination is often seen in all her works of art, and today, one of her more fascinating pieces is that of 'The Secret History of Goddess Sites' wherein Laurie Long documents the several places in Europe where female deities are being worshipped, even today. The artist states that some of the sites may have been real, some of them dubiously reconstructed, and some more of them replaced by churches and other significantly archaeological treasures, and these were reconstructed by the artist with the help of several photographs and prints and so on. She has managed to re-contextualize each site, and also address important issues such as feminism and other gender issues within the artwork, and…


A Provocative Look at the Construction of Female Identity. San Jose Museum of Art. January 21, 2005. Retrieved From  Accessed on 11 March, 2005

DeVaney, Scott. Panty Rave: Laurie Long's Girl Power! exhibit probes the dimensions of female power. Retrieved From articleid=25193 Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Download Postcards Home Contemporary Art and New Technology in the Primary School. Retrieved From  Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Gant, Michael S. Drew Stories: In 'Girl Power!' exhibit at SJ Museum of Art, Laurie Long spies on her own life. Retrieved From  Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Phases of Protection
Words: 1905 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92795308
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Protective service operations are of the utmost importance when considering the impact that leadership and those who are being protected have upon the environment. The sacrifices made by secret service agents demonstrate the essence of teamwork, faith and dedication to the American way. Protective operations are complex however, and require some in-depth study to truly appreciate these practices that contribute to the general good.

The purpose of this essay is to explain the conducting of a protective service operation for an employee who is at high risk for targeting. This essay will describe in detail the specific 3 phases that are necessary to be successful in this procedure. The essay will first discuss phase I which includes the research, reconnaissance and counter surveillance operations contained in protective operations. Phase II will then be discussed which focuses on the planning aspect of the operation. Execution is the third phase of these…


Department of Homeland Security. (2008, October). Active shooter: How to respond. Retrieved from 

Fein, R.A. & Vossekuil, B. (1998). Protective intelligence and threat assessment Investigations: A guide for State and local law enforcement officials. U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from 

The Free Dictionary. "Surveillance." Viewed 5 May 2014. Retrieved from 

Hayes, B. (2010). Protecting people at risk. Security, 47(12), 40-40. Retrieved from H-PU library Proquest criminal justice

Right of Employers to Engage in Electronic
Words: 1210 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22596817
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right of employers to engage in electronic surveillance of their employees remains an area of intense legal dispute. However, overall the courts have been expanding, rather than limiting the rights of employers to use new technology to monitor worker behavior. Workers cannot assume that they have an expectation of privacy in the public environment of the workplace. "New technologies make it possible for employers to monitor many aspects of their employees' jobs, especially on telephones, computer terminals, through electronic and voice mail, and when employees are using the Internet. Such monitoring is virtually unregulated" (Fact sheet, 2011, Privacy ights).

Because employers own workplace computers and phones, they have a right to monitor employee's use of these devices. The one exception to this rule was in a New Jersey Supreme Court case where attorney-client privilege prevented an employer from reading the communications sent by an employee to her counsel on a…


Fact sheet 7: Workplace privacy and employee monitoring. (2011, April). Privacy Rights.

Retrieved April 29, 2011 at /fs/fs7-work.htm#computermonitoring

Introduction: Privacy in the workplace. (2011). Cyberlaw. Harvard University.

Retrieved April 29, 2011 at

Johnny Jones Case Study Background-
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23000180
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Johnny was challenged on several expenses, but no formal complaint or discipline occurred. After the incident with IA, Johnny began openly challenging everything management said or wrote, including openly challenging the termination of another employee.

Ethical Dilemmas -- There are several ethical issues present in this scenario. Most involve honesty, attention to policy, and professionalism. We can chart them out thus:


Ethical Dilemma

Potential Consequences

Use of official funds for non-official business.

Theft of public funds.

Reprimand, dismissal or prosecution.

Knowingly contributing to dishonesty on the job.

Theft of funds, non-adherence to oath or code.

Reprimand, dismissal or prosecution.

Unprofessional conduct -- demeaning management.

Not supportive of supervisor, not team player.

Reprimand, dismissal or demotion.

Potential conflict of interest being alone, late at night, in bars with another woman.

Inappropriate use of funds, time and unprofessional relationship issues.

Reprimand, dismissal or prosecution.

Using a police vehicle after hours for…

air traffic
Words: 28110 Length: 102 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 54322150
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air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).

In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…


Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at:  (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at:  (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

Health & Safety Plan for
Words: 1989 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 26774808
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Such equipment should be adequate to ensure personnel are protected from chemical exposure to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. PPE may be upgraded or downgraded by the site industrial hygienist, HSM, or qualified Site Safety Officer based upon site conditions and air monitoring results (Levin, et al., 2002)

Work practice and administrative controls

Administrative controls or work practice controls are changes in work procedures such as written safety policies, rules, supervision, schedules, and training with the aim of reducing the interval, frequency, and sternness of exposure to hazardous chemicals or situations. Workers who handle hazardous chemicals in the workplace should be familiar with the administrative controls required fewer than 29 CF 1910.1200, and the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. This controls are perhaps most important, because they impact your people directly. On the one hand, they are the simplest, since all it takes is education. On the other hand, education…


Annual report on 9/11 health (September, 2009). Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from 

Burright, D. et al., (1999). Evaluation guidelines for air sampling methods utilizing chromatographic analysis. OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center, U.S. Department of Labor: Salt Lake City, UT.

Harris, J.S., (ed.) (1997). Occupational medicine practice guidelines: Evaluation and management of common health problems and functional recovery in workers. The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Beverly, Mass.: OEM Press.

Levin, S. et al.,. (2002). Health effects of World Trade Center site workers. America Journal of Industrial Medicine 42:545 -- 547.

Criminal Justice Organized Crime the
Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 4022788
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As an alternative, on the foundation of information obtained from confidential informants, the government petitioned the district court to give permission for the placement of an electronic surveillance wire tap on Jesus Zambrana's private telephone. Information obtained over this wire tap led law enforcement officers to think that Ernest Lonzo and another unidentified person were carrying narcotics from Miami, Florida, to Jesus Zambrana's house in Gary, Indiana.

On the foundation of this wire tap information, DEA agents, with the help of police officers from Lake County, Indiana, and East Chicago, Indiana, began the surveillance of Interstate Highway I-65 in the area of Crown Point, Indian. Prior to starting the surveillance, a DEA agent met with Lake County, Indiana, police officers and gave them a list of five people suspected as being involved in the carrying of narcotics between Florida and Indiana, as well as a list of four vehicles thought…


Informants, Surveillance, and Undercover Operations. (2010). Retreived from 

United States of America, Plaintiff-Appellee v. Jesus Zambrana, Sr., Charles Cole and Jay

Zambrana, 841 F.2d 1320. (1988). Retreived from

Safety and Heath in it Environments Applied
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Safety and Heath in it Environments

Applied Business esearch: The need for Safety and Health Standards in Hazardous Working Environments in the Information Technology

Businesses including IT firms are flooded with IT tools like microcomputers, photocopiers, digital surveillance tools, internet, among others. There is mounting evidence from a review of literature that in the IT work environment, especially the IT industry, present hazardous working environments to workers. Workers in these environments also undergo stress from the lack of knowledge of the tools, the lack of, or reduced human contact. Information technology tools also create electrical and fire hazards, which threaten the safety of employees. Employees also suffer from health issues like bleary-eyes from bright screens and monitors of IT tools. The research proves the need for increased safety and health measures in these environments. In the end, the research creates knowledge in the business community of the importance of increased…


Fraihat, H.M. (2003). Taxonomy and remedy of work hazards associated with office information systems. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 3(1), 127-127.

Information Resources Management Association (1994). Managing Social and Economic Change with Information Technology. Proceedings of the Information Resources Management Association International Conference, May 1994. IDEA Group Publishing.

Jones, L.K. (1996). A harsh and challenging world of work: Implications for counselors. Journal of Counseling and Development: JCD, 74(5), 453-453.

Koreneff, I. And Sims-McLean, K. (2005). Excel. Glebe, NSW: Pascal Press.

Leadership and Strategy Question 1
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For example a
monitoring surveillance strategy could tell a nation that they need more
heart specialists and possibly an entire medical clinic dedicated to heart
disease to treat both their aging population and the emergencies more
elderly visitors to their nation experience.
Conversely an evaluation strategy of surveillance would look at the
processes in use throughout the emergency room and see which are performing
well, which aren't and what can be done to make the processes physicians
and nurses use to treat patients more efficient. The underlying difference
then of an evaluation versus a monitoring strategy is the focus on
improvement to a specific goal or objective. Evaluation strategies of
surveillance focus on progress to a specific goal or objective first, while
monitoring strategies seek often to quantify the behavior of any process,
procedure or approach to treatment from a healthcare perspective.
Question 3 Response
In the nation you serve…

Criminal Identification Procedures
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Criminal Identification Procedures

The dawn of the twenty-first century has become the era of George Orwell's "1984." Technology that was found only in science fiction a few decades ago, is part of today's standards and procedures.

The world today is filled with cameras that can film an individual wherever he goes, his cell phone signal can pinpoint his location, and even one glance can reveal his true identity (Shenk 2003). Iris-recognition technology, soon to be common in places such as airports, offices, and banks, will simply scan an individual's eyes to reveal his idenity (Shenk 2003). Many feel that in this post-9/11 landscape, there is a serious need for these high-tech tools to help detect money laundering, encrypted e-mails, bio-weapons, and suitcase nukes (Shenk 2003).

Poseidon, a new electronic surveillance system, is a network of cameras that feeds a computer programmed to use a set of complex mathematical algorithms to…

Work Cited

Shenk, David. "Watching you the world of high-tech surveillance."

National Geographic. 11/1/2003.

Udall, Morris K. "Criminal Justice New Technologies and the Constitution:

Chapter 2 Investigation, Identification, Apprehension." U.S. History. 9/1/1990.

Patriotic Act Arguments for and Against the
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Patriotic Act

Arguments for and against the Patriot Act

The unusual events surrounding the creation and passing of the Patriot Act make it a suspect bill in many eyes. However, major media reports like this one: "Fifty-nine percent in an ABC News/ashington Post poll favor continuing the additional investigative authority in terrorism investigations that was granted to the FBI starting in 2001. President Bush urged such an extension of the Patriot Act today" (Langer) insist that there are others who support it and promote it as a protection against the kind of terrorism that was seen on 9/11. For supporters the idea of sacrificing civil liberties for security measures such as the TSA is, while unfortunate, a necessary evil. Those who oppose it, like alternative media journalist Ryan Dawson and Sen. Ron Paul, decry it as government intrusion. This paper will give arguments for and against the Patriot Act and…

Works Cited

Brand, Rachel. "Reauthorization of the U.S.A. Patriot Act." 20 Jan 2010. The Federalist

Society. Web. 24 Sep 2011. < >

Celente, Gerald. "Gerald Celente Predicts Ron Paul Can Win in 2012." 3 May 2010.

YouTube. 24 Sep 2011.

Homeland Security
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Terrorist is Created:

Terrorist acts are usually motivated by two major reasons i.e. The belief that violence or its threat will be suitable in contributing to change and social and political injustice. Throughout history, many terrorists have stated that they chose violence because they felt they had no alternative after long deliberations. In this case, these terrorists have considered violent acts justify the ends following long deliberations. Notably, there are various factors that contribute to the development and recruitment of terrorists, especially political, religious, economic, and cultural conditions. In most cases, the political and social conditions have been considered as the major factors that result in the creation of a terrorist. Through these conditions, people choose terrorism in attempts to right perceived wrongs in their social or political lives. These individuals resort to violence or its threats when they feel that they have been stripped of their land or denied…


"The NSA Program to Detect and Prevent Terrorist Attacks -- Myth v. Reality." (2006, January

27). Office of Public Affairs. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice website:

Zalman, A. (n.d.). The Causes of Terrorism. Retrieved November 13, 2012, from

Nedss What Do You Think Would Be
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NEDSS: What do you think would be three hurdles to successful implementation (at CDC and in the state of Mississippi)?

"The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) is a secure online framework that allows healthcare professionals and government agencies to communicate about disease patterns and coordinate national response to outbreaks…. The CDC mandates that hospitals, clinics and state health agencies all adopt NEDSS standards so that the speed, accuracy, standardization and viability of data about diseases are improved" (National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS, 2012, Tech Target). The goal of NEDSS is seamless integration and coordination between state and federal authorities when combatting sudden epidemics (such as H1N1) or long-standing chronic diseases that must be addressed over time, such as obesity.

One problem with implementing such a system "is the delay experienced from incident awareness, through laboratory testing and ultimately to public health investigation" (Tracking silent killers, 2012, Center for…


Centers for Disease Control (2011). National electronic disease surveillance system: NEDSS

overview. Retrieved from 

Mississippi State Department of Health. (2004). State Health Plan FY- 2004: Priority Needs.

Retrieved from:,835,184,210,pdf/SectionA-Chapter4-PriorityNeeds.pdf

Addressing Childhood Communicable Disease
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Intra-Health International

One of the tope 10 global health issues identified by Intra-Health International in 2013 is: Helping even more children to live longer. According to the 2012 UNICEF report,

Committing to Child Survival: A Promise enewed, the number of child deaths has decreased in many countries across the globe ("Intra-Health," 2013). Indeed, child mortality rates have decreased nearly 50% from a 1990 figure of 12 million under-five deaths to a 2011 figure of 6.9 million. In absolute terms, if the child mortality rate could be reduced to just 20 child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035, a minimum of 45 million children saved ("Intra-Health," 2013). ecommendations from the Child Survival Call to Action hosted by USAID point to the need for better and more systematic collection of health sector data, as well as better implementation of high-impact interventions to tackle the major causes of newborn…


Mitku, K., Bedada, T., Masresha, B., Wenemagegn, K., Nafo-Traore, F., Tesfaye, N., and Beyene, B. (2011). The epidemiology of rubella disease in Ethiopia: Data from the measles case-based surveillance system. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 204(1), S239-S242. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir120. Retreived from 

____. (2013, January 15). The top 10 global health issues to watch in 2013. Intra-Health International. Retrieved from